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  1. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively neutral sites across the human genome.

    PubMed

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui; Kim, Su Yeon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Tian, Geng; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Feder, Alison F; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Torben; Jiang, Tao; Witte, Daniel R; Sandbæk, Annelli; Hellmann, Ines; Lauritzen, Torsten; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-10-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries of genetic variation, like allele frequencies, are also correlated with recombination rate and whether these correlations can be explained solely by negative selection against deleterious mutations or whether positive selection acting on favorable alleles is also required. Here we attempt to address these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination and that human diversity, human-chimp divergence, and average minor allele frequency are reduced near genes. Population genetic simulations show that either positive natural selection acting on favorable mutations or negative natural selection acting against deleterious mutations can explain these correlations. However, models with strong positive selection on nonsynonymous mutations and little negative selection predict a stronger negative correlation between neutral diversity and nonsynonymous divergence than observed in the actual data, supporting the importance of negative, rather than positive, selection throughout the genome. Further, we show that the widespread presence of weakly deleterious alleles, rather than a small number of strongly positively selected mutations, is responsible for the correlation between neutral genetic diversity and recombination rate. This work suggests that natural selection has affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations.

  2. [Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects].

    PubMed

    Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments' main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells). The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes) and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  3. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  4. [Multiple homicides--forensic and criminologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Padosch, Stephan A; Schmidt, Peter H; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    The interpretation of medicolegal findings in homicide is an important tool of case profiling (so-called "operative case analysis"). In 17 cases of "multiple homicides" involving 22 offenders (21 males, 1 female; mean age 33 years) and 45 victims (21 males, 24 females; mean age 35 years; 41 fatalities, 4 survivors), the autopsy reports and the prosecution authorities' files were retrospectively analysed with regard to individual characteristics of perpetrators and victims, circumstances, and mode of commitment in order to comprehensively characterise relevant forensic and criminologic aspects. 31 victims were found to belong to the close social environment of the perpetrator, and 32 killings were committed in the victim's, perpetrator's or the joint flat. The main motives included greed (n = 7), personal conflicts (n = 5) and concealing of a crime (n = 9). The relevant injuries were attributable to gunshot wounds (n = 13), sharp force (n = 11), blunt force (n = 3), ligature strangulation (n = 3), smothering (n = 6), fire/carbon monoxide (n = 2) and combined impacts (n = 7). In 12 victims, defense injuries were found. The blood alcohol concentration exceeded 1.5 g/l in 5 victims. In 5 offenders, a psychiatric impairment of juridical responsibility was assessed (and 20 German criminal code, n = 1, psychosis; and 21 German criminal code, n = 4; acute alcohol intoxication). As far as data were available, 16 crimes were judged as murder, 12 as manslaughter and one as physical injury with fatal outcome.

  5. [Medical-social aspects of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Vermersch, P; Marissal, J P

    2001-09-01

    On a daily basis the quality of life of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) partially depends on social measures. These are not specific to MS. Patients often need to be helped by hospital or town social services for the numerous and complicated administrative steps to be taken. The information given to a patient is of prime importance concerning his rights, particularly his occupational rights. Many organisations have to be contacted to obtain financial and material aids, even if the latter are considered insufficient in many fields especially for improvements in accommodation. An invalidity card may entitle its holder to certain tax reductions. The competences of the COTOREP are wide-ranging and include the recognition of the handicapped worker, his training and his regarding at work, his orientation and admission into a specialised structure, the degree of his invalidity rate and should his handicap justify it, benefits such as the handicapped adults allowance and the compensatory third person's allowance. It is essential to adopt a multidisciplinary way when dealing with MS in order to provide a better care, experiments in specialised structures and networks are being undertaken. Numerous partners are taking part in these new approaches and patient associations may find their place there. Social aspects have to be taken into account as well in the way the cost of the disease is evaluated in terms of money and humanity.

  6. Computing aspects of power for multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, William P; Xin, Xue; Myers, Leann

    2004-11-01

    Rules of thumb for power in multiple regression research abound. Most such rules dictate the necessary sample size, but they are based only upon the number of predictor variables, usually ignoring other critical factors necessary to compute power accurately. Other guides to power in multiple regression typically use approximate rather than precise equations for the underlying distribution; entail complex preparatory computations; require interpolation with tabular presentation formats; run only under software such as Mathmatica or SAS that may not be immediately available to the user; or are sold to the user as parts of power computation packages. In contrast, the program we offer herein is immediately downloadable at no charge, runs under Windows, is interactive, self-explanatory, flexible to fit the user's own regression problems, and is as accurate as single precision computation ordinarily permits.

  7. Aspects of manual wheelchair configuration affecting mobility: a review.

    PubMed

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users' actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users' needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users' actions and mobility.

  8. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  9. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  10. Multiple sclerosis in children: clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rostásy, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disease of human central nervous system (CNS), which is characterized by inflammatory demyelination and neuroaxonal injury/loss. The majority of MS patients are diagnosed in early- to mid-adulthood; however, the onset of MS in childhood is being increasingly recognized. Although adults and children share important aspects of the disease, several features including course of the disease and a broader differential diagnosis are unique to children. This chapter summarizes recent insights and emphasizes that children with MS should be started on immunomodulatory therapies early in order to prevent future disability.

  11. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer’s perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor’s perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors—transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading—in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  12. [Alternative tactile system: C-fibers coding the affective aspect].

    PubMed

    Hua, Qing-Ping; Luo, Fei

    2007-10-01

    It has been accepted that human tactile sensation is mediated exclusively by large myelinated (Abeta) fibres. Nevertheless, recent studies indicated a dual mechanoceptive innervation of the skin in various mammals. Besides the known A fibers, the skin is also innervated by slow-conducting, low-threshold, small unmyelinated (C) afferents. These unmyelinated fibers respond vigorously to innocuous skin deformation, but poorly to rapid skin movement. They project to outer lamina II of spinal cord, and form synapse with the secondary sensory neurons. The latter then project to insular cortex via spinothalamic tracts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies showed that a slowly moving tactile stimulus along hairy skin produced a strong activation of the insular cortex. Pleasant touch has also been demonstrated to activate orbitofrontal cortex adjacent to areas responding to pleasant taste and smell. Overall, the response characteristics and activated brain regions suggest that they are related with the limbic system and affective aspect rather than tactile discriminative function.

  13. Multiple Aspects of Gene Dysregulation in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moumné, Lara; Betuing, Sandrine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the gene encoding Huntingtin (Htt). It is characterized by chorea, cognitive, and psychiatric disorders. The most affected brain region is the striatum, and the clinical symptoms are directly correlated to the rate of striatal degeneration. The wild-type Htt is a ubiquitous protein and its deletion is lethal. Mutated (expanded) Htt produces excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunctions, axonal transport deficit, altered proteasome activity, and gene dysregulation. Transcriptional dysregulation occurs at early neuropathological stages in HD patients. Multiple genes are dysregulated, with overlaps of altered transcripts between mouse models of HD and patient brains. Nuclear localization of Exp-Htt interferes with transcription factors, co-activators, and proteins of the transcriptional machinery. Another key mechanism described so far, is an alteration of cytoplasmic retention of the transcriptional repressor REST, which is normally associated with wild-type Htt. As such, Exp-Htt causes alteration of transcription of multiple genes involved in neuronal survival, plasticity, signaling, and mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Besides these transcriptional dysregulations, Exp-Htt affects the chromatin structure through altered post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones and methylation of DNA. Multiple alterations of histone PTM are described, including acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, polyamination, and phosphorylation. Exp-Htt also affects the expression and regulation of non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). First multiple neural miRNAs are controlled by REST, and dysregulated in HD, with concomitant de-repression of downstream mRNA targets. Second, Exp-Htt protein or RNA may also play a major role in the processing of miRNAs and hence pathogenesis. These pleiotropic effects of Exp-Htt on gene expression may represent seminal deleterious effects in the

  14. Integrating multiple disturbance aspects: management of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Shea, Katriona

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Disturbances occur in most ecological systems, and play an important role in biological invasions. We delimit five key disturbance aspects: intensity, frequency, timing, duration and extent. Few studies address more than one of these aspects, yet interactions and interdependence between aspects may lead to complex outcomes. Methods In a two-cohort experimental study, we examined how multiple aspects (intensity, frequency and timing) of a mowing disturbance regime affect the survival, phenology, growth and reproduction of an invasive thistle Carduus nutans (musk thistle). Key Results Our results show that high intensity and late timing strongly delay flowering phenology and reduce plant survival, capitulum production and plant height. A significant interaction between intensity and timing further magnifies the main effects. Unexpectedly, high frequency alone did not effectively reduce reproduction. However, a study examining only frequency and intensity, and not timing, would have erroneously attributed the importance of timing to frequency. Conclusions We used management of an invasive species as an example to demonstrate the importance of a multiple-aspect disturbance framework. Failure to consider possible interactions, and the inherent interdependence of certain aspects, could result in misinterpretation and inappropriate management efforts. This framework can be broadly applied to improve our understanding of disturbance effects on individual responses, population dynamics and community composition. PMID:22199031

  15. [Risk of affective disorder in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard; Stenager, Egon

    2011-01-10

    An increased risk for depression has been found in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of the present study has been to give suggestions to guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of depression in MS in Denmark based on the international literature and recommendations. The method was a review of the relevant literature. The study recommends assessment of all MS patients for depression. Treatment of depression with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended, depending on the severity of the illness. Caution is recommended in patients receiving beta interferon treatment.

  16. The Sinorhizobium meliloti stringent response affects multiple aspects of symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Derek H; Long, Sharon R

    2002-03-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti and host legumes enter into a nitrogen-fixing, symbiotic relationship triggered by an exchange of signals between bacteria and plant. S. meliloti produces Nod factor, which elicits the formation of nodules on plant roots, and succinoglycan, an exopolysaccharide that allows for bacterial invasion and colonization of the host. The biosynthesis of these molecules is well defined, but the specific regulation of these compounds is not completely understood. Bacteria control complex regulatory networks by the production of ppGpp, the effector molecule of the stringent response, which induces physiological change in response to adverse growth conditions and can also control bacterial development and virulence. Through detailed analysis of an S. meliloti mutant incapable of producing ppGpp, we show that the stringent response is required for nodule formation and regulates the production of succinoglycan. Although it remains unknown whether these phenotypes are connected, we have isolated suppressor strains that restore both defects and potentially identify key downstream regulatory genes. These results indicate that the S. meliloti stringent response has roles in both succinoglycan production and nodule formation and, more importantly, that control of bacterial physiology in response to the plant and surrounding environment is critical to the establishment of a successful symbiosis.

  17. [Affective and psychotic disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Moyano, Beatriz; Benito-León, Julián

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es la segunda causa mas importante de discapacidad de origen neurologico en los adultos jovenes. Tanto la sintomatologia fisica como la psiquiatrica (trastornos afectivos y psicoticos) impactan de manera negativa en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con EM. Objetivo. Elucidar de modo critico la prevalencia y la patogenia de los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos presentes en la EM. Desarrollo. Se incluye una actualizacion de los estudios publicados mas significativos que han analizado la prevalencia y la patogenia de la sintomatologia afectiva y psicotica en los pacientes con EM. Para explorar la asociacion entre los sintomas afectivos y psicoticos con la EM se ha revisado la evidencia disponible hasta el momento. Conclusiones. La depresion es el trastorno psiquiatrico mas frecuente en la EM. Es necesaria mas investigacion para elucidar los mecanismos subyacentes que pueden provocar sintomas afectivos y psicoticos en la EM. El control de dichos sintomas en los pacientes de EM podria mejorar su calidad de vida relacionada con la salud.

  18. Sigma Receptors Suppress Multiple Aspects of Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hall Aaron, A.; Yelenis, Herrera; Ajmo Craig, T.; Javier, Cuevas; Pennypacker Keith, R.

    2009-01-01

    During brain injury, microglia become activated and migrate to areas of degenerating neurons. These microglia release pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species causing additional neuronal death. Microglia express high levels of sigma receptors, however, the function of these receptors in microglia and how they may affect the activation of these cells remain poorly understood. Using primary rat microglial cultures, it was found that sigma receptor activation suppresses the ability of microglia to rearrange their actin cytoskeleton, migrate, and release cytokines in response to the activators adenosine triphosphate (ATP), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Next, the role of sigma receptors in the regulation of calcium signaling during microglial activation was explored. Calcium fluorometry experiments in vitro show that stimulation of sigma receptors suppressed both transient and sustained intracellular calcium elevations associated with the microglial response to these activators. Further experiments showed that sigma receptors suppress microglial activation by interfering with increases in intracellular calcium. In addition, sigma receptor activation also prevented membrane ruffling in a calcium-independent manner, indicating that sigma receptors regulate the function of microglia via multiple mechanisms. PMID:19031439

  19. New aspects of carrier multiplication in semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    McGuire, John A; Joo, Jin; Pietryga, Jeffrey M; Schaller, Richard D; Klimov, Victor I

    2008-12-01

    One consequence of strong spatial confinement of electronic wave functions in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is a significant enhancement in carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. This effect leads to a number of novel physical phenomena including ultrafast decay of multiple electron-hole pairs (multiexcitons) by Auger recombination and high-efficiency generation of mutiexcitons by single photons via carrier multiplication (CM). Significant recent interest in multiexciton phenomena in NCs has been stimulated by studies of NC lasing, as well as potential applications of CM in solar-energy conversion. The focus of this Account is on CM. In this process, the kinetic energy of a "hot" electron (or a "hot" hole) does not dissipate as heat but is, instead, transferred via the Coulomb interaction to the valence-band electron, exciting it across the energy gap. Because of restrictions imposed by energy and translational-momentum conservation, as well as rapid energy loss due to phonon emission, CM is inefficient in bulk semiconductors, particularly at energies relevant to solar energy conversion. On the other hand, the CM efficiency can potentially be enhanced in zero-dimensional NCs because of factors such as a wide separation between discrete electronic states, which inhibits phonon emission ("phonon bottleneck"), enhanced Coulomb interactions, and relaxation in translational-momentum conservation. Here, we investigate CM in PbSe NCs by applying time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption. Both techniques show clear signatures of CM with efficiencies that are in good agreement with each other. NCs of the same energy gap show moderate batch-to-batch variations (within approximately 30%) in apparent multiexciton yields and larger variations (more than a factor of 3) due to differences in sample conditions (stirred vs static solutions). These results indicate that NC surface properties may affect the CM process. They also point toward potential interference

  20. [Current aspects of therapy conversion for multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Kolber, P; Luessi, F; Meuth, S G; Klotz, L; Korn, T; Trebst, C; Tackenberg, B; Kieseier, B; Kümpfel, T; Fleischer, V; Tumani, H; Wildemann, B; Lang, M; Flachenecker, P; Meier, U; Brück, W; Limmroth, V; Haghikia, A; Hartung, H-P; Stangel, M; Hohlfeld, R; Hemmer, B; Gold, R; Wiendl, H; Zipp, F

    2015-10-01

    In recent years the approval of new substances has led to a substantial increase in the number of course-modifying immunotherapies available for multiple sclerosis. Therapy conversion therefore represents an increasing challenge. The treatment options sometimes show complex adverse effect profiles and necessitate a long-term and comprehensive monitoring. This article presents an overview of therapy conversion of immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis in accordance with the recommendations of the Disease-Related Competence Network for Multiple Sclerosis and the German Multiple Sclerosis Society as well as the guidelines on diagnostics and therapy for multiple sclerosis of the German Society of Neurology and the latest research results. At the present point in time it should be noted that no studies have been carried out for most of the approaches for therapy conversion given here; however, the recommendations are based on theoretical considerations and therefore correspond to recommendations at the level of expert consensus, which is currently essential for the clinical daily routine.

  1. Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

    2014-09-01

    Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed.

  2. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  3. Epidemiology and genetic aspects of multiple sclerosis in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rohit; Bali, Prerna; Chaudhari, Rima M

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a complex pathophysiology. Considered a rare disease in India in the past, studies over time suggest an increase in subjects with MS in India, although the observations are limited by the lack of formally conducted epidemiological studies and the absence of a nationwide registry. The current World Health Organization (WHO) Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF) "Atlas of MS" 2013 estimates a prevalence rate of 5-20 per 100,000, which also seems an underestimate. Although there have been reports of phenotypic differences between MS in Indians and the Western counterparts, recent studies report a reasonable similarity in disease types and characteristics. A few studies on the genetics of MS have been reported, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations and non-major histopathology complex (MHC) disease loci. The current review discusses the pivotal studies of the past, newer observations on MS from India, and the need for a national registry.

  4. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) - Scientific and Public-Health Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a phenomenon which the ENT-doctor should be familiar with. It has its roots in the description of a syndrome in 1987. A worker spilled chemicals at his workplace and from then on he reacted highly sensitive to chemicals. Today, there are many people who explain their complaints with self-suspected MCS. Various pathopysiological models have been proposed, including toxicological, immunological or behaviorial models. But no-one could be proved so far. Since controlled provocation tests have also provided unclear results, an increasing number of doctors assumes today, that MCS reflects a psychic condition. In 1996, an expert team of the WHO has suggested the renaming of MCS to "idiopathic environmental illness" (IEI). However, other doctors still assume a chemical cause. Since there are neither straightforward diagnostic methods to proof MCS, nor reliable therapeutic concepts, treatment of MCS-patients is usually difficult. The MCS-debate (somatic vs psychic causes) seems to reflect the dilemma of the medical profession today, that somatic disorders of known origin can be well treated, whereas the increasing number of psychosomatic/ somatoform disorders is often resistant to medical help. The ENT-doctor should pay attention to changes of the nasal mucous membrane, nasal resistance and the sense of smell. Moreover he should know about the peculiarities of MCS-patients. The manuscript describes the present knowledge and state of discussion with special regard to the situation in Germany. PMID:22073047

  5. Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Research on Its Affective and Social Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaudelin, Colette; Dussault, Marc; Brodeur, Monique

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a review of 34 qualitative and non-qualitative studies related to affective and social aspects of student-computer interactions. Highlights include the nature of the human-computer interaction (HCI); the interface, comparing graphic and text types; and the relation between variables linked to HCI, mainly trust, locus of control,…

  6. Landscape structure affects the provision of multiple ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, T.; Liss, K. N.; Gonzalez, A.; Bennett, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how landscape structure, the composition and configuration of land use/land cover (LULC) types, affects the relative supply of ecosystem services (ES), is critical to improving landscape management. While there is a long history of studies on landscape composition, the importance of landscape configuration has only recently become apparent. To understand the role of landscape structure in the provision of multiple ES, we must understand how ES respond to different measures of both composition and configuration of LULC. We used a multivariate framework to quantify the role of landscape configuration and composition in the provision of ten ES in 130 municipalities in an agricultural region in Southern Québec. We identified the relative influence of composition and configuration in the provision of these ES using multiple regression, and on bundles of ES using canonical redundancy analysis. We found that both configuration and composition play a role in explaining variation in the supply of ES, but the relative contribution of composition and configuration varies significantly among ES. We also identified three distinct ES bundles (sets of ES that regularly appear together on the landscape) and found that each bundle was associated with a unique area in the landscape, that mapped to a gradient in the composition and configuration of forest and agricultural LULC. These results show that the distribution of ES on the landscape depends upon both the overall composition of LULC types and their configuration on the landscape. As ES become more widely used to steer land use decision-making, quantifying the roles of configuration and composition in the provision of ES bundles can improve landscape management by helping us understand when and where the spatial pattern of land cover is important for multiple services.

  7. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  8. Triaziflam and Diaminotriazine derivatives affect enantioselectively multiple herbicide target sites.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, K; Tresch, S; Plath, P

    2001-01-01

    Enantiomers of triaziflam and structurally related diaminotriazines were synthesized and their herbicidal mode of action was investigated. The compounds caused light and dark-dependent effects in multiple test systems including heterotrophic cleaver and photoautotrophic algal cell suspensions, the Hill reaction of isolated thylakoids and germinating cress seeds. Dose-response experiments revealed that the (S)-enantiomers of the compounds preferentially inhibited photosystem II electron transport (PET) and algae growth with efficacies similar to that of the herbicide atrazine. In contrast, the (R)-enantiomers of the diaminotriazines were up to 100 times more potent inhibitors of growth in cleaver cell suspensions and cress seedlings in the dark than the (S)-enantiomers. The most active compound, the (R)-enantiomer of triaziflam, inhibited shoot and root elongation of cress and maize seedlings at concentrations below 1 microM. The meristematic root tips swelled into a club shape which is typical for the action of mitotic disrupter herbicides and cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors. Microscopic examination using histochemical techniques revealed that triaziflam (R)-enantiomer blocks cell division in maize root tips 4 h after treatment. The chromosomes proceeded to a condensed state of prometaphase but were unable to progress further in the mitotic cycle. Disruption of mitosis was accompanied by a loss of spindle and phragmoplast micotubule arrays. Concomitantly, cortical microtubules decreased which could lead to isodiametric cell growth and consequently to root swelling. In addition, a decline in cellulose deposition in cell walls was found 24 h after treatment. Compared to the (R)-form, triaziflam (S)-enantiomer was clearly less active. The results suggest that triaziflam and related diaminotriazines affect enantioselectively multiple sites of action which include PET inhibitory activity, mitotic disruption by inhibiting microtubule formation and inhibition of

  9. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; la Fleur, Susanne E; Toonen, Pim W; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M M; Sears, Robert M; Homberg, Judith R; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Adan, Roger A H; DiLeone, Ralph J; De Vries, Taco J; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-05-05

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+) or pmch(-/-) rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/-) rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/-) rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  10. Chronic Loss of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Affects Motivational Aspects of Feeding in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Toonen, Pim W.; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Sears, Robert M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; De Vries, Taco J.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding. Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch+/+ or pmch−/− rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch−/− rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch−/− rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system. Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption. PMID

  11. Multiple sources of dietary calcium-some aspects of its essentiality.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lawrence

    2004-04-01

    The increasing recognition of the important role of calcium in the myriad regulation of cellular processes in the health and well being throughout one's lifetime has focused on the need to ensure a sufficiency of its intake for nutritional, physiological, and medical reasons. Additionally, the recognition of the dynamic dietary changes and preferences of various populations in terms of their consumption of calcium-containing products coupled with large variations of food patterns and availability of calcium, highlights the need to consider and evaluate multiple sources of calcium (dairy, non-dairy, fortified foods, and supplemental). Aspects of the essentiality of calcium are thus considered via an initial consideration of: the salient aspects of absorption and bioavailability, changes in individual and societal dietary habits and preferences and the evaluation of various RDAs, AIs, and DRIs for calcium.

  12. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: Historical Aspects, Current Status, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    ÖZAKBAŞ, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Although the cognitive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) were acknowledged in the 1800s, until the latter part of the 20th century, these symptoms were poorly recognized. Cognitive impairment associated with MS has a profound impact on many aspects of daily life, including employment, academic life, and social functioning. The cognitive reserve can be protected in MS patients to a certain limit, and prevention might be linked to early treatment. The analyses of historical and contemporary data can help researchers gain a clear vision of the direction in which to proceed in the future for better insight into cognitive issues in MS.

  13. [Bone marrow immunophenotyping for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma: practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Kurtova, A V; Sivachenko, E B; Utkina, L A; Slobodniuk, K Iu; Stepanova, N V; Iakubovich, M A; Moiseev, S I; Zueva, E E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant proliferative disease of plasma cells. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping makes it possible to identify a malignant clone of myeloma cells in the shortest possible time, to determine its phenotype, and differentiate transformed and preserved plasma cells. The article presents an immunophenotyping strategy using three-color monoclonal antibodies (CD35, CD14, CD38, CD138, and CD19) and an algorithm of verification of transformed plasma cells. Particular emphasis is placed on both the practical aspects of performing this assay and on the clinical application of the obtained results.

  14. Multiple contributions to clinical presentation of flat affect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M; Alpert, M; Stastny, P; Perlick, D; Empfield, M

    1985-01-01

    Flat affect has long been recognized as a central manifestation of schizophrenia, and has more recently been appreciated as a stable and prognostically important attribute of this disorder. Yet, because it is thought to be difficult to evaluate, flat affect has been deemphasized in criterion-based diagnostic systems. Results of this study suggest that the clinical evaluation of flat affect may be contaminated by a number of behaviorally similar processes. The components we identified included right hemisphere dysfunction, retardation and extrapyramidal effects, as well as the sequelae of hospitalization. Thus, in the clinical evaluation of flat affect, a multivariate approach in which these different components are considered separately might improve the reliability of evaluation and make this important sign more useful.

  15. Cognitive declines in healthy aging: evidence from multiple aspects of interference resolution.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Corinne; Martin, Randi C

    2014-06-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that older adults show age-related deficits in interference resolution, also referred to as inhibitory control. Although oftentimes considered as a unitary aspect of executive function, various lines of work support the notion that interference resolution may be better understood as multiple constructs, including resistance to proactive interference (PI) and response-distractor inhibition (e.g., Friedman & Miyake, 2004). Using this dichotomy, the present study assessed whether older adults (relative to younger adults) show impaired performance across both, 1, or neither of these interference resolution constructs. To do so, we used multiple tasks to tap each construct and examined age effects at both the single task and latent variable levels. Older adults consistently demonstrated exaggerated interference effects across resistance to PI tasks. Although the results for the response-distractor inhibition tasks were less consistent at the individual task level analyses, age effects were evident on multiple tasks, as well as at the latent variable level. However, results of the latent variable modeling suggested declines in interference resolution are best explained by variance that is common to the 2 interference resolution constructs measured herein. Furthermore, the effect of age on interference resolution was found to be both distinct from declines in working memory, and independent of processing speed. These findings suggest multiple cognitive domains are independently sensitive to age, but that declines in the interference resolution constructs measured herein may originate from a common cause.

  16. Epidemiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis patients affected by oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This literature review aims to evaluate the epidemiologic profile of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that developed a bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis that affect the jaws (BRONJ), including demographic aspects, as well as clinical and therapeutic issues. A search of PUBMED/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from January 2003 to September 2011 was conducted with the objective of identifying publications that contained case reports regarding oral BRONJ in RA patients. Patients with RA who develop oral BRONJ are usually women above 60 years taking steroids and long-term alendronate. Most of them have osteoporosis, and lesions, triggered by dental procedures, are usually detected at stage II in the mandible. Although there is no accepted treatment protocol, these patients seem to have better outcomes with conservative approaches that include antibiotic therapy, chlorhexidine, and drug discontinuation. PMID:22376948

  17. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  18. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  19. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  20. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  1. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  2. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  3. Pain and dental implantology: sensory quantification and affective aspects. Part I: At the private dental office.

    PubMed

    Muller, E; Ríos Calvo, M P

    2001-01-01

    After an extensive review of the dental literature, few articles were found related to pain and implantology. Management of orofacial pain has traditionally been a difficult challenge for the dental-medical profession. Patients may be afraid of dental pain, particularly in cases of dental implantology. Therefore, a study to obtain more conclusive data was developed. Taking into account that the perception of pain and the threshold of pain vary among individuals, a 2-year clinical study was established in private practice utilizing a verbal method (double-blind). The study was used to quantify sensory and affective aspects of pain associated with dental implantology on 75 patients in a private dental office. All of the implants were placed by the same clinician. Data were recorded following a Pain Data Sheet designed for this particular study. The aim of this study was to obtain different aspects of data as follows: 1) Fear of the dentist and fear of dental implant procedures utilizing a descriptive scale of 1 to 10, with 1 indicative of no fear. 2) Dental areas and ridges: Dental pain, pain in edentulous areas, and pain in the implanted area utilizing a scale of 0 to 8, with 0 indicative of no pain. 3) Function and pain: during mastication, swallowing, speech, yawning, opening, closing, and lateral excursions and indication of cervical pain or back pain, each calibrated by the presence or absence of pain. 4) Palpation and pain of the temporomandibular joint, the temporal muscle, the area of the pterygoid muscles, masseter muscle, and sternocleidomastoid muscle, all calibrated on the indication of presence or absence of pain. 5) Others: ear pain, neuralgia, headaches, edema, and hematoma, calibrated on the basis of presence or absence. The aforementioned factors were evaluated immediately before surgery and after surgery, at 24 hours, and during a follow up for a period of 2 years at intervals of 1 week; 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months; and 1 and 2 years after surgery

  4. RORα Regulates Multiple Aspects of Dendrite Development in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Yukari H; Kakegawa, Wataru; Miura, Eriko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2015-09-09

    The establishment of cell-type-specific dendritic arbors is fundamental for proper neural circuit formation. Here, using temporal- and cell-specific knock-down, knock-out, and overexpression approaches, we show that multiple aspects of the dendritic organization of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are controlled by a single transcriptional factor, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORα), a gene defective in staggerer mutant mice. As reported earlier, RORα was required for regression of primitive dendrites before postnatal day 4 (P4). RORα was also necessary for PCs to form a single Purkinje layer from P0 to P4. The knock-down of RORα from P4 impaired the elimination of perisomatic dendrites and maturation of single stem dendrites in PCs at P8. Filopodia and spines were also absent in these PCs. The knock-down of RORα from P8 impaired the formation and maintenance of terminal dendritic branches of PCs at P14. Finally, even after dendrite formation was completed at P21, RORα was required for PCs to maintain dendritic complexity and functional synapses, but their mature innervation pattern by single climbing fibers was unaffected. Interestingly, overexpression of RORα in PCs at various developmental stages did not facilitate dendrite development, but had specific detrimental effects on PCs. Because RORα deficiency during development is closely related to the severity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, delineating the specific roles of RORα in PCs in vivo at different time windows during development and throughout adulthood would facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of cerebellar disorders. Significance statement: The genetic programs by which each neuron subtype develops and maintains dendritic arbors have remained largely unclear. This is partly because dendrite development is modulated dynamically by neuronal activities and interactions with local environmental cues in vivo. In addition, dendrites are formed and maintained by the

  5. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children with Multiple Disabilities during Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist…

  6. Voltage-gated Na+ channels: multiplicity of expression, plasticity, functional implications and pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Diss, J K J; Fraser, S P; Djamgoz, M B A

    2004-05-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are well known for mediating regenerative cell membrane depolarization and conduction of electrical signalling in nerves and muscles. However, VGSCs may also be expressed in traditionally "non-excitable" cell types, including lymphocytes, glia, fibroblasts and metastatic cancer cells of epithelial origin. Both the diversity and modulation of VGSC expression are far more complex than was initially apparent. There are at least 10 different genes that encode the alpha-subunits of VGSCs. Since VGSCs can contribute to a range of human disease conditions, it is important to understand both the control and consequences of VGSC functioning and how these aspects may be altered under pathophysiological conditions. Such mechanisms can be at the transcriptional, pre-translational or post-translational levels. This article reviews recent literature that has contributed to our understanding of how individual VGSC subtypes can generate their unique physiological signatures within different cell types. We also highlight emerging areas of interest, in particular, the finding of multiple expression of individual VGSC subtypes within single cells, the generation of alternative splice variants and the increasingly complex set of mechanisms of plasticity through which individual VGSC subtypes may be subtly controlled, including intracellular trafficking of VGSC protein.

  7. 78 FR 7659 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... impairments that affect multiple body systems in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social... eligibility or filing for benefits, call our national toll-free number, 1-800-772-1213, or TTY 1-800-325-0778... the appropriate affected body system(s), such as musculoskeletal, special senses and...

  8. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  9. Using Aspects of the TEACCH Structured Teaching Approach with Students with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kim; Preece, David

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on how the first author has adapted aspects of the TEACCH structured teaching approach--developed for use with students with autism--in her work with students with multiple disabilities and visual impairment (MDVI) in a special secondary school for students with severe learning difficulties in England. A brief overview of the…

  10. Identifying Aspects of Parental Involvement that Affect the Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulette-McIntyre, Ovella; Bagaka's, Joshua G.; Drake, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    This study identified parental practices that relate positively to high school students' academic performance. Parents of 643 high school students participated in the study. Data analysis, using a multiple linear regression model, shows parent-school connection, student gender, and race are significant predictors of student academic performance.…

  11. ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.

    PubMed

    Morrison, India

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways.

  12. Psychological Aspects in Children Affected by Duchenne De Boulogne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease. PMID:25478112

  13. ALE meta‐analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emotionally‐laden tactile stimulation—such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet—may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta‐analysis was performed. This meta‐analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta‐analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta‐analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta‐analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network‐level co‐activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective‐related PI and discriminative‐related SI regions co‐activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co‐activations. Taken together, these meta‐analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct

  14. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  15. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  16. Diversity of Aspects on Play in Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Research on the meaning of play accelerated in the 1980s, but play in children with profound multiple disabilities is a topic, that is not discussed very often in research. In this article, play in children with profound multiple disabilities is in focus. The aim is to highlight studies on play as a tool for learning and early stimulation, and for…

  17. Supporting affect regulation in children with multiple disabilities during psychotherapy: a multiple case design study of therapeutic attachment.

    PubMed

    Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G

    2009-04-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist stimulating therapeutic attachment, alternating with a control therapist providing positive personal attention only. In the 2nd phase, both therapists applied behavior therapy. Clients sought more proximity to the experimental therapist compared with the control therapist. Psychophysiological arousal (respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period) was lower when the experimental therapist applied behavior modification than when the control therapist did. Despite prolonged social deprivation, the attachment behavioral system appeared responsive to stimulation. The effects on affect regulation may explain the synergy between psychotherapy based on interpersonal and behavior modification approaches.

