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Sample records for affects multiple aspects

  1. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  2. Multiple sclerosis: Experimental and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, L.; Raine, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the experimental and clinical aspects of multiple sclerosis. Specifically discussed are - Association of Epstein Barr Virus with pathology of central nervous system; immunology of viruses; and immunosuppression.

  3. Multiple sclerosis: methodological aspects of cognitive testing.

    PubMed

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals a significant correlation between results of an attention and perceptual motor speed test i.e. Symbol Digit Modalities test and the ability to read TV-subtitles, but no correlation was found with another attention and perceptual motor speed test, or verbal or visual memory. No correlation between the use of sedatives and results on neuropsychological tests was found. Anxiety was not correlated with the ability to read TV-subtitles. It is concluded that visual deficits but not the use of sedatives may be a confounding factor in neuropsychological testing in MS. PMID:8140888

  4. Managed care aspects of managing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system usually diagnosed in the second or third decade of life; MS is more common among women than men by a ratio of 3 to 1. With its relatively early age of onset and symptoms that impair patients' quality of life, MS requires lifelong, dynamic treatment, and places a substantial economic burden on individuals, healthcare systems, and society. The costs associated with providing benefits for MS therapy are growing rapidly and the increasing complexity of the MS market is impacting disease management for payers. Employers are also increasingly aware of the costs associated with MS and are asking health plans to advise on the most appropriate and cost-effective ways to manage both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies for MS. Health plans, by necessity, must therefore balance appropriate access to treatments for MS with the need to manage rising treatment costs. To meet this goal, payers require population-based solutions, guidelines, and treatment algorithms for the management of MS that can be used in clinical and formulary management decision making in the context of an evolving therapeutic landscape. Further, comparative studies are necessary for payers to determine which agents may work best on a population basis. Due to the current lack of appropriate clinical guidance and insufficient head-to-head data on disease-modifying drugs, strategies for health plans and clinical management have been designed using the best available evidence. Undoubtedly, management of this class will continue to evolve with the launch of newer agents. PMID:24494620

  5. How Interactions Affect Multiple Kinesin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly

    2013-03-01

    Intracellullar transport is supported by several classes of enzymatic molecules known as motor proteins. Cellular cargos are frequently transported by teams of motor proteins, and recent experimental and theoretical studies uncovered many features of such complex dynamics. Here we investigate theoretically the role of nonmechanical interactions between kinesin motor proteins and microtubules in the collective motion of motor proteins. Our analysis is based on stochastic model that explicitly takes into account all chemical and mechanical transitions. Nonmechanical interactions are assumed to affect kinesin mechanochemistry only when the motors are separated by less than 3 microtubule lattice sites, and it is shown that relatively weak interaction energies can have a significant effect on collective motor dynamics. In agreement with optical trapping experiments on structurally defined kinesin complexes, the model predicts that these effects primarily occur when cargos are transported against loads exceeding single-kinesin stalling forces. These results highlights the complex dynamics of multiple motor proteins in cellular transport phenomena.

  6. Aspects of Manual Wheelchair Configuration Affecting Mobility: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Medola, Fausto Orsi; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril; Santana, Carla da Silva; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects relating to equipment configuration affect users’ actions in a manual wheelchair, determining the overall mobility performance. Since the equipment components and configuration determine both stability and mobility efficiency, configuring the wheelchair with the most appropriate set-up for individual users’ needs is a difficult task. Several studies have shown the importance of seat/backrest assembly and the relative position of the rear wheels to the user in terms of the kinetics and kinematics of manual propulsion. More recently, new studies have brought to light evidence on the inertial properties of different wheelchair configurations. Further new studies have highlighted the handrim as a key component of wheelchair assembly, since it is the interface through which the user drives the chair. In light of the new evidence on wheelchair mechanics and propulsion kinetics and kinematics, this article presents a review of the most important aspects of wheelchair configuration that affect the users’ actions and mobility. PMID:24648656

  7. PSEUDOBULBAR AFFECT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Viktor; Rovazdi, Merisanda Časar; Kraml, Oto; Kes, Vanja Bašić

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to analyze the link between PBA and patient age, sex, clinical course of MS, disease duration and degree of disability. The study was conducted on 79 MS patients that underwent inpatient rehabilitation at the Lipik Special Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation in the period from August 15, 2014 to February 15, 2015. PBA is a term used for an emotional disinhibition syndrome characterized by sudden and involuntary episodes of crying or laughing which are not in proportion to the stimulus applied or occur without stimulus. The condition can be present in patients with various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, patients having recovered from stroke, or following traumatic brain injury. The estimated prevalence in patients with MS ranges from 10% to 46.2%. As a measuring instrument in the study, we used the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS), where a sum 17 denoted positive finding. The total number of respondents was 79, of which 33 (41.8%) met the CNS-LS criteria for the diagnosis of PBA. There was no statistically significant correlation between PBA, age and degree of disability, although PBA was more common in women and in patients with a secondary progressive form of the disease. We found that 42.4% of respondents with positive CNS-LS criteria for PBA did not inform their neurologist on the presence of sudden mood changes. The high frequency of PBA and the fact that a significant proportion of patients did not inform the neurologist on their affective disturbances call for an active approach to diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26415311

  8. Multiple Sclerosis Affects Skeletal Muscle Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank; Krekels, Maartje; Grevendonk, Lotte; Eijnde, Bert O.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on skeletal muscle characteristics, such as muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type proportion, muscle strength and whole muscle mass, remains conflicting. Methods In this cross sectional study, body composition and muscle strength of the quadriceps were assessed in 34 MS (EDSS: 2.5±0.19) patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC). Hereafter a muscle biopsy (m.vastus lateralis) was taken. Results Compared to HC, mean muscle fiber CSA of all fibers, as well as CSA of type I, II and IIa fibers were smaller and muscle strength of the quadriceps was lower in MS patients. Whole body composition was comparable between groups. However, compared to HC, the biopsied leg tended to have a higher fat percentage (p = 0.1) and a lower lean mass (p = 0.06) in MS patients. Conclusion MS seems to negatively influence skeletal muscle fiber CSA, muscle strength and muscle mass of the lower limbs of mildly affected MS patients. This emphasises the need for rehabilitation programs focusing on muscle preservation of the lower limb. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896 PMID:25264868

  9. Teachers’ perceptions of aspects affecting seminar learning: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many medical schools have embraced small group learning methods in their undergraduate curricula. Given increasing financial constraints on universities, active learning groups like seminars (with 25 students a group) are gaining popularity. To enhance the understanding of seminar learning and to determine how seminar learning can be optimised it is important to investigate stakeholders’ views. In this study, we qualitatively explored the views of teachers on aspects affecting seminar learning. Methods Twenty-four teachers with experience in facilitating seminars in a three-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Three focus groups met twice with an interval of two weeks led by one moderator. Sessions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects that influence seminar learning. Results Teachers identified seven key aspects affecting seminar learning: the seminar teacher, students, preparation, group functioning, seminar goals and content, course coherence and schedule and facilities. Important components of these aspects were: the teachers’ role in developing seminars (‘ownership’), the amount and quality of preparation materials, a non-threatening learning climate, continuity of group composition, suitability of subjects for seminar teaching, the number and quality of seminar questions, and alignment of different course activities. Conclusions The results of this study contribute to the unravelling of the ‘the black box’ of seminar learning. Suggestions for ways to optimise active learning in seminars are made regarding curriculum development, seminar content, quality assurance and faculty development. PMID:23399475

  10. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution. PMID:15183924

  11. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer’s perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor’s perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors—transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading—in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  12. Taking Perspective: Personal Pronouns Affect Experiential Aspects of Literary Reading.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Franziska; Burke, Michael; Hagoort, Peter; Willems, Roel M

    2016-01-01

    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer's perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor's perspective. The direction of the effect for 1st person pronouns seems to depend on the situational context. In the present study, we investigated how personal pronouns influence discourse comprehension when people read fiction stories and if this has consequences for affective components like emotion during reading or appreciation of the story. We wanted to find out if personal pronouns affect immersion and arousal, as well as appreciation of fiction. In a natural reading paradigm, we measured electrodermal activity and story immersion, while participants read literary stories with 1st and 3rd person pronouns referring to the protagonist. In addition, participants rated and ranked the stories for appreciation. Our results show that stories with 1st person pronouns lead to higher immersion. Two factors-transportation into the story world and mental imagery during reading-in particular showed higher scores for 1st person as compared to 3rd person pronoun stories. In contrast, arousal as measured by electrodermal activity seemed tentatively higher for 3rd person pronoun stories. The two measures of appreciation were not affected by the pronoun manipulation. Our findings underscore the importance of perspective for language processing, and additionally show which aspects of the narrative experience are influenced by a change in perspective. PMID:27192060

  13. Clinical and molecular genetic aspects of hereditary multiple cutaneous leiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Badeloe, Sadhanna; Frank, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis syndrome (MCUL; OMIM 150800) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition disorder, characterized by leiomyomas of the skin and uterus. When associated with kidney cancer, this syndrome is known as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC; OMIM 605839). All disease variants result from heterozygous mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Cutaneous leiomyoma can easily be recognized and confirmed by histological examination. Recognition of these benign skin tumors can lead to the diagnosis of MCUL or HLRCC. Timely diagnosis is crucial for offering affected individuals and families potentially life-saving regular prophylactic screening examinations for renal tumors. Here we provide an overview of clinical and genetic features of this complex tumor syndrome and discuss patient management and current therapeutic strategies. PMID:19939761