  18. Enhanced plasticity of bulk metallic glass in different aspect ratios via laser shock peening with multiple impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhu, Yunhu; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Ren; Ji, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study laser shock peening (LSP) with multiple laser impacts was used to improve the mechanical properties especially the plasticity of Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass (BMG) pillars in two aspect ratios (1:1 and 2:1). It was found that, with increasing laser impacts up to 5, the compression plastic strain of BMG pillar with aspect ratio of 1:1 increased from 0 to 1.48% and the compression strength increased significantly from 1569 MPa to 1721 MPa. With further laser impacts beyond 5, the changes in the plasticity and the compression strength were observed to be insignificant. Considering the effect of sample geometry at the same laser impacts, it could be concluded that the BMG pillars with smaller aspect ratio of 1:1 had better mechanical properties than that of the lager BMG pillars with aspect ratio of 2:1. Besides, the elastic strain limit of BMG pillars with LSP was not only independent of the laser impacts, but also irrelevant to the aspect ratio. At last, we discussed the reason for the increase of plasticity in view of the creation of excess free volume during LSP.

  19. Multiple Aspects of Preschool Children's Social Cognition: Relations with Peer Acceptance and Peer Interaction Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Three aspects of young children's social cognition--accurate encoding of social cues, hostile attributions and response access/generation--were assessed among 128 children (64 girls) attending three-, four-, and five-year-old classrooms (ages ranged from 36 to 73 months). Hostile attributions and the quality of strategy generation were both…

  20. Do increases in selected fitness parameters affect the aesthetic aspects of classical ballet performance?

    PubMed

    Twitchett, Emily A; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Research has indicated that classical ballet dancers tend to have lower fitness levels and increased injury rates compared to other athletes with similar workloads. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specifically tailored fitness training programme on the incidence of injury and the aesthetic quality of performance of classical ballet dancers compared to a control group. Proficiency in performance was evaluated at the beginning and end of the intervention period for both groups through a 4-min dance sequence using previously ratified marking criteria. The intervention group (n = 8) partook in a weekly 1-hr training session that included aerobic interval training, circuit training, and whole body vibration. All dancers' performance proficiency scores increased from pre-intervention testing to post-intervention. The intervention group's overall performance scores demonstrated a significantly greater increase (p = 0.03) than the equivalent for the control group. It was concluded that supplementary fitness training has a positive effect on aspects related to aesthetic dance performance as studied herein; further research is recommended on a larger and more varied sample. Practical applications from this study suggest that supplemental training should be part of a ballet dancer's regime, and minimal intervention time is required to have observable effects.

  1. EC treatment for reuse of tissue paper wastewater: aspects that affect energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Eduardo; Vázquez, Armando; Briones, Roberto; Lázaro, Isabel; Rodríguez, Israel

    2010-09-15

    The need for more rational use of water also calls for more efficient usage. An example is the production of tissue paper, where large amounts of water are discharged into the drain because its turbidity does not allow for recirculation. While this is a serious problem, even worse is the fact that the quality of such wastewater makes it difficult not only to recirculate but also to discharge due to environmental law restrictions. In this paper, electrocoagulation is proposed as a suitable technology to meet standards of water discharge, and even better, as a treatment option for removal of turbidity. Since energy consumption has been a drawback for EC applications, relevant aspects that contribute to increase it such as cell voltage and current density have been reviewed. For this purpose a systematic micro-electrolysis study combined with macro-electrolysis experiments have provided evidence that shows it is possible to achieve a turbidity removal of 92% with an energy consumption of 0.68 kWh/m(3). Thus, the results presented in this paper support the use of EC to obtain water of acceptable quality for reuse in the tissue paper industry.

  2. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  3. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Reece, Amy E; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  4. Multiple aspects of the stress response under social evaluative threat: an electrophysiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Allen, John J B

    2008-01-01

    Affective traits and states may be important moderators of stress reactivity, providing insight into stress-related consequences on cognitive functioning. This study assessed cognitive control processes using response-related brain electrical activities-the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)-that are sensitive to trait and state affect. To assess the role of cognitive control in affective and cortisol reactivity to social evaluative threat, 55 undergraduates first completed a standard task designed to elicit the ERN in order to index 'baseline' error monitoring. Participants then performed a difficult mathematical task designed to elicit the ERN under conditions of exposed failure and social evaluation. Baseline ERN amplitude predicted future cortisol reactivity to social evaluative threat in highly punishment-sensitive individuals (high self-reported Behavioral Inhibition System: Carver and White [1994. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J. Pers. Soc. Psych. 67, 319-333], although the presence of outliers suggest the need for replication. The math stress ERN amplitude was diminished in direct relationship to trait (punishment sensitivity) and state (fear and shame) negative affect. Individuals high in punishment sensitivity also showed specific deficits in task performance following error feedback under stress. High state affect related to a larger Pe amplitude. Results are interpreted as consequences of different motivational and affective reactivities under social evaluative threat.

  5. Warning: subtle aspects of strategy assessment may affect correlations among spatial tests.

    PubMed

    Glück, Judith; Dünser, Andreas; Steinbügl, Karin; Kaufmann, Hannes

    2007-02-01

    In this study, preliminary to a larger experiment, 42 participants completed four different spatial tests and, after each test, a strategy questionnaire. For half of the participants, visualizational strategies were presented first in this questionnaire, and for the other half, analytical strategies. The order of strategy descriptions had effects on the strategies reported and on the intercorrelations among the spatial tests and between the spatial tests and an inductive-reasoning test. In the group first presented with visualizational strategies, intercorrelations among the spatial tests were higher and correlations with the reasoning test were lower than in the group first presented with analytical strategies. Bootstrap analyses with 100 random splits of the sample confirmed this result. The findings are interpreted as indications of a priming effect by the strategy descriptions which affected the way participants dealt with subsequent tests. Implications for strategy assessment are discussed.

  6. Quality and safety aspects of meat products as affected by various physical manipulations of packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Taik

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the effects of physically manipulated packaging materials on the quality and safety of meat products. Recently, innovative measures for improving quality and extending the shelf-life of packaged meat products have been developed, utilizing technologies including barrier film, active packaging, nanotechnology, microperforation, irradiation, plasma and far-infrared ray (FIR) treatments. Despite these developments, each technology has peculiar drawbacks which will need to be addressed by meat scientists in the future. To develop successful meat packaging systems, key product characteristics affecting stability, environmental conditions during storage until consumption, and consumers' packaging expectations must all be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the safety issues related to packaging materials must also be taken into account when processing, packaging and storing meat products.

  7. [Integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters affecting longyan yield in Fujian Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jin; Wang, Jia-Yi; Li, Li-Chun; Lin, Jing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Zong-Huan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an index system for the integrated risk evaluation of multiple disasters on the Longyan production in Fujian Province was constructed, based on the analysis of the major environmental factors affecting the Longyan growth and yield, and from the viewpoints of potential hazard of disaster-causing factors, vulnerability of hazard-affected body, and disaster prevention and mitigation capability of Longyan growth regions in the Province. In addition, an integrated evaluation model of multiple disasters was established to evaluate the risks of the major agro-meteorological disasters affecting the Longyan yield, based on the yearly meteorological data, Longyan planting area and yield, and other socio-economic data in Longyan growth region in Fujian, and by using the integral weight of risk indices determined by AHP and entropy weight coefficient methods. In the Province, the Longyan growth regions with light integrated risk of multiple disasters were distributed in the coastal counties (except Dongshan County) with low elevation south of Changle, the regions with severe and more severe integrated risk were mainly in Zhangping of Longyan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Nanjin, and Hua' an of Zhangzhou, Yongchun and Anxi of Quanzhou, north mountainous areas of Putian and Xianyou, Minqing, Minhou, Luoyuan, and mountainous areas of Fuzhou, and Fuan, Xiapu, and mountainous areas of Ninde, among which, the regions with severe integrated risk were in Dongshan, Zhangping, and other mountainous areas with high altitudes, and the regions with moderate integrated risk were distributed in the other areas of the Province.

  8. Influence of a CTCF-Dependent Insulator on Multiple Aspects of Enhancer-Mediated Chromatin Organization.

    PubMed

    Varma, Garima; Rawat, Pratishtha; Jalan, Manisha; Vinayak, Manjula; Srivastava, Madhulika

    2015-10-01

    Developmental stage-specific enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions regulate the chromatin configuration necessary for transcription at various loci and additionally for VDJ recombination at antigen receptor loci that encode immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. To investigate these regulatory interactions, we analyzed the epigenetic landscape of the murine T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) locus in the presence and absence of an ectopic CTCF-dependent enhancer-blocking insulator, H19-ICR, in genetically manipulated mice. Our analysis demonstrated the ability of the H19-ICR insulator to restrict several aspects of enhancer-based chromatin alterations that are observed during activation of the TCRβ locus for transcription and recombination. The H19-ICR insulator abrogated enhancer-promoter contact-dependent chromatin alterations and additionally prevented Eβ-mediated histone modifications that have been suggested to be independent of enhancer-promoter interaction. Observed enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions, in conjunction with the chromatin structure of the Eβ-regulated domain at the nucleosomal level, provide useful insights regarding the activity of the regulatory elements in addition to supporting the accessibility hypothesis of VDJ recombination. Analysis of H19-ICR in the heterologous context of the developmentally regulated TCRβ locus suggests that different mechanisms proposed for CTCF-dependent insulator action might be manifested simultaneously or selectively depending on the genomic context and the nature of enhancer activity being curtailed.

  9. [Multiple aspects of the use of fluorine in public health from the viewpoint of healthcare leaders].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Regina Glaucia Lucena Aguiar; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Menezes, Léa Maria Bezerra de; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2013-07-01

    The article describes the perceptions of health care leaders on issues relating to the use of fluorine in public health. This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, using Collective Subject Discourse (DCS) as technique for processing the statements. The study population was comprised of delegates to the 13th National Health Conference; the sample was defined by convenience and consisted of 310 delegates: 56 at municipal level in Fortaleza (CE), 143 at state level (Ceará) and 111 at national level. Data were collected by semi-structured questionnaires. There were gaps in knowledge about various aspects of the use of fluorine in public health, which indicates the need to improve the level of information of society on issues relating to fluoridation. The lack of knowledge of delegates, together with the data found in the literature about the shortcomings in the monitoring and control of fluorine levels in water, are indicative of the need to reassess the role of social actors and the mechanisms used in social control.

  10. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    DOE PAGES

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; ...

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface ofmore » the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.« less

  11. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; Madrid, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David V.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale R.; Lake, Patrick W.; McCourt, Andrew L.

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface of the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.

  12. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  13. The impact of cognitive and affective aspects of cognitive conflict on learners' conceptual change about floating and sinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiachilleos, Stella; Valanides, Nicos; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-07-01

    Background: Cognitive conflict has been identified as an important factor for bringing about students' conceptual change. Researchers draw attention to the need to study not only cognitive factors related to cognitive conflict but affective factors as well. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of cognitive and non-cognitive aspects involved in cognitive conflict on students' conceptual change. Sample: Fifteen students, five from each of fourth, sixth and eighth grades, participated in the study. Seven students were male, and the rest were female. All students had high academic performance and were good at explaining their reasoning. Design and method: The study focused on gaining in-depth information, using semi-structured clinical interviews, about students' thinking when they were engaged in an inquiry process, which incorporated cognitive conflict using a scenario about floating and sinking. Students' initial conceptions related to the phenomenon of floating and sinking were first diagnosed and, subsequently, discrepant events were presented to challenge their initial conceptions. The 15 interviews were qualitatively analyzed using the constant comparative analysis method. Results: The results of this study showed that students' conceptual change was directly related to both cognitive and affective aspects of cognitive conflict. The results also showed that some students showed persistence on alternative frameworks even after their exposure to cognitive conflict. Conclusions: Cognitive conflict is an idiosyncratic, or personal event, that may not be experienced by all learners in the same way. Thus, the effect of cognitive conflict on learners' conceptual change is directly related to learners' ability to experience and feel the conflict when it is presented to them.

  14. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  15. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  16. Multiple aspects of sexual orientation: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates in a New Zealand national survey.

    PubMed

    Wells, J Elisabeth; McGee, Magnus A; Beautrais, Annette L

    2011-02-01

    Sexual orientation consists of multiple components. This study investigated both sexual identity and same-sex sexual behavior. Data came from the New Zealand Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative community sample of New Zealanders aged 16 years or older, interviewed face-to-face (N = 12,992, 48% male). The response rate was 73.3%. Self-reported sexual identity was 98.0% heterosexual, 0.6% bisexual, 0.8% homosexual, 0.3% "Something else," and 0.1% "Not sure." Same-sex sexual behavior with a partner was more common: 3.2% reported same-sex sexual experience only and 1.9% reported both experience and a relationship. For analysis of childhood and lifecourse, five sexuality groups were investigated: homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual divided into those with no same-sex sexual experience, experience only, and experience and relationship. The non-exclusively heterosexual groups were more likely to have experienced adverse events in childhood. Educational achievement and current equivalized household income did not differ systematically across the sexuality groups. Only 9.4% of the exclusively heterosexual lived alone, compared with 16.7% of bisexuals and 19.0% of homosexuals. Heterosexuals were more likely than bisexuals or homosexuals to have ever married or had biological children, with differences more marked for males than for females. Heterosexuals with no same-sex sexual experience were more likely to be currently married than the other two heterosexual groups. Restricting comparisons to heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual identification ignores the diversity within heterosexuals. Differences between the bisexual and homosexual groups were small compared with the differences between these groups and the exclusively heterosexual group, except for sex (80.8% of bisexuals were female).

  17. A diagram for evaluating multiple aspects of model performance in simulating vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Hou, Zhaolu; Han, Ying; Guo, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vector quantities, e.g., vector winds, play an extremely important role in climate systems. The energy and water exchanges between different regions are strongly dominated by wind, which in turn shapes the regional climate. Thus, how well climate models can simulate vector fields directly affects model performance in reproducing the nature of a regional climate. This paper devises a new diagram, termed the vector field evaluation (VFE) diagram, which is a generalized Taylor diagram and able to provide a concise evaluation of model performance in simulating vector fields. The diagram can measure how well two vector fields match each other in terms of three statistical variables, i.e., the vector similarity coefficient, root mean square length (RMSL), and root mean square vector difference (RMSVD). Similar to the Taylor diagram, the VFE diagram is especially useful for evaluating climate models. The pattern similarity of two vector fields is measured by a vector similarity coefficient (VSC) that is defined by the arithmetic mean of the inner product of normalized vector pairs. Examples are provided, showing that VSC can identify how close one vector field resembles another. Note that VSC can only describe the pattern similarity, and it does not reflect the systematic difference in the mean vector length between two vector fields. To measure the vector length, RMSL is included in the diagram. The third variable, RMSVD, is used to identify the magnitude of the overall difference between two vector fields. Examples show that the VFE diagram can clearly illustrate the extent to which the overall RMSVD is attributed to the systematic difference in RMSL and how much is due to the poor pattern similarity.

  18. Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.

  19. Chamber QoE: a multi-instrumental approach to explore affective aspects in relation to quality of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Mazza, Filippo; Hupont, Isabelle; Ríos Quintero, Miguel; Mäki, Toni; Varela, Martín.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating (audio)visual quality and Quality of Experience (QoE) from the user's perspective, has become a key element in optimizing users' experiences and their quality. Traditionally, the focus lies on how multi-level quality features are perceived by a human user. The interest has however gradually expanded towards human cognitive, affective and behavioral processes that may impact on, be an element of, or be influenced by QoE, and which have been underinvestigated so far. In addition, there is a major discrepancy between the new, broadly supported and more holistic conceptualization of QoE proposed by Le Callet et al. (2012) and traditional, standardized QoE assessment. This paper explores ways to tackle this discrepancy by means of a multi-instrumental approach. More concretely, it presents results from a lab study on video quality (N=27), aimed at going beyond the dominant QoE assessment paradigm and at exploring affective aspects in relation to QoE and in relation to perceived overall quality. Four types of data were collected: `traditional' QoE self-report measures were complemented with `alternative', emotional state- and user engagement-related self-report measures to evaluate QoE. In addition, we collected EEG (physiological) data, gazetracking data and facial expressions (behavioral) data. The video samples used in test were longer in duration than is common in standard tests allowing us to study e.g. more realistic experience and deeper user engagement. Our findings support the claim that the traditional QoE measures need to be reconsidered and extended with additional, affective staterelated measures.

  20. Multiple aspects of plasticity in clutch size vary among populations of a globally distributed songbird.

    PubMed

    Westneat, David F; Bókony, Veronika; Burke, Terry; Chastel, Olivier; Jensen, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Lendvai, Ádám Z; Liker, András; Mock, Douglas; Schroeder, Julia; Schwagmeyer, P L; Sorci, Gabriele; Stewart, Ian R K

    2014-07-01

    Plasticity in life-history characteristics can influence many ecological and evolutionary phenomena, including how invading organisms cope with novel conditions in new locations or how environmental change affects organisms in native locations. Variation in reaction norm attributes is a critical element to understanding plasticity in life history, yet we know relatively little about the ways in which reaction norms vary within and among populations. We amassed data on clutch size from marked females in eight populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from North America and Europe. We exploited repeated measures of clutch size to assess both the extent of within-individual phenotypic plasticity and among-individual variation and to test alternative hypotheses about the underlying causes of reaction norm shape, particularly the decline in clutch size with date. Across all populations, females of this multibrooded species altered their clutch size with respect to date, attempt order, and the interaction of date and order, producing a reaction norm in multidimensional environmental space. The reaction norm fits that predicted by a model in which optimal clutch size is driven by a decline with date hatched in the ability of offspring to recruit. Our results do not fit those predicted for other proposed causes of a seasonal decline in clutch size. We also found significant differences between populations in response to date and the date by attempt order interaction. We tested the prediction that the relationship with date should be increasingly negative as breeding season becomes shorter but found steeper declines in clutch size with date in populations with longer seasons, contrary to the prediction. Populations also differed in the level of among-individual variation in reaction norm intercept, but we found no evidence of among-individual variation in reaction norm slope. We show that complex reaction norms in life-history characters exhibit within- and among

  1. Psychotic-affective symptoms and multiple system atrophy expand phenotypes of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Hsien; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2012-03-20

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterised by ataxic gait, slow saccades and peripheral neuropathy. Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism could be a clinical phenotype of SCA2, especially those of Chinese origin. In addition to these motor symptoms, SCA2 has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction, with only rare reports of psychosis. The authors report the presence of severe psychosis, major depression and multiple system atrophy in affected subjects of a Taiwanese family with intermediate CAG repeats within the ATXN2 gene. The identification of this rare and distinctive SCA2 phenotype expands the current knowledge of the phenotypic variability of SCA2 and suggests that modifier genes could influence the clinical phenotype of SCA2.

  2. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration.

  3. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  4. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  5. CB1 receptor affects cortical plasticity and response to physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Francesco; Ljoka, Concetta; Nicoletti, Carolina G.; Kusayanagi, Hajime; Buttari, Fabio; Giordani, Laura; Rossi, Silvia; Foti, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Therapeutic effects of physical therapy in neurologic disorders mostly rely on the promotion of use-dependent synaptic plasticity in damaged neuronal circuits. Genetic differences affecting the efficiency of synaptic plasticity mechanisms could explain why some patients do not respond adequately to the treatment. It is known that physical exercise activates the endocannabinoid system and that stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) promotes synaptic plasticity in both rodents and humans. We thus tested whether CB1R genetic variants affect responsiveness to exercise therapy. Methods: We evaluated the effect of a genetic variant of the CB1R associated with reduced receptor expression (patients with long AAT trinucleotide short tandem repeats in the CNR1 gene) on long-term potentiation (LTP)–like cortical plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the motor cortex and, in parallel, on clinical response to exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Results: We found that patients with long AAT CNR1 repeats do not express TBS-induced LTP-like cortical plasticity and show poor clinical benefit after exercise therapy. Conclusions: Our results provide the first evidence that genetic differences within the CB1R may influence clinical responses to exercise therapy, and they strengthen the hypothesis that CB1Rs are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and in the control of spasticity in humans. This information might be of great relevance for patient stratification and personalized rehabilitation treatment programs. PMID:25520956

  6. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits.

  7. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    PubMed Central

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits. PMID

  8. Affective Temperament Profiles in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Association with Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    ÖZKAN, Adile; ALTINBAŞ, Kürşat; KOÇ, Emine Rabia; ŞEN, Halil Murat; ÖZIŞIK KARAMAN, Handan Işın

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to screen for bipolarity and to investigate the affective temperaments of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the possible association between the clinical and demographic characteristics of MS patients and temperament profiles. Methods A total of 65 patients with MS and 66 healthy volunteers completed the 32-item hypomania checklist (HCl-32), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) tests. The HCl-32, MDQ, and TEMPS-A scores were compared between the patients and healthy volunteers. Results MS patients had significantly higher scores for the depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious domains of the TEMPS-A scale than the control group, whereas relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients had higher MDQ and TEMPS-A hyperthymia scores than secondary progressive MS patients. MS patients who were being treated with interferon beta 1-b therapy had significantly higher MDQ scores than those being treated with interferon beta 1-a, glatiramer acetate, or who were without medication. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were positively correlated with TEMPS-A depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher scores for affective temperament in MS patients indicate subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. Higher hyperthymia scores and manic symptoms detected in the RRMS group could shed light on the relationship between bipolarity and MS. Thus, the screening of bipolarity and affective temperament profiles in MS patients could help clinicians predict future mood episodes and decrease their impact on disease severity. PMID:28360804

  9. Decision aids for multiple-decision disease management as affected by weather input errors.

    PubMed

    Pfender, W F; Gent, D H; Mahaffee, W F; Coop, L B; Fox, A D

    2011-06-01

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSSs) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation, or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and management decision recommendations. The extent to which errors in weather inputs affect the quality of the final management outcome depends on a number of aspects of the disease management context, including whether management consists of a single dichotomous decision, or of a multi-decision process extending over the cropping season(s). Decision aids for multi-decision disease management typically are based on simple or complex algorithms of weather data which may be accumulated over several days or weeks. It is difficult to quantify accuracy of multi-decision DSSs due to temporally overlapping disease events, existence of more than one solution to optimizing the outcome, opportunities to take later recourse to modify earlier decisions, and the ongoing, complex decision process in which the DSS is only one component. One approach to assessing importance of weather input errors is to conduct an error analysis in which the DSS outcome from high-quality weather data is compared with that from weather data with various levels of bias and/or variance from the original data. We illustrate this analytical approach for two types of DSS, an infection risk index for hop powdery mildew and a simulation model for grass stem rust. Further exploration of analysis methods is needed to address problems associated with assessing uncertainty in multi-decision DSSs.

  10. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  11. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers

    PubMed Central

    Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J.; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R.; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2–2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on

  12. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. Methods: An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Conclusions: Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS. PMID:26300703

  13. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W; Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2-2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on other

  14. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  15. Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based…

  16. How proprioceptive impairments affect quiet standing in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rougier, P; Faucher, M; Cantalloube, S; Lamotte, D; Vinti, M; Thoumie, P

    2007-01-01

    To assess if multiple sclerosis patients with proprioceptive impairment are specifically affected during quiet standing with eyes open and how they can develop motor compensatory processes, 56 patients, classified from sensory clinical tests as ataxo-spastic (MS-AS) or only having spasticity (MS-S), were compared to 23 healthy adults matched for age. The postural strategies were assessed from the centre-of-pressure trajectories (CP), measured from a force platform in the eyes open standing condition for a single trial lasting 51.2 s. The vertical projection of the centre of gravity (CGv) and its vertical difference from the CP (CP-CGv) were then estimated through a biomechanical relationship. These two movements permit the characterization of the postural performance and the horizontal acceleration communicated to the CG and from that, the global energy expenditure, respectively. Both MS-AS and MS-S groups demonstrate larger CGv and CP-CGv movements than healthy individuals of the same age. Whilst similar CGv values are noticed in both MS subgroups, suggesting similar postural performances, statistically significant differences are observed for the CP-CGv component. Biomechanically, this feature expresses the necessity for the MS-AS group to develop augmented neuro-muscular means to control their body movements, as compared to the MS-S group. By demonstrating for both groups of patients similar postural performance accompanied by a varying degree of energy expenditure to maintain undisturbed upright stance, this study reveals that MS-AS patients which are affected by proprioceptive loss can compensate for this deficit with more efficient control strategies, when standing still with their eyes open.

  17. Acquisition of the Korean Imperfective Aspect Markers "-ko iss-" and "-a iss-" by Japanese Learners: A Multiple-Factor Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ju-Yeon; Horie, Kaoru; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-linguistic research on second language tense-aspect acquisition has uncovered universal tendencies concerning the association between verbal semantics and tense-aspect markers, it is still unclear what mechanisms underlie this link. This study investigates the acquisition of two imperfective aspect markers ("-ko iss-" and…

  18. The dynamics of finger tremor in multiple sclerosis is affected by whole body position.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Sosnoff, J J; Sandroff, B M; Pula, J H; Motl, R W

    2013-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that results in widespread damage to the nervous system. One consequence of this disease is the emergence of enhanced tremor. This study was designed to (1) compare the tremor responses of persons with MS to that of healthy adults and to (2) examine the impact of whole body position (i.e., seated/standing) on tremor. Bilateral postural tremor was recorded using accelerometers attached to each index finger. Results revealed some similarity of tremor between groups in regard to the principal features (e.g., presence of peaks in similar frequency ranges). However, significant differences were observed with tremor for the MS persons being of greater amplitude, more regular (lower ApEn) and more strongly coupled across limbs compared to the elderly. The effects of body position were consistent across all subjects, with tremor increasing significantly from sitting-to-standing. However, the tremor increase for the MS group was greater than the elderly. Overall, the tremor for MS group was negatively affected by both this disease process and the nature of the task being performed. This latter result indicates that tremor does not simply reflect the feed-forward output of the neuromotor system but that it is influenced by the task constraints.

  19. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities affected by multiple stressors within tidal creeks in northeastern USA harbors

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgis, C.; Murray, M.; Danis, C.; Yates, L.

    1995-12-31

    Surveys of water quality, substrate quality and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted in a variety of tidal creeks located in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste landfill prior to the construction of a leachate collection system. In-Situ water quality data indicated high water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen values along with high turbidites. Sediment chemistry data indicated that all sediment within the study area exceed USEPA heavy metal criteria. Grain size and salinity data indicate that the study area lies within the Mesohaline Mud habitat class. Water quality data remained within similar concentrations with respect to indicators of leachate. The benthic macroinvertebrate community was consistently dominated by opportunistic Polychaete and Oligochaete worms. Both Shannon diversity and Rarefaction curves were used to evaluate trends in species diversity over time. The study includes a comparison to data obtained by USEPA R-EMAP monitoring programs. While large scale biomonitoring programs do not focus on small tidal creeks this study provides useful data regarding baseline benthic communities within tidal creeks affected by multiple stressors to include previous exposure and potential exposure to oil spills, continued point and non-point municipal and industrial wastewater discharges and physical stressors such as elevated water temperatures, homogeneous silt/clay substrate, and depressed dissolved oxygen values.

  20. Multiple and diverse structural changes affect the breakpoint regions of polymorphic inversions across the Drosophila genus.

    PubMed

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-10-26

    Chromosomal polymorphism is widespread in the Drosophila genus, with extensive evidence supporting its adaptive character in diverse species. Moreover, inversions are the major contributors to the genus chromosomal evolution. The molecular characterization of a reduced number of polymorphic inversion breakpoints in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura supports that their inversions would have mostly originated through a mechanism that generates duplications -staggered double-strand breaks- and has thus the potential to contribute to their adaptive character. There is also evidence for inversion breakpoint reuse at different time scales. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of two inversions of D. subobscura -O4 and O8- involved in complex arrangements that are frequent in the warm parts of the species distribution area. The duplications detected at their breakpoints are consistent with their origin through the staggered-break mechanism, which further supports it as the prevalent mechanism in D. subobscura. The comparative analysis of inversions breakpoint regions across the Drosophila genus has revealed several genes affected by multiple disruptions due not only to inversions but also to single-gene transpositions and duplications.

  1. Multiple and diverse structural changes affect the breakpoint regions of polymorphic inversions across the Drosophila genus

    PubMed Central

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J.; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal polymorphism is widespread in the Drosophila genus, with extensive evidence supporting its adaptive character in diverse species. Moreover, inversions are the major contributors to the genus chromosomal evolution. The molecular characterization of a reduced number of polymorphic inversion breakpoints in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila subobscura supports that their inversions would have mostly originated through a mechanism that generates duplications —staggered double-strand breaks— and has thus the potential to contribute to their adaptive character. There is also evidence for inversion breakpoint reuse at different time scales. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of two inversions of D. subobscura —O4 and O8— involved in complex arrangements that are frequent in the warm parts of the species distribution area. The duplications detected at their breakpoints are consistent with their origin through the staggered-break mechanism, which further supports it as the prevalent mechanism in D. subobscura. The comparative analysis of inversions breakpoint regions across the Drosophila genus has revealed several genes affected by multiple disruptions due not only to inversions but also to single-gene transpositions and duplications. PMID:27782210

  2. Plant SMU-1 and SMU-2 Homologues Regulate Pre-mRNA Splicing and Multiple Aspects of Development1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taijoon; Wang, Dongfang; Kim, Cheol-Soo; Yadegari, Ramin; Larkins, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs contributes significantly to the proper expression of the genome. However, the functions of many auxiliary spliceosomal proteins are still unknown. Here, we functionally characterized plant homologues of nematode suppressors of mec-8 and unc-52 (smu). We compared transcript profiles of maize (Zea mays) smu2 endosperm with those of wild-type plants and identified pre-mRNA splicing events that depend on the maize SMU2 protein. Consistent with a conserved role of plant SMU-2 homologues, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) smu2 mutants also show altered splicing of similar target pre-mRNAs. The Atsmu2 mutants occasionally show developmental phenotypes, including abnormal cotyledon numbers and higher seed weights. We identified AtSMU1 as one of the SMU2-interacting proteins, and Atsmu1 mutations cause similar developmental phenotypes with higher penetrance than Atsmu2. The AtSMU2 and AtSMU1 proteins are localized to the nucleus and highly prevalent in actively dividing tissues. Taken together, our data indicated that the plant SMU-1 and SMU-2 homologues appear to be involved in splicing of specific pre-mRNAs that affect multiple aspects of development. PMID:19734266

  3. Multiple Psychopharmacological Effects of the Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine Yokukansan, and the Brain Regions it Affects

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Kazushige; Ikarashi, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date. Recently, we reviewed the neuropharmacological mechanisms of YKS, including its effects on glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and pharmacokinetics of the ingredients responsible for the effects. This review is aimed to integrate the information regarding the psychopharmacological effects of YKS with the brain regions known to be affected, to facilitate our understanding of the clinical efficacy of YKS. In this review, we first show that YKS has several effects that act to improve symptoms that are similar to BPSDs, like aggressiveness, hallucinations, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, as well as symptoms like tardive dyskinesia and cognitive deficits. We next provide the evidence showing that YKS can interact with various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and spinal cord, dysfunctions of which are related to psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits, abnormal behaviors, and dysesthesia. In addition, the major active ingredients of YKS, geissoschizine methyl ether and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, are shown to predominantly bind to the frontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively. Our findings suggest that YKS has multiple psychopharmacological effects, and that these are probably mediated by interactions among several brain regions. In this review, we summarize the available information about the valuable effects of a multicomponent medicine YKS on complex

  4. Polymorphisms within beta-catenin encoding gene affect multiple myeloma development and treatment.

    PubMed

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Rybka, Justyna; Łacina, Piotr; Gębura, Katarzyna; Frontkiewicz, Diana; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cereblon (CRBN) is essential for the anti-myeloma (MM) activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and lenalidomide, and that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be one of possible reasons of lenalidomide resistance. This prompted us to analyze the effect of polymorphisms within the genes coding for cereblon (CRBN (rs121918368 C>T)) and β-catenin (CTNNB1 (rs4135385 A>G; rs4533622 A>C)). MM patients (n=142) and healthy individuals (n=123) were genotyped using the Light SNiP assays. The presence of the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) A allele was more frequently detected in patients presented with stage II-III disease according to International Staging System (63/82 vs. 26/44, p=0.043) and Durie-Salmon criteria (75/99 vs. 14/26, p=0.049). The CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA homozygosity was more frequent among patients with better response to CTD, i.e., cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (18/23 vs. 32/60, p=0.047). Patients carrying the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA genotype were better responders to the first line therapy with thalidomide containing regimens (p<0.05). No significant association was observed between the effect of lenalidomide therapy and polymorphisms studied. However, the occurrence of neutropenia during lenalidomide therapy was more frequent among the CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA carriers (p=0.019), while the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA homozygosity characterized patients with high grade (3-4) neutropenia (p=0.044). No association was found for the CRBN polymorphism. These results suggest that the CTNNB1 polymorphisms may affect the clinical course and response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma.

  5. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.

  6. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  7. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  8. Realistic changes in seaweed biodiversity affect multiple ecosystem functions on a rocky shore.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Williams, Susan L

    2013-09-01

    Given current threats to biodiversity, understanding the effects of diversity changes on the functions and services associated with intact ecosystems is of paramount importance. However, limited realism in most biodiversity studies makes it difficult to link the large and growing body of evidence for important functional consequences of biodiversity change to real-world losses of biodiversity. Here, we explored two methods of incorporating realism into biodiversity research: (1) the use of two-, five-, and eight-species assemblages that mimicked those that we observed in surveys of seaweed biodiversity patterns on a northern California (USA) rocky shore and the explicit comparison of those assemblages to random assemblages compiled from the same local species pool; and (2) the measurement of two fundamental ecosystem functions, nitrate uptake and photosynthesis, both of which contribute to growth of primary producers. Specifically, we measured nitrate uptake rates of seaweed assemblages as a function of initial nitrate concentrations and photosynthetic rates as a function of irradiance levels for both realistic and random assemblages of seaweeds. We only observed changes in ecosystem functioning along a richness gradient for realistic assemblages, and both maximum nitrate uptake rates (V(max)) and photosynthetic light use efficiency values (alpha(p) = P(max)/I(K)) were higher in realistic assemblages than in random assemblages. Furthermore, the parameter affected by changes in richness depended on the function being measured. Both V(max) and alpha(p) declined with increasing richness in nonrandom assemblages due to a combination of species identity effects (for V(max) and overyielding effects (for both V(max) and alpha(p)). In contrast, neither nitrate uptake efficiency values (alpha(N) = V(max)/K(s)), nor maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) changed along the gradient in seaweed species richness. Furthermore, overyielding was only evident in realistic assemblages

  9. Turnover of Phosphatidic Acid through Distinct Signaling Pathways Affects Multiple Aspects of Pollen Tube Growth in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Pleskot, Roman; Pejchar, Přemysl; Bezvoda, Radek; Lichtscheidl, Irene K.; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Marc, Jan; Žárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important intermediate in membrane lipid metabolism that acts as a key component of signaling networks, regulating the spatio-temporal dynamics of the endomembrane system and the cytoskeleton. Using tobacco pollen tubes as a model, we addressed the signaling effects of PA by probing the functions of three most relevant enzymes that regulate the production and degradation of PA, namely, phospholipases D (PLD), diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), and lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a highly dynamic evolution of all three lipid-modifying enzymes in land plants, with many clade-specific duplications or losses and massive diversification of the C2-PLD family. In silico transcriptomic survey revealed increased levels of expression of all three PA-regulatory genes in pollen development (particularly the DGKs). Using specific inhibitors we were able to distinguish the contributions of PLDs, DGKs, and LPPs into PA-regulated processes. Thus, suppressing PA production by inhibiting either PLD or DGK activity compromised membrane trafficking except early endocytosis, disrupted tip-localized deposition of cell wall material, especially pectins, and inhibited pollen tube growth. Conversely, suppressing PA degradation by inhibiting LPP activity using any of three different inhibitors significantly stimulated pollen tube growth, and similar effect was achieved by suppressing the expression of tobacco pollen LPP4 using antisense knock-down. Interestingly, inhibiting specifically DGK changed vacuolar dynamics and the morphology of pollen tubes, whereas inhibiting specifically PLD disrupted the actin cytoskeleton. Overall, our results demonstrate the critical importance of all three types of enzymes involved in PA production and degradation, with strikingly different roles of PA produced by the PLD and DGK pathways, in pollen tube growth. PMID:22639652

  10. Vision and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.

  11. The Impact of Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Cognitive Conflict on Learners' Conceptual Change about Floating and Sinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjiachilleos, Stella; Valanides, Nicos; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive conflict has been identified as an important factor for bringing about students' conceptual change. Researchers draw attention to the need to study not only cognitive factors related to cognitive conflict but affective factors as well. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of cognitive…

  12. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol.

  13. Poor response of initial steroid therapy for IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis with multiple organs affected

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Weijie; He, Xiaodong; Qu, Qiang; Hong, Tao; Li, Binglu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is a rare biliary manifestation in which many other organs might be affected. The purpose of our study was to investigate the different clinical characteristics and initial steroid response between IgG4-SC patients with and without other organs affected. A series of patients with IgG4-SC in the period from January 2006 to December 2015 at our hospital were included. The pancreas and major salivary glands were screened, and the initial corticosteroid therapy was given. Clinical information was collected and analyzed including demographics, clinical presentation, IgG4 serology, imaging features, and treatment outcomes. The study identified 72 IgG4-SC patients, including 60 males and 12 females. The mean age was 59.8 years old. Among these IgG4-SC patients, 10 patients had only bile duct involved, 42 patients had 2 organs involved and 20 patients had multiple organs involved. In patients with multiple organs involved, more complaints were given (mean 2.9 kinds), higher serum IgG4 levels were found (23458 ± 19402.7 mg/L), and more stricture lesions of biliary tract were shown. All 72 patients exhibited a disease response within 4 to 6 weeks of starting steroids. The remission rate in the multiple lesions group was lower (60%), and the recurrence rate is higher (83.3%). The relapse-free survival was 20.0 months in the single lesion group, which is longer than that in the multiple lesions group (3.1 months, P < 0.05). The IgG4-SC patients with multiple organs affected had more complaints, higher serum IgG4 levels, and poor response to initial steroids. PMID:28328835

  14. A steroid-induced bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head in an underage patient affected by multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Nistri, Lorenzo; Bracco, Laura; Giannini, Marta; Amato, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis are often treated by pulsed intravenous corticosteroids to manage acute relapses with positive outcomes. The intravenous administration is frequently associated to avascular necrosis of several bones, particularly the femur. The present report regards a case of an underage MS patient with a bilateral ANFH secondary to pulsed administrations of steroids, managed by a conservative approach on a hip, and by a novel surgical technique on the contralateral side. PMID:26811707

  15. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  16. Lenalidomide affect expression level of cereblon protein in multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Ren, J H; Guo, X N; Guo, X L; Cai, X Y; Guo, X F; Zhang, J N

    2015-10-29

    We investigated the mechanisms of action of immuno-modulatory drug (lenalidomide) on the protein expression of cereblon (CRBN) and their therapeutic targets in the multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226. The multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226 was cultured and treated with different concentrations of lenalidomide and bortezomib to determine the proliferation inhibition rate, apoptosis rate, and protein expression of CRBN. The results revealed that both lenalidomide and bortezomib inhibited the proliferation of RPMI8226 and promoted cell apoptosis. However, the protein expression of CRBN decreased signifi-cantly after treatment with lenalidomide, while bortezomib had no effect on the expression of CRBN. We confirmed that CRBN may be a target of lenalidomide.

  17. Stochastic analysis of multiple-passband spectral classifications systems affected by observation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsokos, C. P.

    1980-01-01

    The classification of targets viewed by a pushbroom type multiple band spectral scanner by algorithms suitable for implementation in high speed online digital circuits is considered. A class of algorithms suitable for use with a pipelined classifier is investigated through simulations based on observed data from agricultural targets. It is shown that time distribution of target types is an important determining factor in classification efficiency.

  18. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  19. Peer Rated Therapeutic Talent and Affective Sensitivity: A Multiple Regression Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Used peer rated measures of Warmth, Understanding and Openness to predict scores on the Kagan Affective Sensitivity Scale-E80 among 66 undergraduates who had participated in interpersonal skills training groups. Results indicated that, as an additively composite index of Therapeutic Talent, they were positively correlated with affective…

  20. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  1. The Caenorhabditis Elegans Unc-31 Gene Affects Multiple Nervous System-Controlled Functions

    PubMed Central

    Avery, L.; Bargmann, C. I.; Horvitz, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    We have devised a method for selecting Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that execute feeding motions in the absence of food. One mutation isolated in this way is an allele of the gene unc-31, first discovered by S. Brenner in 1974, because of its effects on locomotion. We find that strong unc-31 mutations cause defects in four functions controlled by the nervous system. Mutant worms are lethargic, feed constitutively, are defective in egg-laying and produce dauer larvae that fail to recover. We discuss two extreme models to explain this pleiotropy: either unc-31 affects one or a few neurons that coordinately control several different functions, or it affects many neurons that independently control different functions. PMID:8325482

  2. Pain affects depression through anxiety, fatigue and sleep in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L.; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Ehde, Dawn M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Kraft, George H.; Jones, Salene M.; Johnson, Kurt L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over a quarter million individuals in the US have Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Chronic pain and depression are disproportionately high in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic pain and depression in MS and to examine potentially meditational effects of anxiety, fatigue and sleep. Methods Cross-sectional data from self-reported instruments measuring multiple symptoms and quality of life indicators were used in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to model direct and indirect effects of pain on depression in a sample of 1245 community dwelling individuals with MS. Pain interference, depression, fatigue and sleep disturbance were modeled as latent variables with 2 to 3 indicators each. The model controlled for age, sex, disability status (EDSS) and social support. Results A model with indirect effects of pain on depression had adequate fit and accounted for nearly 80% of the variance in depression. The effects of chronic pain on depression were almost completely mediated by fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Higher pain was associated with greater fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, which in turn were associated with higher levels of depression. The largest mediating effect was through fatigue. Additional analyses excluded items with common content and suggested that the meditational effects observed were not attributable to content overlap across scales. Conclusions Individuals living with MS who report high levels of chronic pain and depressive symptoms may benefit from treatment approaches that can address sleep, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:25602361

  3. Shade affects responses to drought and flooding - acclimation to multiple stresses in bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.).

    PubMed

    Visser, E J W; Zhang, Q; De Gruyter, F; Martens, S; Huber, H

    2016-01-01

    Plants exposed to environmental stress often respond by a change in their phenotypic traits. These changes in trait expression may alleviate the negative effect of such stress factors. However, if multiple stresses are present, responses are likely to be less predictable and hence do not necessarily correlate to plant performance. This study tested if this expectation was true, by subjecting Solanum dulcamara plants to various simultaneous stress factors. Plants were grown in well-watered conditions, drought or flooding, and exposed to either full light or shade for 4 weeks. Shoot and root biomass, stem morphological parameters, such as height, number of nodes and length of stem internodes, and leaf traits like length, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance were determined. Both variation in light and in water availability typically caused slower growth, and resulted in distinct phenotypic changes in stem, leaf and root traits. However, effects of stresses on the expression of traits were not always additive. Instead, some combined stress responses (e.g. leaf size) appeared to be limited by physical or physiological constraints, whereas other responses were opposite to each other (e.g. root:shoot ratio), resulting in an intermediate phenotype in the combined stress treatment. These data suggest that in natural conditions, where combined stress factors are likely to be present, the optimal phenotype may not necessarily be expressed. Responses of plants to multiple stress factors may therefore not be associated with immediate advantages in terms of increased performance.

  4. Hemoglobinopathic Erythrocytes Affect the Intraerythrocytic Multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Svetlana; Balaban, Amanda; McQueen, Philip G.; Coutinho, Rosane; Miller, Jeffery L.; Nossal, Ralph; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms by which α-thalassemia and sickle cell traits confer protection from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria are not yet fully elucidated. We hypothesized that hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes reduce the intraerythrocytic multiplication of P. falciparum, potentially delaying the development of life-threatening parasite densities until parasite clearing immunity is achieved. Methods. We developed a novel in vitro assay to quantify the number of merozoites released from an individual schizont, termed the “intraerythrocytic multiplication factor” (IMF). Results. P. falciparum (3D7 line) schizonts produce variable numbers of merozoites in all erythrocyte types tested, with median IMFs of 27, 27, 29, 23, and 23 in control, HbAS, HbSS, and α- and β-thalassemia trait erythrocytes, respectively. IMF correlated strongly (r2 = 0.97; P < .001) with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and varied significantly with mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin content. Reduction of IMFs in thalassemia trait erythrocytes was confirmed using clinical parasite isolates with different IMFs. Mathematical modeling of the effect of IMF on malaria progression indicates that the lower IMF in thalassemia trait erythrocytes limits parasite density and anemia severity over the first 2 weeks of parasite replication. Conclusions. P. falciparum IMF, a parasite heritable virulence trait, correlates with erythrocyte indices and is reduced in thalassemia trait erythrocytes. Parasite IMF should be examined in other low-indices erythrocytes. PMID:24688070

  5. Cross-cultural generality and specificity in self-regulation: avoidance personal goals and multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Sedikides, Constantine; Murayama, Kou; Tanaka, Ayumi; Thrash, Todd M; Mapes, Rachel R

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined avoidance personal goals as concurrent (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) predictors of multiple aspects of well-being in the United States and Japan. In both studies, participants adopted more avoidance personal goals in Japan relative to the United States. Both studies also demonstrated that avoidance personal goals were significant negative predictors of the most relevant aspects of well-being in each culture. Specifically, avoidance personal goals were negative predictors of intrapersonal and eudaimonic well-being in the United States and were negative predictors of interpersonal and eudaimonic well-being in Japan. The findings clarify and extend puzzling findings from prior empirical work in this area, and raise provocative possibilities about the nature of avoidance goal pursuit.

  6. Arteriolosclerosis that affects multiple brain regions is linked to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Janna H; Abner, Erin L; Baker, Steven; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Hammack, Eleanor; Kukull, Walter A; Brenowitz, Willa D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Nelson, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P < 0.001). This enables informative evaluation of anatomical regions outside of the hippocampus. To assess the morphology of brain microvasculature far more rigorously than what is possible using semi-quantitative pathological scoring, we applied digital pathological (Aperio ScanScope) methods on a subsample of frontal cortex sections from hippocampal sclerosis of ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections

  7. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  8. Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  9. Cultivating multiple aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation accounts for psychological well-being through decreased rumination

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, mindfulness meditation has gained prominence as an adjunctive psychotherapeutic technique. In fact, a vast literature of controlled studies has found that mindfulness meditation is related to improved mental health across a variety of disorders. Elucidating the components involved in mindfulness meditation’s positive impact on psychological well-being is an important step in more precisely identifying the populations that would most benefit from its therapeutic utilization. Yet, a consensus regarding the particular underlying mechanisms that contribute to these outcomes is very much limited. There are many reasons for this, including the inconsistent operationalization and use of mindfulness meditation across research investigations. Despite the elusive mechanisms, many studies seem to indicate that cultivating different aspects of attention is a feasible, consistent, and parsimonious starting point bridging mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Attention in itself is a complex construct. It comprises different networks, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, and is also explained in terms of the way it is regulated. This paper supports a previously suggested idea that cultivating all aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation leads to greater psychological well-being through decreased ruminative processes. Ruminative processes are decreased by engaging in both focused and receptive attention, which foster the ability to distract and decenter. PMID:26170728

  10. Situation of classical swine fever and the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects affecting its distribution in the American continent.

    PubMed

    Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor

  11. Towards drug repositioning: a unified computational framework for integrating multiple aspects of drug similarity and disease similarity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    In response to the high cost and high risk associated with traditional de novo drug discovery, investigation of potential additional uses for existing drugs, also known as drug repositioning, has attracted increasing attention from both the pharmaceutical industry and the research community. In this paper, we propose a unified computational framework, called DDR, to predict novel drug-disease associations. DDR formulates the task of hypothesis generation for drug repositioning as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. It utilizes multiple drug similarity networks, multiple disease similarity networks, and known drug-disease associations to explore potential new associations among drugs and diseases with no known links. A large-scale study was conducted using 799 drugs against 719 diseases. Experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach. In addition, DDR ranked drug and disease information sources based on their contributions to the prediction, thus paving the way for prioritizing multiple data sources and building more reliable drug repositioning models. Particularly, some of our novel predictions of drug-disease associations were supported by clinical trials databases, showing that DDR could serve as a useful tool in drug discovery to efficiently identify potential novel uses for existing drugs.

  12. Do multiple fires interact to affect vegetation structure in temperate eucalypt forests?

    PubMed

    Haslem, Angie; Leonard, Steve W J; Bruce, Matthew J; Christie, Fiona; Holland, Greg J; Kelly, Luke T; MacHunter, Josephine; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; York, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in structuring vegetation in fire-prone regions worldwide. Progress has been made towards documenting the effects of individual fire events and fire regimes on vegetation structure; less is known of how different fire history attributes (e.g., time since fire, fire frequency) interact to affect vegetation. Using the temperate eucalypt foothill forests of southeastern Australia as a case study system, we examine two hypotheses about such interactions: (1) post-fire vegetation succession (e.g., time-since-fire effects) is influenced by other fire regime attributes and (2) the severity of the most recent fire overrides the effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Empirical data on vegetation structure were collected from 540 sites distributed across central and eastern Victoria, Australia. Linear mixed models were used to examine these hypotheses and determine the relative influence of fire and environmental attributes on vegetation structure. Fire history measures, particularly time since fire, affected several vegetation attributes including ground and canopy strata; others such as low and sub-canopy vegetation were more strongly influenced by environmental characteristics like rainfall. There was little support for the hypothesis that post-fire succession is influenced by fire history attributes other than time since fire; only canopy regeneration was influenced by another variable (fire type, representing severity). Our capacity to detect an overriding effect of the severity of the most recent fire was limited by a consistently weak effect of preceding fires on vegetation structure. Overall, results suggest the primary way that fire affects vegetation structure in foothill forests is via attributes of the most recent fire, both its severity and time since its occurrence; other attributes of fire regimes (e.g., fire interval, frequency) have less influence. The strong effect of environmental drivers, such as rainfall and

  13. Multiple Polymorphisms Affect Expression and Function of the Neuropeptide S Receptor (NPSR1)

    PubMed Central

    Anedda, Francesca; Zucchelli, Marco; Schepis, Danika; Hellquist, Anna; Corrado, Lucia; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Achour, Adnane; McInerney, Gerald; Bertorello, Alejandro; Lördal, Mikael; Befrits, Ragnar; Björk, Jan; Bresso, Francesca; Törkvist, Leif; Halfvarson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Background neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor NPSR1 act along the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to modulate anxiety, fear responses, nociception and inflammation. The importance of the NPS-NPSR1 signaling pathway is highlighted by the observation that, in humans, NPSR1 polymorphism associates with asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, panic disorders, and intermediate phenotypes of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Because of the genetic complexity at the NPSR1 locus, however, true causative variations remain to be identified, together with their specific effects on receptor expression or function. To gain insight into the mechanisms leading to NPSR1 disease-predisposing effects, we performed a thorough functional characterization of all NPSR1 promoter and coding SNPs commonly occurring in Caucasians (minor allele frequency >0.02). Principal Findings we identified one promoter SNP (rs2530547 [−103]) that significantly affects luciferase expression in gene reporter assays and NPSR1 mRNA levels in human leukocytes. We also detected quantitative differences in NPS-induced genome-wide transcriptional profiles and CRE-dependent luciferase activities associated with three NPSR1 non-synonymous SNPs (rs324981 [Ile107Asn], rs34705969 [Cys197Phe], rs727162 [Arg241Ser]), with a coding variant exhibiting a loss-of-function phenotype (197Phe). Potential mechanistic explanations were sought with molecular modelling and bioinformatics, and a pilot study of 2230 IBD cases and controls provided initial support to the hypothesis that different cis-combinations of these functional SNPs variably affect disease risk. Significance these findings represent a first step to decipher NPSR1 locus complexity and its impact on several human conditions NPS antagonists have been recently described, and our results are of potential pharmacogenetic relevance. PMID:22216302

  14. Multiple signals and male spacing affect female preference at cocktail parties in treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Effective acoustic communication in the face of intense conspecific background noise constitutes a constant sensory challenge in chorusing and colonial species. An evolutionary approach suggests that behavioural and environmental constraints in these species should have shaped signal design and signalling behaviour to enable communication in noisy conditions. This could be attained both through the use of multicomponent signals and through short-term adjustments in the spatial separation of calling males. We investigated these two hypotheses in a chorusing anuran, the hylid Hyla arborea, through a series of phonotaxis experiments conducted within a six-speaker arena in a high background noise situation, by presenting females with male calls containing either single or multiple attractive call components, and by modifying distances between speakers. We found that female ability to discriminate attractive calls increased when several attractive call components were available, providing novel evidence that the use of multicomponent signals enhances communication in complex acoustic conditions. Signal discrimination in females also improved with speaker separation, demonstrating that within natural choruses, spatial unmasking conditioned by male density and spatial separation probably improves female discrimination of competing males. Implications of these results for the accuracy of mate choice within choruses are discussed. PMID:20018785

  15. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ . Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  16. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ. Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  17. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  18. Cereblon and IRF4 Variants Affect Risk and Response to Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Łacina, Piotr; Rybka, Justyna; Chaszczewska-Markowska, Monika; Mazur, Grzegorz; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2017-01-12

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell malignancy derived from an early precursor of the B-cell lineage characterised by bone-marrow infiltration, lytic bone lesions, and the presence of a monoclonal protein in serum and/or urine. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator in B-cell development and function that is required during immune response for lymphocyte activation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Immunomodulatory drugs, derivatives of thalidomide, are commonly used in therapy against MM. They are known to target a protein called cereblon (CRBN); however, the exact mechanism remains unknown. The present study aimed to assess the association of two (rs12203592 and rs872071) polymorphisms within the IRF4 gene and two (rs711613 and rs1045433) in the CRBN gene with MM susceptibility, progression, and response to treatment. For this purpose, 144 MM patients and 126 healthy individuals were genotyped for the IRF4 and CRBN alleles. The presence of the IRF4 (rs872071) G allele was more frequently detected in patients than healthy individuals (OR 1.78; P = 0.034), and this relationship was especially pronounced in women (OR 2.83; P = 0.012). The CRBN (rs711613) A allele-carriers were better responders to the treatment (P = 0.012), in particular to thalidomide including therapy (P = 0.023). These results underline the prognostic significance of the IRF4 and CRBN polymorphisms in patients with MM.

  19. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  20. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  1. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  2. Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-01-01

    As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874

  3. Mutations affecting a putative MutLα endonuclease motif impact multiple mismatch repair functions

    PubMed Central

    Erdeniz, Naz; Nguyen, Megan; Deschênes, Suzanne M.; Liskay, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) lead to increased mutation rates and higher recombination between similar, but not identical sequences, as well as resistance to certain DNA methylating agents. Recently, a component of human MMR machinery, MutLα, has been shown to display a latent endonuclease activity. The endonuclease active site appears to include a conserved motif, DQHA(X)2E(X)4E, within the COOH-terminus of human PMS2. Substitution of the glutamic acid residue (E705) abolished the endonuclease activity and mismatch-dependent excision in vitro. Previously, we showed that the PMS2-E705K mutation and the corresponding mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were both recessive loss of function alleles for mutation avoidance in vivo. Here, we show that mutations impacting this endonuclease motif also significantly affect MMR-dependent suppression of homeologous recombination in yeast and responses to Sn1-type methylating agents in both yeast and mammalian cells. Thus, our in vivo results suggest that the endonuclease activity of MutLα is important not only in MMR-dependent mutation avoidance but also for recombination and damage response functions. PMID:17567544

  4. Multiple Trans-Sensing Interactions Affect Meiotically Heritable Epigenetic States at the Maize pl1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stephen M.; Hollick, Jay B.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between specific maize purple plant1 (pl1) alleles result in heritable changes of gene regulation that are manifested as differences in anthocyanin pigmentation. Transcriptionally repressed states of Pl1-Rhoades alleles (termed Pl′) are remarkably stable and invariably facilitate heritable changes of highly expressed states (termed Pl-Rh) in Pl′/Pl-Rh plants. However, Pl′ can revert to Pl-Rh when hemizygous, when heterozygous with pl1 alleles other than Pl1-Rhoades, or in the absence of trans-acting factors required to maintain repressed states. Cis-linked features of Pl1-Rhoades responsible for these trans-sensing behaviors remain unknown. Here, genetic tests of a pl1 allelic series identify two potentially separate cis-linked features: one facilitating repression of Pl-Rh and another stabilizing Pl′ in trans. Neither function is affected in ethyl-methanesulfonate-induced Pl1-Rhoades derivatives that produce truncated PL1 peptides, indicating that PL1 is unlikely to mediate trans interactions. Both functions, however, are impaired in a spontaneous Pl1-Rhoades derivative that fails to produce detectable pl1 RNA. Pl′-like states can also repress expression of a pl1-W22 allele, but this repression is not meiotically heritable. As the Pl′ state is not associated with unique small RNA species representing the pl1-coding region, the available data suggest that interactions between elements required for transcription underlie Pl1-Rhoades epigenetic behaviors. PMID:17435245

  5. Subacute oral exposure to benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) increases aggressiveness and affects consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-09-30

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect.

  6. Presentation and validation of the multiple sclerosis depression rating scale: a test specifically devised to investigate affective disorders in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Davide; Marra, Camillo; Zinno, Massimiliano; Patanella, Agata Katia; Messina, Maria Josè; Piccininni, Chiara; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Gainotti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of depression in patients affected by MS is important, as it may be a cause of reduced quality of life and increased suicide risk. We present a new scale, the Multiple Sclerosis Depression Rating Scale (MSDRS), and assess its diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 94 MS participants were classified as non-depressed (N = 44) or affected by mood disorder associated to MS with depressive manifestations (MSD-MDDM; N = 37) or with a major depression-like episode (MSD-MDL; N = 13). Each participant underwent a psychiatric interview, MSDRS, and BDI; diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AROC). The diagnostic accuracy of MSDRS and BDI was comparable when diagnosing both MSD-MDDM and MSD-MDL (AROC respectively 0.8998 and 0.8659); the MSDRS showed higher accuracy for the diagnosis of MSD-MDL (AROC respectively 0.9278 and 0.8314; p = .038). The MSDRS may be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of depression in MS.

  7. Potential electrostatic interactions in multiple regions affect human metapneumovirus F-mediated membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andres; Hackett, Brent A; Winter, Christine C; Buchholz, Ursula J; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-09-01

    The recently identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a worldwide respiratory virus affecting all age groups and causing pneumonia and bronchiolitis in severe cases. Despite its clinical significance, no specific antiviral agents have been approved for treatment of HMPV infection. Unlike the case for most paramyxoviruses, the fusion proteins (F) of a number of strains, including the clinical isolate CAN97-83, can be triggered by low pH. We recently reported that residue H435 in the HRB linker domain acts as a pH sensor for HMPV CAN97-83 F, likely through electrostatic repulsion forces between a protonated H435 and its surrounding basic residues, K295, R396, and K438, at low pH. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that a positive charge at position 435 is required but not sufficient for F-mediated membrane fusion. Arginine or lysine substitution at position 435 resulted in a hyperfusogenic F protein, while replacement with aspartate or glutamate abolished fusion activity. Studies with recombinant viruses carrying mutations in this region confirmed its importance. Furthermore, a second region within the F(2) domain identified as being rich in charged residues was found to modulate fusion activity of HMPV F. Loss of charge at residues E51, D54, and E56 altered local folding and overall stability of the F protein, with dramatic consequences for fusion activity. As a whole, these studies implicate charged residues and potential electrostatic interactions in function, pH sensing, and overall stability of HMPV F.

  8. Insights into hemolytic uremic syndrome: segregation of three independent predisposition factors in a large, multiple affected pedigree.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Jorge, Elena Goicoechea de; Garrido, Cynthia Abarrategui; Carreras, Luis; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; de Córdoba, Santiago Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Mutations in the complement regulators factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and factor I are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, MIM 235400), suggesting that the disease develops as a consequence of the inefficient protection of the renal endothelium from damage by the complement system. Incomplete penetrance of the disease in individuals carrying these mutations is, however, relatively frequent. Here, we report the identification of a large, multiple affected aHUS pedigree in which there is independent segregation of three different aHUS risk factors: a MCP missense mutation (c.-598C>T; Pro165Ser) that decreases MCP expression on the cell surface, a dinucleotide insertion in the coding sequence of factor I (c.-1610insAT) that introduces a premature stop codon in the factor I protein, and the MCPggaac SNP haplotype block that was previously shown to decrease the transcription activity from the MCP promoter. Interestingly, individuals affected by aHUS in the pedigree are only those who have inherited the three aHUS risk factors. These data show an additive effect for mutations in MCP and factor I and provide definitive support to the conclusion that aHUS results from a defective protection of cellular surfaces from complement activation. Furthermore, they help to explain the incomplete penetrance of the disease, illustrating that concurrence of multiple hits in complement regulatory proteins may be necessary to significantly impair host tissue protection and to confer susceptibility to aHUS.

  9. UVR8 in Arabidopsis thaliana regulates multiple aspects of cellular differentiation during leaf development in response to ultraviolet B radiation.

    PubMed

    Wargent, Jason J; Gegas, Vasilis C; Jenkins, Gareth I; Doonan, John H; Paul, Nigel D

    2009-01-01

    Responses specific to ultraviolet B (UV-B) wavelengths are still poorly understood, both in terms of initial signalling and effects on morphogenesis. Arabidopsis thaliana UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) is the only known UV-B specific signalling component, but the role of UVR8 in leaf morphogenesis is unknown. The regulatory effects of UVR8 on leaf morphogenesis at a range of supplementary UV-B doses were characterized, revealing both UVR8-dependent and independent responses to UV irradiation. Inhibition of epidermal cell division in response to UV-B is largely independent of UVR8. However, overall leaf growth under UV-B irradiation in wild-type plants is enhanced compared with a uvr8 mutant because of a UVR8-dependent compensatory increase of cell area in wild-type plants. UVR8 was also required for the regulation of endopolyploidy in response to UV-B, and the uvr8 mutant also has a lower density of stomata than the wild type in the presence of UV-B, indicating that UVR8 has a regulatory role in other developmental events. Our findings show that, in addition to regulating UV-protective gene expression responses, UVR8 is involved in controlling aspects of leaf growth and morphogenesis. This work extends our understanding of how UV-B response is orchestrated at the whole-plant level.

  10. The C. elegans NeuroD homolog cnd-1 functions in multiple aspects of motor neuron fate specification.

    PubMed

    Hallam, S; Singer, E; Waring, D; Jin, Y

    2000-10-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD (Neurod1) has been implicated in neuronal fate determination, differentiation and survival. Here we report the expression and functional analysis of cnd-1, a C. elegans NeuroD homolog. cnd-1 expression was first detected in neuroblasts of the AB lineage in 14 cell embryos and maintained in many neuronal descendants of the AB lineage during embryogenesis, diminishing in most terminally differentiated neurons prior to hatching. Specifically, cnd-1 reporter genes were expressed in the precursors of the embryonic ventral cord motor neurons and their progeny. A loss-of-function mutant, cnd-1(ju29), exhibited multiple defects in the ventral cord motor neurons. First, the number of motor neurons was reduced, possibly caused by the premature withdrawal of the precursors from mitotic cycles. Second, the strict correlation between the fate of a motor neuron with respect to its lineage and position in the ventral cord was disrupted, as manifested by the variable expression pattern of motor neuron fate specific markers. Third, motor neurons also exhibited defects in terminal differentiation characteristics including axonal morphology and synaptic connectivity. Finally, the expression patterns of three neuronal type-specific transcription factors, unc-3, unc-4 and unc-30, were altered. Our data suggest that cnd-1 may specify the identity of ventral cord motor neurons both by maintaining the mitotic competence of their precursors and by modulating the expression of neuronal type-specific determination factors. cnd-1 appears to have combined the functions of several vertebrate neurogenic bHLH proteins and may represent an ancestral form of this protein family.

  11. Forensic case profiling aspects on multiple homicides from the Cologne-Bonn metropolitan area 1985-2000.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peter H; Padosch, Stephan A; Rothschild, Markus A; Madea, Burkhard

    2005-10-29

    The medicolegal and subsequent criminologic interpretation of forensic and pathological findings in cases of homicide makes up an important tool of case profiling. In a retrospective study of 26 cases of "multiple homicides" involving 31 perpetrators (30 males, 1 female, mean age 33.5 years) and 73 victims (33 males, 40 females, mean age 36 years, 68 fatalities, 5 survivors), autopsy reports and prosecution authorities' files were investigated with regard to individual characteristics of victims and offenders, circumstances as well as mode of commitment. The major aim of this study was to comprehensively elucidate and characterise relevant forensic and criminologic features, which may gain importance for forensic case profiling. Forty-six victims were found in the close social environment of the perpetrator and 45 homicides were committed either in the victim's, the perpetrator's or the shared domicile. The main motives included concealment of a crime (n=13), personal conflicts/domestic arguments (n=7) and greed (n=12). The relevant injuries with regard to the cause of death were attributable to sharp force (n=13), blunt force (n=7), gunshot wounds (n=24), ligature strangulation (n=3), smothering (n=5), fire/carbon monoxide (n=4) and combined impacts (n=11). In 15 cases, so called defence injuries were found. In 5 victims a post-mortem blood alcohol concentration >1.5 g/l was determined. In six perpetrators, a severe psychiatric impairment of juridical responsibility was ascertained (Section 20 German criminal code, n=2, psychosis; Section 21 German criminal code, n=4, acute alcohol intoxication). As far as conviction data were available, 27 crimes were juridically assessed as murder, 12 as manslaughter and one as bodily harm with fatal consequences.

  12. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Benkovics, Anna H.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple. PMID:26589551

  13. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Aman Y; Benkovics, Anna H; Nogueira, Fabio T S; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2015-12-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple.

  14. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Andrew M; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2013-05-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We found that the excitatory effects of this slow EPSP are also mediated by GABA. Together, these two GABAergic actions structure B8 firing in a pattern characteristic of ingestive programs. Furthermore, we found that repeated B40 stimulation induces a persistent increase in B8 excitability that was occluded in the presence of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen, suggesting that GABA affects B8 excitability over multiple time scales. The phasing of B8 activity during the feeding motor programs determines the nature of the behavior elicited during that motor program. The persistent increase in B8 excitability induced by B40 biased the activity of B8 during feeding motor programs causing the motor programs to become more ingestive in nature. Thus, a single transmitter released from a single interneuron can have consequences for motor output that are expressed over multiple time scales. Importantly, despite the differences in their signs and temporal characteristics, the three actions of B40 are coherent in that they promote B8 firing patterns that are characteristic of ingestive motor outputs.