  14. Allergological and Toxicological Aspects in a Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pigatto, Paolo D.; Minoia, Claudio; Ronchi, Anna; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia M.; Spadari, Francesco; Passoni, Manuela; Somalvico, Francesco; Bombeccari, Gian Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by an exaggerated response to toxicants. We ascertained the prevalence of allergy to metals and toxicological aspects in MCS patients. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 41 patients with MCS. We performed patch testing (n = 21) for dental series and did lymphocyte transformation test (n = 18) for metals. We measured mercury in samples of blood (n = 19), urine (n = 19), saliva (n = 20), and scalp hair (n = 17) to investigate the association between mercury levels and cases of MCS. Results. The prevalence of metal immune hypersensitivity in a subset of 26 patients was 92.3 percent. Elevations of mercury occurred in 81.2 percent (26 of 32). The mean (±SD) in blood concentrations of mercury was 7.6 ± 13.6 μg/L; mean in urine was 1.9 ± 2.5 μg/L; mean in scalp hair was 2.2 ± 2.5 μg/g; mean in saliva was 38.1 ± 52.1 μg/L. Subgroup analyses showed that elevation of mercury levels in biological matrices were associated with mercury amalgams in patients with MCS (22 patients), compared with controls (8 patients) (odds ratio 11 : 95 percent confidence interval 1.5 to 81.6; P = 0.023). Conclusions. Our data show an increased prevalence of metal allergy and elevation of mercury levels in bioindicators among patients with MCS. PMID:24367721

  15. Aspects of Ethics As They Affect Social Science Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildea, Ray Y.

    This paper discusses the current interest in values and moral education and briefly comments on how they affect college level social science curricula. Many contemporary educators and scholars hope that a renewed emphasis on moral education will achieve the following goals: (1) introduce normative inquiry into higher learning, in order to…

  16. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  17. New aspects on patients affected by dysferlin deficient muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, Lars; Aboumousa, Ahmed; Eagle, Michelle; Hudson, Judith; Sarkozy, Anna; Vita, Gianluca; Charlton, Richard; Roberts, Mark; Straub, Volker; Barresi, Rita; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the dysferlin gene lead to limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B, Miyoshi myopathy and distal anterior compartment myopathy. A cohort of 36 patients affected by dysferlinopathy is described, in the first UK study of clinical, genetic, pathological and biochemical data. The diagnosis was established by reduction of dysferlin in the muscle biopsy and subsequent mutational analysis of the dysferlin gene. Seventeen mutations were novel; the majority of mutations were small deletions/insertions, and no mutational hotspots were identified. Sixty-one per cent of patients (22 patients) initially presented with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B, 31% (11 patients) with a Miyoshi phenotype, one patient with proximodistal mode of onset, one patient with muscle stiffness after exercise and one patient as a symptomatic carrier. A wider range of age of onset was noted than previously reported, with 25% of patients having first symptoms before the age of 13 years. Independent of the initial mode of presentation, in our cohort of patients the gastrocnemius muscle was the most severely affected muscle leading to an inability to stand on tiptoes, and lower limbs were affected more severely than upper limbs. As previous anecdotal evidence on patients affected by dysferlinopathy suggests good muscle prowess before onset of symptoms, we also investigated pre-symptomatic fitness levels of the patients. Fifty-three per cent of the patients were very active and sporty before the onset of symptoms which makes the clinical course of dysferlinopathy unusual within the different forms of muscular dystrophy and provides a challenge to understanding the underlying pathomechanisms in this disease. PMID:19528035

  18. Epidemiology and genetic aspects of multiple sclerosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rohit; Bali, Prerna; Chaudhari, Rima M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a complex pathophysiology. Considered a rare disease in India in the past, studies over time suggest an increase in subjects with MS in India, although the observations are limited by the lack of formally conducted epidemiological studies and the absence of a nationwide registry. The current World Health Organization (WHO) Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF) “Atlas of MS” 2013 estimates a prevalence rate of 5-20 per 100,000, which also seems an underestimate. Although there have been reports of phenotypic differences between MS in Indians and the Western counterparts, recent studies report a reasonable similarity in disease types and characteristics. A few studies on the genetics of MS have been reported, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations and non-major histopathology complex (MHC) disease loci. The current review discusses the pivotal studies of the past, newer observations on MS from India, and the need for a national registry. PMID:26538851

  19. [Genetic aspects in multiple sclerosis. II: HLA system].

    PubMed

    De Rezende, P A; Arruda, W O

    1996-09-01

    Review of studies about HLA antigens and multiple sclerosis (MS). The HLA system, in special class II antigens, subregions DR and DQ, is probably involved in the immunopathogenesis of MS. Haplotype DRB1*1501.DQA1*0102.DQB1*0602, corresponding to phenotype DR2.Dw2.DQ6, is positively associated with MS in several caucasoid populations. Clinical heterogeneity of MS, as well as different diagnostic criteria adopted by investigators are potential sources of confusion and may lead to discrepant results. A better standardization of clinical and laboratorial methodology, appropriate subdivision of patients with different clinical forms of MS, may allow a more accurate evaluation of the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:9109989

  20. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) - Scientific and Public-Health Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a phenomenon which the ENT-doctor should be familiar with. It has its roots in the description of a syndrome in 1987. A worker spilled chemicals at his workplace and from then on he reacted highly sensitive to chemicals. Today, there are many people who explain their complaints with self-suspected MCS. Various pathopysiological models have been proposed, including toxicological, immunological or behaviorial models. But no-one could be proved so far. Since controlled provocation tests have also provided unclear results, an increasing number of doctors assumes today, that MCS reflects a psychic condition. In 1996, an expert team of the WHO has suggested the renaming of MCS to "idiopathic environmental illness" (IEI). However, other doctors still assume a chemical cause. Since there are neither straightforward diagnostic methods to proof MCS, nor reliable therapeutic concepts, treatment of MCS-patients is usually difficult. The MCS-debate (somatic vs psychic causes) seems to reflect the dilemma of the medical profession today, that somatic disorders of known origin can be well treated, whereas the increasing number of psychosomatic/ somatoform disorders is often resistant to medical help. The ENT-doctor should pay attention to changes of the nasal mucous membrane, nasal resistance and the sense of smell. Moreover he should know about the peculiarities of MCS-patients. The manuscript describes the present knowledge and state of discussion with special regard to the situation in Germany. PMID:22073047

  1. Some aspects of balance disorder in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Burina, Adnan; Sinanović, Osman; Smajlović, Dzevdet; Vidović, Mirjana; Brkić, Fuad

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze: frequency of balance disorder (vertigo and disequilibrium), frequency of abnormalities in auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes of the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with balance disorder, relation of patient's disability status to balance disorder and relation of the changes in MRI of the brainstem to AEP abnormalities. It was analyzed 60 patients with relapsing-remitting form of MS. Two groups of patients were made consecutively under Expanded Disability Status Scale score (EDSS): A (EDSS < or =4,5) and B (EDSS > or =5,0). The study was retrospective-prospective. After the neurological exam AEP and MRI of the brain have been done. Balance disorder has been verified as initial symptom in 29 (48,4%) and out of them disequilibrium experienced 24 (83,4%) patients. During the relapses balance disorder experienced 48 (80%) patients and in 37 (77,1%) it was disequilibrium. Among them 33 (68,7%) were with lower EDSS (< or =4,5) and 15 (31,3%) with higher EDSS score (> or =5). There is no correlation between disability status and vertigo which means that vertigo is not more frequent in more disabled patients and vice-versa. The AEP were pathological in 57 (95%) patients. Of all 29 patients with vertigo AEP were pathological in 28 (96,5%) while in 31 patients without vertigo pathological AEP were in 29 (93,5%) but it is not statistical significant. The most frequent characteristic of AEP changes were prolonged inter-peak latency III-V waves (48 patients or 80%). The plaque in brainstem visualized by MRI was found in 41 (71,8%) of patients (38 or 92,6% of them had pathological AEP and in three patients AEP were normal). In group of patients with pathological AEP, 38 (66,6%) of them had plaque in brainstem. In other three patients with normal AEP it was visualized plaque in brainstem. In the group of 29 patients with balance disorder, 20 (68,9%) had plaque in brainstem as well as 21 (67

  2. Nocturnal melatonin secretion in multiple sclerosis patients with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1993-02-01

    The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of CNS. Since nocturnal melatonin secretion is low in some groups of patients with mental depression, we predicted lower melatonin secretion in MS patients with history of affective illness compared to those without psychiatric disorders. To test this hypothesis, we studied single nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the incidence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 MS patients (4 men, 21 women; mean age = 39.4 years, SD = 9.3), 15 of whom had a history of coexisting psychiatric disorders with predominant affective symptomatology. Other factors that may be related to depression such as vitamin B12, folic acid, zinc, magnesium, and homocysteine, were also included in the analysis. Neither any of the metabolic factors surveyed nor the incidence of PC distinguished the psychiatric from the control group. However, the mean melatonin level in the psychiatric patients was significantly lower than in the control group. Since low melatonin secretion in patients with depression may be related to a phase-advance of the circadian oscillator regulating the offset of melatonin secretion, we propose that the depression of MS likewise may reflect the presence of dampened circadian oscillators. Furthermore, since exacerbation of motor symptoms in MS patients may be temporally related to worsening of depression, we propose that circadian phase lability may also underlie the relapsing-remitting course of the disease. Consequently, pharmacological agents such as lithium or bright light therapy, which have been shown to phase-delay circadian rhythms, might be effective in the treatment of affective symptoms in MS as well as preventing motor exacerbation and hastening a remission from an acute attack. PMID:8063528

  3. Understanding the Emotional Aspects of Escalation of Commitment: The Role of Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Yik, Michelle; Kwong, Jessica Y. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding the emotional aspects of organizational decision making, prior research has paid scant attention to the role of emotion in escalation of commitment. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between negative affect and escalation of commitment. Results showed that regardless of…