  15. Mutations in Nonconserved Domains of Ty3 Integrase Affect Multiple Stages of the Ty3 Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Nymark-McMahon, M. Henrietta; Sandmeyer, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Ty3, a retroviruslike element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transposes into positions immediately upstream of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes. The Ty3 integrase (IN) protein is required for integration of the replicated, extrachromosomal Ty3 DNA. In retroviral IN, a conserved core region is sufficient for strand transfer activity. In this study, charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to investigate the roles of the nonconserved amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of Ty3 IN. Each of the 20 IN mutants was defective for transposition, but no mutant was grossly defective for capsid maturation. All mutations affecting steady-state levels of mature IN protein resulted in reduced levels of replicated DNA, even when polymerase activity was not grossly defective as measured by exogenous reverse transcriptase activity assay. Thus, IN could contribute to nonpolymerase functions required for DNA production in vivo or to the stability of the DNA product. Several mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in relatively low levels of processed 3′ ends of the replicated DNA, suggesting that this domain may be important for binding of IN to the long terminal repeat. Another class of mutants produced wild-type amounts of DNA with correctly processed 3′ ends. This class could include mutants affected in nuclear entry and target association. Collectively, these mutations demonstrate that in vivo, within the preintegration complex, IN performs a central role in coordinating multiple late stages of the retrotransposition life cycle. PMID:9847351

  16. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-02

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  17. Cinacalcet therapy in patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism associated to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome type 1 (MEN1).

    PubMed

    Giusti, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Gronchi, Giorgio; Cioppi, Federica; Masi, Laura; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria; Ferolla, Piero; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the main endocrinopathy associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome. Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic agent licensed for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease, and for the reduction of marked hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma and sporadic hyperparathyroidism requiring surgery but for whom parathyroidectomy is contraindicated. It may provide a medical alternative for the management of primary hyperparathyroidism in subjects affected by Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1. In this longitudinal, intervention study, 33 MEN1 patients had been enrolled, 10 males and 23 females with a mean age of 40 ± 11.9 years, range 20-63. Primary hyperparathyroidism was the first clinical manifestation in 12 patients. All subjects commenced with Cinacalcet 30 mg/day, 22 patients starting therapy with calcimimetics as an alternative to surgery, and 11 patients opting for the medication after the onset of persistent post-surgical primary hyperparathyroidism. Duration of follow-up was 12 months. The results of this study show significant reductions in serum calcium. The changes in hormonal secretions of pituitary and gastroenteropancreatic glands were not significant, demonstrating the overall safety of this drug in this disease. Cinacalcet has been well tolerated by 28 patients, whereas five individuals complained of heartburn and grade 1 nausea, which did not prevent the completion of the study. In conclusion, Cinacalcet has resulted to be well tolerated and safe in patients with MEN1 syndrome and the calcium homeostasis was stabilized.

  18. Prey dispersal rate affects prey species composition and trait diversity in response to multiple predators in metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2010-09-01

    1. Recent studies indicate that large-scale spatial processes can alter local community structuring mechanisms to determine local and regional assemblages of predators and their prey. In metacommunities, this may occur when the functional diversity represented in the regional predator species pool interacts with the rate of prey dispersal among local communities to affect prey species diversity and trait composition at multiple scales. 2. Here, we test for effects of prey dispersal rate and spatially and temporally heterogeneous predation from functionally dissimilar predators on prey structure in pond mesocosm metacommunities. An experimental metacommunity consisted of three pond mesocosm communities supporting two differentially size-selective invertebrate predators and their zooplankton prey. In each metacommunity, two communities maintained constant predation and supported either Gyrinus sp. (Coleoptera) or Notonecta ungulata (Hemiptera) predators generating a spatial prey refuge while the third community supported alternating predation from Gyrinus sp. and N. ungulata generating a temporal prey refuge. Mesocosm metacommunities were connected at either low (0.7% day(-1)) or high (10% day(-1)) planktonic prey dispersal. The diversity, composition and body size of zooplankton prey were measured at local and regional (metacommunity) scales. 3. Metacommunities experiencing the low prey dispersal rate supported the greatest regional prey species diversity (H') and evenness (J'). Neither dispersal rate nor predation regime affected local prey diversity or evenness. The spatial prey refuge at low dispersal maintained the largest difference in species composition and body size diversity between communities under Gyrinus and Notonecta predation, suggesting that species sorting was operating at the low dispersal rate. There was no effect of dispersal rate on species diversity or body size distribution in the temporal prey refuge. 4. The frequency distribution, but not

  19. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Di Cesare, Erica; De Mattia, Fabiola; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-08-15

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases.

  20. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Cesare, Erica Di; Mattia, Fabiola De; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases. PMID:25153724

  1. A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with multiple sclerosis risk affects the EVI5 interactome

    PubMed Central

    Didonna, Alessandro; Isobe, Noriko; Caillier, Stacy J.; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Alma L.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the characterization of genetic loci associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, the ubiquitous linkage disequilibrium operating across the genome has stalled efforts to distinguish causative variants from proxy single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we have identified through fine mapping and meta-analysis EVI5 as the most plausible disease risk gene within the 1p22.1 locus. We further show that an exonic SNP associated with risk induces changes in superficial hydrophobicity patterns of the coiled-coil domain of EVI5, which, in turns, affects the EVI5 interactome. Immunoprecipitation of wild-type and mutated EVI5 followed by mass spectrometry generated a roster of disease-specific interactors functionally linked to lipid metabolism. Among the exclusive binding partners of the risk variant, we describe the novel interaction with sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1)—a key enzyme for the creation of the sphingosine-1 phosphate gradient, which is relevant to the pathogenic process and therapeutic management of MS. PMID:26433934

  2. A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruehle, Marisa D; Zhang, Haibo; Sheridan, Ryan M; Mitra, Somdeb; Chen, Yuanwei; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cooperman, Barry S; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop. We explored the role of this loop and found that both the length and sequence are essential for translation in different types of IGR IRESs and from diverse viruses. We found that loop 3 affects two discrete elongation factor-dependent steps in the IRES initiation mechanism. Our results show how the IRES directs multiple steps after 80S ribosome placement and highlights the often underappreciated significance of discrete conformationally dynamic elements within the context of structured RNAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08146.001 PMID:26523395

  3. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  4. Herding: a new phenomenon affecting medical decision-making in multiple sclerosis care? Lessons learned from DIScUTIR MS

    PubMed Central

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Maurino, Jorge; Sempere, Angel P; Ruff, Christian C; Tobler, Philippe N

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Herding is a phenomenon by which individuals follow the behavior of others rather than deciding independently on the basis of their own private information. A herding-like phenomenon can occur in multiple sclerosis (MS) when a neurologist follows a therapeutic recommendation by a colleague even though it is not supported by best practice clinical guidelines. Limited information is currently available on the role of herding in medical care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (and its associated factors) of herding in the management of MS. Methods We conducted a study among neurologists with expertise in MS care throughout Spain. Participants answered questions regarding the management of 20 case scenarios commonly encountered in clinical practice and completed 3 surveys and 4 experimental paradigms based on behavioral economics. The herding experiment consisted of a case scenario of a 40-year-old woman who has been stable for 3 years on subcutaneous interferon and developed a self-limited neurological event. There were no new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions. Her neurological examination and disability scores were unchanged. She was advised by an MS neurologist to switch from interferon to fingolimod against best practice guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with herding. Results Out of 161 neurologists who were invited to participate, 96 completed the study (response rate: 60%). Herding was present in 75 (78.1%), having a similar prevalence in MS experts and general neurologists (68.8% vs 82.8%; P=0.12). In multivariate analyses, the number of MS patients seen per week was positively associated with herding (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.14). Conversely, physician’s age, gender, years of practice, setting of practice, or risk preferences were not associated with herding. Conclusion Herding was a common phenomenon affecting nearly 8 out of 10

  5. The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron Type and Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons. To further understand the mechanisms of Dimm function we ectopically expressed Dimm or Dimm together with dInR in a wide range of Dimm positive and Dimm negative peptidergic neurons, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and gut endocrine cells. We provide further evidence that dInR mediated cell growth occurs in a Dimm dependent manner and that one source of insulin-like peptide (DILP) for dInR mediated cell growth in the CNS is DILP6 from glial cells. Expressing both Dimm and dInR in Dimm negative neurons induced growth of cell bodies, whereas dInR alone did not. We also found that Dimm alone can regulate cell growth depending on specific cell type. This may be explained by the finding that the dInR is a direct target of Dimm. Conditional gene targeting experiments showed that Dimm alone could affect cell growth in certain neuron types during metamorphosis or in the adult stage. Another important finding was that ectopic Dimm inhibits apoptosis of several types of neurons normally destined for programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together our results suggest that Dimm plays multiple transcriptional roles at different developmental stages in a cell type-specific manner. In some cell types ectopic Dimm may act together with resident combinatorial code transcription factors and affect terminal differentiation, as well as act in transcriptional networks that participate in long term maintenance

  6. To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Tim M.; Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  7. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  8. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang Sun, Yang

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  9. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  10. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  11. Pathological complete response in a patient affected by multiple synchronous, breast and lung primary malignancies: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nottegar, A; Luchini, C; Cingarlini, S; Beccari, S; Grego, E; Gilioli, E; Manfrin, E; Bonetti, F

    2016-12-01

    A pathological complete response in a patient affected by multiple synchronous, breast and lung primary malignancies is reported. A 63-year-old woman presented with an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and a lung adenocarcinoma. After multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent pulmonary left lower lobectomy followed by radio-chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine and started hormone therapy with letrozole. Ten months later, a left mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. Histologically, a pathological complete response (pCR) was documented. With a review of the Literature, we discuss the issue of multiple primary malignancies, with its diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In cases of multiple synchronous malignancies it has been highlighted the importance of the choice of the best therapeutic approach for both the malignancies, reducing collateral individual effects.

  12. Multiple micronutrient-fortified rice affects physical performance and plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations of Indian school children.

    PubMed

    Thankachan, Prashanth; Rah, Jee Hyun; Thomas, Tinku; Selvam, Sumithra; Amalrajan, Vani; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Steiger, Georg; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-05-01

    Fortifying rice with multiple micronutrients could be a promising strategy for combat micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. We determined the efficacy of extruded rice grains fortified with multiple micronutrients on the prevalence of anemia, micronutrient status, and physical and cognitive performance in 6- to 12-y-old, low-income school children in Bangalore, India. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 258 children were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups to receive rice-based lunch meals fortified with multiple micronutrients with either low-iron (6.25 mg) or high-iron (12.5 mg) concentrations or identical meals with unfortified rice. The meals were provided 6 d/wk for 6 mo. Anthropometric, biochemical, physical performance, and cognitive assessments were taken at baseline and endpoint. At baseline, study groups were comparable, with 61% of the children being anemic. However, only <10% were deficient in iron, vitamin A, and zinc. After 6 mo, plasma vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations (both P < 0.001) as well as physical performance (P < 0.05) significantly improved in the intervention arms. No between-group differences were observed in hemoglobin concentration, anemia, and deficiencies of other micronutrients or cognitive function after 6 mo, but paired analyses revealed a small reduction in anemia prevalence in children in the low-iron group. The fortified rice was efficacious in improving vitamin B-12 status and physical performance in Indian school children.

  13. Gender-specific differences in the process of coping in families with a parent affected by a chronic somatic disease (e.g. multiple sclerosis).

    PubMed

    Steck, B; Amsler, F; Kappos, L; Bürgin, D

    2001-01-01

    Based on the investigation of 52 families and their 87 offspring by means of semistructured interviews, we evaluated the coping abilities of the parent affected by multiple sclerosis (MS), the healthy parent and their children. The results show that the gender of the child significantly influences his or her coping behaviour. Daughters cope better than sons, independently of the gender of the MS-affected parent. Only the daughter's coping is positively affected by age and disease variables. The correlation between the coping behaviour of parents and children is significant between children and their healthy parents and even stronger between children and healthy parents of the same gender. Healthy mothers and daughters cope better with the increasing disability of the father. This is not the case for healthy fathers and sons. Gender seems to be an important moderating factor in chronic parental disease and it has complex effects on the coping capacity of children.

  14. Binding of the wheat germ lectin to Cryptococcus neoformans chitooligomers affects multiple mechanisms required for fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Silva, Fernanda D.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Araujo, Glauber de S.; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2015-01-01

    The principal capsular component of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), interacts with surface glycans, including chitin-like oligomers. Although the role of GXM in cryptococcal infection has been well explored, there is no information on how chitooligomers affect fungal pathogenesis. In this study, surface chitooligomers of C. neoformans were blocked through the use of the wheat germ lectin (WGA) and the effects on animal pathogenesis, interaction with host cells, fungal growth and capsule formation were analyzed. Treatment of C. neoformans cells with WGA followed by infection of mice delayed mortality relative to animals infected with untreated fungal cells. This observation was associated with reduced brain colonization by lectin-treated cryptococci. Blocking chitooligomers also rendered yeast cells less efficient in their ability to associate with phagocytes. WGA did not affect fungal viability, but inhibited GXM release to the extracellular space and capsule formation. In WGA-treated yeast cells, genes that are involved in capsule formation and GXM traffic had their transcription levels decreased in comparison with untreated cells. Our results suggest that cellular pathways required for capsule formation and pathogenic mechanisms are affected by blocking chitin-derived structures at the cell surface of C. neoformans. Targeting chitooligomers with specific ligands may reveal new therapeutic alternatives to control cryptococcosis. PMID:23608320

  15. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-11-08

    Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance.

  16. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-01-01

    Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance. PMID:27564258

  17. Positive and Negative Aspects of the IWB and Tablet Computers in the First Grade of Primary School: A Multiple-Perspective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) and tablet computers use in the first grade of primary school from the perspectives of three groups of evaluators, namely the teachers, the pupils and an independent observer. The sample included three first grade classes with…

  18. Multiple brain parenchymal neurocysticercosis with extraocular muscle cysticercosis affecting levator palpebral superioris and superior rectus complex: an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented to the neurology department with a complaint of insidious onset of left-sided ptosis and restricted elevation of the left eye. A CT scan orbit and brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the levator palpebral superioris (LPS) and superior rectus (SR) muscle complex of the left eye and left parietal and right temporal region. She was started on steroid, followed by albendazole with improvement. The LPS/SR complex is the least common site of involvement among extraocular muscles in ocular cysticercosis. Specially, with brain neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is extremely rare. We report an unusual association of multiple brain NCC with ocular cysticercosis involving LPS and SR muscle. PMID:23355567

  19. Common inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31 affects expression of multiple genes in tissue-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome 17q21.31 contains a common inversion polymorphism of approximately 900 kb in populations with European ancestry. Two divergent MAPT haplotypes, H1 and H2 are described with distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns across the region reflecting the inversion status at this locus. The MAPT H1 haplotype has been associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, while the H2 is linked to recurrent deletion events associated with the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, a disease characterized by developmental delay and learning disability. Results In this study, we investigate the effect of the inversion on the expression of genes in the 17q21.31 region. We find the expression of several genes in and at the borders of the inversion to be affected; specific either to whole blood or different regions of the human brain. The H1 haplotype was found to be associated with an increased expression of LRRC37A4, PLEKH1M and MAPT. In contrast, a decreased expression of MGC57346, LRRC37A and CRHR1 was associated with H1. Conclusions Studies thus far have focused on the expression of MAPT in the inversion region. However, our results show that the inversion status affects expression of other genes in the 17q21.31 region as well. Given the link between the inversion status and different neurological diseases, these genes may also be involved in disease pathology, possibly in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:22950410

  20. Identification of multiple cellular uptake pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting the uptake: relevance for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles may address challenges by human diseases through improving diagnosis, vaccination and treatment. The uptake mechanism regulates the type of threat a particle poses on the host cells and how a cell responds to it. Hence, understanding the uptake mechanisms and cellular interactions of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular level is a prerequisite for their effective biomedical applications. The present study shows the uptake mechanisms of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting their uptake in bone marrow-derived macrophages, 293T kidney epithelial cells and L929 fibroblasts. Labeling with the endocytic marker FM4-64 and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the nanoparticles were internalized rapidly via endocytosis and accumulated in intracellular vesicles. Soon after their internalizations, nanoparticles trafficked to organelles with acidic pH. Analysis of the ultrastructural morphology of the plasma membrane invaginations or extravasations provides clear evidence for the involvement of several uptake routes in parallel to internalize a given type of nanoparticles by mammalian cells, highlighting the complexity of the nanoparticle-cell interactions. Blocking the specific endocytic pathways by different pharmacological inhibitors shows similar outcomes. The potential to take up nanoparticles varies highly among different cell types in a particle sizes-, time- and energy-dependent manner. Furthermore, infection and the activation status of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly affect the uptake potential of the cells, indicating the need to understand the diseases' pathogenesis to establish effective and rational drug-delivery systems. This study enhances our understanding of the application of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences.

  1. Target enhancement and distractor inhibition affect transitory surround suppression in dual tasks using multiple rapid serial visual presentation streams.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Greenwood, Pamela; Fu, Shimin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the interaction between temporal and spatial dimensions on selective attention using dual tasks in the multiple rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. A phenomenon that the surround suppression in space changes over time (termed transitory surround suppression, TSS, in the present study) has been observed, suggesting the existence of this time-space interaction. However, it is still unclear whether target enhancement or distractor inhibition modulates TSS. Four behavioural experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of TSS by manipulating the temporal lag and spatial distance factors between two targets embedded in six RSVP streams. The TSS effect was replicated in a study that eliminated confounds of perceptual effects and attentional switch (Experiment 1). However, the TSS disappeared when two targets shared the same colour in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2a) and a within-subject design (Experiment 2b), suggesting the impact of target enhancement on TSS. Moreover, the TSS was larger for within-category than for between-category distractors (Experiment 3), indicating the impact of distractor inhibition on TSS. These two influences on TSS under different processing demands of target and distractor processing were further confirmed in a skeletal design (Experiment 4). Overall, combinative effects of target enhancement and distractor suppression contribute to the mechanisms of time-space interaction in selective attention during visual search.

  2. Statistical evaluation of biogeochemical variables affecting spatiotemporal distributions of multiple free metal ion concentrations in an urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Lewis, Christopher G; Burgess, Robert M; Coull, Brent; Shine, James P

    2016-05-01

    Free metal ion concentrations have been recognized as a better indicator of metal bioavailability in aquatic environments than total dissolved metal concentrations. However, our understanding of the determinants of free ion concentrations, especially in a metal mixture, is limited, due to underexplored techniques for measuring multiple free metal ions simultaneously. In this work, we performed statistical analyses on a large dataset containing repeated measurements of free ion concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd, the most commonly measured metals in seawater, at five inshore locations in Boston Harbor, previously collected using an in-situ equilibrium-based multi-metal free ion sampler, the 'Gellyfish'. We examined correlations among these five metals by season, and evaluated effects of 10 biogeochemical variables on free ion concentrations over time and location through multivariate regressions. We also explored potential clustering among the five metals through a principal component analysis. We found significant correlations among metals, with varying patterns over season. Our regression results suggest that instead of dissolved metals, pH, salinity, temperature and rainfall were the most significant determinants of free metal ion concentrations. For example, a one-unit decrease in pH was associated with a 2.2 (Cd) to 99 (Cu) times increase in free ion concentrations. This work is among the first to reveal key contributors to spatiotemporal variations in free ion concentrations, and demonstrated the usefulness of the Gellyfish sampler in routine sampling of free ions within metal mixtures and in generating data for statistical analyses.

  3. Quantitative proteome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli exposed to tetracycline reveals multiple affected metabolic and peptidoglycan processes.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Moura, Inês Barata; Manageiro, Vera; Igrejas, Gilberto; Caniça, Manuela; Matthiesen, Rune

    2017-03-06

    Tetracyclines are among the most commonly used antibiotics administrated to farm animals for disease treatment and prevention, contributing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Although tetracycline mechanisms of resistance are well known, the role of metabolism in bacterial reaction to antibiotic stress is still an important assignment and could contribute to the understanding of tetracycline related stress response. In this study, spectral counts-based label free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study the response to tetracycline of the environmental-borne Escherichia coli EcAmb278 isolate soluble proteome. A total of 1484 proteins were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry at a false discovery rate threshold of 1%, of which 108 were uniquely identified under absence of tetracycline whereas 126 were uniquely identified in presence of tetracycline. These proteins revealed interesting difference in e.g. proteins involved in peptidoglycan-based cell wall proteins and energy metabolism. Upon treatment, 12 proteins were differentially regulated showing more than 2-fold change and p<0.05 (p value corrected for multiple testing). This integrated study using high resolution mass spectrometry based label-free quantitative proteomics to study tetracycline antibiotic response in the soluble proteome of resistant E. coli provides novel insight into tetracycline related stress.

  4. Cr(Vi) reduction capacity of activated sludge as affected by nitrogen and carbon sources, microbial acclimation and cell multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ferro Orozco, A M; Contreras, E M; Zaritzky, N E

    2010-04-15

    The objectives of the present work were: (i) to analyze the capacity of activated sludge to reduce hexavalent chromium using different carbon sources as electron donors in batch reactors, (ii) to determine the relationship between biomass growth and the amount of Cr(VI) reduced considering the effect of the nitrogen to carbon source ratio, and (iii) to determine the effect of the Cr(VI) acclimation stage on the performance of the biological chromium reduction assessing the stability of the Cr(VI) reduction capacity of the activated sludge. The highest specific Cr(VI) removal rate (q(Cr)) was attained with cheese whey or lactose as electron donors decreasing in the following order: cheese whey approximately lactose>glucose>citrate>acetate. Batch assays with different nitrogen to carbon source ratio demonstrated that biological Cr(VI) reduction is associated to the cell multiplication phase; as a result, maximum Cr(VI) removal rates occur when there is no substrate limitation. The biomass can be acclimated to the presence of Cr(VI) and generate new cells that maintain the ability to reduce chromate. Therefore, the activated sludge process could be applied to a continuous Cr(VI) removal process.

  5. SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE.

  6. Vitamin D Status Does Not Affect Disability Progression of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis over Three Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Joost; Rolf, Linda; Klinkenberg, Lieke J. J.; van der Linden, Noreen; Meex, Steven; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as MS disease activity is associated with vitamin D (25(OH)D) status. The relationship between the main functional disability hallmark of MS, disability progression, and 25(OH)D status is less well established though, especially not in MS patients with progressive disease. Methods This retrospective follow-up study included 554 MS patients with a serum baseline 25(OH)D level and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) with a minimum follow-up of three years. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the effect of baseline 25(OH)D status on relapse rate. Repeated measures linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effect on disability and disability progression. Results Baseline deseasonalized 25(OH)D status was associated with subsequent relapse risk (yes/no), but only in the younger MS patients (≤ 37.5 years; OR = 0.872, per 10 nmol/L 25(OH)D, p = 0.041). Baseline 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with either disability or disability progression, irrespective of MS phenotype. Conclusion Within the physiological range, 25(OH)D status is just significantly associated with the occurrence of relapses in younger MS patients, but is not associated with disability or disability progression over three years follow-up. Whether high dose supplementation to supra physiological 25(OH)D levels prevents disability progression in MS should become clear from long term follow-up of supplementation studies. PMID:27276080

  7. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-10-23

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNA(Gln) and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca(2+) and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC.

  8. Separate serotonin and dopamine receptors modulate the duration of post-tetanic potentiation at an Aplysia synapse without affecting other aspects of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Newlin, S A; Schlapfer, W T; Barondes, S H

    1980-01-06

    We have studied the effect of the biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine, on post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) at an identified synapse in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. We found that: (1) 10(-7) M perfused serotonin doubles the rate constant of decay of PTP. The effect is specific in that neither the size of the non-potentiated (isolated) EPSP nor the amplitude of PTP is affected. As reported previously, higher doses of serotonin will also increase the amplitude of PTP and decrease the size of the isolated EPSP; (2) 5 X 10(-7) M dopamine in the perfusate increases the rate constant of decay of PTP by about 50%. The effect is also specific in that neither PTP amplitude nor the size of the isolated EPSP is affected; (3) SQ10,631, a serotonin antagonist, blocks the effect of perfused serotonin on PTP decay rate. It does not antagonize the dopamine effect. SQ10,631 also slows the endogenous decay of PTP in some preparations which exhibit an unusually fast PTP decay rate, suggesting a naturally occurring source of serotonin within the ganglion capable of affecting the rate constant of PTP decay; (4) (+)-butaclamol, a dopamine antagonist, blocks the effect of dopamine on the rate constant of PTP decay, whereas (-)-butaclamol has little effect. Butaclamol does not block the effect of serotonin on the rate constant of PTP decay; (5) phosphodiesterase inhibitors potentiate the effect of serotonin on the rate constant of PTP decay, and cyclic AMP analogues mimic the effect of the biogenic amines, suggesting that the aminergic modulation of the rate of decay of PTP is coupled with activation of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of cyclic AMP; and (6) the evidence presented is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin and dopamine are capable of specifically modifying the rate of change in the efficacy of transmitter release which underlies PTP. It also suggests that the two biogenic amines operate separately and in parallel via presynaptic receptor

  9. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  10. Multiple Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Amygdala Regulate Affective Behaviors and Response to Social Stress.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Yann S; Fote, Gianna M; Blakeman, Sam; Cahuzac, Emma L M; Newbold, Sylvia A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-05-01

    Electrophysiological and neurochemical studies implicate cholinergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in behaviors related to stress. Both animal studies and human clinical trials suggest that drugs that alter nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity can affect behaviors related to mood and anxiety. Clinical studies also suggest that abnormalities in cholinergic signaling are associated with major depressive disorder, whereas pre-clinical studies have implicated both β2 subunit-containing (β2*) and α7 nAChRs in the effects of nicotine in models of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We therefore investigated whether nAChR signaling in the amygdala contributes to stress-mediated behaviors in mice. Local infusion of the non-competitive non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine or viral-mediated downregulation of the β2 or α7 nAChR subunit in the amygdala all induced robust anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in several mouse behavioral models. Further, whereas α7 nAChR subunit knockdown was somewhat more effective at decreasing anxiety-like behavior, only β2 subunit knockdown decreased resilience to social defeat stress and c-fos immunoreactivity in the BLA. In contrast, α7, but not β2, subunit knockdown effectively reversed the effect of increased ACh signaling in a mouse model of depression. These results suggest that signaling through β2* nAChRs is essential for baseline excitability of the BLA, and a decrease in signaling through β2 nAChRs alters anxiety- and depression-like behaviors even in unstressed animals. In contrast, stimulation of α7 nAChRs by acetylcholine may mediate the increased depression-like behaviors observed during the hypercholinergic state observed in depressed individuals.

  11. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  12. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  13. Student assessment of teaching as a source of information about aspects of teaching quality in multiple subject domains: an application of multilevel bifactor structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Ronny; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Research on educational effectiveness most often uses student assessments of classroom instruction for measuring aspects of teaching quality. Given that crucial inferences on the success of education are based on these assessments, it is essential to ensure that they provide valid indicators. In this study, we illustrate the application of an innovative application of a multilevel bifactor structural equation model (ML-BFSEM) to examine the validity of student assessments. Analyzing a large-scale data set of 12,077 fourth-grade students in three countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden), we find that (i) three aspects of teaching quality and subject domain factors can be established; (ii) metric and scalar invariance could be established for the ML-BFSEM approach across countries; and (iii) significant relations between students' assessments of how easy the teacher is to understand and achievement in all subjects exist. In support of substantive research, we demonstrate a methodological approach for representing the complex nature of student assessments of teaching quality. We finally encourage substantive and methodological researchers to advance the ML-BFSEM.

  14. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STC-1,p53, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (p-MEKK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), IkB kinase (p-IKK), nuclear factor (NF) κB, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and caspase-3 changed significantly in kidney cells isolated from a RIRI model when compared to those isolated from a sham control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, STC-1 overexpression or silence caused significant changes of the levels of these ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and

  15. Ras/cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Regulates Multiple Aspects of Cellular Events by Phosphorylating the Whi3 Cell Cycle Regulator in Budding Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Mizunuma, Masaki; Tsubakiyama, Ryohei; Ogawa, Takafumi; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Kobayashi, Yoshifumi; Inai, Tomomi; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The Start/G1 phase in the cell cycle is an important period during which cells determine their developmental fate, onset of mitotic progression, or the switch to developmental stages in response to both external and internal signals. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Whi3, a negative regulator of the G1 cyclins, has been identified as a positive regulator of cell size control and is involved in the regulation of Start. However, the regulatory pathway of Whi3 governing the response to multiple signals remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Whi3 is phosphorylated by the Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and that phosphorylation of Ser-568 in Whi3 by PKA plays an inhibitory role in Whi3 function. Phosphorylation of Whi3 by PKA led to its decreased interaction with CLN3 G1 cyclin mRNA and was required for the promotion of G1/S progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phosphomimetic S568D mutation of Whi3 prevented the developmental fate switch to sporulation or invasive growth. Thus, PKA modulated the function of Whi3 by phosphorylation, thus implicating PKA-mediated modulation of Whi3 in multiple cellular events. PMID:23471970

  16. Time-resolved stereo PIV measurements of the horseshoe vortex system at multiple locations in a low-aspect-ratio pin-fin array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Corey D.; Lynch, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Pin-fin arrays are a type of cooling feature found in heat exchangers, with elements (generally cylindrical or square) that span between two endwalls. Flow around the pin-fins generates highly turbulent mixing that increases convective heat transfer from the pins to the cooling flow. At the junction of a pin-fin and the endwall, a complex flow known as the horseshoe vortex (HSV) system is present. Although the HSV is a well-studied phenomenon, its behavior is not understood in the highly turbulent flow of a pin-fin array. Furthermore, the presence of close confining endwalls for low-aspect-ratio (short) pin-fins may have an impact on HSV dynamics. The present study utilized time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry to examine the fluid dynamics of the HSV system in rows 1, 3, and 5 of a low-aspect-ratio pin-fin array, for a range of Reynolds numbers. In the first row, instantaneous flowfields indicated a clearly defined HSV at the leading edge, with dynamics similar to previous studies of bluff-body junction flows. The time-averaged HSV system moved closer to the pin with increasing Reynolds number, with more concentrated vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). For downstream rows, there was a significant increase in the amount of mid-channel vorticity, with levels on the same order as the value in the core of the HSV. The time-averaged HSV system in downstream rows showed minimal variation with respect to either Reynolds number or row location. Regions of maximum streamwise and wall-normal turbulent fluctuations around the HSV were a result of its quasiperiodic oscillation between so-called backflow and zero-flow modes, which were present even in downstream rows despite the extremely high mid-channel turbulence. In the downstream rows, normalized TKE across the entire field of view decreased with increased Reynolds number, likely due to dissipation rates proportionally outpacing increases in mean channel velocity and Reynolds number. The flowfield

  17. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse…

  18. Technology-aided leisure and communication opportunities for two post-coma persons emerged from a minimally conscious state and affected by multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; O'Reilly, Mark F; Singh, Nirbhay N; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine leisure engagement and procedure requests with text messaging within the same sessions. The program for leisure engagement and procedure requests relied on the use of a portable computer with commercial software, and a microswitch for the participants' response. The program for text messaging communication involved the use of a portable computer, a GSM modem, a microswitch for the participants' response, and specifically developed software. Results indicated that the participants were successful at each of the three stages of the study, thus providing relevant evidence concerning performance achievements only minimally documented. The implications of the findings in terms of technology and practical opportunities for post-coma persons with multiple disabilities are discussed.

  19. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease affects the tyrosine kinase activity associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, M P; Panariello, L; Quadro, L; Dathan, N A; Fattoruso, O; Colantuoni, V

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Hirschsprung (HSCR) mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene abolishes in cis the tyrosine-phosphorylation associated with the activating mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) in transiently transfected Cos cells. Yet the double mutant RET2AHS retains the ability to form stable dimers, thus dissociating the dimerization from the phosphorylation potential. Co-transfection experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids RET2A and RET2AHS in different ratios drastically reduced the phosphorylation levels of the RET2A protein, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of the HSCR mutation. Also, the phosphorylation associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) allele was affected in experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids co-transfected under the same conditions. Finally, analysis of the enzymic activity of MEN2A and MEN2B tumours confirmed the relative levels of tyrosine phosphorylation observed in Cos cells, indicating that this condition, in vivo, may account for the RET transforming potential. PMID:8670046

  20. Significant Low Prevalence of Antibodies Reacting with Simian Virus 40 Mimotopes in Serum Samples from Patients Affected by Inflammatory Neurologic Diseases, Including Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Masini, Irene; Rotondo, John Charles; Gentile, Mauro; Fainardi, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Granieri, Enrico; Caniati, Maria Luisa; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Guerra, Giovanni; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Many investigations were carried out on the association between viruses and multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, early studies reported the detections of neurotropic virus footprints in the CNS of patients with MS. In this study, sera from patients affected by MS, other inflammatory (OIND) and non-inflammatory neurologic diseases (NIND) were analyzed for antibodies against the polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with two synthetic peptides, which mimic SV40 antigens, was employed to detect specific antibodies in sera from patients affected by MS, OIND, NIND and healthy subjects (HS). Immunologic data indicate that in sera from MS patients antibodies against SV40 mimotopes are detectable with a low prevalence, 6%, whereas in HS of the same mean age, 40 yrs, the prevalence was 22%. The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.001). Significant is also the difference between MS vs. NIND patients (6% vs. 17%; P = 0.0254), whereas no significant difference was detected between MS vs OIND (6% vs 10%; P>0.05). The prevalence of SV40 antibodies in MS patients is 70% lower than that revealed in HS. PMID:25365364

  1. Effectiveness of knowledge translation tools addressing multiple high-burden chronic diseases affecting older adults: protocol for a systematic review alongside a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Monika; Perrier, Laure; Hamid, Jemila; Tricco, Andrea C; Cardoso, Roberta; Ivers, Noah M; Liu, Barbara; Marr, Sharon; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Wong, Geoff; Graves, Lisa; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The burden of chronic disease is a global phenomenon, particularly among people aged 65 years and older. More than half of older adults have more than one chronic disease and their care is not optimal. Chronic disease management (CDM) tools have the potential to meet this challenge but they are primarily focused on a single disease, which fails to address the growing number of seniors with multiple chronic conditions. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic review alongside a realist review to identify effective CDM tools that integrate one or more high-burden chronic diseases affecting older adults and to better understand for whom, under what circumstances, how and why they produce their outcomes. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine and the Cochrane Library for experimental, quasi-experimental, observational and qualitative studies in any language investigating CDM tools that facilitate optimal disease management in one or more high-burden chronic diseases affecting adults aged ≥65 years. Study selection will involve calibration of reviewers to ensure reliability of screening and duplicate assessment of articles. Data abstraction and risk of bias assessment will also be performed independently. Analysis will include descriptive summaries of study and appraisal characteristics, effectiveness of each CDM tool (meta-analysis if appropriate); and a realist programme theory will be developed and refined to explain the outcome patterns within the included studies. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for this study. We anticipate that our findings, pertaining to gaps in care across high-burden chronic diseases affecting seniors and highlighting specific areas that may require more research, will be of interest to a wide range of knowledge users and stakeholders. We will publish and present our findings widely, and also plan more active dissemination strategies such as workshops with our key stakeholders

  2. Evc works in chondrocytes and osteoblasts to regulate multiple aspects of growth plate development in the appendicular skeleton and cranial base.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, María; Valencia, María; Caparrós-Martín, José A; Mulero, Francisca; Goodship, Judith A; Ruiz-Perez, Victor L

    2012-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome protein homolog (Evc) was previously shown to mediate expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) downstream targets in chondrocytes. Consequently disruption of the Ihh/Pthrp axis was demonstrated in Evc(-/-) mice, but the full extent of Evc involvement in endochondral development was not totally characterized. Herein we have examined further the Evc(-/-) growth plate in a homogeneous genetic background and show that Evc promotes chondrocyte proliferation, chondrocyte hypertrophy and the differentiation of osteoblasts in the perichondrium, hence implicating Evc in both Pthrp-dependent and Pthrp-independent Ihh functions. We also demonstrate that Evc, which localizes to osteoblast primary cilia, mediates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the osteoblast lineage. In spite of this, bone collar development is mildly affected in Evc(-/-) mutants. The onset of perichondrial osteoblastogenesis is delayed at the initial stages of endochondral ossification in Evc(-/-) mice, and in later stages, the leading edge of expression of osteoblast markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling components is located closer to the primary spongiosa in the Evc(-/-) perichondrium owing to impaired osteoblast differentiation. Additionally we have used Ptch1-LacZ reporter mice to learn about the different types of Hh-responsive cells that are present in the perichondrium of normal and Evc(-/-) mice. Evc mediates Hh target gene expression in inner perichondrial cells, but it is dispensable in the external layers of the perichondrium. Finally, we report cranial base defects in Evc(-/-) mice and reveal that Evc is essential for intrasphenoidal synchondrosis development.

  3. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  4. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

  5. Tight junctional abnormality in multiple sclerosis white matter affects all calibres of vessel and is associated with blood-brain barrier leakage and active demyelination.

    PubMed

    Kirk, John; Plumb, Jonnie; Mirakhur, Meenakshi; McQuaid, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with lesion pathogenesis and has been linked to pathology in microvascular tight junctions (TJs). This study quantifies the uneven distribution of TJ pathology and its association with BBB leakage. Frozen sections from plaque and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in 14 cases were studied together with white matter from six neurological and five normal controls. Using single and double immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the TJ-associated protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was examined across lesion types and tissue categories, and in relation to fibrinogen leakage. Confocal image data sets were analysed for 2198 MS and 1062 control vessels. Significant differences in the incidence of TJ abnormalities were detected between the different lesion types in MS and between MS and control white matter. These were frequent in oil-red O (ORO)(+) active plaques, affecting 42% of vessel segments, but less frequent in ORO(-) inactive plaques (23%), NAWM (13%), and normal (3.7%) and neurological controls (8%). A similar pattern was found irrespective of the vessel size, supporting a causal role for diffusible inflammatory mediators. In both NAWM and inactive lesions, dual labelling showed that vessels with the most TJ abnormality also showed most fibrinogen leakage. This was even more pronounced in active lesions, where 41% of vessels in the highest grade for TJ alteration showed severe leakage. It is concluded that disruption of TJs in MS, affecting both paracellular and transcellular paths, contributes to BBB leakage. TJ abnormality and BBB leakage in inactive lesions suggests either failure of TJ repair or a continuing pathological process. In NAWM, it suggests either pre-lesional change or secondary damage. Clinically inapparent TJ pathology has prognostic implications and should be considered when planning disease-modifying therapy.

  6. Neurologic aspects of multiple organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Saša A

    2014-01-01

    Complex multiorgan failure may require simultaneous transplantation of several organs, including heart-lung, kidney-pancreas, or multivisceral transplantation. Solid organ transplantation can also be combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to modulate immunologic response to a solid organ allograft. Combined multiorgan transplantation may offer a lower rate of allograft rejection and lower immunosuppression needs. In recent years, intestinal and multivisceral transplantations became viable as a rescue treatment for patients with irreversible intestinal failure who can no longer tolerate total parenteral nutrition with 70% survival after 5 years which is comparable to other types of solid organ allografts. Post-transplant neurologic complications were reported in up to 86% of allograft recipients and greatly overlap in intestinal and multivisceral allograft recipients, without a significant effect on the outcome of transplantation. Other common organ combinations in multiorgan transplantation include kidney-pancreas, which is mostly used for patients with renal failure and uncontrolled diabetes, and heart-lung for patients with congenital heart disease and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Kidney-pancreas transplantation frequently results in an improvement of diabetic complications, including diabetic neuropathy. Heart-lung allograft recipients have very similar clinical course and spectrum of neurologic complications to lung transplant recipients. At this time there are no reports of an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease with combined transplantation of solid organ allograft and hematopoietic stem cells. Chronic immunosuppression and complex toxic-metabolic disturbances after multiorgan transplantation create a permissive environment for development of a wide spectrum of neurologic complications which largely resemble complications after transplantations of individual components of complex multiorgan allografts.

  7. An Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a multifaceted agitation and mixing experiment. The relatively inexpensive apparatus includes a variable-speed stirrer motor, two polycarbonate tanks, and an instrumented torque table. Students measure torque as a function of stirrer speed, and use conductive tracer data to estimate two parameters of a flow model. The effect…

  8. Comparative Aspects of Multiple Processes of Attention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    attention to the target location. Accuracy in discrimination of the target as a function of the time between precue and target was measured . In three of...typical measure used. Stimuli that pop out are generally found quickly in a search test, and independently of the number of noise items that are in the...discrimination of line arrangement are demonstrated in Figure 6. For each duration for each observer, a difference measure was computed by subtracting the

  9. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  10. Multiple Requests in Arabic as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carsten; Al-Gahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Research in second language pragmatics is increasingly investigating the sequential organization of interaction and how it might be affected by second language learners' developing proficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on a specific aspect of request organization, namely multiple requests. Through data from natural interaction and role…

  11. Mangiferin Reduces the Inhibition of Chondrogenic Differentiation by IL-1β in Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Subchondral Bone and Targets Multiple Aspects of the Smad and SOX9 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Koh, Pil-Seong; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Park, Yeon-Chul; Baek, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Dong-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural immunomodulator found in plants including mango trees. The effects of mangiferin on chondrogenesis and cartilage repair have not yet been reported. This study was designed to determine the effect of mangiferin on chondrogenic differentiation in IL-1β-stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from subchondral bone and to explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. MSCs were isolated from the subchondral bone of rabbit and treated with mangiferin alone and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Mangiferin induced chondrogenic differentiation in MSCs by upregulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and BMP-4 and several key markers of chondrogenesis, including sex-determining region Y–box (SRY-box) containing gene 9 (SOX9), type 2α1 collagen (Col2α1), cartilage link protein, and aggrecan. In IL-1β-stimulated MSCs, mangiferin significantly reversed the production of TGF-β, BMP-2, BMP-4, SOX9, Col2α1, cartilage link protein, and aggrecan, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS5). Mangiferin upregulated the phosphorylation of Smad 2, Smad 3, Smad 1/5/8, and SOX9 in IL-1β-stimulated MSCs. In the presence of mangiferin, SOX9 siRNA suppressed the activation of Smad 2, Smad 3, Smad 1/5/8, aggrecan, and Col2α1 expression. In conclusion, mangiferin exhibits both chondrogenic and chondroprotective effects on damaged MSCs and mediates these effects by targeting multiple aspects of the Smad and SOX9 signaling pathways. PMID:25216336

  12. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis.

  13. The Effects of the Layoff Process on K-12 Teachers: How Do Multiple Years of Layoff Notices Affect Teacher Attitude, Persistence, and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Cara Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the effects of multiple years of layoff notices on first- or second-year, K-12 teachers employed in a Northern California, suburban school district in 2008-2009. During years of budget crisis in California, teachers new to the profession experienced ongoing employment uncertainty. This study endeavored to understand…

  14. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  15. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  16. X chromosome exome sequencing reveals a novel ALG13 mutation in a nonsyndromic intellectual disability family with multiple affected male siblings.

    PubMed

    Bissar-Tadmouri, Nesrine; Donahue, Whithey L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Nelson, Stanley F; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Kantarci, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a heterogeneous condition associated with mutations in >100 genes, accounting for over 10% of all cases of intellectual impairment. The majority of XLID cases show nonsyndromic forms (NSXLID), in which intellectual disability is the sole clinically consistent manifestation. Here we performed X chromosome exome (X-exome) sequencing to identify the causative mutation in an NSXLID family with four affected male siblings and five unaffected female siblings. The X-exome sequencing at 88× coverage in one affected male sibling revealed a novel missense mutation (p.Tyr1074Cys) in the asparagine-linked glycosylation 13 homolog (ALG13) gene. Segregation analysis by Sanger sequencing showed that the all affected siblings were hemizygous and the mother was heterozygous for the mutation. Recently, a de novo missense mutation in ALG13 has been reported in a patient with X-linked congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. Our study reports the first case of NSXLID caused by a mutation in ALG13 involved in protein N-glycosylation.

  17. A functional variant that affects exon-skipping and protein expression of SP140 as genetic mechanism predisposing to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Matesanz, Fuencisla; Potenciano, Victor; Fedetz, Maria; Ramos-Mozo, Priscila; Abad-Grau, María del Mar; Karaky, Mohamad; Barrionuevo, Cristina; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; García-Sánchez, María Isabel; Lucas, Miguel; Fernández, Óscar; Leyva, Laura; Otaegui, David; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Olascoaga, Javier; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Alloza, Iraide; Astobiza, Ianire; Antigüedad, Alfredo; Villar, Luisa María; Álvarez-Cermeño, José Carlos; Malhotra, Sunny; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Saiz, Albert; Blanco, Yolanda; Arroyo, Rafael; Varadé, Jezabel; Urcelay, Elena; Alcina, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Several variants in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) at the SP140 locus have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), Crohn's disease (CD) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To determine the causal polymorphism, we have integrated high-density data sets of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), using GEUVADIS RNA sequences and 1000 Genomes genotypes, with MS-risk variants of the high-density Immunochip array performed by the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetic Consortium (IMSGC). The variants most associated with MS were also correlated with a decreased expression of the full-length RNA isoform of SP140 and an increase of an isoform lacking exon 7. By exon splicing assay, we have demonstrated that the rs28445040 variant was the causal factor for skipping of exon 7. Western blots of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS patients showed a significant allele-dependent reduction of the SP140 protein expression. To confirm the association of this functional variant with MS and to compare it with the best-associated variant previously reported by GWAS (rs10201872), a case-control study including 4384 MS patients and 3197 controls was performed. Both variants, in strong LD (r(2) = 0.93), were found similarly associated with MS [P-values, odds ratios: 1.9E-9, OR = 1.35 (1.22-1.49) and 4.9E-10, OR = 1.37 (1.24-1.51), respectively]. In conclusion, our data uncover the causal variant for the SP140 locus and the molecular mechanism associated with MS risk. In addition, this study and others previously reported strongly suggest that this functional variant may be shared with other immune-mediated diseases as CD and CLL.

  18. Correlation of mRNA expression and protein abundance affected by multiple sequence features related to translational efficiency in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: A quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-12-01

    The modest correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance in large scale datasets is explained in part by experimental challenges, such as technological limitations, and in part by fundamental biological factors in the transcription and translation processes. Among various factors affecting the mRNA-protein correlation, the roles of biological factors related to translation are poorly understood. In this study, using experimental mRNA expression and protein abundance data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris by DNA microarray and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, we quantitatively examined the effects of several translational-efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Three classes of sequence features were investigated according to different translational stages: (1) initiation: Shine-Dalgarno sequences, start codon identity and start codon context; (2) elongation: codon usage and amino acid usage; and (3) termination: stop codon identity and stop codon context. Surprisingly, although it is widely accepted that translation initiation is a rate-limiting step for translation, our results showed that the mRNA-protein correlation was affected the most by the features at elongation stages, codon usage and amino acid composition (7.4-12.6% and 5.3-9.3% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation, respectively), followed by stop codon context and the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (2.5-4.2% and 2.3%, respectively). Taken together, all sequence features contributed to 18.4-21.8% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation. As the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the mRNA-protein correlation in bacterial D. vulgaris, our results suggest that the traditional view of the relative importance of various sequence features in prokaryotic protein translation might be questionable.

  19. Inactivation of CK1α in multiple myeloma empowers drug cytotoxicity by affecting AKT and β-catenin survival signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Manni, Sabrina; Carrino, Marilena; Manzoni, Martina; Gianesin, Ketty; Nunes, Sara Canovas; Costacurta, Matteo; Tubi, Laura Quotti; Macaccaro, Paolo; Taiana, Elisa; Cabrelle, Anna; Barilà, Gregorio; Martines, Annalisa; Zambello, Renato; Bonaldi, Laura; Trentin, Livio; Neri, Antonino; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Piazza, Francesco

    2017-01-14

    Recent evidence indicates that protein kinase CK1α may support the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cells. Here, by analyzing a large cohort of MM cases, we found that high CK1α mRNA levels are virtually associated with all MM patients. Moreover, we provided functional evidence that CK1α activity is essential for malignant plasma cell survival even in the protective niche generated by co-cultures with bone marrow stromal cells. We demonstrated that CK1α inactivation, while toxic for myeloma cells, is dispensable for the survival of healthy B lymphocytes and stromal cells. Disruption of CK1α function in myeloma cells resulted in decreased Mdm2, increased p53 and p21 and reduced expression of β-catenin and AKT. These effects were mediated partially by p53 and caspase activity. Finally, we discovered that CK1α inactivation enhanced the cytotoxic effect of both bortezomib and lenalidomide. Overall, our study supports a role for CK1α as a potential therapeutic target in MM in combination with proteasome inhibitors and/or immunomodulatory drugs.

  20. An allelic series of mice reveals a role for RERE in the development of multiple organs affected in chromosome 1p36 deletions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jun; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Yu, Zhiyin; Hernández-García, Andrés; Seymour, Michelle L; Oghalai, John S; Pereira, Fred A; Stockton, David W; Justice, Monica J; Lee, Brendan; Scott, Daryl A

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions of chromosome 1p36 have a spectrum of defects that includes eye anomalies, postnatal growth deficiency, structural brain anomalies, seizures, cognitive impairment, delayed motor development, behavior problems, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. The proximal 1p36 genes that contribute to these defects have not been clearly delineated. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats gene (RERE) is located in this region and encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development as a positive regulator of retinoic acid signaling. Rere-null mice die of cardiac failure between E9.5 and E11.5. This limits their usefulness in studying the role of RERE in the latter stages of development and into adulthood. To overcome this limitation, we created an allelic series of RERE-deficient mice using an Rere-null allele, om, and a novel hypomorphic Rere allele, eyes3 (c.578T>C, p.Val193Ala), which we identified in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-based screen for autosomal recessive phenotypes. Analyses of these mice revealed microphthalmia, postnatal growth deficiency, brain hypoplasia, decreased numbers of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)-positive hippocampal neurons, hearing loss, cardiovascular malformations-aortic arch anomalies, double outlet right ventricle, and transposition of the great arteries, and perimembranous ventricular septal defects-spontaneous development of cardiac fibrosis and renal agenesis. These findings suggest that RERE plays a critical role in the development and function of multiple organs including the eye, brain, inner ear, heart and kidney. It follows that haploinsufficiency of RERE may contribute-alone or in conjunction with other genetic, environmental, or stochastic factors-to the development of many of the phenotypes seen in individuals with terminal and interstitial deletions that include the proximal region of

  1. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Denman, Antony R; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G M; Phillips, Paul S; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    To test whether an association exists between radon gas concentration in the home and increased multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence, a retrospective study was undertaken of MS incidence in known areas of raised domestic radon concentration in England and Wales, using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) clinical research database. The study population comprised 20,140,498 person-years of clinical monitoring (males: 10,056,628: 49.93%; females: 10,083,870: 50.07%), representing a mean annual population of 2.5 million individuals. To allow for the possible latency of MS initiation following exposure, data extraction was limited to patients with at least five years registration history with the same GP practice before first diagnosis. Patient records were allocated to one of nine radon concentration bands depending on the average radon level in their postcode sector. MS incidence was analysed by searching for patients with first MS diagnosis over the eight calendar years 2005-2012 inclusive. 1512 new MS cases were diagnosed, 1070 females, 442 males, equivalent to raw incidence rates of 7.51, 10.61 and 4.40 per 10(5) person-years respectively, comparable to previously reported results. Of these new cases, 115 could be allocated to one of the radon bands representing high radon areas. Standardising to the UK 2010 population, excess relative risk (ERR) figures for MS were calculated for each radon band. Linear regression of ERR against mean band radon concentration shows a positive gradient of 0.22 per 100 Bq·m(-3) (R(2) = 0.25, p = 0.0961) when forced through the origin to represent a linear-no-threshold response. The null hypothesis falls inside the 95% confidence interval for the linear fit and therefore this fit is not statistically significant. We conclude that, despite THIN sampling around 5% of the population, insufficient data was available to confirm or refute the hypothesised association between MS incidence and radon concentration.

  2. Impact of multiple anthropogenic stressors on freshwater: how do glyphosate and the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei affect microbial communities and water quality?

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Haydée; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Sinistro, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Marina; Rodríguez, Patricia; Vinocur, Alicia; Cataldo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study of the joint effect of multiple anthropogenic stressors is important because the emerging consequences are often unpredictable on the basis of knowledge of single effects. We explored the joint impact of glyphosate and the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei on freshwater phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and periphyton, and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We manipulated both stressors simultaneously in a 25-day experiment using outdoor mesocosms; we assayed technical-grade glyphosate acid at four concentrations: 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg gly L(−1) under scenarios with and without mussels. The addition of the glyphosate significantly increased total phosphorus according to the concentration used; the high clearance rate of L. fortunei significantly decreased phytoplanktonic abundance leading to low values of turbidity. The mussel significantly stimulated the development of filamentous green algae (metaphyton). Interestingly, the combined effect revealed that L. fortunei accelerated the dissipation of glyphosate, which showed a 4-fold decrease in its half-life; this promoted the rapid bioavailability of glyphosate-derived phosphorus in the water. The interaction had a synergistic effect on soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations and was directly dependent on the concentration of glyphosate. A synergistic effect was also observed on bacterioplankton, water turbidity and metaphyton, thus inducing enhanced and rapid eutrophication. The ability of mussels to reduce glyphosate in water may be valued as positive, but our results allow us to predict that the invasion of Limnoperna fortunei in natural freshwater systems contaminated by glyphosate will accelerate the negative impact of the herbicide associated with eutrophication.

  3. Clarifying the Relation Between Extraversion and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Luke D; DeYoung, Colin G; Hall, Phillip J

    2015-10-01

    This article clarifies two sources of ambiguity surrounding the relation between extraversion and positive affect. First, positive affect is defined differently across major models of the structure of affect. Second, no previous research has examined potentially diverging associations of lower-order aspects of extraversion (i.e., assertiveness and enthusiasm) with positive affect. Australian (Study 1: N = 437, 78% female, Mage  = 20.41) and American (Study 2: N = 262, 39% female, Mage  = 33.86) participants completed multiple measures of extraversion and positive affect. Correlations were employed to examine relations among these measures. In both studies, extraversion was most clearly associated with positive affect as conceptualized within a major factor model of affect-specifically, as positive activation (Watson & Tellegen, 1985)-rather than the valence-based conceptualization of positive affect provided by a circumplex model of affect (Russell, 1980). This was also the case for the assertiveness and enthusiasm aspects of extraversion. Our findings clarify the nature of the positive affective component of extraversion, which is best described in terms of both positive valence and high activation.

  4. Analysis of Multiple Families With Single Individuals Affected by Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B) Reveals Only One Novel Maternally Inherited GNAS Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Takatani, Rieko; Molinaro, Angelo; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Tafaj, Olta; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Reyes, Monica; Sharma, Amita; Singhal, Vibha; Raymond, F Lucy; Linglart, Agnès; Jüppner, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are preeminent abnormalities in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B), but resistance toward other hormones as well as variable features of Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) can occur also. Genomic DNA from PHP1B patients shows epigenetic changes at one or multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, the gene encoding Gαs and splice variants thereof. In the autosomal dominant disease variant, these methylation abnormalities are caused by deletions in STX16 or GNAS on the maternal allele. The molecular defect(s) leading to sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) remains in most cases unknown and we therefore analyzed 60 sporPHP1B patients and available family members by microsatellite markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and methylation-specific MLPA (MS-MLPA). All investigated cases revealed broad GNAS methylation changes, but no evidence for inheritance of two paternal chromosome 20q alleles. Some patients with partial epigenetic modifications in DNA from peripheral blood cells showed more complete GNAS methylation changes when testing their immortalized lymphoblastoid cells. Analysis of siblings and children of sporPHP1B patients provided no evidence for an abnormal mineral ion regulation and no changes in GNAS methylation. Only one patient revealed, based on MLPA and microsatellite analyses, evidence for an allelic loss, which resulted in the discovery of two adjacent, maternally inherited deletions (37,597 and 1427 bp, respectively) that remove the area between GNAS antisense exons 3 and 5, including exon NESP. Our findings thus emphasize that the region comprising antisense exons 3 and 4 is required for establishing all maternal GNAS methylation imprints. The genetic defect(s) leading in sporPHP1B to epigenetic GNAS changes and thus PTH-resistance remains unknown, but

  5. CHARGE syndrome: a review of the immunological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Monica TY; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H; Lambeck, Annechien JA; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny MA

    2015-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is caused by a dominant variant in the CHD7 gene. Multiple organ systems can be affected because of haploinsufficiency of CHD7 during embryonic development. CHARGE syndrome shares many clinical features with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Immunological abnormalities have been described, but are generally given little attention in studies on CHARGE syndrome. However, structured information on immunological abnormalities in CHARGE patients is necessary to develop optimal guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up in these patients. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on immunological abnormalities in CHARGE syndrome. We also explore immunological abnormalities in comparable multiple congenital anomaly syndromes to identify common immunological phenotypes and genetic pathways that might regulate the immune system. Finally, we aim to identify gaps in our knowledge on the immunological aspects in CHARGE syndrome that need further study. PMID:25689927

  6. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS.

  7. Affects of Multiple Deployments on Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-11

    are faced with during lengthy deployments. “Certainly, the nature of the deployment and the role of the service member in the military action can...and sadness. Preschoolers may display regressive behavior, irritation, sadness, and aggressiveness and may have somatic complaints. School-age...may also be hesitant to be affectionate with the returned parent. Preschoolers may feel scared or angry. School-age children may crave attention from

  8. Modulation of brain steroidogenesis by affecting transcriptional changes of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc) in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a novel aspect of nonylphenol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Arukwe, Augustine

    2005-12-15

    Gene expression patterns for key brain steroidogenic (StAR, P450scc, CYP11beta) and xenobiotic- and steroid-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1 and CYP3A) have been investigated in waterborne nonylphenol (5, 15, and 50 microg/ L) treated juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), in addition to carrier vehicle (ethanol) exposed fish, sampled at different time intervals (0, 3, and 7 days) after exposure. Gene expression patterns were studied using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). Treatment of juvenile salmon with nonylphenol caused significant induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein mRNA at day 7 postexposure in the group receiving 15 microg of nonylphenol/L. P450scc was first induced in the group treated with 5 microg of nonylphenol/L at day 7; thereafter, an apparent nonylphenol-concentration-dependent decrease in P450scc mRNA was observed. CYP11beta mRNA was significantly induced at day 3 after exposure to 5 betag of nonylphenol/L; thereafter, CYP11beta mRNA levels were inhibited below control levels in the 15 and 50 microg of nonylphenol/L groups at day 3. At day 7, significant induction of CYP11beta mRNA was observed only in the group exposed to 15 microg of nonylphenol/L. For CYP1A1 mRNA, apparent nonylphenol-concentration-dependent decreases were observed at day 7 postexposure. CYP3A mRNA was significantly induced by all nonylphenol exposure concentrations at day 7. When exposed groups were compared, CYP3A transcript was significantly induced between 5 and 15 microg of nonylphenol/ L, and decreased between 15 and 50 microg of nonylphenol/ L. The ethanol control showed a significant reduction of CYP3A mRNA at day 3 postexposure. The present study has demonstrated variations in three key steroidogenic proteins and xenobiotic- and steroid-metabolizing CYP isoenzyme gene transcripts in the brain of nonylphenol-exposed juvenile salmon. Therefore, the present study represents a novel aspect of neuroendocrine effects of

  9. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  10. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  11. Cognitive Psychophysiological Substrates of Affective Temperaments.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Sakallı Kani, Ayşe; Aksoy Poyraz, Cana; Öcek Baş, Tuba; Arıkan, Mehmet Kemal

    2017-03-01

    Affective temperaments are the subclinical manifestations or phenotypes of mood states and hypothetically represent one healthy end of the mood disorder spectrum. However, there is a scarcity of studies investigating the neurobiological basis of affective temperaments. One fundamental aspect of temperament is the behavioral reactivity to environmental stimuli, which can be effectively evaluated by use of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting the diversity of information processing. The aim of the present study is to explore the associations between P300 and the affective temperamental traits in healthy individuals. We recorded the P300 ERP waves using an auditory oddball paradigm in 50 medical student volunteers (23 females, 27 males). Participants' affective temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-auto questionnaire version (TEMPS-A). In bivariate analyses, depressive temperament score was significantly correlated with P300 latency ( rs = 0.37, P < .01). In a multiple linear regression analysis, P300 latency showed a significant positive correlation with scores of depressive temperament (β = 0.40, P < .01) and a significant negative one with scores of cyclothymic temperament (β = -0.29, P = .03). Affective temperament scores were not associated with P300 amplitude and reaction times. These results indicate that affective temperaments are related to information processing in the brain. Depressive temperament may be characterized by decreased physiological arousal and slower information processing, while the opposite was observed for cyclothymic temperament.

  12. Assessment of affect integration: validation of the affect consciousness construct.

    PubMed

    Solbakken, Ole André; Hansen, Roger Sandvik; Havik, Odd E; Monsen, Jon T

    2011-05-01

    Affect integration, or the capacity to utilize the motivational and signal properties of affect for personal adjustment, is assumed to be an important aspect of psychological health and functioning. Affect integration has been operationalized through the affect consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine discrete affects. A semistructured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs) have been developed to specifically assess these aspects of affect integration. This study explored the construct validity of AC in a Norwegian clinical sample including estimates of reliability and assessment of structure by factor analyses. External validity issues were addressed by examining the relationships between scores on the ACSs and self-rated symptom- and interpersonal problem measures as well as independent, observer-based ratings of personality disorder criteria and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994).

  13. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  14. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  15. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  16. The effect of a REM sleep deprivation procedure on different aspects of memory function in humans.

    PubMed

    Saxvig, Ingvild West; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Grønli, Janne; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Portas, Chiara Maria

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that memory is dependent on the occurrence of REM sleep. Research has mainly focused on two distinct types of memory function, declarative and procedural, and it seems that the latter may more directly depend on REM sleep. Memory consolidation has been more investigated than acquisition, maintenance, and recall, despite the fact that sleep may affect flow of information into/from storage. Moreover, tests have often been limited to stimuli within only one modality (usually visual or verbal). This study aimed to clarify the role of REM sleep in memory by investigating aspects of memory function, processing, and modality in the same experimental setting. Tests of acquisition and consolidation of multiple aspects of memory function within the visual and verbal modalities were administrated to subjects before and after REM sleep deprivation. Results show that test performance was not affected by REM sleep deprivation.

  17. Dynamic musical communication of core affect.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Nicole K; Large, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified "scene" that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience.

  18. Dynamic musical communication of core affect

    PubMed Central

    Flaig, Nicole K.; Large, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified “scene” that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

  19. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huayan; Lü, Shiyou; Li, Ruixi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Liu, Pei; Wang, Guangchao; Xia, Yiji; Running, Mark P; Xiong, Liming

    2015-11-01

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  20. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  1. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  2. Affective Aspects of Language Learning: Beliefs, Attitudes, Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Purdie, Nola; Rochecouste, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this study is the relationship between language attitude, beliefs, efficacy, English language competence, and language achievement. Two hundred and eighty-five students from five metropolitan primary schools in Western Australia completed a specially designed questionnaire based on the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (Gardner,…

  3. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  4. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Arifeen, Shams; Frongillo, Edward A; Persson, Lars Åke

    2015-07-01

    Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of age. In Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomised into six equally sized groups: double-masked supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or MMS (15 micronutrients), was combined with a randomised early invitation (around 9 weeks) or a usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to start food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week). At 54 months, the body composition of the offspring was assessed by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 3267 live singletons with birth anthropometry, 2290 children were measured at 54 months, representing 70% of the live births. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on body composition outcomes. There were no significant differences in a range of anthropometric and body composition measurements, including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass and fat-free mass between the different prenatal food and micronutrient groups using an intention-to-treat analysis. This analysis shows that early invitation to food supplementation and MMS provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age.

  5. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  6. Multiple osteochondromas

    PubMed Central

    Bovée, Judith VMG

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15–18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5–5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection

  7. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  8. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  9. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  10. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  11. What Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge Do Textbooks Give Attention to?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary researchers have established that multiple aspects of word knowledge need to be mastered in order for a learner to truly know a word. Teachers, however, seem to follow the commonsense view that equates learning words with learning meanings, and to mostly ignore other aspects of word knowledge. This study seeks to discover whether the…

  12. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  13. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective ...

  14. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  15. Ethical aspects on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Luis A; Galindo, Gilberto Cely

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss several of the most relevant subjects related to ethics on Rare Diseases. Some general aspects are discussed such as the socio-psychological problems that confront the patients and their families that finally lead to marginalization and exclusion of patients affected by these diseases from the health programs, even in wealthy countries. Then we address problems related to diagnosis and some ethical aspects of newborn screening, prenatal, pre-implantation diagnosis and reference centers, as well as some conditions that should be met by the persons and institutions performing such tasks. Alternatives of solutions for the most critical situations are proposed. Subsequently the orphan drugs subject is discussed not only from the availability point of view, prizes, industrial practices, and purchasing power in developed and developing societies. The research related to rare disease in children and other especially vulnerable conditions, the need for informed consent, review boards or ethics comities, confidentiality of the information, biobanks and pharmacogenetics are discussed.

  16. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  17. Multiple pterygium syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Penchaszadeh, V B; Salszberg, B

    1981-01-01

    The multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterised by arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, pterygia of the neck, fingers, and antecubital, popliteal, and intercrural areas, growth retardation, and facial, vertebral, and genital anomalies. We present two unrelated patients of 17 and 6 years of age, respectively, affected with this condition. We describe the natural history of their disorder since birth and review the spectrum of phenotypic variation of the multiple pterygium syndrome in 25 published cases. Images PMID:7334504

  18. Drosophila Brahma complex remodels nucleosome organizations in multiple aspects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiejun; Zheng, Meizhu; Ye, Youqiong; Li, Min; Chen, Xiaolong; Hu, Xinjie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Xiaobai; Jiang, Cizhong

    2014-09-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes regulate nucleosome organizations. In Drosophila, gene Brm encodes the core Brahma complex, the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF class of chromatin remodelers. Its role in modulating the nucleosome landscape in vivo is unclear. In this study, we knocked down Brm in Drosophila third instar larvae to explore the changes in nucleosome profiles and global gene transcription. The results show that Brm knockdown leads to nucleosome occupancy changes throughout the entire genome with a bias in occupancy decrease. In contrast, the knockdown has limited impacts on nucleosome position shift. The knockdown also alters another important physical property of nucleosome positioning, fuzziness. Nucleosome position shift, gain or loss and fuzziness changes are all enriched in promoter regions. Nucleosome arrays around the 5' ends of genes are reorganized in five patterns as a result of Brm knockdown. Intriguingly, the concomitant changes in the genes adjacent to the Brahma-dependent remodeling regions have important roles in development and morphogenesis. Further analyses reveal abundance of AT-rich motifs for transcription factors in the remodeling regions.