  4. Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Research on Its Affective and Social Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaudelin, Colette; Dussault, Marc; Brodeur, Monique

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a review of 34 qualitative and non-qualitative studies related to affective and social aspects of student-computer interactions. Highlights include the nature of the human-computer interaction (HCI); the interface, comparing graphic and text types; and the relation between variables linked to HCI, mainly trust, locus of control,…

  5. Chronic Loss of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Affects Motivational Aspects of Feeding in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Toonen, Pim W.; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Sears, Robert M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; De Vries, Taco J.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding. Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch+/+ or pmch−/− rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch−/− rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch−/− rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system. Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption. PMID

  6. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  7. Multiple Post-translational Modifications Affect Heterologous Protein Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Kurotani, Atsushi; Takagi, Tetsuo; Toyama, Mitsutoshi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Fukami, Yasuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are required for proper folding of many proteins. The low capacity for PTMs hinders the production of heterologous proteins in the widely used prokaryotic systems of protein synthesis. Until now, a systematic and comprehensive study concerning the specific effects of individual PTMs on heterologous protein synthesis has not been presented. To address this issue, we expressed 1488 human proteins and their domains in a bacterial cell-free system, and we examined the correlation of the expression yields with the presence of multiple PTM sites bioinformatically predicted in these proteins. This approach revealed a number of previously unknown statistically significant correlations. Prediction of some PTMs, such as myristoylation, glycosylation, palmitoylation, and disulfide bond formation, was found to significantly worsen protein amenability to soluble expression. The presence of other PTMs, such as aspartyl hydroxylation, C-terminal amidation, and Tyr sulfation, did not correlate with the yield of heterologous protein expression. Surprisingly, the predicted presence of several PTMs, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and prenylation, was associated with the increased production of properly folded soluble proteins. The plausible rationales for the existence of the observed correlations are presented. Our findings suggest that identification of potential PTMs in polypeptide sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing heterologous protein synthesis. In sum, this study provides the most compelling evidence so far for the role of multiple PTMs in the stability and solubility of heterologously expressed recombinant proteins. PMID:22674579

  8. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  9. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  10. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  11. Resource distributions affect social learning on multiple timescales.

    PubMed

    van der Post, Daniel J; Ursem, Bas; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2009-09-01

    We study how learning is shaped by foraging opportunities and self-organizing processes and how this impacts on the effects of "copying what neighbors eat" on multiple timescales. We use an individual-based model with a rich environment, where group foragers learn what to eat. We vary foraging opportunities by changing local variation in resources, studying copying in environments with pure patches, varied patches, and uniform distributed resources. We find that copying can help individuals explore the environment by sharing information, but this depends on how foraging opportunities shape the learning process. Copying has the greatest impact in varied patches, where local resource variation makes learning difficult, but local resource abundance makes copying easy. In contrast, copying is redundant or excessive in pure patches where learning is easy, and mostly ineffective in uniform environments where learning is difficult. Our results reveal that the mediation of copying behavior by individual experience is crucial for the impact of copying. Moreover, we find that the dynamics of social learning at short timescales shapes cultural phenomena. In fact, the integration of learning on short and long timescales generates cumulative cultural improvement in diet. Our results therefore provide insight into how and when such processes can arise. These insights need to be taken into account when considering behavioral patterns in nature. PMID:19701483

  12. Cognitive declines in healthy aging: evidence from multiple aspects of interference resolution.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Corinne; Martin, Randi C

    2014-06-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that older adults show age-related deficits in interference resolution, also referred to as inhibitory control. Although oftentimes considered as a unitary aspect of executive function, various lines of work support the notion that interference resolution may be better understood as multiple constructs, including resistance to proactive interference (PI) and response-distractor inhibition (e.g., Friedman & Miyake, 2004). Using this dichotomy, the present study assessed whether older adults (relative to younger adults) show impaired performance across both, 1, or neither of these interference resolution constructs. To do so, we used multiple tasks to tap each construct and examined age effects at both the single task and latent variable levels. Older adults consistently demonstrated exaggerated interference effects across resistance to PI tasks. Although the results for the response-distractor inhibition tasks were less consistent at the individual task level analyses, age effects were evident on multiple tasks, as well as at the latent variable level. However, results of the latent variable modeling suggested declines in interference resolution are best explained by variance that is common to the 2 interference resolution constructs measured herein. Furthermore, the effect of age on interference resolution was found to be both distinct from declines in working memory, and independent of processing speed. These findings suggest multiple cognitive domains are independently sensitive to age, but that declines in the interference resolution constructs measured herein may originate from a common cause. PMID:24955989

  13. Epidemiological aspects of rheumatoid arthritis patients affected by oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This literature review aims to evaluate the epidemiologic profile of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that developed a bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis that affect the jaws (BRONJ), including demographic aspects, as well as clinical and therapeutic issues. A search of PUBMED/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from January 2003 to September 2011 was conducted with the objective of identifying publications that contained case reports regarding oral BRONJ in RA patients. Patients with RA who develop oral BRONJ are usually women above 60 years taking steroids and long-term alendronate. Most of them have osteoporosis, and lesions, triggered by dental procedures, are usually detected at stage II in the mandible. Although there is no accepted treatment protocol, these patients seem to have better outcomes with conservative approaches that include antibiotic therapy, chlorhexidine, and drug discontinuation. PMID:22376948

  14. Simulation and investigation of factors affecting high aspect ratio UV embossing.

    PubMed

    Chan-Park, Mary B; Lam, Y C; Laulia, P; Joshi, S C

    2005-03-01

    UV embossing is a replication method whereby an UV-curable polymer is pressed against a patterned mold and cured with UV irradiation, resulting in a patterned polymeric substrate. High aspect ratio UV embossing will find diverse applications in tissue engineering, micro-optics, display technologies, and sensors. Demolding of an UV-embossed polymer pattern with aspect ratio of 5 from the mold has previously been demonstrated experimentally. In this paper, parameters that affect the demolding process have been identified and investigated. They include cross-linking shrinkage during curing by UV irradiation, modulus of cured polymer, interfacial fracture strength and toughness, and loading method during demolding. Shrinkage is an important parameter, and an optimum level of shrinkage to avoid breakage of the embossing during demolding was found to exist. This optimum level is that at which the maximum stress (sigma(1)max) experienced by the polymer during demolding is minimized. The micromechanics of demolding was found to be different for shrinkage values lower or larger than the optimum value. PMID:15723501

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells secretomes' affect multiple myeloma translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Marcus, H; Attar-Schneider, O; Dabbah, M; Zismanov, V; Tartakover-Matalon, S; Lishner, M; Drucker, L

    2016-06-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells' (BM-MSCs) role in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis is recognized. Recently, we have published that co-culture of MM cell lines with BM-MSCs results in mutual modulation of phenotype and proteome (via translation initiation (TI) factors eIF4E/eIF4GI) and that there are differences between normal donor BM-MSCs (ND-MSCs) and MM BM-MSCs (MM-MSCs) in this crosstalk. Here, we aimed to assess the involvement of soluble BM-MSCs' (ND, MM) components, more easily targeted, in manipulation of MM cell lines phenotype and TI with specific focus on microvesicles (MVs) capable of transferring critical biological material. We applied ND and MM-MSCs 72h secretomes to MM cell lines (U266 and ARP-1) for 12-72h and then assayed the cells' (viability, cell count, cell death, proliferation, cell cycle, autophagy) and TI (factors: eIF4E, teIF4GI; regulators: mTOR, MNK1/2, 4EBP; targets: cyclin D1, NFκB, SMAD5, cMyc, HIF1α). Furthermore, we dissected the secretome into >100kDa and <100kDa fractions and repeated the experiments. Finally, MVs were isolated from the ND and MM-MSCs secretomes and applied to MM cell lines. Phenotype and TI were assessed. Secretomes of BM-MSCs (ND, MM) significantly stimulated MM cell lines' TI, autophagy and proliferation. The dissected secretome yielded different effects on MM cell lines phenotype and TI according to fraction (>100kDa- repressed; <100kDa- stimulated) but with no association to source (ND, MM). Finally, in analyses of MVs extracted from BM-MSCs (ND, MM) we witnessed differences in accordance with source: ND-MSCs MVs inhibited proliferation, autophagy and TI whereas MM-MSCs MVs stimulated them. These observations highlight the very complex communication between MM and BM-MSCs and underscore its significance to major processes in the malignant cells. Studies into the influential MVs cargo are underway and expected to uncover targetable signals in the regulation of the TI/proliferation/autophagy cascade

  16. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24036417

  17. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54) of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III) in this microorganism. PMID:20167112

  18. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  19. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children with Multiple Disabilities during Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist…

  20. Safety and power multiplication aspects of mirror fusion-fission hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Klaus; Ågren, Olov; Källne, Jan; Hagnestâl, Anders; Moiseenko, Vladimir E.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor keff does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value keff =0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  1. Safety and power multiplication aspects of mirror fusion-fission hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Kaellne, Jan; Hagnestal, Anders; Moiseenko, Vladimir E.

    2012-06-19

    Recently, in a research project at Uppsala University a simplified neutronic model for a straight field line mirror hybrid has been devised and its most important operation parameters have been calculated under the constraints of a fission power production of 3 GW and that the effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} does not exceed 0.95. The model can be considered as representative for hybrids driven by other types of mirrors too. In order to reduce the demand on the fusion power of the mirror, a modified option of the hybrid has been considered that generates a reduced fission power of 1.5 GW with an increased maximal value k{sub eff}=0.97. The present paper deals with nuclear safety aspects of this type of hybrids. It presents and discusses calculation results of reactivity effects as well as of driver effects.

  2. Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

  3. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  4. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  5. Voltage-gated Na+ channels: multiplicity of expression, plasticity, functional implications and pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Diss, J K J; Fraser, S P; Djamgoz, M B A

    2004-05-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) are well known for mediating regenerative cell membrane depolarization and conduction of electrical signalling in nerves and muscles. However, VGSCs may also be expressed in traditionally "non-excitable" cell types, including lymphocytes, glia, fibroblasts and metastatic cancer cells of epithelial origin. Both the diversity and modulation of VGSC expression are far more complex than was initially apparent. There are at least 10 different genes that encode the alpha-subunits of VGSCs. Since VGSCs can contribute to a range of human disease conditions, it is important to understand both the control and consequences of VGSC functioning and how these aspects may be altered under pathophysiological conditions. Such mechanisms can be at the transcriptional, pre-translational or post-translational levels. This article reviews recent literature that has contributed to our understanding of how individual VGSC subtypes can generate their unique physiological signatures within different cell types. We also highlight emerging areas of interest, in particular, the finding of multiple expression of individual VGSC subtypes within single cells, the generation of alternative splice variants and the increasingly complex set of mechanisms of plasticity through which individual VGSC subtypes may be subtly controlled, including intracellular trafficking of VGSC protein. PMID:14963621

  6. An asymptotic theory for the interference of large aspect ratio swept wings and multiple propeller slipstreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, R. K.; Liu, C. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an asymptotic method for the analysis of the interference of multiple tractor propeller slipstream with large aspect ratio swept wings. It is assumed that the height of the slipstream is of the order of the wing chord and its spanwise extent is of the order of the wing span. Three different flow regions are identified by employing different stretching transformations. Asymptotic expansions are made in each of the three regions, using the chord to span ratio as the small expansion parameter. The details of the nonuniform flow in the slipstream enter into the wing sectional analysis. In the outer limit, the wing shrinks to a swept lifting line, and the slipstream reduces to a thin sheet of jet carrying the momentum gain from the propeller. The curvature of this jet sheet results in a pressure difference which is represented by a vortex sheet. The governing equations are solved by discretization. Several examples are considered for which experimental data are available. Comparison of the present results with the experimental data as well as other numerical solutions showed generally good agreement.

  7. Earthworms, as ecosystem engineers, influence multiple aspects of a salamander's ecology.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Tami S

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers create habitat that can be used by other species in multiple ways, such as refugees from predators, places to breed, or areas with increased prey resources. I conducted a series of enclosure experiments to: (1) determine if salamanders use earthworm burrows, and (2) examine the potential influence of earthworm burrow use and indirect effects on salamander intra- and interspecific competition, predator avoidance, and seasonal performance. I found that one species of woodland salamander, Plethodon cinereus, used earthworm burrows 50% of the time when burrows were present. Neither adults nor juveniles of the congeneric P. glutinosus used earthworm burrows. Intraspecific, but not interspecific, competition by P. cinereus affected salamander behavior when earthworms were absent, with P. cinereus found under cover objects >70% of the time when alone or with a P. glutinosus, but only 40% of the time when with another P. cinereus. When earthworms were present, the behavior of P. cinereus was similar across salamander treatments. Earthworms decreased the amount of leaf litter and microinvertebrates, although this did not affect salamander mass. In subsequent experiments using only P. cinereus, the refuge provided by earthworm burrows increased the survival of P. cinereus over the winter and allowed P. cinereus to avoid being consumed by the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Because earthworm burrows provide a refuge for P. cinereus during intraspecific encounters, in the presence of a predator and over the winter, they may serve as an important belowground-aboveground linkage in eastern forests where salamanders are common. PMID:20848134

  8. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  9. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  10. Identifying Aspects of Parental Involvement that Affect the Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulette-McIntyre, Ovella; Bagaka's, Joshua G.; Drake, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    This study identified parental practices that relate positively to high school students' academic performance. Parents of 643 high school students participated in the study. Data analysis, using a multiple linear regression model, shows parent-school connection, student gender, and race are significant predictors of student academic performance.…

  11. ALE meta-analysis reveals dissociable networks for affective and discriminative aspects of touch.

    PubMed

    Morrison, India

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally-laden tactile stimulation-such as a caress on the skin or the feel of velvet-may represent a functionally distinct domain of touch, underpinned by specific cortical pathways. In order to determine whether, and to what extent, cortical functional neuroanatomy supports a distinction between affective and discriminative touch, an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis was performed. This meta-analysis statistically mapped reported functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations from 17 published affective touch studies in which tactile stimulation was associated with positive subjective evaluation (n = 291, 34 experimental contrasts). A separate ALE meta-analysis mapped regions most likely to be activated by tactile stimulation during detection and discrimination tasks (n = 1,075, 91 experimental contrasts). These meta-analyses revealed dissociable regions for affective and discriminative touch, with posterior insula (PI) more likely to be activated for affective touch, and primary somatosensory cortices (SI) more likely to be activated for discriminative touch. Secondary somatosensory cortex had a high likelihood of engagement by both affective and discriminative touch. Further, meta-analytic connectivity (MCAM) analyses investigated network-level co-activation likelihoods independent of task or stimulus, across a range of domains and paradigms. Affective-related PI and discriminative-related SI regions co-activated with different networks, implicated in dissociable functions, but sharing somatosensory co-activations. Taken together, these meta-analytic findings suggest that affective and discriminative touch are dissociable both on the regional and network levels. However, their degree of shared activation likelihood in somatosensory cortices indicates that this dissociation reflects functional biases within tactile processing networks, rather than functionally and anatomically distinct pathways. PMID:26873519

  12. [Sexual-affective trajectories of people with chronic leg ulcers: aspects of therapeutic listening].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana; Paiva, Mirian Santos; Aparício, Elena Casado; Rodrigues, Gilmara Ribeiro Santos

    2013-09-01

    This is a qualitative study that aims to discuss the trajectories of people with chronic sores on the lower limbs,focusing on their affective and sexual experiences. Fifty-one adult outpatients participated and they received care at the infirmary of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia, between 2008 and 2009. Data was collected through techniques that included themed-story drawings and in-depth interviews, during therapeutic listening sessions,followed by an analysis of the content and an analysis of the drawing contents. Three categories emerged solitary sexual-affective trajectory, fragmented sexual-affective trajectory, and continuous or linear sexual-affective trajectory. It was concluded that the limitations imposed by sores influence the subjectivity of these people, leading them to processes of loss of self-confidence, self-deprecation and fear of sexual- affective demands. It becomes clear, therefore, for the need to promote, not only curative interventions for the body, but also to include therapeutic listening and psychological support in the assistance offered to these people. PMID:24344599

  13. Using multiple risk factors to assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective effects of learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    McKean, K J

    1994-03-01

    Rather than examining the effect of the pessimistic explanatory style on an outcome variable reflecting a single domain, I studied the effects of multiple learned-helplessness risk factors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables. Undergraduate students completed the Learned Helplessness Scale (Quinless & McDermott-Nelson, 1988) as a measure of their expectation of uncontrollability and the Explanatory Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) to determine their explanations for both positive and negative events. Results revealed a significant effect for risk level, with students at greater risk of helplessness reporting significantly more procrastination, lower grade point averages, and more dysphoria. These results support the use of multiple risk factors representing all learned-helplessness precursors and the assessment of learned-helplessness deficits drawn simultaneously from behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. PMID:8189396

  14. Psychological Aspects in Children Affected by Duchenne De Boulogne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease. PMID:25478112

  15. Psychological aspects in children affected by duchenne de boulogne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Filippo, Teresa Di; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele

    2012-07-26

    Impairment of intelligence in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients was described by Duchenne de Boulogne himself in 1868. Further studies report intelligence disorders with mayor impairment of memory. The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of affective and personality disorders in a group of children affected by DMD. Twenty six male DMD patients, mean age eleven and four months years old, were assessed for their affective and personality disorder. Only eight subjects had a total IQ below average with major difficulties in verbal and visual-spatial memory, comprehension, arithmetic and vocabulary. All the subjects presented some disorders: tendency to marginalization and isolation, self-depreciation, sense of insecurity, hypochondriac thoughts and marked state of anxiety. These disorders are often a dynamic prolongation of a psychological process which starts when the diagnosis is made and continues, in a slow and latent fashion, throughout the evolution of the disease. PMID:25478112

  16. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    PubMed

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  17. Affective Aspects on Mathematics Conceptualization: From Dichotomies to an Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Claudia Roberta; Andrade, Fernanda; Hazin, Izabel; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; do Nascimento, Jorge Costa; Lessa, Monica Maria Lins

    2003-01-01

    The present paper aims to propose a theoretical reflection in order to overcome a strong tradition in psychology concerning the analysis of cognition and affectivity as dichotomic processes explaining human behaviours. A general theory of the human subject is presented to discussion, followed by the proposition of a new unit of analysis for the…

  18. Diversity of Aspects on Play in Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Research on the meaning of play accelerated in the 1980s, but play in children with profound multiple disabilities is a topic, that is not discussed very often in research. In this article, play in children with profound multiple disabilities is in focus. The aim is to highlight studies on play as a tool for learning and early stimulation, and for…

  19. Perception of affective prosody in patients at an early stage of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Markus; Herold, Michele; Uekermann, Jennifer; Kis, Bernhard; Daum, Irene; Wiltfang, Jens; Berlit, Peter; Diehl, Rolf R; Abdel-Hamid, Mona

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is well known in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and has been described for many years. Cognitive impairment, memory, and attention deficits seem to be features of advanced MS stages, whereas depression and emotional instability already occur in early stages of the disease. However, little is known about processing of affective prosody in patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). In this study, tests assessing attention, memory, and processing of affective prosody were administered to 25 adult patients with a diagnosis of RRMS at an early stage and to 25 healthy controls (HC). Early stages of the disease were defined as being diagnosed with RRMS in the last 2 years and having an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 2 or lower. Patients and HC were comparable in intelligence quotient (IQ), educational level, age, handedness, and gender. Patients with early stages of RRMS performed below the control group with respect to the subtests 'discrimination of affective prosody' and 'matching of affective prosody to facial expression' for the emotion 'angry' of the 'Tübingen Affect Battery'. These deficits were not related to executive performance. Our findings suggest that emotional prosody comprehension is deficient in young patients with early stages of RRMS. Deficits in discriminating affective prosody early in the disease may make misunderstandings and poor communication more likely. This might negatively influence interpersonal relationships and quality of life in patients with RRMS. PMID:23126275

  20. Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens.