  19. Bias Awareness and Multiple Perspectives: Essential Aspects of Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prutzman, Priscilla; Johnson, Judith

    1997-01-01

    Examines bias awareness, offering examples from a program in New York City that helps children learn creative skills of nonviolent conflict resolution through cooperation, communication, affirmation, problem solving, mediation, and bias awareness. The paper offers considerations for educators interested in integrating conflict resolution and bias…

  20. Prediction of Multiple Aspects to the Community College Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Clifford E.; And Others

    This research attempted to extend educational prediction for community college students by including nontraditional (nonintellective) predictors and criteria. Predictors included the Washington Pre-College (WPC) Battery, the Comparative Guidance Placement (CGP) Battery, and high school grade point averages (GPA). Criteria included students'…

  1. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  2. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  3. Qualitative Aspects of Bone Marrow Adiposity in Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Ana María; Miranda, Melissa; Figueroa, Carolina; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The function of marrow adipocytes and their origin has not been defined although considerable research has centered on their presence in certain conditions, such as osteoporosis. Less work has focused on the qualitative aspects of marrow fat. Bone marrow serum is composed of multiple nutrients that almost certainly relate to functional aspects of the niche. Previous studies using non-invasive techniques have shown that osteoporotic individuals have more marrow fat and that the ratio of saturated: unsaturated fatty acid is high. We recently reported that bone marrow sera from osteoporotic patients with fracture showed a switch toward decreased content of total saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids, compared to patients without fracture highlighting a dynamic relationship between the composition of fatty acids in the bone microenvironment and the metabolic requirements of cells. The relative distribution of fatty acids differed considerably from that in the serum providing further evidence that energy utilization is high and that marrow adipocytes may contribute to this pool. Whether these lipids can affect osteoblast function in a positive or negative manner is still not certain but will require further investigation. PMID:27826285

  4. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  5. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  6. Juvenile onset spondyloarthropathies: therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Vargas, R

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile onset spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a term that refers to a group of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 associated inflammatory disorders affecting children under the age of 16 years, producing a continuum of clinical symptoms through adulthood. This disease is characterised by enthesopathy and arthropathy affecting the joints of the lower extremities and seronegativity for IgM rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Children usually present with undifferentiated SpA and progress to differentiated forms over time. Except for the prevalence of some clinical features at onset, the pathogenic and clinical aspects of juvenile onset SpAs resemble those of the adult disease. Thus application of the same or similar therapeutic measures for both juvenile and adult onset SpAs seems logical. Current treatments for juvenile onset SpA provide symptomatic improvement, but do not alter disease progression. The increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in synovial tissue of patients with adult and juvenile onset SpA and its correlation with infiltration of inflammatory mediators into the synovia suggest a significant pathogenic role of this cytokine. Clinical trials of anti-TNFα antibody (infliximab) therapy in patients with adult onset SpA have demonstrated significant clinical improvement in inflammatory pain, function, disease activity, and quality of life in correlation with histological and immunohistochemical evidence of modulation of synovial inflammatory processes. These promising findings suggest that anti-TNFα therapy may confer similar benefits in patients with juvenile onset SpA. PMID:12381509

  7. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  8. Depression and immunity: inflammation and depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R

    2009-05-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that patients who have major depressive disorder show alterations in immunologic markers including increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and inflammation. Inflammation of the central nervous system is a pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients affected by this disease also show a high incidence of depression. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that some aspects of depression and fatigue in MS may be linked to inflammatory markers. This article reviews the current knowledge in the field and illustrates how the sickness behavior model may be applied to investigate depressive symptoms in inflammatory neurologic diseases.

  9. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  10. Veterinary aspects of salmonid fish farming: husbandry diseases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C J; Poupard, C W

    1975-07-19

    Most disease problems affecting farmed salmonid fish are either caused or exacerbated by bad husbandry and poor environmental conditions. The aspects of water quality and nutrition which are significant in causing husbandry problems are considered. The clinical aspects of these diseases are decribed in terms of the life cycle of salmonids, and methods of prevention are discussed.

  11. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  12. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  13. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  14. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  15. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  16. [The physiotherapic aspect of omeral epicondilitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Marenghi, P; Tella, G C

    1976-01-01

    The Authors describe history, etiopatogenesis, clinic, therapy of omeral epicondilitis, very frequent affection. Physiotherapic aspects are studied by different methods. The indications are different compared to clinical aspect, pain modality, relapse eventuality. They conclude with personal considerations based on what observed in Orthopedic Clinica of Parma University.

  17. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science.

  18. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  19. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Peller, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a review of multiple myeloma, precursor states, and related plasma cell disorders. The clinical roles of fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) and the potential to improve the management of patients with multiple myeloma are discussed. The clinical and research data supporting the utility of PET/CT use in evaluating myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias continues to grow.

  20. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  1. Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prasinos, S

    1992-03-01

    This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity.

  2. Historical aspects of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background of my experiences, clinical and scientific. These lead me to question the assumption that “anxiety”, as it exists in syndromal disturbances, is simply the quantitative extreme of the normal “anxiety” that occurs during the anticipation of danger. An alternative view that emphasizes dysfunctions of distinct evolved adaptive alarm systems is presented. PMID:22033777

  3. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  4. [Interfamilial violence, medicolegal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2010-09-01

    Domestic or interfamilial violence--which is certainly not confined to disadvantaged social or cultural classes--is a process in which one partner carries against his spouse within the framework of private and privileged relationship (marriage, cohabitation, etc.), aggressive, violent and destructive behavior. All sectors of society are affected, whether urban or rural, and regardless of education or ethnic origin or religion. Such violence particularly affects women, but there are also violence perpetrated against men. This violence can take many forms, but we will only consider here the forensic clinical aspects, emphasizing the relevant legislation and medical ethics.

  5. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  6. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current aspect.

    PubMed

    Tamay, A G; Kuşçu, N K

    2011-11-01

    An advanced state of nausea and vomiting, which are common symptoms of early pregnancy, is known as hyperemesis gravidarum and may result in dehydration, ketonuria, catabolism and require hospitalisation. Aetiological factors include increased hCG and steroids, multiple pregnancy and vitamin deficiency. Differential diagnosis of nausea and vomiting should be made and supportive treatment as well as antiemetic therapy is recommended. This review discusses aetiology and management modalities of hyperemesis gravidarum including fluid therapy, antiemetics, vitamins, psychological support and non-pharmacological measures.

  7. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  8. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Padroni, Marina; Bernardoni, Andrea; Tamborino, Carmine; Roversi, Gloria; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Borgatti, Luca; Marcello, Onofrio; d’Esterre, Christopher; Ceruti, Stefano; Casetta, Ilaria; Lee, Ting-Yim; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The capability of CT perfusion (CTP) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients is still questioned. Methods 62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after onset were recorded. Results Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001). CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS≤2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001). CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02) only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome. Conclusions Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size. PMID:26824672

  9. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  10. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  11. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents. It's important for caretakers to spend time speaking directly to each child, as well as reading to them and encouraging language. Social skills can come earlier for multiples, simply because they' ...

  12. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  13. Immunological aspects of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Kevin J

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in several countries. The underlying process is atherosclerosis, a slowly progressing chronic disorder that can lead to intravascular thrombosis. There is overwhelming evidence for the underlying importance of our immune system in atherosclerosis. Monocytes, which comprise part of the innate immune system, can be recruited to inflamed endothelium and this recruitment has been shown to be proportional to the extent of atherosclerotic disease. Monocytes undergo migration into the vasculature, they differentiate into macrophage phenotypes, which are highly phagocytic and can scavenge modified lipids, leading to foam cell formation and development of the lipid-rich atheroma core. This increased influx leads to a highly inflammatory environment and along with other immune cells can increase the risk in the development of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. The present review provides an overview and description of the immunological aspect of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in atherosclerosis, by defining their interaction with the vascular environment, modified lipids and other cellular exchanges. There is a particular focus on monocytes and macrophages, but shorter descriptions of dendritic cells, lymphocyte populations, neutrophils, mast cells and platelets are also included.

  14. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  15. Aspects of cosmological relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.

    1999-07-01

    The author reviews cosmological relativity, a new special theory of relativity that was recently developed for cosmology, and discusses in detail some of its aspects. He recalls that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space and time in ordinary special relativity. The Hubble law is assumed and is written in an invariant way that enables one to derive a four-dimensional transformation which is similar to the Lorentz transformation. The parameter in the new transformation is the ratio between the cosmic time to the Hubble time. Accordingly, the new transformation relates physical quantities at different cosmic times in the limit of weak or negligible gravitation. The transformation is then applied to the problem of the expansion of the universe at the very early stage when gravity was negligible and thus the transformation is applicable. New applications of the theory are presented. The author shows that there is no need to assume the existence of galaxy dark matter; the Tully-Fisher law is derived from the theory. A completely new picture of the expanding universe is thus obtained and compared to the FRW one.

  16. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  17. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  18. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  19. Multiple personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Piper, A

    1994-05-01

    Five aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder (MPD) were examined. The following five conclusions were made: the contemporary diagnostic criteria are vague and overinclusive; the recent alleged increase in prevalence of the disorder is almost certainly artefactual; legal proceedings involving MPD patients raise disturbing questions about personal responsibility; there is little literature support for the theory that MPD results from childhood trauma; and many of the techniques used to diagnose and treat the condition reinforce its symptoms. A careful revision of diagnostic criteria for the disorder is recommended.

  20. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Allan

    1980-01-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes consist of three distinct disease entities. They have in common adenomatous, carcinomatous or hyperplastic involvement of a variety of endocrine glands, and an autosomal dominant inheritance. MEN I includes hyperparathyroidism, islet cell and pituitary tumors. The components of MEN IIa are hyperparathyroidism, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. MEN IIb includes multiple neuromas, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. Effective tests are available for the early detection of components of the syndromes in potentially affected patients. Screening can lead to therapeutic intervention before clinical sequelae ensue. PMID:6247851

  1. Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, L G

    1998-01-01

    Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not-so-rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure. This chapter attempts to provide details, discuss and situate in context the following blocks of pertinent information: (1) prolactin acts upon the central nervous system and variations in its concentrations do affect mood, emotions and behavior; (2) most actions of prolactin are directed to metabolical and behavioral adaptation to pregnancy and the care of the young; (3) even in the absence of pregnancy prolactin secretion responds to environmental stimuli under specific conditions. Whether adaptive, as in the case of surrogate maternity, or pathological, as in the case of pseudopregnancy, prolactin responds to a perceived need to take care of a child; (4) the facts that the clinical onset of prolactinomas often follows life-events and that these tumors occur preferentially in women brought up under specific conditions suggest the possibility that psychological factors may predispose to prolactinomas; (5) dealing with individual cases requires the perception that the relations between prolactin, emotions and feelings are circular, i.e., prolactin affects the brain and mood but, on the other hand, personality traits and environmental factors may stimulate the secretion of prolactin and may play a role in the genesis of the disease.

  2. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  3. Sociological aspects of permanent manned occupancy of space.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1981-01-01

    The author examines human experiences with isolation and confined groups to determine the sociological aspects of social isolation in space. Precedent experiences include Antarctic stations, oceanographic research vessels, submarines, undersea laboratories, and space simulators. The Soviet experience with multiple-person crews on the Salyut 6 space station is explored. Sociological aspects of isolation and confinement aboard a space station include physiological stress, social and psychological stress, group size and composition, group organization, architectural programming, privacy, and work/rest scheduling.

  4. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures.

  5. The relationship between psoriasis and depression: A multiple mediation model.

    PubMed

    Łakuta, Patryk; Marcinkiewicz, Kamil; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between psoriasis and depression, proposing a multiple mediation model to analyse the relationship. A total of 193 patients with psoriasis aged 20-67 years completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Stigmatization Scale, the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised, and the Body Emotions Scale. The Body Surface Area index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. Serial multiple mediation analysis revealed that experiences of stigmatization, maladaptive beliefs about appearance and its salience to one's self-evaluation, and negative emotional attitudes towards the body, jointly, sequentially mediated the relationship between the presence of skin lesions of psoriasis and depressive symptoms. These results highlight the importance of the associations between stigmatization and cognitive and affective aspects of body image in relation to depression in patients with psoriasis. We suggest that prevention and intervention programs for psoriasis patients that target body image enhancement would be worthy of further research.

  6. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs.

  7. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  8. [Nosocomial infection: clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Frottier, J

    1993-05-01

    Nosocomial infections develop within a hospital or are produced by microorganisms acquired during hospitalization. They may involve not only patients (2 to 10 percent) but also hospital personnel. They arise from complex interactions of multiple causal factors. Patients risk factors are these that reduce the patient's capacity for resisting the injurious effects of the microorganisms and impair natural host defense mechanisms: patients with malignant disorders or immunosuppressive therapy, poor nutritional status, extensive burn wounds ... The young and the elderly are generally more susceptible to infection. Other infections are preventable. Disease causation is often multifactorial. Nosocomial urinary tract infections had the highest rate, followed by lower respiratory tract infections, surgical infections and bacteremias. The emergence of other nosocomial infections, caused by bacteria (tuberculosis), virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus...), Aspergillus species or Pneumocystis carinii appears to be recent in origin and is of importance to immunocompromised hosts, other patients and hospital personnel. Nosocomial infections and their social and economic impacts require for their prevention vigorous organized hospital-wide surveillance and control programs.

  9. Cognitive aspects of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive impairments are a central feature of schizophrenia and are present in most, if not all, cases. There are multiple domains of impairment seen and the level of severity of impairment is considerable. Impairments can be detected prior to the onset of clinical symptoms and the course of impairments involves some subtle early worsening followed by stability in most cases. Cognitive impairments are associated with functional disability, particularly in domains of vocational functioning and independence of residence. Both pharmacological and cognitive remediation interventions have been employed for the treatment of these impairments, with greater progress to date being made in cognitive remediation interventions. While much is known about cognitive impairments, treatment efforts are still in an early stage of development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:599-608. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1253 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Dr. Harvey has received consulting fees from Abbott Labs, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Genentech, Johnson and Johnson, Pharma Neuroboost, Roche Parma, Sunovion Pharma, and Takeda Pharma during the past year. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  10. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  11. How can proteomics elucidate the complexity of multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Farias, Alessandro S; Santos, Leonilda M B

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. Although multiple sclerosis was described almost 150 years ago, there are many knowledge gaps regarding its etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and pathogenesis. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. During the last several decades, experimental models of multiple sclerosis have contributed to our understanding of the inflammatory disease mechanisms and have aided drug testing and development. However, little is known about the neurodegenerative mechanisms that operate during the evolution of the disease. Currently, all therapeutic approaches are primarily based on the inflammatory aspect of the disease. During the last decade, proteomics has emerged as a promising tool for revealing molecular pathways as well as identifying and quantifying differentially expressed proteins. Therefore, proteomics may be used for the discovery of biomarkers, potential drug targets, and new regulatory mechanisms. To date, a considerable number of proteomics studies have been conducted on samples from experimental models and patients with multiple sclerosis. These data form a solid base for further careful analysis and validation.

  12. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, causing blurred or double vision, or red-green color distortion. However, symptoms can also affect different ... The tests will look for changes in eye movements, muscle coordination, weakness, balance, sensation, speech, and reflexes. ...

  13. [Arteriosclerosis--selected aspects].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the current knowledge concerning the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and therapeutic objectives. Atherosclerosis is one of the most common medical problems. It affects adults as well as children. It leads to clinically overt cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the cause of premature deaths. During its course, the formation of atherosclerotic plaque takes place, along with local inflammations artery walls. Gradually growing plaque does not cause clinical symptoms until the stenosis does not exceed 70-80% of the coronary vessel diameter, causing a marked reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. The prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications requires an individual assessment of cardiovascular risk. In people without CVD symptoms, it is recommended to use SCORE risk card for Polish population, assessing the 10-year risk of cardiac death. A key element in combating atherosclerosis is to eliminate its risk factors by both implementing pro-health policies, as well as working with individual patients. An important objective is the proper control of blood pressure. It should not exceed 140/90 mmHg. A very important role is played by correct approach to patients with moderate or unusual cardiovascular risk. Despite knowing many facts about the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and its treatment, many issues still remain to be clarified. Finding methods to influence ongoing immune processes within arteries is of particular interest, which will soon make way to new therapeutic possibilities.

  14. Obesity: epigenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.

  15. Investigating the Effect of Gaze Cues and Emotional Expressions on the Affective Evaluations of Unfamiliar Faces

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Yoshihisa; Howe, Piers D. L.

    2016-01-01

    People look at what they are interested in, and their emotional expressions tend to indicate how they feel about the objects at which they look. The combination of gaze direction and emotional expression can therefore convey important information about people’s evaluations of the objects in their environment, and can even influence the subsequent evaluations of those objects by a third party, a phenomenon known as the emotional gaze effect. The present study extended research into the effect of emotional gaze cues by investigating whether they affect evaluations of the most important aspect of our social environment–other people–and whether the presence of multiple gaze cues enhances this effect. Over four experiments, a factorial within-subjects design employing both null hypothesis significance testing and a Bayesian statistical analysis replicated previous work showing an emotional gaze effect for objects, but found strong evidence that emotional gaze cues do not affect evaluations of other people, and that multiple, simultaneously presented gaze cues do not enhance the emotional gaze effect for either the evaluations of objects or of people. Overall, our results suggest that emotional gaze cues have a relatively weak influence on affective evaluations, especially of those aspects of our environment that automatically elicit affectively valenced reactions, including other humans. PMID:27682017

  16. [Molecular aspects of anthrax pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Noskov, A N

    2014-01-01

    A model of anthrax infection with the role determined for main pathogenicity factors of Bacillus anthracis exotoxin and capsule is presented. After spore phagocytosis by macrophages, synthesis of the main exotoxin component begins - a protective antigen that in oligomeric form disrupts phagosome membrane. This accelerates the transition of the pathogen from phagosome into the macrophage cytoplasm. Poly-D-glutamine capsule synthesized by the pathogen triggers the exit (exocytosis) of vegetative cells from macrophages and protects them from re-phagocytosis in lymphatic node lumen. The vegetative cells, that actively and freely replicate in lymphatic node, secret an exotoxin that disrupts endothelial septum between lymph and blood due to cytotoxic activity. As a result the vegetative cells get into blood and bacteremia develops. Pathogenetic pattern during anthrax (multiple hemorrhages in various organs etc.) is associated with local microcirculation disorders of various organs caused by the effect of bacterial exoproteases via activation of Willebrand factor. This results in a rapid local increase of microbial mass and consequent powerful cytotoxic effect of exotoxin on the tissue cells of the affected organ. Death of the infected organism takes place at the final stage of infec- tion due to toxic shock caused by the exotoxin. A reduction of body temperature takes place after death and the process of spore formation begins in the dead animal: capsule depolymerization, chain shortening, peptidoglycan cortex formation. Spores in this form are the prolonged source of infectious agent conservation and spread of infection in nature.

  17. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  18. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  19. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  20. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  1. Using Alternative Multiplication Algorithms to "Offload" Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jazby, Dan; Pearn, Cath

    2015-01-01

    When viewed through a lens of embedded cognition, algorithms may enable aspects of the cognitive work of multi-digit multiplication to be "offloaded" to the environmental structure created by an algorithm. This study analyses four multiplication algorithms by viewing different algorithms as enabling cognitive work to be distributed…

  2. Clinical aspects of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrell, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Communication among physicians is an essential in order to combine our experiences for the elucidation and application of new knowledge and for the accurate and uniform application of established medical practice. This communication requires an adequate understanding of the culture of the patient and the social context of disease and indeed the culture of the physician. Malnutrition in Bangladesh means caloric insufficiency, and a program to lower cholesterol would be impertinent, while a program to enhance the nutrition of patients in Texas by an international effort to import more grain would be ludicrous. In the same vein a public health effort to combat alcoholic cirrhosis in Mecca would be as silly as a program to increase fiber in the diet of the Bantu. Clinical communication must acknowledge the culture of the issue at hand and the differences in the experiential base of the physicians. Not only do geography and culture affect the potential differences in the experiential bases, but the world utilizes very different traditions of education and science in training physicians. We are influenced by the diseases we treat, and learn to look for the expected at least as much as we are attentive to the unexpected. A physician in Siberia would be much more likely to recognize frostbite than one from Buenos Aires, and the Argentine doctor would much more likely consider Chaga's Disease to explain abdominal pain than a colleague in Zurich. Beyond these obvious issues in communication among physicians we must deal with the many languages and idioms used in the world. An overview of using Telemedicine SpaceBridge after the earthquake in the Republic of Armenia in 1988 is presented.

  3. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  4. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  5. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  6. Quality of life in multiple sclerosis in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, N; Confavreux, C; Haas, J; Konig, N; Roullet, E; Sailer, M; Swash, M; Young, C; J-L, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with multiple sclerosis in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom with a cross sectional study.
METHODS—Patients were classified into three severity groups according to the expanded disability severity scale (EDSS); stage I, II, and III, corresponding to mild (EDSS 1.0-3.5), moderate (EDSS 4.0-6.0), or severe (EDSS 6.5-8.0) multiple sclerosis respectively. Ninety patients with multiple sclerosis and 30 control patients without multiple sclerosis were recruited in each country. Control patients were matched to the patients with multiple sclerosis according to age and sex. Quality of life was assessed using the functional status questionnaire (FSQ).
RESULTS—The aspects of QoL that were mostly affected in the three countries under study were physical function and general wellbeing. Social role function decreased with increased severity of disease in France and in particular in Germany. Multiple sclerosis did not seem to have an impact on psychological function. The QoL of control patients was systematically higher than that of patients with multiple sclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Use of such a generic scale showed that progression of multiple sclerosis is accompanied by a decrease in QoL and suggested that this could be a relevant measurement in assessing the effect of treatment and progression of disease. Variation between countries, however, may be important.

 PMID:9771766

  7. Biotechnological aspects of plum pox virus.

    PubMed

    López-Moya, J J; Fernández-Fernández, M R; Cambra, M; García, J A

    2000-01-21

    Plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of a devastating disease that affects stone fruit trees, is becoming a target of intense studies intended both to fight against viral infection and to develop practical applications based on the current knowledge of potyvirus molecular biology. This review focuses on biotechnological aspects related to PPV, such as novel diagnostic techniques that facilitate detection and typing of virus isolates, strategies to implement pathogen-derived resistance through plant transformation, the potential use of genetic elements derived from the virus, and the recent development of PPV-based expression vectors.

  8. Otherness within: aspects of insight in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M

    1998-01-01

    In this paper I consider moments of insight in which the subject consciously experiences the emergence of something alien within the self, usually of a drive-related, affective, and at times uncanny nature. These are crucial, yet neglected, experiences of insight within the therapeutic process. Such experiences do not fit easily into our theory, because usual descriptions of insight stress the ego's integrative capacities. I attempt to demonstrate how aspects of our theory that emphasize rational, narrative explanations, or the social construction of clinical facts, as well as those that emphasize the ego's integrative functions, may prevent our fully appreciating these experiences of insight in our patients.

  9. A double blind, placebo-controlled, phase II, add-on study of cyclophosphamide (CTX) for 24 months in patients affected by multiple sclerosis on a background therapy with interferon-beta study denomination: CYCLIN.

    PubMed

    Patti, F; Amato, M P; Filippi, M; Gallo, P; Trojano, M; Comi, G C

    2004-08-15

    The authors present and discuss a new protocol for active multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A double blind randomized controlled multicenter study was planned to study the effects of a combination regimen therapy: cyclophosphamide plus beta interferon versus beta interferon alone on both relapsing-remitting and secondary MS patients with active disease. The primary endpoint of this study is the number of new gadolinium enhancing lesions at MRI evaluation. Secondary endpoints are new T2 lesions, new T1 lesions, T2 lesion load, T1 lesion load, cerebral atrophy, number of patients who were relapse-free, number of patients who improved, yearly relapses, quality of life, disability and cognitive impairment, frequency of neutralizing antibodies, safety of the combination therapy (cyclophosphamide + beta interferon). The study will enroll 225 patients in 25 Italian MS centers. Eligible for the study are patients with either relapsing-remitting or secondary MS according McDonald criteria on 6-24 months beta interferon treatment with active disease (new gadolinium enhancing lesion or who experienced a new relapse on beta interferon treatment). Clinical evaluation will be performed every 4 months, MRI yearly. Vital signs and eventual adverse events will be collected monthly. The study will last 36 months, 12 for the enrollment phase and 24 for the treatment phase. The study will start on April 2004.

  10. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  11. Aspect ratio effect on particle transport in turbulent duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Vinuesa, R.; Brandt, L.; Schlatter, P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of dilute micron-sized spherical inertial particles in turbulent duct flows is studied by means of direct numerical simulations of the carrier phase turbulence with one-way coupled Lagrangian particles. The geometries are a square and a rectangular duct with width-to-height aspect ratio AR of 3 operating at Reτ,c = 360 (based on the centerplane friction velocity and duct half-height). The present study is designed to determine the effect of turbulence-driven secondary motion on the particle dynamics. Our results show that a weak cross-flow secondary motion significantly changes the cross-sectional map of the particle concentration, mean velocity, and fluctuations. As the geometry of the duct is widened from AR = 1 to 3, the secondary vortex on the horizontal wall significantly expands in the spanwise direction, and although the kinetic energy of the secondary flow increases close to the corner, it decays towards the duct centreplane in the AR = 3 case so as the turbulent carrier phase approaches the behavior in spanwise-periodic channel flows, a fact that significantly affects the particle statistics. In the square duct the particle concentration in the viscous sublayer is maximum at the duct centreplane, whereas the maximum is found closer to the corner, at a distance of |z/h| ≈ 1.25 from the centreplane, in the AR = 3 case. Interestingly the centreplane concentration in the rectangular duct is around 3 times lower than that in the square duct. Moreover, a second peak in the accumulation distribution is found right at the corners for both ducts. At this location the concentration increases with particle inertia. The secondary motion changes also the cross-stream map of the particle velocities significantly in comparison to the fluid flow statistics. These directly affect the particle velocity fluctuations such that multiple peaks appear near the duct walls for the particle streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations.

  12. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  13. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications.

  14. Sexual Aspects of Multilateral Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Joan M.; Constantine, Larry L.

    1971-01-01

    This study involved a variety of data gathering techniques focusing on almost every aspect of multilateral marriages. Specific topics covered included sex as motivation, group sex, sleeping arrangements, cohesion, sexual problems, jealousy, roles and sex differences. (Author/CG)

  15. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  16. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  17. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  18. Multiple Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Philip Joseph

    1987-09-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bound on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact.

  19. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients.

  20. Multicultural Aspects in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs).

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiucai; Francisconi, Carlos F; Fukudo, Shin; Gerson, Mary-Joan; Kang, Jin-Yong; Schmulson W, Max J; Sperber, Ami D

    2016-02-15

    Cross-cultural factors are important in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). In the setting of FGIDs, the aims of this review were to: 1) engender interest in global aspects; 2) gain a clearer understanding of culture, race and ethnicity and their effect on patient care and research; 3) facilitate cross-cultural clinical and research competency; and 4) improve and foster the quality and conduct of cross-cultural, multinational research. Cultural variables are inevitably present in the physician-patient context. Food and diets, which differ among cultural groups, are perceived globally as related to or blamed for symptoms. From an individual perspective, biological aspects, such as genetics, the microbiome, environmental hygiene, cytokines and the nervous system, which are affected by cultural differences, are all relevant. Of equal importance are issues related to gender, symptom reporting and interpretation, and family systems. From the physician's viewpoint, understanding the patient's explanatory model of illness, especially in a cultural context, affects patient care and patient education in a multicultural environment. Differences in the definition and use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and other issues related to healthcare services for the FGIDs are also a relevant cross-cultural issue. This paper highlights the importance of cross-cultural competence in clinical medicine and research.

  1. Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Background High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods and Findings Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors) – loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Conclusions Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains

  2. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  3. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This

  4. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  5. NEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN GLYCOSYLATION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Eklund, Erik A.; Ng, Bobby G.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    This review will present principles of glycosylation, describe the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlight some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. Over 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Between these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of mis-glycosylated products afflicting a myriad of processes including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with limited analytic tools has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies, and to date few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  6. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  7. Supersymmetric chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1989-03-01

    We consider classical supersymmetric chiral models of field theory and focus our attention on the geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of such models is that the interaction is not introduced by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the target manifold. In many aspects these models are analogous to gauge theories and, as became clear recently, they are also important for superstring theory, which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ATOMIC DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edward C.

    1954-01-01

    Increasing attention to the psychological aspects of atomic disaster will help improve the ability of the citizens of this country to withstand attack and survive as a free people. Since an enemy may be expected to exploit any internal weaknesses it can find, preparation must be made against the onslaught. The ability to deal effectively with any situation, even the most awesome, depends on knowledge of what to expect, and there is no reason to believe that facts about atomic disaster are an exception to this time proven truth. The psychological aspects need to be considered from two points of view, namely, the effect on masses of people and on individuals. PMID:13182616

  9. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    PubMed

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years.

  10. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a common genetically and clinically heterogeneous skeletal dysplasia characterized by early-onset osteoarthritis, mainly in the hip and knee, and mild-to-moderate short stature. Here we report on a 6-generation MED family with 17 affected members. Method The clinical and radiographic data on the 12 affected members still living were scrutinized. A structured inquiry comprising state of health and MED-related symptoms since birth up to the present time and the osteoarthritis outcome (KOOS) questionnaire were sent to all living family members with MED. The 5 known gene loci for autosomal dominant MED were analyzed for linkage, using fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers. Linkage was ascertained with markers close to the COL9A2 gene, which was analyzed for mutations by sequencing. Results We identified an exon 3 donor splice mutation in the COL9A2 gene in all affected family members. Clinical, radiographic, and questionnaire data from affected family members suggested that MED caused by COL9A2 mutations starts in early childhood with knee pain accompanied by delayed ossification of femoral epiphyses. The disease then either stabilizes during puberty or progresses with additional joints becoming affected; joint surgery might be necessary. The progression of the disease also affects muscles, with increasing atrophy, resulting in muscle fatigue and pain. Muscular atrophy has not been reported earlier in cases with COL9A2 mutations. Interpretation In a patient with clinically suspected or verified MED, it is important to perform DNA-based analysis to identify a possible disease-causing mutation. This information can be used to carry out genetic risk assessment of other family members and to achieve an early and correct diagnosis in the children. PMID:19995321

  11. Games, Gaming, and Gamification: Some Aspects of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Unsupported claims have been made for the use of games in education and the gamification (game-like aspects, such as scores and point goals) of various learning elements. This brief article examines what may be the motivational basis of gaming and how it can affect students' behavior and ultimate success.

  12. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  13. Community structure affects behavior.

    PubMed

    Jaenson, C

    1991-06-01

    AID's prevention efforts can benefit from taking into account 5 main aspects (KEPRA) of community structure identified by anthropologists: 1) kinship patterns, 2) economics, 3) politics, 4) religion, and 5) associations. For example, in Uganda among the Basoga and paternal aunt or senga is responsible for female sex education. Such culturally determined patterns need to be targeted in order to enhance education and effectiveness. Economics can reflect differing systems of family support through sexual means. The example given involves a poor family with a teenager in Thailand who exchanges a water buffalo or basic necessity for this daughter's prostitution. Politics must be considered because every society identifies people who have the power to persuade, influence, exchange resources, coerce, or in some way get people to do what is wanted. Utilizing these resources whether its ministers of health, factory owners, or peers is exemplified in the Monterey, Mexico factor floor supervisor and canteen worker introducing to workers the hows and whys of a new AID's education program. His peer status will command more respect than the director with direct authority. Religious beliefs have explanations for causes of sickness or disease, or provide instruction in sex practices. The example given is of a health workers in Uganda discussing AIDS with rural women by saying that we all know that disease and deaths are caused by spells. "But not AIDS - slim. AIDS is different." Associations can help provide educational, economic, and emotional assistance to the AID's effort or families affected.

  14. Wrappers, Aspects, Quantification and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Talk overview: Object infrastructure framework (OIF). A system development to simplify building distributed applications by allowing independent implementation of multiple concern. Essence and state of AOP. Trinity. Quantification over events. Current work on a generalized AOP technology.

  15. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  16. TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WANG, WILLIAM S-Y.

    TWO ASPECT MARKERS IN MANDARIN CHINESE ARE STUDIED WITHIN THE GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. THEY ARE COMMONLY REPRESENTED AS "-LE," INDICATING COMPLETION OF ACTION, AND "-GUO," INDICATING THAT AN ACTION HAS TAKEN PLACE AT LEAST ONCE. THE PROBLEM INVOLVES SEVERAL SEEMING IRREGULARITIES IN THE FORMATION OF…

  17. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  18. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  19. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  20. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  1. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  2. [Scientometric aspects of medical eponyms].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2014-09-07

    Eponyms, scientific concepts named after persons, have a long tradition in medical sciences. Their emergence and use are rather instructive from the aspects of scientometrics, as well. Using a medical sample it is shown that although references to publications giving origin to the eponyms inevitably get obliterated, their citation rate is still many times higher than that of other publications of the same age.