    PubMed

    Pélabon, C; Albertsen, E; Falahati-Anbaran, M; Wright, J; Armbruster, W S

    2015-09-01

    Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success among pollen donors, and whether siring success and seed mass are correlated. We then report the results of an experiment on Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae), assessing these critical variables in conjunction with a comparison of seed mass resulting from crosses with single vs. multiple pollen donors. Siring success differed among males when competing for fertilization, but average seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. Furthermore, paternal identity explained only 3.8% of the variance in seed mass, and siring success was not correlated with the mass of the seeds produced. Finally, within-infructescence variance in seed mass was not affected by the number of fathers. These results suggest that neither differential allocation nor sibling rivalry has any effect on the average mass of seeds in multiply sired fruits in D. scandens. Overall, the limited paternal effects observed in most studies and the possibility of diversification bet hedging among flowers (but not within flowers), suggest that multiple paternity within fruits or infructescence is unlikely to affect seed mass in a large number of angiosperm species. PMID:26174371

  1. Enhanced plasticity of bulk metallic glass in different aspect ratios via laser shock peening with multiple impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jie; Zhu, Yunhu; Zheng, Chao; Liu, Ren; Ji, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    In this study laser shock peening (LSP) with multiple laser impacts was used to improve the mechanical properties especially the plasticity of Zr35Ti30Cu8.25Be26.75 bulk metallic glass (BMG) pillars in two aspect ratios (1:1 and 2:1). It was found that, with increasing laser impacts up to 5, the compression plastic strain of BMG pillar with aspect ratio of 1:1 increased from 0 to 1.48% and the compression strength increased significantly from 1569 MPa to 1721 MPa. With further laser impacts beyond 5, the changes in the plasticity and the compression strength were observed to be insignificant. Considering the effect of sample geometry at the same laser impacts, it could be concluded that the BMG pillars with smaller aspect ratio of 1:1 had better mechanical properties than that of the lager BMG pillars with aspect ratio of 2:1. Besides, the elastic strain limit of BMG pillars with LSP was not only independent of the laser impacts, but also irrelevant to the aspect ratio. At last, we discussed the reason for the increase of plasticity in view of the creation of excess free volume during LSP.

  2. Multiple Aspects of Preschool Children's Social Cognition: Relations with Peer Acceptance and Peer Interaction Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Three aspects of young children's social cognition--accurate encoding of social cues, hostile attributions and response access/generation--were assessed among 128 children (64 girls) attending three-, four-, and five-year-old classrooms (ages ranged from 36 to 73 months). Hostile attributions and the quality of strategy generation were both…

  3. Psychological safety of a multiple channel cochlear implant device. Psychological aspects of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haas, L J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-three deaf patients were screened psychologically and medically for suitability to receive an intracochlear implant. After initial screening for psychological normalcy, candidates were assessed again 1 year postimplant. Isolated deleterious psychological effects were found, and certain aspects of psychological functioning were enhanced. Overall evidence suggests that the implant is not psychologically damaging. PMID:2228457

  4. Patterns of Association among Multiple Motivations and Aspects of Achievement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Amy N.; Guthrie, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the multivariate relationships between several aspects of motivation and achievement in reading. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine patterns of associations for reading information texts in Phase I and for reading literary texts in Phase II. The samples were 923 and 225 seventh graders, respectively.…

  5. Aspects of social cognition in anorexia nervosa: affective and cognitive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Russell, Tamara Anne; Schmidt, Ulrike; Doherty, Liz; Young, Vicky; Tchanturia, Kate

    2009-08-15

    Although social functioning is clearly impaired in anorexia nervosa (AN), there has been limited empirical assessment of this domain in this illness. This study assesses social cognition in AN by examining performance on two 'theory of mind' (ToM) tasks; Baron-Cohen's "Reading the mind in the Eyes" task (RME) and Happé's cartoon task. These tasks probe affective and cognitive ToM, respectively. Forty-four female participants were recruited (AN N=22; healthy controls N=22) and completed both tasks, with concurrent clinical and intellectual functioning assessment. Compared with healthy controls, AN performed significantly worse on both the RME and the Cartoon task (both conditions). The mental state condition did not facilitate performance in the AN group, as it did in the healthy controls. The findings broadly replicate limited previous work [Tchanturia, K., Happé, F., Godley, J., Bara-Carill, N., Treasure, J., Schmidt, U., 2004. Theory of mind in AN. European Eating Disorders Review 12, 361-366] but in addition demonstrate abnormalities on a task requiring affective ToM interpretation. More detailed information about the components of ToM and the ToM difficulties demonstrated in AN sufferers may inform our understanding of the disorder as well as future social-cognitive based treatments. PMID:19467562

  6. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John

    2016-04-01

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique's effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits of

  7. Deficits of Affect Mentalization in Patients with Drug Addiction: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Savov, Svetoslav; Atanassov, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally treated with wariness, drug addictions have provoked a serious interest in psychodynamically oriented clinicians in recent decades. This paper discusses the development of contemporary psychodynamic conceptualizations of addictions, focusing specifically on mentalization-based theories. The concept of mentalization refers to a complex form of self-regulation which includes attribution of psychological meaning to one's own behavior and affective states, as well as those of the others. We hypothesize that drug-addicted patients have severe impairments in mentalizing, associated with developmental deficits, characteristic for the borderline personality disorder and psychosomatic conditions. Psychodynamic models of mentalization and their corresponding research operationalizations are reviewed, and implications for a contemporary understanding of drug addictions and psychotherapy are drawn. The authors propose that mentalization-oriented theories provide an adequate conceptualization, which is open to empirical testing and has clear and pragmatic guidelines for treatment. PMID:25969831

  8. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  9. Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Shuang; Dong, Rong-Fang; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder. PMID:25031759

  10. Intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei-Ming; Zhong, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Dan-Feng; Sun, A-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Shuang; Dong, Rong-Fang; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplasm of perineurial cells, corresponding to WHO grade I. We present a case of intraneural perineurioma affecting multiple nerves, which usually involved one or two of major nerve trunks in one patient. We describe the clinical presentation, magnetic resonance (MR) neurography characteristics, and pathological characteristics. The differential diagnosis with other diseases, such as neurofibroma, Schwannomatosis and HNPP, will also be discussed. We also review the literature in efforts to highlight recent studies on intraneural perineurioma and heighten and awareness for the possible presentations of this disorder. PMID:25031759

  11. Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, Michelle D.; Bridges, Christine M.; Fairchild, James F.; Little, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Many habitats may be exposed to multiple chemical contaminants, particularly in agricultural areas where fertilizer and pesticide use are common; however, the singular and interactive effects of contaminants are not well understood. The objective of our study was to examine how realistic, sublethal environmental levels of ammonium nitrate fertilizer (0, 10, 20 mg/L and ammonium chloride control) and the common insecticide carbaryl (0 or 2.5 mg/L) individually and interactively affect the development, size, and survival of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles. We reared tadpoles for 95 d in outdoor 1,000-L polyethylene ponds. We found that the combination of carbaryl and nitrate had a negative effect on development and mass of tadpoles compared to the positive effect that either contaminant had alone. Presence of carbaryl was generally associated with short-term increases in algal resources, including ponds exposed to both carbaryl and nitrate. However, with exposure to nitrate and carbaryl, tadpole mass and development were not positively affected as with one chemical stressor alone. The combination of these sublethal contaminants may reduce the ability of amphibians to benefit from food-rich environments or have metabolic costs. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering multiple stressors when evaluating population-level responses.

  12. How the interplay between mechanical and non-mechanical interactions affects multiple kinesin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Uppulury, Karthik; Efremov, Artem K.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Jamison, D. Kenneth; Diehl, Michael R.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular transport is supported by enzymes called motor proteins that are often coupled to the same cargo and function collectively. Recent experiments and theoretical advances have been able to explain certain behaviors of multiple motor systems by elucidating how unequal load sharing between coupled motors changes how they bind, step, and detach. However, non-mechanical interactions are typically overlooked despite several studies suggesting that microtubule-bound kinesins interact locally via short-range non-mechanical potentials. This work develops a new stochastic model to explore how these types of interactions influence multiple kinesin functions in addition to mechanical coupling. Non-mechanical interactions are assumed to affect kinesin mechanochemistry only when the motors are separated by less than three microtubule lattice sites, and it is shown that relatively weak interaction energies (~2 kBT) can have an appreciable influence over collective motor velocities and detachment rates. In agreement with optical trapping experiments on structurally-defined kinesin complexes, the model predicts that these effects primarily occur when cargos are transported against loads exceeding single-kinesin stalling forces. Overall, these results highlight the inter-dependent nature of factors influencing collective motor functions, namely, that the way the bound configuration of a multiple motor system evolves under load determines how local non-mechanical interactions influence motor cooperation. PMID:22724436

  13. Hydrogeological factors affecting the multiple plumes of chlorinated contaminants in an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Kaown, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factors affecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has vertically heterogeneous properties from top alluvial layer to crystalline rocks while the weathered fractured layer above intact Jurassic biotite granite acts as the main layer for groundwater flow and aqueous phase multiple contaminants migration. Aerial heterogeneity in surface conditions plays an important role for groundwater recharge because the industrial complex is mostly paved by asphalt and concrete. Due to limited recharge area and concentrated precipitation in summer season, seasonal effects of contaminant plume distribution diminish as the distance increase from the area of recharge. This study analyzed how differently the solute and contaminant concentrations response to the seasonal recharge. For the analyses, the study site was divided into three zones and four transects were established. Groundwater and solute mass balances were estimated by computing groundwater and solute mass flux through transects. The effects of groundwater pumping, groundwater flow and contaminant degradation were examined to simulate the solutes and contaminant concentrations. General tendency of the water quality and contaminant concentration were reproducible with the effects of major components such as groundwater recharge, pumping and estimated degradation rate.

  14. Unmet Needs of Patients Feeling Severely Affected by Multiple Sclerosis in Germany: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Golla, Heidrun; Strupp, Julia; Karbach, Ute; Kaiser, Claudia; Ernstmann, Nicole; Pfaff, Holger; Ostgathe, Christoph; Voltz, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The needs of patients feeling severely affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) have rarely been investigated. However this is essential information to know before care can be improved, including adding palliative care (PC) services where helpful. Since it remains unclear at what point specialized palliative care should begin for this patient group, this study focuses on needs in general. Objective: The objective was to explore the subjectively unmet needs of patients feeling severely affected by MS. Methods: The study used a qualitative cross-sectional approach for needs assessment. Fifteen patients self-reporting feeling severely affected by MS were recruited and interviewed using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling (five were accompanied by a caregiver relative). Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, followed by qualitative content analysis. Results: Unmet needs were identified in the main categories “support of family and friends,” “health care services,” “managing everyday life,” and “maintaining biographical continuity.” Patients expressed the desire for more support from their families and to be viewed as distinct individuals. They see a substantial deficit in the physician-patient relationship and in the coordination of services. A decrease in expressed unmet needs was found for patients more severely affected and less socially integrated. Conclusions: To address the unmet needs of severely affected MS patients, health care services need to be improved and linked with existing PC services. Special attention is required to form supporting professional-patient relationships. Multiprofessional services should be accessible for patients, while integrating relatives. All services should have an individual approach to provide needs-tailored support. PMID:24527993

  15. No clear evidence for a positive association between the interpersonal-affective aspects of psychopathy and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Maes, Joseph H R; Brazil, Inti A

    2013-12-30

    Common psychopathy rating instruments distinguish between an interpersonal-affective and an antisocial dimension. The suggestion that the interpersonal-affective dimension, often considered to be the core feature of psychopathy, is positively associated with executive functioning is occasionally made in the literature, without reporting objective empirical data. The primary aim of the present paper was to search for empirical studies reporting relevant data, focussing on four aspects of 'cold' executive functioning: inhibition, attentional shifting, working memory, and planning. Eleven published articles were identified, reporting data of 721 individuals from incarcerated and non-incarcerated, male and female, and adult and non-adult samples. Using a heterogeneous set of tests and dependent measures across studies, the inhibition and attentional shifting components were assessed in eight and five studies, respectively; the working memory and planning components each in two studies. A small majority of the studies found positive associations with the different executive functions, although the associations were mostly non-significant. Given the scarcity of studies and the use of heterogeneous populations, tests and statistical analyses, no robust conclusions can be drawn at this stage. Therefore, caution is needed when claiming a positive association between the interpersonal-affective features of psychopathy and executive functioning. Clearly more research is needed to further validate and specify the suggested association. PMID:24140251

  16. The impact of cognitive and affective aspects of cognitive conflict on learners' conceptual change about floating and sinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiachilleos, Stella; Valanides, Nicos; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-07-01

    Background: Cognitive conflict has been identified as an important factor for bringing about students' conceptual change. Researchers draw attention to the need to study not only cognitive factors related to cognitive conflict but affective factors as well. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of cognitive and non-cognitive aspects involved in cognitive conflict on students' conceptual change. Sample: Fifteen students, five from each of fourth, sixth and eighth grades, participated in the study. Seven students were male, and the rest were female. All students had high academic performance and were good at explaining their reasoning. Design and method: The study focused on gaining in-depth information, using semi-structured clinical interviews, about students' thinking when they were engaged in an inquiry process, which incorporated cognitive conflict using a scenario about floating and sinking. Students' initial conceptions related to the phenomenon of floating and sinking were first diagnosed and, subsequently, discrepant events were presented to challenge their initial conceptions. The 15 interviews were qualitatively analyzed using the constant comparative analysis method. Results: The results of this study showed that students' conceptual change was directly related to both cognitive and affective aspects of cognitive conflict. The results also showed that some students showed persistence on alternative frameworks even after their exposure to cognitive conflict. Conclusions: Cognitive conflict is an idiosyncratic, or personal event, that may not be experienced by all learners in the same way. Thus, the effect of cognitive conflict on learners' conceptual change is directly related to learners' ability to experience and feel the conflict when it is presented to them.

  17. Inferring rare disease risk variants based on exact probabilities of sharing by multiple affected relatives

    PubMed Central

    Bureau, Alexandre; Younkin, Samuel G.; Parker, Margaret M.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Mangold, Elisabeth; Albacha-Hejazi, Hasan; Beaty, Terri H.; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Family-based designs are regaining popularity for genomic sequencing studies because they provide a way to test cosegregation with disease of variants that are too rare in the population to be tested individually in a conventional case–control study. Results: Where only a few affected subjects per family are sequenced, the probability that any variant would be shared by all affected relatives—given it occurred in any one family member—provides evidence against the null hypothesis of a complete absence of linkage and association. A P-value can be obtained as the sum of the probabilities of sharing events as (or more) extreme in one or more families. We generalize an existing closed-form expression for exact sharing probabilities to more than two relatives per family. When pedigree founders are related, we show that an approximation of sharing probabilities based on empirical estimates of kinship among founders obtained from genome-wide marker data is accurate for low levels of kinship. We also propose a more generally applicable approach based on Monte Carlo simulations. We applied this method to a study of 55 multiplex families with apparent non-syndromic forms of oral clefts from four distinct populations, with whole exome sequences available for two or three affected members per family. The rare single nucleotide variant rs149253049 in ADAMTS9 shared by affected relatives in three Indian families achieved significance after correcting for multiple comparisons (p=2×10−6). Availability and implementation: Source code and binaries of the R package RVsharing are freely available for download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RVsharing/index.html. Contact: alexandre.bureau@msp.ulaval.ca or ingo@jhu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24740360

  18. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; Madrid, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David V.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale R.; Lake, Patrick W.; McCourt, Andrew L.

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface ofmore » the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.« less

  19. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; Madrid, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David V.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale R.; Lake, Patrick W.; McCourt, Andrew L.

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface of the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.

  20. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  1. Pain and affective memory biases interact to predict depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bruce, J M; Polen, D; Arnett, P A

    2007-01-01

    A large literature supports a direct relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among various patient populations. Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently experience both pain and depression. Despite this, no relationship between pain and depression has been found in MS. The present investigation explored the relationship between pain and depression in a sample of patients with MS. Consistent with cognitive theories of depression, results supported the hypothesis that pain would only contribute to depression when MS patients exhibited a concomitant cognitive vulnerability. Cognitive vulnerability to depression was measured using a performance based affective memory bias (AMB) task. Patients with high levels of pain and negative AMB reported more depressive symptoms compared to patients with pain and positive AMB. Implications for the identification and treatment of depression in MS are discussed. PMID:17294612

  2. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236

  3. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  4. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  5. Role of directional fidelity in multiple aspects of extreme performance of the F1-ATPase motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ruizheng; Wang, Zhisong

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative understanding of the best possible performance of nanomotors allowed by physical laws pertains to the study of nanomotors from biology as well as nanotechnology. The biological nanomotor F1 ATPase is the best available model system as it is the only nanomotor known for extreme energy conversion near the limit of energy conservation. Using a unified theoretical framework centered on a concept called directional fidelity, we analyze recent experiments in which the F1 motor's performance was measured for controlled chemical potentials and expose from the experiments quantitative evidence for the motor's multiple extreme performances in directional fidelity, speed, and catalytic capability close to physical limits. Specifically, the motor nearly exhausts the available energy from the fuel to retain the highest possible directional fidelity for an arbitrary load, encompassing the motor's extreme energy conversion and beyond. The theory-experiment comparison implies a tight chemomechanical coupling up to stalemate as futile steps occur, but unlikely involve fuel consumption. The F1-motor data also help clarify the relation between directional fidelity and experimentally measured stepping ratio.