  3. Mathematical Aspects of Electoral Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, M. M.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we consider some mathematical aspects of electoral systems. Sometimes the results from elections seem paradoxical although they are mathematically correct. These cases are known as electoral paradoxes. A number of paradoxes of proportional and majoritarian electoral systems are considered.

  4. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP…

  5. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  6. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  7. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  8. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  9. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  10. Many Seniors Take Multiple Meds That Can Affect the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... particular concern due to the increased risk of death, the researchers explained. "The rise we saw in these data may reflect the increased willingness of seniors to seek help and accept medication for mental health conditions -- but it's also concerning because of the ...

  11. Multiple sclerosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - multiple sclerosis ... The following organizations provide information on multiple sclerosis : Multiple Sclerosis Foundation -- www.msfocus.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis National ...

  12. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  13. Exploited and excreting: parasite type affects host nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Narr, Charlotte F; Frost, Paul C

    2016-08-01

    Parasite-induced changes in the nutrient balance of hosts could alter the availability of nutrients in ecosystems by changing consumer-driven nutrient recycling. While these effects on host nutrient use are mediated by host physiology, they likely depend on characteristics of the parasite and host diet quality. We examined this possibility by measuring nutrient release rates of uninfected Daphnia and conspecifics infected by two microparasites (the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the microsporidium Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis) from daphnid hosts fed food that varied in phosphorus content. We found that infection type and diet affected host nutrient release rates, but the strength of these effects varied among parasite treatments. To improve our understanding of these effects, we examined whether two separate aspects of host exploitation (parasite-induced reductions in host fecundity and parasite load) could account for variation in Daphnia nutrient release, ingestion, and elemental ratios caused by our infection and diet treatments. Regardless of whether we compared individuals across infection type or diet treatment, Daphnia fecundity described variation in multiple aspects of host nutrient use better than infection, diet, or spore load. Our results suggest that parasite-induced changes in host nutrient use are both parasite and diet specific, and that host fecundity could be a useful parameter for predicting the magnitude and direction of these changes.

  14. Ichthyosis: the skin manifestation of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castaño Suárez, E; Segurado Rodríguez, A; Guerra Tapia, A; Simón de las Heras, R; López-Ríos, F; Coll Rosell, M J

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile sulfatidosis (Austin type) or multiple sulfatase deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting the activity of many sulfatases: arylsulfatase A, several mucopolysaccharide sulfatases, and steroid sulfatase. Certain aspects of the clinical phenotype can be attributed mainly to a deficiency of one specific sulfatase. Most patients develop metachromatic leukodystrophy caused by arylsulfatase A deficiency, dysostosis multiplex by mucopolysaccharide sulfatase deficiency, and ichthyotic skin by steroid sulfatase deficiency. We describe a 7-year-old boy with developmental delay from 7 months of age, progressive spastic quadriparesis, and coarse facial features. By 27 months of age, an ichthyotic rash had developed on the limbs, trunk, and scalp. A skin biopsy specimen revealed hyperkeratosis with a normal granular layer. The diagnosis of multiple sulfatase deficiency was demonstrated by measuring sulfatase activities in fresh leukocytes: there were large deficiencies of arylsulfatase A and B plus reduced arylsulfatase C. The ichthyosis associated with multiple sulfatase deficiency has an autosomal recessive inheritance, is caused by steroid sulfatase deficiency, and the scaling is sometimes milder than in X-linked recessive ichthyosis. This could reflect the residual activity of steroid sulfatase in some cases.

  15. Environmental aspects of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence has proved that many aspects of our lifestyle and the environment contribute to the development of congenital disease. Congenital spinal deformities are due to anomalous development of the vertebrae including failure of formation and segmentation during embryogenesis. The causes of congenital scoliosis have not been fully identified. A variety of factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Previous studies have demonstrated that both genetics and environmental factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. However, no specific cause for congenital scoliosis has been identified. In our review, we focus on the environmental factors for the development of congenital scoliosis. Various maternal exposures during pregnancy including hypoxia, alcohol use, vitamin deficiency, valproic acid, boric acid, and hyperthermia have been observed to be associated with the occurrence of congenital scoliosis. This review describes the major environmental contributors of congenital scoliosis with an emphasis on treatment aspects associated with environmental disposition in congenital scoliosis.

  16. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    PubMed Central

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  17. Multiple myeloma, immunotherapy and minimal residual disease.

    PubMed

    Kusenda, J; Kovarikova, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable heterogeneous hematological malignancy in which relapse is characterized by re-growth of residual tumor and immune suppression with a complex biology that affects many aspects of the disease and its response to treatment. The bone marrow microenvironment, including immune cells, plays a central role in MM pathogenesis, survival, and drug resistance. The advances in basic and translational research, introduction of novel agents, particularly combination therapies, improved indicators of quality of life and survival. Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) has revolutionized monitoring of treatment response in MM. The importance of MFC methodology will be further strengthened by the ongoing international standardization efforts. Results of MRD testing provide unique and clinically important information and demonstrated the prognostic significance of MRD in patients, leading to regulate treatment intensity in many contemporary protocols. In this review, we will summarize the principal approaches in MM immunotherapy, focusing how new agents have potential in the treatment of MM and application of MRD detection by MFC as a surrogate endpoint would allow quicker evaluation of treatment outcomes and rapid identification of effective new therapies.

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Vanlandingham, Sean C; Kurz, Michael C; Wang, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an important treatment for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Despite its widespread practice, only limited data describe the thermodynamic aspects of heat transfer during TH. This paper reviews the principles of human body heat balance and provides a conceptual model for characterizing heat exchange during TH. The model may provide a framework for computer simulation for improving training in or clinical methods of TH.

  19. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  20. Digital processing of histopathological aspects in renal transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; de Andrade, Marcos C.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; dos Santos, A. M. M.

    1993-07-01

    We describe here our initial experience with the digital image processing of histopathological aspects from multiple renal biopsies of transplanted kidney in a patient treated with Cyclosporine (CsA), a powerful immunosupressor drug whose use has improved the chances of a successful vascularized organ transplantation (Tx). Unfortunately, CsA promotes morphological alterations to the glomerular structure of the kidneys. To characterize this process, glomeruli, tufts, and lumen areas distributions are measured. The results are presented in form of graphics.

  1. Behavioral momentum and accumulation of mass in multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus-reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon's key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions.

  2. BEHAVIORAL MOMENTUM AND ACCUMULATION OF MASS IN MULTIPLE SCHEDULES

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Andrew R.; Cunningham, Paul J.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus–reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus–reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon’s key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions. PMID:25787824

  3. Metacognitive Aspects of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott; Parecki, Andrea

    This report considers the various facets of metacognition and their relation to adult literacy. The first section provides definitions of literacy and discusses the issue of single versus multiple factor hypotheses. The second section looks at the foundation of research on metacognition and literacy development in children. It examines whether…

  4. Therapeutic strategies in multiple sclerosis. I. Immunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Hohlfeld, R

    1999-01-01

    This review first addresses several general aspects of the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. Next, two approved immunomodulatory treatments, interferon-beta and copolymer-1 (glatiramer acetate), are reviewed in more detail. Finally, other immunosuppressive therapies and experimental strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:10603621

  5. Hyponatraemia in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, Eitan; De-Silva, Dunnya; Mehta, Atul

    2015-12-11

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disturbance encountered in clinical practice. Several causes of hyponatraemia are recognised and in many patients the aetiology may be multifactorial. An important cause is water intoxication and this is often iatrogenic. We present three patients, all of whom suffered from multiple myeloma, who illustrate different aspects of hyponatraemia, its causes and management.

  6. Rapid micromachining of high aspect ratio holes in fused silica glass by high repetition rate picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimelahi, Samira; Abolghasemi, Ladan; Herman, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    We present multiple methods of high aspect ratio hole drilling in fused silica glass, taking advantage of high power and high repetition rate picosecond lasers and flexible beam delivery methods to excise deep holes with minimal collateral damage. Combinations of static and synchronous scanning of laser focus were explored over a range of laser repetition rates and burst-train profiles that dramatically vary laser plume interaction dynamics, heat-affected zone, and heat accumulation physics. Chemically assisted etching of picosecond laser modification tracks are also presented as an extension from femtosecond laser writing of volume nanograting to form high aspect ratio (77) channels. Processing windows are identified for the various beam delivery methods that optimize the laser exposure over energy, wavelength, and repetition rate to reduce microcracking and deleterious heating effects. The results show the benefits of femtosecond laser interactions in glass extend into the picosecond domain, where the attributes of higher power further yield wide processing windows and significantly faster fabrication speed. High aspect ratio holes of 400 μm depth were formed over widely varying rates of 333 holes per second for mildly cracked holes in static-focal positioning through to one hole per second for low-damage and taper free holes in synchronous scanning.

  7. Can cultural values help explain the positive aspects of caregiving among Chinese American caregivers?

    PubMed

    Tang, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This study used an adaptation of the caregivers' stress model to examine the positive aspects of caregiving with 113 Chinese American family caregivers who provided care to their elderly relatives. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that combination of caregiver background characteristics, stressors, and cultural values had direct effects on positive aspects of caregiving. Unlike previous studies in which cultural values were not measured, this study found that cultural values helped explain positive aspects of caregiving. Specifically, cultural values, caregiver's health, and caregiver's age predicted positive aspects of caregiving. Service implications are discussed based upon the findings.

  8. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  9. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  10. Mechanical engineering aspects of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Citrolo, J.C.

    1983-04-01

    This paper briefly presents the principles which characterize a tokamak and discusses the mechanical aspects of TFTR, particularly the toroidal field coils and the vacuum chamber, in the context of being key components common to all tokamaks. The mechanical loads on these items as well as other design requirements are considered and the solutions to these requirements as executed in TFTR are presented. Future technological developments beyond the scope of TFTR, which are necessary to bring the tokamak concept to a full fusion-power system, are also presented. Additional methods of plasma heating, current drive, and first wall designs are examples of items in this category.

  11. Practical Aspects of Nonlinear Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    14. E. Levitan and B . Polyak, "Constrained Minimization Methods", USSR Comp. Math. and Math. Physics 6, 1, (1966). 15. J. May, "Solving Nonlinear...AD-AIO 858 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/G 12/1 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION.U) JUN 81 R B HOLMES, J W TOLLESON...dj, l<j< m , (2) with the understanding the Q so defined has a non-empty interior (is "solid"). No qualitative assumptions on the objective - i

  12. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Gabriela; Schor, Eduardo; Kopelman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic) and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis.

  13. Technical aspects of abdominal stomas.

    PubMed

    Link, Brian A; Kropp, Bradley; Frimberger, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Continent urinary diversion has gained increasing popularity in the pediatric population during the last few decades. In adults, continent diversions are usually needed to replace a bladder after cystectomy for invasive carcinoma. Subsequently, the creation of functional and cosmetically hidden urinary and cecal abdominal stomas has become an integral part of many urinary reconstructive procedures. These techniques, originally developed for pediatric urinary reconstruction have gained increasing popularity for adult patients in need of a continence procedure. In the current manuscript, we review the technical aspects of site selection, mucocutaneous anastomosis, cosmetic appearance, and management of associated complications.

  14. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.

  15. Multiple Sclerosis and its Management

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Brian

    1992-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common disabling disease of the central nervous system affecting young adults, is diagnosed primarily from a history of typical relapsing and remitting white matter symptoms supported by objective signs. Multiple sclerosis may present in more insidious ways or may be mimicked by other diseases, which seemingly satisfy the diagnostic criteria of dissemination in time and space. Patients need psychological support to deal with an uncertain future. A multidisciplinary team approach can best manage both acute temporary disability and, often later, progressive physical and occasionally mental disability. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21221279

  16. Body composition in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Y

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects central nervous system leading to disability. Among other complications the deterioration of body composition is usually neglected and increases the risk for diseases such as coronary heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, lipid abnormalities and bone loss leading to fractures in this population. Body mass index values, the effect of spasticity, the increased number of drugs used and the relationship between skeletal muscle and bone which interacts with impaired motor function leading to body composition alterations in multiple sclerosis are reviewed. PMID:23935336

  17. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  18. Multiple annular linear diffractive axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-04-01

    We propose a chromatic analysis of multiple annular linear diffractive axicons. Large aperture axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams, with an extended depth of focus, when illuminated by a white light source, due to chromatic foci superimposition. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, and because chromatic aberrations result in focal segment axial shifts, polychromatic imaging properties are partially lost. We investigate here various design parameters that can be used to achieve color splitting, filtering, and combining using these properties. In order to improve the low-power efficiency of a single annular axicon, we suggest a spatial multiplexing of concentric annular axicons with different sizes and periods we call multiple annular aperture diffractive axicons (MALDAs). These are chosen to maintain focal depths while enabling color imaging with sufficient diffraction efficiency. Illustrations are given for binary phase diffractive axicons, considering technical aspects such as grating design wavelength and phase dependence due to the grating thickness.

  19. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  20. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  1. Mechanical aspects of CO₂ angiography.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Ivan; Rossi, Pier Luca; Feliciani, Giacomo; Pisani, Luca; Zannoli, Sebastiano; Zannoli, Romano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify some physical-mechanical aspects involved in the carbon dioxide angiography procedure (CO₂ angiography), with a particular attention to a possible damage of the vascular wall. CO₂ angiography is widely used on patients with iodine intolerance. The injection of a gaseous element, in most cases manually performed, requires a long training period. Automatic systems allow better control of the injection and the study of the mechanical behaviour of the gas. CO₂ injections have been studied by using manual and automatic systems. Pressures, flows and jet shapes have been monitored by using a cardiovascular mock. Photographic images of liquid and gaseous jet have been recorded in different conditions, and the vascular pressure rises during injection have been monitored. The shape of the liquid jet during the catheter washing phase is straight in the catheter direction and there is no jet during gas injection. Gas bubbles are suddenly formed at the catheter's hole and move upwards: buoyancy is the only governing phenomenon and no bubbles fragmentation is detected. The pressure rise in the vessel depends on the injection pressure and volume and in some cases of manual injection it may double the basal vascular pressure values. CO₂ angiography is a powerful and safe procedure which diffusion will certainly increase, although some aspects related to gas injection and chamber filling are not jet well known. The use of an automatic system permits better results, shorter training period and limitation of vascular wall damage risk.

  2. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Introducing Aspect-Oriented Programming Into a Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticki, I.; Katic, M.; Martin,S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the educational benefits of introducing the aspect-oriented programming paradigm into a programming course in a study on a sample of 75 undergraduate software engineering students. It discusses how using the aspect-oriented paradigm, in addition to the object-oriented programming paradigm, affects students' programs, their exam…

  4. Mathematical Aspects of Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhr, Claude

    In these lectures we discuss some of the mathematical structures that appear when computing multi-loop Feynman integrals. We focus on a specific class of special functions, the so-called multiple polylogarithms, and introduce their Hopf algebra structure. We show how these mathematical concepts are useful in physics by illustrating on several examples how these algebraic structures are useful to perform analytic computations of loop integrals, in particular to derive functional equations among polylogarithms.

  5. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  6. Multiple sclerosis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, James B; Kablinger, Anita; Alekseeva, Nadejda

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequently seen neurological causes of progressive disability in early to middle adulthood. The disease is variable in its presentation and course, affects roughly 100-300 per 100,000 persons within the United States alone, and is slightly more common among females than males. MS places substantial burdens on patients, families, and caregivers. It negatively affects cognitive abilities and psychiatric functioning, and can add a notably deleterious effect on a patient's quality of life. This chapter reviews the recent literature on the behavioral manifestations of MS. Cognitive domains discussed include executive functioning, processing speed, attention, learning and memory, language functioning, and visual spatial processing. Some attention will also be paid to differential diagnosis and the cognitive effects of treatment. Psychiatric manifestations are also discussed, including symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, euphoria, pathological laughter and crying, and psychosis, as well as maladaptive personality traits. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of the effects of MS on quality of life including such areas as fatigue, sexual dysfunction, pain, employment, and cognitive functioning.

  7. Test aspects of the JPL Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of test vectors and design-for-test aspects of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Viterbi decoder chip is discussed. Each processor integrated circuit (IC) contains over 20,000 gates. To achieve a high degree of testability, a scan architecture is employed. The logic has been partitioned so that very few test vectors are required to test the entire chip. In addition, since several blocks of logic are replicated numerous times on this chip, test vectors need only be generated for each block, rather than for the entire circuit. These unique blocks of logic have been identified and test sets generated for them. The approach employed for testing was to use pseudo-exhaustive test vectors whenever feasible. That is, each cone of logid is tested exhaustively. Using this approach, no detailed logic design or fault model is required. All faults which modify the function of a block of combinational logic are detected, such as all irredundant single and multiple stuck-at faults.

  8. [Hepatic cell transplantation. Technical and methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Martínez, Amparo; Cortés, Miriam; Bonora, Ana; Moya, Angel; Sanjuán, Fernando; Gómez-Lechón, M José; Mir, José

    2010-03-01

    Hepatic cell transplantation consists of grafting already differentiated cells such as hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes are viable and functionally active. Liver cell transplantation is carried out by means of a 3-step method: isolation of hepatocytes from donor liver rejected for orthotopic transplantation, preparing a cell suspension for infusion and, finally, hepatocytes are implanted into the recipient. There are established protocols for the isolation of human hepatocytes from unused segments of donor livers, based on collagenase digestion of cannulated liver tissue at 37 degrees C. The hepatocytes can be used fresh or cryopreserved. Cryopreservation of isolated human hepatocytes would then be available for planned use. In cell transplant, the important aspects are: infusion route, number of cells, number of infusions and viability of the cells. The cells are infused into the patient through a catheter inserted via portal vein or splenic artery. Liver cell transplantation allows liver tissue to be used that would, otherwise, be discarded, enabling multiple patients to be treated with hepatocytes from a single tissue donor.

  9. Security aspects of space operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with data security. It identifies security threats to European Space Agency's (ESA) In Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) and proposes a method of dealing with its complex data structures from the security point of view. It is part of the 'Analysis of Failure Modes, Effects Hazards and Risks of the IOI GS for Operations, including Backup Facilities and Functions' carried out on behalf of the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). The security part of this analysis has been prepared with the following aspects in mind: ESA's large decentralized ground facilities for operations, the multiple organizations/users involved in the operations and the developments of ground data systems, and the large heterogeneous network structure enabling access to (sensitive) data which does involve crossing organizational boundaries. An IOI GS data objects classification is introduced to determine the extent of the necessary protection mechanisms. The proposal of security countermeasures is oriented towards the European 'Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)' whose hierarchically organized requirements can be directly mapped to the security sensitivity classification.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases. PMID:27602082

  11. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000. (ATT)

  12. Evolutionary Aspects of Enzyme Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Klinman, Judith P.; Kohen, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The role of evolutionary pressure on the chemical step catalyzed by enzymes is somewhat enigmatic, in part because chemistry is not rate-limiting for many optimized systems. Herein, we present studies that examine various aspects of the evolutionary relationship between protein dynamics and the chemical step in two paradigmatic enzyme families, dihydrofolate reductases and alcohol dehydrogenases. Molecular details of both convergent and divergent evolution are beginning to emerge. The findings suggest that protein dynamics across an entire enzyme can play a role in adaptation to differing physiological conditions. The growing tool kit of kinetics, kinetic isotope effects, molecular biology, biophysics, and bioinformatics provides means to link evolutionary changes in structure-dynamics function to the vibrational and conformational states of each protein. PMID:25210031

  13. [Clinical aspects of witchcraft delusions].

    PubMed

    Pashkovskiĭ, V E

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish clinical variants and to specify nosologic entity of witchcraft delusions, 69 patients (10 males, aged 15-72 years) have been examined. It was found that witchcraft delusions exist in passive and active forms. In a passive form, the patient is sure that unknown (mystic) power damaged him/her; in an active form the patient, possessing a gift for unusual abilities, can influence the others (bewitches, heals, etc). Five clinical syndromes, in the structure of which the above delusions were found, namely, paranoiac-hypochondriac, hallucination-paranoid, depressive-paranoid, paraphrenic and delirious, were identified. Psychoses of schizophrenia spectrum were diagnosed in 52 patients, organic--in 8, alcoholic--in 7 and recurrent depressive disorder--in 2. Clinical significance of witchcraft delusions is closely related to its social aspect. Being combined with ideas of persecution, poisoning and damage, it results in the brutal forms of delusions defense and may be considered as an unfavorable prognostic trait.

  14. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  15. Scaling Aspects of Lymphocyte Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Perelson, Alan S.; Wiegel, Frederik W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the long lived pool of B and T cells that recirculate through blood, tissues and the lymphatic system of an animal with body mass M. We derive scaling rules (allometric relations) for: (1) the rate of production of mature lymphocytes; (2) the accumulation of lymphocytes in the tissues; (3) the flux of lymphocytes through the lymphatic system; (4) the number of lymph nodes, (5) the number of lymphocytes per clone within a lymph node, and (6) the total number of lymphocytes within a lymph node. Mass-dependent aspects of immune learning and of the immunological self are shown to be not very significant. Our treatment is somewhat heuristic and aims at a combination of immunological data with recent progress in biological scaling. PMID:19084024

  16. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  17. Biomedical aspects of artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F; Kotovskaya, A R; Shipov, A A

    1997-07-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) is the basic challenge for space biology and medicine. The importance of this problem is associated with the fact that duration of the space missions will become progressively longer, but the presently available countermeasures do not provide reason enough to predict the human health safety during space missions of any duration. The creation of AG could be an efficient method for removing the negative effects of microgravity. Two principle methods of generating AG, rotation of space system (SS) and building of short arm centrifuge (SAC), have been proposed. The purpose of the present work is to review the biomedical aspects of AG in the context of its use in long-term space missions.

  18. Discriminatory aspects of medical screening.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, M A

    1986-10-01

    Presently, there are few legal restrictions on the use of medical screening of workers. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) requires that certain medical tests be performed when workers will be exposed to specific toxic substances. The OSH Act does not, however, prohibit the use of any medical screening measure nor does it indicate what actions an employer may or may not take as a result of such information. (A notable exception is the medical removal provision of the Lead Standard). This paper discusses that protection afforded under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This paper will demonstrate that the law has, in general, failed to take into account the discriminatory aspects of medical screening.

  19. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography: Technical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, noninvasive, 3D imaging technique with great potential in both clinical and fundamental research applications in many areas. Owing to its exceptionally high spatial resolution and velocity sensitivity, the functional extension of OCT techniques can simultaneously provide tissue structure, blood perfusion, birefringence, and other physiological information and it has great potential for basic biomedical research and clinical medicine. OCT has the far-reaching potential to be a quantitative imaging technique that could impact many, as yet unexplored, areas and should therefore be considered a vital measurement tool. In this chapter, we will first discuss the principle of operation and then the practical aspects of the OCT system; we will also provide detailed discussion on different OCT schemes and its functional extensions.

  1. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  2. [New aspects of tuberculosis therapy].

    PubMed

    Haegi, V

    1975-02-22

    The introduction of ethambutol and rifampicin has modified the therapy of tuberculosis. Therapy in hospitals or sanatoria can be shortened, and intermittent regimens (once or twice weekly under supervision) are possible. Better knowledge of the side effects of particular drugs, particularly rifampicin, (such as allergic reactions in intermittent administration and reduced effect of oral contraceptives) has been gained. Instead of mere supervision, preventive chemotherapy is given in many cases such as in recently discovered fibrotic lesions and in high risk cases (silicosis, treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents)minadequate treatment may lead to functional impairment such as fibrosis and cor pulmonale. These aspects are discussed and the resultant guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis are presented.

  3. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  4. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions.

  5. Mapping emotions through time: how affective trajectories inform the language of emotion.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Tabitha; Cunningham, William A

    2012-04-01

    The words used to describe emotions can provide insight into the basic processes that contribute to emotional experience. We propose that emotions arise partly from interacting evaluations of one's current affective state, previous affective state, predictions for how these may change in the future, and the experienced outcomes following these predictions. These states can be represented and inferred from neural systems that encode shifts in outcomes and make predictions. In two studies, we demonstrate that emotion labels are reliably differentiated from one another using only simple cues about these affective trajectories through time. For example, when a worse-than-expected outcome follows the prediction that something good will happen, that situation is labeled as causing anger, whereas when a worse-than-expected outcome follows the prediction that something bad will happen, that situation is labeled as causing sadness. Emotion categories are more differentiated when participants are required to think categorically than when participants have the option to consider multiple emotions and degrees of emotions. This work indicates that information about affective movement through time and changes in affective trajectory may be a fundamental aspect of emotion categories. Future studies of emotion must account for the dynamic way that we absorb and process information.

  6. Multiple Intelligences: Curriculum and Assessment Project. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Aine, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "Multiple Intelligences, Curriculum and Assessment Project" at University College Cork was a collaborative project carried out between 1995 and 1999. The key research question focused on whether Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences could be applied to, and enhance, aspects of curriculum and assessment at primary and…

  7. Alternative Multiple Imputation Inference for Mean and Covariance Structure Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Model-based multiple imputation has become an indispensable method in the educational and behavioral sciences. Mean and covariance structure models are often fitted to multiply imputed data sets. However, the presence of multiple random imputations complicates model fit testing, which is an important aspect of mean and covariance structure…

  8. Biological Aspects of Computer Virology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Vasileios; Spinellis, Diomidis; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Stefanos

    Recent malware epidemics proved beyond any doubt that frightful predictions of fast-spreading worms have been well founded. While we can identify and neutralize many types of malicious code, often we are not able to do that in a timely enough manner to suppress its uncontrolled propagation. In this paper we discuss the decisive factors that affect the propagation of a worm and evaluate their effectiveness.

  9. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  10. Kinesics of Affective Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dil, Nasim

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the rationale of studying kinesics of affective instability, describes the phenonmenon of affective instability, examines the role of kinesics in the overall process of communication, and presents three case studies. (Author/AM)

  11. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  12. [Cystinuria update: clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Orts Costa, J A; Zúñiga Cabrera, A; Martínez de la Cára y Salmerón, J

    2003-06-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder with an estimated incidence of 1 case in 7000 live births, that results in elevated urinary excretion of cystine and dibasic aminoacids: ornithine, lysine and arginine. Discussed by Sir Archibald Edward Garrod, in 1908, as one of the four first known inborn errors of metabolism, it is characterized by a defect in transport of cystine and dibasic aminoacids, that affects their reabsortion in both renal tubule and gastrointestinal tract. To date, according to the recent molecular findings, two genes have been identified as responsible for this disease: SLC3A1 and SLC7A9. A more accurate pheno/genotyping identification of cystinuric patients will allow to improve prophilaxis and therapy for this illness. Cystinuria only causes recurrent urolithiasis (about 1-2 / of renal calculi in adults) and its associated complications as clinical feature because of poor cystine solubility at low pH. An accurate control over prohylaxis (based on high water intake and potassium citrate treatment, on first line, and tiol-derivatives treatment, on second line) must be taken in patients -like homozygous type I- with high lithiasis risk. However, approximately one half of patients under prophylaxis control will develop recurrent lithiasis; in this case, only urology or surgical approaches would be possible. 474 Updated knowledge about biochemical, genetic, clinical, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and prognosis aspects of this, relatively unusual, disease has been reviewed in this article.

  13. Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: an update for 2014.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Oscar; Martin, Roland; Rovira, Alex; Llufriu, Sara; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Fernandez-Sanchez, Victoria E; Alvarez-Cermeno, José C; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Arroyo-Gonzalez, Rafael; Rodriguez-Antiguedad, Alfredo; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Montalban, Xavier

    2014-06-16

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. It is characterised by processes involving inflammation, demyelination and axonal destruction, and as a result the pathogenic aspects and response to treatment of the disease vary widely. It is therefore difficult to establish a prognosis for these patients or to determine the effectiveness of the different drugs that are employed. Current clinical research into the development of new biomarkers has advanced a great deal in recent years, especially in the early stages of the disease. Yet, it is essential to further our knowledge about novel markers of the disease, and not only in the more advanced stages, so as to be able to stop disability from progressing and to establish new therapy regimens in these patients. This review presents an update on the information available about the biomarkers that are currently validated and used in multiple sclerosis, together with the possible candidates for utilisation in routine clinical practice.

  14. Multiple-motor based transport and its regulation by Tau

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Michael; Carter, Brian C.; Razafsky, David S.; King, Stephen J.; Gross, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    Motor-based intracellular transport and its regulation are crucial to the functioning of a cell. Disruption of transport is linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, many fundamental aspects of transport are poorly understood. An important issue is how cells achieve and regulate efficient long-distance transport. Mounting evidence suggests that many in vivo cargoes are transported along microtubules by more than one motor, but we do not know how multiple motors work together or can be regulated. Here we first show that multiple kinesin motors, working in conjunction, can achieve very long distance transport and apply significantly larger forces without the need of additional factors. We then demonstrate in vitro that the important microtubule-associated protein, tau, regulates the number of engaged kinesin motors per cargo via its local concentration on microtubules. This function of tau provides a previously unappreciated mechanism to regulate transport. By reducing motor reattachment rates, tau affects cargo travel distance, motive force, and cargo dispersal. We also show that different isoforms of tau, at concentrations similar to those in cells, have dramatically different potency. These results provide a well defined mechanism for how altered tau isoform levels could impair transport and thereby lead to neurodegeneration without the need of any other pathway. PMID:17190808

  15. Solving multiple scattering problems in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Lenoble, J.

    1974-01-01

    Definitions are provided of the basic concepts occurring in the solution of multiple scattering problems involving planetary atmospheres and attention is given to aspects of problem characterization. Approaches are considered for finding the answer to a particular problem without the performance of detailed calculations. The characteristics of albedos are investigated, taking into account semiinfinite atmospheres and finite atmospheres. Questions of surface illumination are discussed along with aspects related to energy deposition in the atmosphere, intensity, and polarization. Precise numerical methods are examined and analytical solutions are presented.

  16. Theoretical aspects of pollutant stress.

    PubMed

    Ballach, H J

    1998-01-01

    Symptoms of tree damage observed in Europe and overseas are often described as premature senescence. However, our own experiments with fumigated poplars have shown that the term premature senescence is misleading if undue emphasis is placed on features common to both normal and premature senescence. Consequently, the term should be replaced by a concrete description of the stress symptom noted, e.g. premature leaf loss or premature starch degradation. Such stress symptoms are usually unspecific - just like the mechanisms of stress avoidance or stress tolerance themselves. A stress model taking account of ecological, physiological and evolutionary aspects is presented; it is shown that the different stress phases are influenced by various factors, e.g. the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves. The stress reactions displayed by fumigated poplars serve as illustrations for this model. Different species of the genus Populus can be classified as more or less pure C-strategists. It is postulated that this group of plants, in particular, is disturbed by various stress parameters, such as air pollutants, if shoot growth or metabolite transport is impaired.

  17. Clinical aspects of phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Borysowski, Jan; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Pawełczyk, Zdzisław; Rogóż, Paweł; Kłak, Marlena; Wojtasik, Elżbieta; Górski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy (PT) is a unique method of treatment of bacterial infections using bacteriophages (phages)-viruses that specifically kill bacteria, including their antibiotic-resistant strains. Over the last decade a marked increase in interest in the therapeutic use of phages has been observed, which has resulted from a substantial rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of bacteria, coupled with an inadequate number of new antibiotics. The first, and so far the only, center of PT in the European Union is the Phage Therapy Unit (PTU) established at the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland in 2005. This center continues the rich tradition of PT in Poland, which dates from the early 1920s. The main objective of this chapter is to present a detailed retrospective analysis of the results of PT of 153 patients with a wide range of infections resistant to antibiotic therapy admitted for treatment at the PTU between January 2008 and December 2010. Analysis includes the evaluation of both the efficacy and the safety of PT. In general, data suggest that PT can provide good clinical results in a significant cohort of patients with otherwise untreatable chronic bacterial infections and is essentially well tolerated. In addition, the whole complex procedure employed to obtain and characterize therapeutic phage preparations, as well as ethical aspects of PT, is discussed.

  18. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  19. Aspects in grinding of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.J.; Huh, Y.H.; Yoon, K.J. . Materials Evaluation Center); Ogawa, Tomeyoshi . Machining Group)

    1994-09-01

    Aspects in the grinding of ceramics have been investigated. Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], ZrO[sub 2], SiC, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] were ground with resin-bonded diamond wheels of grit numbers ranging from 80 to 800. Microstructural observations of ground surfaces show that grinding occurs predominantly by flow mode in Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and ZrO[sub 2], and by fracture and grain pullout in SiC and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The measurement of grinding force shows that grinding resistances in Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] and ZrO[sub 2] are significantly larger than those in SiC and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. As the grit number of the grinding wheel increases, maximum surface roughness significantly decreases in Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], ZrO[sub 2], and SiC, but it apparently does not change in Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. This unexpected result in Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is discussed in terms of the observed grinding mode and microstructure.

  20. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  1. Fibromyalgia: clinical and occupational aspects.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists.

  2. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  3. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Pei -Ming

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S12 and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of Sq2 and CPq(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CPq(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  4. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier's mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives PMID:25788805

  5. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  6. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  7. [Psychophysiologic aspects of occupational flying].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with advanced research on psychophysiology of flying activity to solve a triune task: to humanize the character and means of labour, to maintain a high level of working capacity and to develop professionally important psychophysiological features of flying personnel. The solution of the first task is associated with consecutive realization of the principle of actualization, an increase of psychophysiological capabilities of a man with the use of technical means in designing aeronautical engineering. Assurance of high functional reliability of flying personnel requires the development of the methods to evaluate and predict the state of psychophysiologic reserves during flying activities; the refinement of the norms of flight load on the basis of determining the quantitative interactions between a complexity level of flight assignments and a degree of decrease in reserve capabilities; the search for means and methods of correcting functional state directly in flight and accelerated recovery of performance postflight. The solution of psychophysiologic aspects of the professional reliability of pilot should be the development of a flight capabilities theory and theory-based improvement of estimation methods, development of methods and technical means for their improvements.