  6. [Fingolimod treatment for multiple sclerosis patients. Infectiological aspects and recommendations for vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, A; Löbermann, M; Reisinger, E C; Zettl, U K

    2012-02-01

    Since April 2011 fingolimod (FTY 720, Gilenya®), a new oral treatment, is available for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in Germany. Adverse effects in pre-marketing clinical controlled multicenter studies have led to specific precautions that have to be followed before initiating treatment. According to the European Union prescribing information fingolimod is not to be used as a first-line treatment, but is licensed as a second-line option or escalating therapy of MS. During treatment physical and neurological examinations as well as regular blood counts should be performed. The immunosuppressive mode of action of fingolimod requires increased awareness of infectious complications. Due to two fatal herpetic infections during the TRANSFORMS trial all patients without a history of chicken pox or without vaccination against varicella zoster virus (VZV) should be tested for antibodies to VZV. Comparably to other immunosuppressive treatment strategies the immune response to vaccines may be hampered during treatment with fingolimod. Thus, on the one hand, vaccination gaps should be closed before initiation of fingolimod treatment and, on the other hand, success of vaccinations during fingolimod therapy may have to be checked by antibody titre assessment. PMID:21845450

  7. Practical aspects and considerations when switching between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, Luigi; Sparrow-Bodenmiller, Jane

    2010-06-01

    Insulin pump therapy is considered the gold standard for insulin management in patients requiring full physiologic insulin replacement. Compared to traditional delivery of short- and long-acting insulin preparations by multiple daily insulin injections, delivery of insulin via continuous subcutaneous infusion brings with it several advantages, which in the past have translated into better glycemic control and treatment satisfaction. Delivery of insulin via pump reduces the number needle insertions (from four or five per day to once every 2-3 days), allows for greater flexibility of insulin delivery with regard to both the basal and prandial component, facilitates portability of the insulin preparation, and allows for more accurate dosing. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion does have some drawbacks, including a greater risk of inadvertent insulin non-delivery, greater costs of therapy, and the need to be "tethered" with some systems that might be considered "burdensome" or even undesirable to some patients. For the most part patients who initiate insulin pump therapy are satisfied and continue using the technology, but there might be instances that arise that require the re-introduction of insulin delivery by pen or syringe. This article will review some of the reasons and strategies for switching from one mode of delivery to the other. PMID:20515298

  8. Genomic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease in five families with multiple affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stittrich, Anna B; Ashworth, Justin; Shi, Mude; Robinson, Max; Mauldin, Denise; Brunkow, Mary E; Biswas, Shameek; Kim, Jin-Man; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Jung, Jae U; Galas, David; Serikawa, Kyle; Duerr, Richard H; Guthery, Stephen L; Peschon, Jacques; Hood, Leroy; Roach, Jared C; Glusman, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the best clinical predictor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is family history. Over 163 sequence variants have been associated with IBD in genome-wide association studies, but they have weak effects and explain only a fraction of the observed heritability. It is expected that additional variants contribute to the genomic architecture of IBD, possibly including rare variants with effect sizes larger than the identified common variants. Here we applied a family study design and sequenced 38 individuals from five families, under the hypothesis that families with multiple IBD-affected individuals harbor one or more risk variants that (i) are shared among affected family members, (ii) are rare and (iii) have substantial effect on disease development. Our analysis revealed not only novel candidate risk variants but also high polygenic risk scores for common known risk variants in four out of the five families. Functional analysis of our top novel variant in the remaining family, a rare missense mutation in the ubiquitin ligase TRIM11, suggests that it leads to increased nuclear factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling. We conclude that an accumulation of common weak-effect variants accounts for the high incidence of IBD in most, but not all families we analyzed and that a family study design can identify novel rare variants conferring risk for IBD with potentially large effect size, such as the TRIM11 p.H414Y mutation. PMID:27081563

  9. CB1 receptor affects cortical plasticity and response to physiotherapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Francesco; Ljoka, Concetta; Nicoletti, Carolina G.; Kusayanagi, Hajime; Buttari, Fabio; Giordani, Laura; Rossi, Silvia; Foti, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Therapeutic effects of physical therapy in neurologic disorders mostly rely on the promotion of use-dependent synaptic plasticity in damaged neuronal circuits. Genetic differences affecting the efficiency of synaptic plasticity mechanisms could explain why some patients do not respond adequately to the treatment. It is known that physical exercise activates the endocannabinoid system and that stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) promotes synaptic plasticity in both rodents and humans. We thus tested whether CB1R genetic variants affect responsiveness to exercise therapy. Methods: We evaluated the effect of a genetic variant of the CB1R associated with reduced receptor expression (patients with long AAT trinucleotide short tandem repeats in the CNR1 gene) on long-term potentiation (LTP)–like cortical plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic theta burst stimulation (TBS) of the motor cortex and, in parallel, on clinical response to exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Results: We found that patients with long AAT CNR1 repeats do not express TBS-induced LTP-like cortical plasticity and show poor clinical benefit after exercise therapy. Conclusions: Our results provide the first evidence that genetic differences within the CB1R may influence clinical responses to exercise therapy, and they strengthen the hypothesis that CB1Rs are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and in the control of spasticity in humans. This information might be of great relevance for patient stratification and personalized rehabilitation treatment programs. PMID:25520956

  10. Chamber QoE: a multi-instrumental approach to explore affective aspects in relation to quality of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moor, Katrien; Mazza, Filippo; Hupont, Isabelle; Ríos Quintero, Miguel; Mäki, Toni; Varela, Martín.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating (audio)visual quality and Quality of Experience (QoE) from the user's perspective, has become a key element in optimizing users' experiences and their quality. Traditionally, the focus lies on how multi-level quality features are perceived by a human user. The interest has however gradually expanded towards human cognitive, affective and behavioral processes that may impact on, be an element of, or be influenced by QoE, and which have been underinvestigated so far. In addition, there is a major discrepancy between the new, broadly supported and more holistic conceptualization of QoE proposed by Le Callet et al. (2012) and traditional, standardized QoE assessment. This paper explores ways to tackle this discrepancy by means of a multi-instrumental approach. More concretely, it presents results from a lab study on video quality (N=27), aimed at going beyond the dominant QoE assessment paradigm and at exploring affective aspects in relation to QoE and in relation to perceived overall quality. Four types of data were collected: `traditional' QoE self-report measures were complemented with `alternative', emotional state- and user engagement-related self-report measures to evaluate QoE. In addition, we collected EEG (physiological) data, gazetracking data and facial expressions (behavioral) data. The video samples used in test were longer in duration than is common in standard tests allowing us to study e.g. more realistic experience and deeper user engagement. Our findings support the claim that the traditional QoE measures need to be reconsidered and extended with additional, affective staterelated measures.

  11. Regional brain atrophy development is related to specific aspects of clinical dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jasperse, Bas; Vrenken, Hugo; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; de Groot, Vincent; Smith, Stephen M; Polman, Chris H; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-11-15

    Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to reflect irreversible tissue damage leading to persistent clinical deficit. Little is known about the rate of atrophy in specific brain regions in relation to specific clinical deficits. We determined the displacement of the brain surface between two T1-weighted MRI images obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 2.2 years for 79 recently diagnosed, mildly disabled MS patients. Voxel- and cluster-wise permutation-based statistics were used to identify brain regions in which atrophy development was significantly related to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Timed Walk Test (TWT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and 9-Hole Peg Test (HPT). Clusters were considered significant at a corrected cluster-wise p-value of 0.05. Worse EDSS change-score and worse follow-up EDSS were related to atrophy development of periventricular and brainstem regions and right-sided parietal, occipital and temporal regions. Worse PASAT at follow-up was significantly related to atrophy of the ventricles. A worse TWT change-score and worse follow-up TWT were exclusively related to atrophy around the ventricles and of the brainstem. Worse HPT change-score and worse follow-up HPT of either arm were significantly related to the atrophy of widely distributed peripheral regions, as well as atrophy of periventricular and brainstem regions. Our findings suggest that decline in ambulatory function is related to atrophy of central brain regions exclusively, whereas decline in neurologically more complex tasks for coordinated hand function is related to atrophy of both central and peripheral brain regions. PMID:17889567

  12. [Painful tonic seizures in multiple sclerosis. Clinical and electromyographic aspects (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Feijoo de Freixo, M; Jiménez García, M; Martínez Muerza, F; Lunar Domínguez, A

    1981-05-10

    This case report deals with a 29 year-old female patient with a prior history of a vestibular syndrome and elapsing optic neuritis that presented paroxystic episodes of painful tonic contractions affecting the right hemibody, especially the upper limb. In the hand the clinical picture was similar to that of the carpal spasm of tetany. When inducing a crisis with ischemia the electromyogram showed diplets, triplets, and multiplets following the appearance of an interference pattern syncronous with contraction of the hand. Occasionally an interference pattern was observed that was associated only to a subjective sensation of paresthesia. During the crisis and in the intercritical periods the following measurements gave normal results: serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, pH, and pCO2. The administration of calcium had no effect on the frequency and intensity of the crisis. The response to carbemazepine was dramatic, with complete cessation of the crisis and disappearance of the spontaneous activity in the electromyogram. Interruption of treatment one year later was followed by relapse of the painful tonic crisis. The importance of certain electromyographic features and the therapeutic response to carbemazepine in the differential diagnosis of painful tonic crisis and tetany are emphasized. The existence of two clinical-electromyographic patterns in painful tonic crisis is pointed out. PMID:7242168

  13. Do Physical Therapy Interventions Affect Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Melnick, Marsha; Allen, Diane D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with many debilitating symptoms, including urinary incontinence (UI), that physical therapy (PT) may address; UI is widely prevalent, but PT management of symptoms lacks consensus. A meta-analysis of long-term nonsurgical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options may supply this deficiency. We analyzed the current evidence for effectiveness of PT to decrease UI and improve quality of life (QOL) in people with MS. Methods: An electronic search conducted through November 26, 2013, included the following search terms: incontinence, bladder dysfunction, urinary incontinence, multiple sclerosis, MS, physical therapy, physiotherapy, therapy, and rehabilitation. Criteria for inclusion were as follows: MS diagnosis, intervention involved PT for UI or bladder dysfunction, outcomes assessed QOL or UI, and at least a 4 of 10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale or a 2b level of evidence. Outcomes were combined across studies, and effect sizes are depicted in forest plots. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Between-group analysis revealed statistically significant differences in incontinence episodes and QOL, but did not reach significance for functional control mechanisms (eg, electromyography data on strength of contraction, relaxation, and endurance). Incontinence leakage episodes and QOL participation improved within groups. Conclusions: Meta-analysis indicates support for PT for minimizing incontinence compared with pretreatment and affecting incontinence and QOL more than control in people with MS. Protocols were heterogeneous regarding duration and type of PT intervention and were applied in different types of MS. Further research may reveal the most effective combination and variety of PT interventions for people with MS. PMID:26300703