  8. Flower senescence: some molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah

    2014-02-01

    Some molecular aspects of flower senescence have been reviewed. The isolation, identification and characterization of different genes from various flowers (mainly from petals) associated with senescence have been discussed. The isolated genes were divided into different groups. A large proportion of genes have been found to be upregulated during flower senescence while some genes were also found to be downregulated indicating that there exists a complex interplay between the expression patterns of various genes. The genes involved in petal expansion are found to be upregulated during normal flower development from anthesis to open flower stage, but XTH (Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase hydrolase) is found to be involved in petal expansion as well as abscission. Cysteine proteases or the genes encoding cysteine proteases (assigned a central role in protein degradation) have been identified from various flower systems, but no cysteine protease has been identified from senescing Mirabilis jalapa flowers. In addition to proteases, the genes encoding ubiquitin (exhibiting proteasomal degradation by 26S proteasomes) have also been identified suggesting the two alternate pathways for protein degradation. Genes encoding specific nucleases have also been identified, but they displayed an early increase in transcript abundance before the senescence symptoms become evident and characterize the involvement of PCD during flower senescence. A range of transcription factors are described and their possible role in flower senescence has been discussed. A detailed description of genes involved in ethylene synthesis and the components involved in ethylene signaling have been presented.

  9. Some Aspects of PDC Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčik, Ján; Pospíšil, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, aspects of pulsed direct current (PDC) water splitting are described. Electrolysis is a simple and well-known method to produce hydrogen. The efficiency is relatively low in normal conditions using conventional DC. PDC in electrolysis brings about many advantages. It increases efficiency of hydrogen production, and performance of the electrolyser may be smoothly controlled without compromising efficiency of the process. In our approach, ultra-short pulses are applied. This method enhances efficiency of electrical energy in the process of decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen. Efficiency depends on frequency, shape and width of the electrical pulses. Experiments proved that efficiency was increased by 2 to 8 per cent. One of the prospects of PDC electrolysis producing hydrogen is in increase of efficiency of energy storage efficiency in the hydrogen. There are strong efforts to make the electrical grid more efficient and balanced in terms of production by installing electricity storage units. Using hydrogen as a fuel decreases air pollution and amount of carbon dioxide emissions in the air. In addition to energy storage, hydrogen is also important in transportation and chemical industry.

  10. Theoretical aspects of heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Santen, R. A.

    Quantum chemical aspects of chemical bonding to metal surfaces are discussed. It is demonstrated that a Frontier Orbital Theory of chemisorption can be developed in which the group orbital local density of states at the Fermi level replaces the HOMO and LUMO interactions familiar in organic or organo-metallic chemistry. This appears to be a useful tool to describe elementary reactions at metal surfaces. Dissociation of the H2 molecule and hydrogen atom recombination is analysed in detail. Symmetry considerations can be applied. It is shown that the interaction with antisymmetric group orbitais lowers the activation energies. Such orbitais are also available at s-valence electron metal surfaces as long as the molecule interacts in bridging coordination sites. One finds that the interaction with metal d-valence electrons stabilizes coordination in the atop position. The relative contribution to bonding of metal s and d-valence electrons differs significantly for the transition metals. It is not only a function of metal-electron occupation, number, but also of the row in the periodic system in which the metal is placed. This information is used to explain the different hydrogenolysis behaviour of Ni and Pt.

  11. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  12. Hemodynamic aspects of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Ken; Sato, Mika; Satoh, Yuichi; Watahiki, Yasuhito; Kondoh, Yasushi; Sugawara, Maki; Box, Georgia; Wright, David; Leung, Sumie; Yuya, Hiromichi; Shimosegawa, Eku

    2002-11-01

    Neuroradiological functional imaging techniques demonstrate the patterns of hypoperfusion and hypometabolism that are thought to be useful in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other dementing disorders. Besides the distribution patterns of perfusion or energy metabolism, vascular transit time (VTT), vascular reactivity (VR), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), which can be measured with positron emission tomography (PET), provide hemodynamic aspects of brain pathophysiology. In order to evaluate the hemodynamic features of AD, PET studies were carried out in 20 patients with probable AD and 20 patients with vascular dementia (VaD). The PET findings were not included in their diagnostic process of AD. Using oxygen-15-labeled compounds, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), OEF, cerebral blood volume, and VTT were measured quantitatively during resting state. To evaluate VR, CBF was also measured during CO(2) inhalation. There was a significant increase in OEF in and around the parietotemporal cortices, but both VTT and VR were well preserved in patients with AD. By contrast, VR was markedly depressed and VTT was mildly prolonged in patients with VaD. Thus, from the hemodynamic point of view, the preservation of vascular reserve may be a distinct difference between AD and VaD. Furthermore, this indicates a hemodynamic integrity of the vasculature in the level of arterioles in AD.

  13. Global Aspects of Radiation Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The gravitational radiation memory effect produces a net displacement of test particles. The proposed sources lead to E mode memory, as characterized by an even parity polarization pattern. Although odd parity, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory which produces a net momentum ``kick'' of charged test particles. A global null cone treatment shows that electromagnetic E mode memory requires unbounded charges and no physically realistic source produces B mode memory. A compelling theoretical aspect of E mode gravitational radiation memory is related to the supertranslations in the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) asymptotic symmetry group. For a stationary system, supertranslations can be eliminated and the BMS group reduced to the Poincare group, for which angular momentum is well-defined. However, for a stationary to stationary transition, the two Poincare groups obtained at early and late times differ by a supertranslation if the gravitational radiation has nonzero E mode memory. This suggests a distinctly general relativistic mechanism for angular momentum loss and presents a ripe problem for the numerical simulation of high spin black hole binaries. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1201276 to the University of Pittsburgh.

  14. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  15. Evolution of cooling-channel properties for varying aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarelli, M.; Nasuti, F.; Onofri, M.

    2016-07-01

    A trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system representative of liquid rocket engine cooling systems. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations which are performed by means of a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-two-dimensional (2D) model. This model, which is suited to high-aspect-ratio cooling channels (HARCC), permits to have a fast prediction of both the coolant flow evolution and the temperature distribution along the whole cooling channel structure. Before using the quasi-2D model for the trade-off analysis, its validation by comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results is presented and discussed. The results show that the pump power required to overcome losses in the cooling circuit can be minimized selecting a channel shaped with a suitably high aspect ratio.

  16. Aspects across Software Life Cycle: A Goal-Driven Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Yu, Yijun; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Ernst, Neil; Sampaio Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar; Mylopoulos, John

    Goal modeling fits model-driven engineering (MDE) in that it captures stakeholder concerns and the interdependencies using concepts that are much less bound to the underlying implementation technology and are much closer to the problem languages. Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) provides language constructs to facilitate the representation of multiple perceptions and to alleviate tangling and scattering concerns. Synthesis of AOSD and MDE not only manages software complexity but also improves productivity, as well as model quality and longevity. In this paper, we propose a model-driven framework for tracing aspects from requirements to implementation and testing, where goal models become engineering assets and straightforward model-to-code transformation bridges the gap between domain concepts and implementation technologies. We test our hypotheses and evaluate the framework’s applicability and usefulness with a case study of an open-source e-commerce platform written in PHP.

  17. Notes on the Heart: Affective Issues in the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Susan H.

    The most used model for empirical research on the writing process is based on cognitive psychology and does not take into account affective phenomena, although it has long been recognized that affect (that is, the noncognitive aspects of mental activity) plays a large role in writing and learning to write. To understand the complete picture, it is…

  18. Defining and Assessing Affective Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Claire L.

    1990-01-01

    The affective aspect of the curriculum is defined as the development of appropriate and measurable values such as ethical behavior, honesty, tolerance, and becoming a life-long learner. In outcome assessment of the affective category, the goal is to evaluate the transition of the student to a professional. (MLW)

  19. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  20. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  1. Aspects of topological string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Paul L. H.

    Two aspects of the topological string and its applications are considered in this thesis. Firstly, non-perturbative contributions to the OSV conjecture relating four-dimensional extremal black holes and the closed topological string partition function are studied. A new technique is formulated for encapsulating these contributions for the case of a Calabi-Yau manifold constructed by fibering two line bundle over a torus, with the unexpected property that the resulting non-perturbative completion of the topological string partition function is such that the black hole partition function is equal to a product of a chiral and an anti-chiral function. This new approach is considered both in the context of the requirement of background independence for the topological string, and for more general Calabi-Yau manifolds. Secondly, this thesis provides a microscopic derivation of the open topological string holomorphic anomaly equations proposed by Walcher in arXiv:0705.4098 under the assumption that open string moduli do not contribute. In doing so, however, new anomalies are found for compact Calabi-Yau manifolds when the disk one-point functions (string to boundary amplitudes) are non-zero. These new anomalies introduce coupling to wrong moduli (complex structure moduli in A-model and Kahler moduli in B-model), and spoil the recursive structure of the holomorphic anomaly equations. For vanishing disk one-point functions, the open string holomorphic anomaly equations can be integrated to solve for amplitudes recursively, using a Feynman diagram approach, for which a proof is presented.

  2. Recent developments and translational aspects in targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marhold, Maximilian; Bartsch, Rupert; Zielinski, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Biologically distinct subtypes of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have been defined by multiple efforts in recent years, showing broad heterogeneity at the molecular level of disease. Throughout this endeavour, oncogenic drivers within MBC were identified as potential therapeutic targets. With recent results from clinical trials targeting these well-known cancer-promoting pathways, this review is trying to elucidate as well as summarise current new therapeutic aspects in MBC and shed light on translational aspects within this entity. PMID:27843605

  3. [Deglutition disorders in the elderly. Epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Finiels, H; Strubel, D; Jacquot, J M

    2001-11-10

    THE PREVALENCE: The exact prevalence of deglutition disorders in the elderly is not known. It appears frequent in very old patients and in those suffering from polypathological symptoms, affecting 50% of the populations in long-term care units. THE EFFECTS OF AGING: Physiological aging alters various parameters of swallowing, however it seems that these modifications related to age have little effect on healthy subjects. However, they may increase vulnerability in those presenting with intercurrent pathologies. CONCOMITANT DISORDERS: Other than the decrease in efficient mastication and the existence of xerostomia, frequently observed contributing factors, many diseases may be responsible for dysphagia in the elderly. Neurological disorders, particularly cerebral vascular diseases, central nervous system degenerative disorders and neuro-motor diseases predominate. In the aging, muscular disorders and after effects of various diseases can set-in. Modifications in oropharyngeal anatomy generally results from cancerous lesions of the aero-digestive junction, but also, occasionally from extrinsic compression that does not necessarily reflect a neoplastic etiology. Zenker's diverticulitis represents a cause of dysphagia specific to the elderly. Problems in swallowing of iatrogenic origin are also frequent, following cervical radiotherapy or after oropharyngeal surgery, during tracheal intubation or when using feeding tubes and also during various medical treatments. UNDERRATED CONSEQUENCES: Dysphagia leads to multiple morbid after effects, primarily alteration in quality of life, dehydration, undernutrition, asphyxia and congestion and recurrent infections of the respiratory tract. The responsibility of deglutition disorders in the occurrence of these complications is difficult to assess in weak elderly subjects because of the frequent concomitance with multiple deficiencies and incapacities.

  4. General Aspects of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Centelles, Josep J.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death. Cancer is initiated by several DNA damages, affecting proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repairing genes. The molecular origins of CRC are chromosome instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI), and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). A brief description of types of CRC cancer is presented, including sporadic CRC, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndromes, familiar adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS). Some signalling systems for CRC are also described, including Wnt-β-catenin pathway, tyrosine kinase receptors pathway, TGF-β pathway, and Hedgehog pathway. Finally, this paper describes also some CRC treatments. PMID:23209942

  5. Evolutionary aspects of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Price, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473

  6. General aspects of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Centelles, Josep J

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death. Cancer is initiated by several DNA damages, affecting proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repairing genes. The molecular origins of CRC are chromosome instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI), and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). A brief description of types of CRC cancer is presented, including sporadic CRC, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndromes, familiar adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS). Some signalling systems for CRC are also described, including Wnt-β-catenin pathway, tyrosine kinase receptors pathway, TGF-β pathway, and Hedgehog pathway. Finally, this paper describes also some CRC treatments.

  7. Emerging aspects of Buruli ulcer.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, Harry S; Phillips, Richard O; Evans, Mark R W; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark H

    2003-08-01

    Buruli ulcer, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a major mycobacteriosis that affects people in scattered foci in the third world. It is amongst the most neglected of diseases in terms of primary healthcare strategies. However, this is changing as the World Health Organization launches a number of major global initiatives. Recent progress includes the unraveling of the genetic structure of the pathogen, examination of the mechanisms of virulence and the role of chemotherapy in disease treatment and prevention of recurrence, together with strategies aimed at reducing the economic burdens placed upon healthcare budgets of poorer nations. This review focuses upon the recent developments and the understanding of the disease, with particular focus on potential chemotherapy.

  8. Changing aspects of radiation enteropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, L.; Hart, M.; Lugo, D.; Friedman, N.B.

    1985-11-01

    Fifty-two patients with radiation enteropathy secondary to radiation for abdominal or pelvic malignant neoplasms are described. This series (1977 to 1984) is compared with a series of 50 patients from the same institution over an earlier period (1961 to 1977). Intestinal obstruction was the principal complication in both series; 96% of the patients underwent either intestinal resection or anastomotic bypass of the affected segment. Changes that have occurred since the last report are as follows: changes in source of radiation energy (linear accelerator); less evidence of mucosal damage; increased serosal reaction (''serosal peel''); and increased use of elemental diets, parenteral nutrition, and long intestinal tubes in surgical management. Since postoperative radiation injury occurs most frequently in the pelvis, new developments for the exclusion of small bowel from the pelvis during radiation are reviewed. Changes in fractionation of radiation dosage should also be considered in patients with enteric symptoms during radiation therapy.

  9. Arthrogryposis: an update on clinical aspects, etiology, and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Feluś, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Arthrogryposes – multiple joint contractures – are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous class of diseases, where accurate diagnosis, recognition of the underlying pathology and classification are of key importance for the prognosis as well as for selection of appropriate management. This treatment remains challenging and optimally in arthrogrypotic patients should be carried out by a team of specialists familiar with all aspects of arthrogryposis pathology and treatment modalities: rehabilitation, orthotics and surgery. In this comprehensive review article, based on literature and clinical experience, the authors present an update on current knowledge on etiology, classifications and treatment options for skeletal deformations possible in arthrogryposis. PMID:26925114

  10. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  11. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle. PMID:26594659

  12. Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment.

    PubMed

    Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, Chengxiang

    2012-07-01

    Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching.

  13. Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, ChengXiang

    2011-01-01

    Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching. PMID:22711970

  14. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  15. Working session 5: Operational aspects and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Donoghue, J.

    1997-02-01

    A general observation is that both operational aspects and risk analysis cannot be adequately discussed without information presented in other sessions. Some overlap of conclusions and recommendations is therefore to be expected. Further, it was assumed that recommendations concerning improvements in some related topics were generated by other sessions and are not repeated here. These include: (1) Knowledge on degradation mechanisms (initiation, progression, and failure). (2) Modeling of degradation (initiation, progression, and failure). (3) Capabilities of NDE methods. (4) Preventive maintenance and repair. One should note here, however, that all of these directly affect both operational and risk aspects of affected plants. A list of conclusions and recommendations is based on available presentations and discussions addressing risk and operational experience. The authors aimed at reaching as broad a consensus as possible. It should be noted here that there is no strict delineation between operational and safety aspects of degradation of steam generator tubes. This is caused by different risk perceptions in different countries/societies. The conclusions and recommendations were divided into four broad groups: human reliability; leakage monitoring; risk impact; and consequence assessment.

  16. Flying High: The Aeromedical Aspects of Marihuana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A summary of the discussions from the Civil Aeromedical Institute Symposium on aeromedical aspects of marihuana is presented. The invited panel...discussed the legal aspects of marihuana use and aviation, the experiences of military aviation, and the acute and chronic effects of the drug. For civil...aviation, the panel proposed a 12-16 hour period between marihuana use and work in aviation, no radical changes in FAA policy towards marihuana use, and additional research on aeromedical aspects of marihuana .

  17. Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliman, J.; Itkis, M. G.; Gmuca, Š.

    2008-11-01

    [symbol]Pu / Y. V. Pyatkov. Comparative study of the ternary particle emission in [symbol] and [symbol]Cm(SF) / S. Vermote ... [et al.] -- Structure of fission fragments and neurton rich nuclei / manifestation of average y-ray multiplicity in the fission modes of [symbol]Cf(sf) and the proton-induced fission of [symbol]Pa, [symbol]Np, and [symbol]Am / M. Berešová ... [et al.]. Yields of correlated fragment pairs and average gamma-ray multiplicities and energies in [symbol]Pb([symbol]O, f) / A. Bogachev ... [et al.]. Recent experiments at gammasphere intended to the study of [symbol]Cf spontaneous fission / A. V. Daniel ... [et al.]. Nuclear structure studies of microsecond isomers near A =100 / J. Genevey ... [et al.]. Covariant density functional theory: isospin properties of nuclei far from stability / G. A. Lalazisis. Relativistic mean-field description of light nuclei / J. Leja and Š. Gmuca. Energy nucleon spectra from reactions at intermediate energies / O. Grudzevich ... [et al.] -- Developments in experimental techniques. Analysis, processing and visualization of multidimensional data using DaqProVis system / M. Morháč ... [et al.].

  18. Prognostic Aspects of Benzene Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Hernberg, S.; Savilahti, M.; Ahlman, K.; Asp, S.

    1966-01-01

    In 1955, a benzene mass-poisoning was detected in a shoe factory in Finland. One hundred and forty-seven persons were heavily exposed, and more than 100 had abnormal blood counts. One died and 10 required hospital treatment. This paper deals with a re-examination of the involved workers nine years later. One hundred and twenty-five persons attended for re-examination. Eight had died, two refused, and 11 could not be located. The possibility of death due to benzene poisoning having occurred among these persons was ruled out by checking the national death register. Each of the subjects underwent a haematological examination which included the haemoglobin value and the erythrocyte, reticulocyte, leucocyte, and thrombocyte counts. A differential count of the leucocytes was also made. A randomly chosen group of 86 persons served as a control group. The thrombocytes of the whole patient group and the erythrocytes of the men were significantly lower than those of the controls, whereas the leucocytes of the whole group and the erythrocytes of the women failed to show any statistical difference. In a multiple discriminant function analysis, considering all three counts at the same time, only the men differed slightly from the controls at the re-examination. The analysis also showed that the prognosis of the severe cases did not differ from that of the mild ones, provided the acute stage had been passed. Some illustrative case reports are added. One patient developed leukaemia after a latency of seven years, whereas most of the others—chosen because of grave symptoms in the initial stage—have recovered. The results are discussed from the point of view of prognosis. PMID:5946130

  19. [Traumatic shock--physiopathologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Fabiano, G; Pezzolla, A; Filograna, M A; Ferrarese, F

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic shock is a complex phenomenon that represents the culminating element of a series of events. It is, in fact, the outcome of an imbalance-decompensation of the organism's defence mechanisms, in which the oxygen supply to the mitochondria is hampered by a macro and/or microcirculation failure. Basically, it is a form of hypovolemic shock in which further factors have a role, including the activation of inflammation mediators. It should also be stressed that part of the cellular damage is caused by tissue reperfusion. Good hemodynamic compensation is maintained with loss of up to 30% of the circulation mass but, beyond this amount, a fall of the cardiac index, peripheral pO2, and an increase of blood lactates will ensue. Hypoxia causes capillary injury and increased permeability, resulting in the formation of edema and finally in loss of the self-regulating power of the microcirculation. Moreover, it strongly stimulates pro-inflammatory activation of the macrophages and the release of vasoactive substances, such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The inflammatory response is triggered by cascade systems (such as the complement, coagulation, kinins, fibrinolysis), cell elements (endothelium, leukocytes, macrophages, monocytes, mast cells) and the release of mediators (cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, histamine, etc.) and others interacting factors. In severe trauma, the inflammatory process extends beyond the local limits, maintaining and aggravating the state of shock and causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), with involvement and injury of healthy organs and tissues even at a distance from the site of trauma, raising a risk of onset of ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome), sepsis, MODS (Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome). Tissue reperfusion (reoxygenation) also induces the production of toxic metabolites, such as hydroxylated anions, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide: peroxidation of the phospholipid cell membranes alters the barrier

  20. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

  1. Food irradiation facilities: Requirements and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorfer, Josef

    2016-12-01

    This survey presents some aspects and requirement for food irradiation facilities. Topics like radiation source, dose ranges and dose rate are discussed, together with logistics and operational considerations

  2. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  3. The first Korean patient with Potocki-Shaffer syndrome: a rare cause of multiple exostoses.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Young Bae; Yim, Shin-Young; Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Ok-Hwa

    2015-02-01

    Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS, OMIM #601224) is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of genes located on the 11p11.2p12. Affected individuals have a number of characteristic features including multiple exostoses, biparietal foramina, abnormalities of genitourinary system, hypotonia, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. We report here on the first Korean case of an 8-yr-old boy with PSS diagnosed by high resolution microarray. Initial evaluation was done at age 6 months because of a history of developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic face. Coronal craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina were found on skull radiographs. At age 6 yr, he had severe global developmental delay. Multiple exostoses of long bones were detected during a radiological check-up. Based on the clinical and radiological features, PSS was highly suspected. Subsequently, chromosomal microarray analysis identified an 8.6 Mb deletion at 11p11.2 [arr 11p12p11.2 (Chr11:39,204,770-47,791,278)×1]. The patient continued rehabilitation therapy for profound developmental delay. The progression of multiple exostosis has being monitored. This case confirms and extends data on the genetic basis of PSS. In clinical and radiologic aspect, a patient with multiple exostoses accompanying with syndromic features, including craniofacial abnormalities and mental retardation, the diagnosis of PSS should be considered.

  4. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... deliver by C-section, especially if there are three babies or more. Parenting multiples can be a challenge. Volunteer help and support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and ...

  5. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  6. Biochemical aspects of Huntington's chorea.

    PubMed Central

    Caraceni, T; Calderini, G; Consolazione, A; Riva, E; Algeri, S; Girotti, F; Spreafico, R; Branciforti, A; Dall'olio, A; Morselli, P L

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients affected by Huntington's chorea were divided into two groups, 'slow' and 'fast', according to IQ scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue scale, and scores on some motor performance tests. A possible correlation was looked for between some biochemical data (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) levels, plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), dopamine (DA) uptake by platelets), and clinical data (duration of illness, severity of symptoms, age of patients, IQ scores, 'slow' and 'fast' groups). The CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA levels were found to be significantly lowered in comparison with normal controls. DBH activity and DA uptake by platelets did not differ significantly from normal subjects. Treatment with haloperidol in all patients and with dipropylacetic acid in three patients did not appear to modify the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA concentrations, the plasma DBH activity, or the DA uptake. There were no significant differences in the CSF, HVA, and 5HIAA contents between the two groups of patients, and there was no correlation between biochemical data and clinical features. PMID:143508

  7. Onychomycosis in Israel: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rina; Shemer, Avner; Hochberg, Malca; Keness, Yoram; Shvarzman, Rima; Mandelblat, Marina; Frenkel, Michael; Segal, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection treated orally for prolonged periods of treatment, caused primarily by Dermatophytes, Candida species and non-dermatophyte moulds (NDMs). The prevalence of specific aetiology may differ in dependence of environmental, geographic and demographic factors, and may affect management of the infection. The objective of this survey was to analyse epidemiologic parameters of onychomycosis in Israel. Data of a cohort of 27,093 patients were collected from six centres during a 2- and 10-year period. The diagnosis was based on microscopy of KOH/calcofluor mounts of nail scrapings and culture isolation. A positive result indicates isolation of a fungus in culture. Data were analysed for each centre and expressed as range for the whole cohort, using the spss v18 software. Analysis included three epidemiologic parameters: fungal aetiology in toe- and fingernails; association with gender; association with age group. Dermatophytes were the major causative agents and Trichophyton rubrum the most frequent isolate. Candida species were more frequent in women fingernails; frequency increased with age and C. parapsilosis the most frequent species. NDMs were isolated at low rate and Aspergillus terreus was the most frequent isolate. This is a first large cohort of onychomycosis patients from Israel analysed by defined epidemiological parameters.

  8. [Reproductive aspects of celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2005-01-01

    In the past, celiac disease (CD), or intolerance to gluten, was considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are other clinic and subclinical forms which appear later in life. Target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and female and male reproductive systems. CD interference on reproduction is related to the multifactorial nature of the disease, whose pathological manifestations can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K, which are essential for organogenesis, and fat-soluble vitamins important for spermatogenesis. Regarding endocrine disorders, the deficiencies of specific trace elements on ovarian function could explain its involvement in the increased risk of female osteoporosis in CD patients. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens; the increases of follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, not associated with infertility, may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health. Since reproductive alterations are reversible, adoption of a gluten-free diet supported by early diagnosis is important. Therefore, the detection of early biomarkers, such as deficiencies of vitamins and/or iron and andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions, should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment.

  9. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  10. [Immunological aspects of asbestos-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanceljak-Macan, Bozica

    2009-11-01

    Asbestos is a generic name for a group of silicate minerals. The most common are chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite and anthophyllite. Exposure to asbestos may cause asbestos-related non-malignant diseases of the lung and pleura, including asbestosis, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural fibrosis, small airway disease, and malignant diseases such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Inhaled asbestos fibres deposit in the distal regions of the respiratory system where they interact with epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, and trigger active immunological response which leads to a slowly progressing lung fibrosis. Asbestos may affect immunocompetent cells and induce malignant transformation of mesothelial cells. It is still not clear whether asbestos causes mesothelioma directly or indirectly. There is a general opinion that malignant mesothelioma is a complex tumour that results from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations over many years. There is no specific antibody for malignant mesothelioma as yet which could act as a single diagnostic tool. Recent studies have demonstrated that asbestos acts on peripheral T cells as superantigen and that in malignant mesothelioma patients there is an overexpression of the Bcl-2 gene on peripheral CD4+ T cells. These findings contribute to better understanding of biological effects of asbestos in respect to the duration and intensity of exposure.

  11. Exploring New Dimensions of Mathematics-Related Affect: Embodied and Social Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical approaches for research on mathematics-related affect from the 1990s until today. In order to organise this field, a metatheory of the affective domain is developed, based on distinctions along three dimensions: 1) cognitive, motivational and emotional aspects of affect; 2) rapidly changing affective states…

  12. Alcohol and suicide: neurobiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2006-06-21

    Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol), has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism), is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3-5% of women. An additional 5-10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  13. Genus Paracoccidioides: Species Recognition and Biogeographic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. Methodology/Principal Findings Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3) were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE) analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11–32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. Conclusions/Significance The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:22666382

  14. Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS). General and stomatological aspects.

    PubMed

    Ausukua, Martina; Dublin, Igone; Echebarria, Maria A; Aguirre, Jose M

    2009-11-01

    Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS) is a special contact allergy conditioned by specific amino acids in food allergens, usually fruits, as well as some proteins from different pollens. It is usually manifested in the mouth, however relatively little is known about the syndrome in Odontology. OAS is a fairly common adverse reaction that occurs after ingesting certain foods, such as peaches or apples, produced in atopic individuals who usually suffer from rhinitis, bronchial asthma or both. This syndrome mainly affects the oral cavity and oropharynx, provoking minor local alterations, although there may be serious systematic reactions, making it important to distinguish it from other oral processes when making the diagnosis. One of the more severe forms of OAS is anaphylaxis, which is food-induced. In this study, we will analyze the key etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome, focusing specifically on the stomatological aspects.

  15. Deformation mechanisms in negative Poisson's ratio materials - Structural aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakes, R.

    1991-01-01

    Poisson's ratio in materials is governed by the following aspects of the microstructure: the presence of rotational degrees of freedom, non-affine deformation kinematics, or anisotropic structure. Several structural models are examined. The non-affine kinematics are seen to be essential for the production of negative Poisson's ratios for isotropic materials containing central force linkages of positive stiffness. Non-central forces combined with pre-load can also give rise to a negative Poisson's ratio in isotropic materials. A chiral microstructure with non-central force interaction or non-affine deformation can also exhibit a negative Poisson's ratio. Toughness and damage resistance in these materials may be affected by the Poisson's ratio itself, as well as by generalized continuum aspects associated with the microstructure.

  16. Subjective Aspects of Cognitive Control at Different Stages of Processing

    PubMed Central

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Wilson, Lilian E.; Berger, Christopher C.; Honhongva, Mikaela; Gazzaley, Adam; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    While research on cognitive control has addressed the effects that different forms of cognitive interference have on behavior and the activities of certain brain regions, until recently scientific approaches have been silent regarding the effects of interference on subjective experience. We demonstrate that, at the level of the individual trial, participants can reliably introspect the subjective aspects (e.g., perceptions of difficulty, competition, and control) of responding in interference paradigms. Similar subjective effects were obtained for both expressed and unexpressed (subvocalized) actions. Few participants discerned the source of these effects. These basic findings illuminate aspects of cognitive control and cognitive effort. In addition, these data have implications for the study of response interference in affect and self-control, and they begin to address theories regarding the function of consciousness. PMID:19933564

  17. Forensic aspects of sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, J P; McDonald, J J

    1999-03-01

    Sexual harassment law presents a complex set of issues not only for lawyers but also for psychiatrists in their roles both as evaluators and clinicians. Judge Reinhardt of the US Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit, summed up these complexities: "We tend these days, far more than in earlier times, to find our friends, lovers, and even mates in the workplace. We ... often discover that our interests and values are closer to those of our colleagues or fellow employees than to those of people we meet in connection with other activities. In short, increased proximity breeds increased volitional sexual activity." On the other hand, he notes that Title VII "entitles individuals to a workplace that is free from the evil of sexual intimidation or repression. It is frequently difficult to reconcile the two competing values." He goes on to ask, "When does a healthy constructive interest in romance become sexual harassment? To what extent is pursuit of a co-worker proper but of a subordinate forbidden? Is wooing or courting a thing of the past? Must a suitor cease his attentions at the first sign of disinterest or resistance? Must there be an express agreement before the person seeking romance may even hold the hand of the subject of his affection? Is it now verboten to steal a kiss? In the workplace? Everywhere? Under all circumstances or only some? Has the art of romantic persuasion lost its charm? Questions relating to love and sex are among the most difficult for society to answer." The US Supreme Court has stressed the need for common sense in evaluating cases of sexual harassment. Perhaps psychiatrists can play a sobering role in developing answers to these questions.

  18. Theoretical aspects of calcium signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pencea, Corneliu Stefan

    2001-08-01

    Experiments investigating intracellular calcium dynamics have revealed that calcium signals differentially affect a variety of intracellular processes, from fertilization and cell development and differentiation to subsequent cellular activity, ending with cell death. As an intracellular messenger, calcium transmits information within and between cells, thus regulating their activity. To control such a variety of processes, calcium signals have to be very flexible and also precisely regulated. The cell uses a calcium signaling ``toolkit'', where calcium ions can act in different contexts of space, amplitude and time. For different tasks, the cell selects the particular signal, or combination of signals, that triggers the appropriate physiological response. The physical foundations of such a versatile cellular signaling toolkit involving calcium are not completely understood, despite important experimental and theoretical progress made recently. The declared goal of this work is to investigate physical mechanisms on which the propagation of differential signals can be based. The dynamics of calcium near a cluster of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) activated calcium channels has been investigated analytically and numerically. Our work has demonstrated that clusters of different IP3 receptors can show similar bistable behavior, but differ in both the transient and long term dynamics. We have also investigated the conditions under which a calcium signal propagates between a pair of localized stores. We have shown that the propagation of the signal across a random distribution of such stores shows a percolation transition manifested in the shape of the wave front. More importantly, our work indicates that specific distribution of stores can be interpreted as calcium circuits that can perform important signal analyzing task, from unidirectional propagation and coincidence detection to a complete set of logic gates. We believe that phenomena like the ones described are

  19. Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Reimers-Kipping, S; Hevers, W; Pääbo, S; Enard, W

    2011-02-23

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we investigated if these effects are found in other brain regions. We found that neurons in the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the striatum have increased dendrite lengths in the humanized mice whereas neurons in the amygdala and the cerebellum do not. In agreement with previous work we found increased LTD in medium spiny neurons, but did not detect alterations of synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells. We conclude that although Foxp2 is expressed in many brain regions and has multiple roles during mammalian development, the evolutionary changes that occurred in the protein in human ancestors specifically affect brain regions that are connected via cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

  20. Acute Optic Neuritis: Prognosis for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    The literature was reviewed in regard to acute optic neuritis: prognosis for the development of multiple sclerosis , with specific reference to our...series, was preselected and not prospective, causing a higher incidence of later multiple sclerosis . The second factor was the definition of multiple ...development of multiple sclerosis in patients affected with acute optic neuritis. This finding leads us to conclude that an incidence of 13% to 17