  14. Multiple Landscape Factors Affect the Resilience of a Mixed Land Cover Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Prues, A. G.; D'Amico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities can stimulate the physical and chemical properties of streams to move beyond their background conditions, thereby facilitating the transition of these factors to stressors that affect watershed resilience. This is particularly true in mixed land cover watersheds. We quantify and explore the statistical nonlinear relationships between watershed and buffer-scale factors and nutrient (nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations, in addition to a multi-metric Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed. Our goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the potentially numerous landscape and near-stream hydrological and biogeochemical factors that affect watershed resiliency - as inferred from in-stream nutrient levels and biological condition. We used a boosted regression tree approach, which quantifies nonlinear relationships and variable interactions, to develop watershed and 200 m buffer scale models for each chemical constituent and the annual IBI score. We developed nutrient models for the spring and summer seasons. Two primary factors - location within the watershed and percentage of urban land cover in the watershed or buffer - emerged as important explanatory variables in most nutrient and IBI models. Geographic location (i.e., latitude and longitude) interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores and suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover) and runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors). Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrologic Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. Our overall approach confirms that it is important to consider multiple and often interacting factors when managing for watershed resilience.

  15. Pseudobulbar affect in multiple sclerosis: toward the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ariel

    2006-06-15

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), a condition involving involuntary and uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, occurs frequently in patients with a variety of neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia including Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Although PBA results in considerable distress for patients and caretakers, it is underrecognized and undertreated. Agents used to treat psychiatric disorders--particularly tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors--are useful in alleviating PBA, but act on diffuse neural networks rather than targeting those involved in emotional motor expression. As a result of their nonspecific activity, these agents are associated with a range of unwanted effects that preclude many patients from using them. Dextromethorphan, a common cough suppressant, specifically targets sigma(1) receptors concentrated in the brainstem and cerebellum, thus providing the possibility of targeting regions implicated in emotional expression. When administered in a fixed combination with quinidine, dextromethorphan is effective in treating PBA in patients with ALS, and preliminary results suggest that this therapy also is effective in treating MS-related PBA. PMID:16674978

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities affected by multiple stressors within tidal creeks in northeastern USA harbors

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgis, C.; Murray, M.; Danis, C.; Yates, L.

    1995-12-31

    Surveys of water quality, substrate quality and benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted in a variety of tidal creeks located in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste landfill prior to the construction of a leachate collection system. In-Situ water quality data indicated high water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen values along with high turbidites. Sediment chemistry data indicated that all sediment within the study area exceed USEPA heavy metal criteria. Grain size and salinity data indicate that the study area lies within the Mesohaline Mud habitat class. Water quality data remained within similar concentrations with respect to indicators of leachate. The benthic macroinvertebrate community was consistently dominated by opportunistic Polychaete and Oligochaete worms. Both Shannon diversity and Rarefaction curves were used to evaluate trends in species diversity over time. The study includes a comparison to data obtained by USEPA R-EMAP monitoring programs. While large scale biomonitoring programs do not focus on small tidal creeks this study provides useful data regarding baseline benthic communities within tidal creeks affected by multiple stressors to include previous exposure and potential exposure to oil spills, continued point and non-point municipal and industrial wastewater discharges and physical stressors such as elevated water temperatures, homogeneous silt/clay substrate, and depressed dissolved oxygen values.

  17. Use of Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to Identify Interactive Meteorological Conditions Affecting Throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Forest canopy alters rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall is critical to watershed ecological variables (soil moisture, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, mean wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (≥73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work. Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy T. usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  18. Mutations in the CRE pocket of bacterial RNA polymerase affect multiple steps of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Petushkov, Ivan; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During transcription, the catalytic core of RNA polymerase (RNAP) must interact with the DNA template with low-sequence specificity to ensure efficient enzyme translocation and RNA extension. Unexpectedly, recent structural studies of bacterial promoter complexes revealed specific interactions between the nontemplate DNA strand at the downstream edge of the transcription bubble (CRE, core recognition element) and a protein pocket formed by core RNAP (CRE pocket). We investigated the roles of these interactions in transcription by analyzing point amino acid substitutions and deletions in Escherichia coli RNAP. The mutations affected multiple steps of transcription, including promoter recognition, RNA elongation and termination. In particular, we showed that interactions of the CRE pocket with a nontemplate guanine immediately downstream of the active center stimulate RNA-hairpin-dependent transcription pausing but not other types of pausing. Thus, conformational changes of the elongation complex induced by nascent RNA can modulate CRE effects on transcription. The results highlight the roles of specific core RNAP–DNA interactions at different steps of RNA synthesis and suggest their importance for transcription regulation in various organisms. PMID:25990734

  19. Virus Multiplicity of Infection Affects Type I Interferon Subtype Induction Profiles and Interferon-Stimulated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zaritsky, Luna A.; Bedsaul, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs) are induced upon viral infection and important mediators of innate immunity. While there is 1 beta interferon (IFN-β) protein, there are 12 different IFN-α subtypes. It has been reported extensively that different viruses induce distinct patterns of IFN subtypes, but it has not been previously shown how the viral multiplicity of infection (MOI) can affect IFN induction. In this study, we discovered the novel finding that human U937 cells infected with 2 different concentrations of Sendai virus (SeV) induce 2 distinct type I IFN subtype profiles. Cells infected at the lower MOI induced more subtypes than cells infected at the higher MOI. We found that this was due to the extent of signaling through the IFN receptor (IFNAR). The cells infected at the lower viral MOI induced the IFNAR2-dependent IFN-α subtypes 4, 6, 7, 10, and 17, which were not induced in cells infected at higher virus concentrations. IFN-β and IFN-α1, -2, and -8 were induced in an IFNAR-independent manner in cells infected at both virus concentrations. IFN-α5, -14, -16, and -21 were induced in an IFNAR-dependent manner in cells infected at lower virus concentrations and in an IFNAR-independent manner in cells infected at higher virus concentrations. These differences in IFN subtype profiles in the 2 virus concentrations also resulted in distinct interferon-stimulated gene induction. These results present the novel finding that different viral MOIs differentially activate JAK/STAT signaling through the IFNAR, which greatly affects the profile of IFN subtypes that are induced. IMPORTANCE Type I IFNs are pleiotropic cytokines that are instrumental in combating viral diseases. Understanding how the individual subtypes are induced is important in developing strategies to block viral replication. Many studies have reported that different viruses induce distinct type I IFN subtype profiles due to differences in the way viruses are sensed in different cell types

  20. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  1. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning. PMID:25860433

  2. Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Wang, Jen C.; Grucza, Richard A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Johnson, Eric O.; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Several independent studies show that the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which contains the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, harbors variants strongly associated with nicotine dependence, other smoking behaviors, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether variants in other cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes affect risk for nicotine dependence in a new sample of African-Americans (N = 710). We also analyzed this African-American sample together with a European-American sample (N=2062, 1608 of which have been previously studied), allowing for differing effects in the two populations. Cases are current nicotine-dependent smokers and controls are non-dependent smokers. Variants in or near CHRND-CHRNG, CHRNA7, and CHRNA10 show modest association with nicotine dependence risk in the African-American sample. In addition, CHRNA4, CHRNB3-CHRNA6, and CHRNB1 show association in at least one population. CHRNG and CHRNA4 harbor SNPs that have opposite directions of effect in the two populations. In each of the population samples, these loci substantially increase the trait variation explained, although no loci meet Bonferroni-corrected significance in the African-American sample alone. The trait variation explained by three key associated SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is 1.9% in European-Americans and also 1.9% in African-Americans; this increases to 4.5% in EAs and 7.3% in AAs when we add six variants representing associations at other CHRN genes. Multiple nicotinic receptor subunit genes outside of chromosome 15q25 are likely to be important in the biological processes and development of nicotine dependence, and some of these risks may be shared across diverse populations. PMID:20584212

  3. Polymorphisms within beta-catenin encoding gene affect multiple myeloma development and treatment.

    PubMed

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Rybka, Justyna; Łacina, Piotr; Gębura, Katarzyna; Frontkiewicz, Diana; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cereblon (CRBN) is essential for the anti-myeloma (MM) activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and lenalidomide, and that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be one of possible reasons of lenalidomide resistance. This prompted us to analyze the effect of polymorphisms within the genes coding for cereblon (CRBN (rs121918368 C>T)) and β-catenin (CTNNB1 (rs4135385 A>G; rs4533622 A>C)). MM patients (n=142) and healthy individuals (n=123) were genotyped using the Light SNiP assays. The presence of the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) A allele was more frequently detected in patients presented with stage II-III disease according to International Staging System (63/82 vs. 26/44, p=0.043) and Durie-Salmon criteria (75/99 vs. 14/26, p=0.049). The CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA homozygosity was more frequent among patients with better response to CTD, i.e., cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (18/23 vs. 32/60, p=0.047). Patients carrying the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA genotype were better responders to the first line therapy with thalidomide containing regimens (p<0.05). No significant association was observed between the effect of lenalidomide therapy and polymorphisms studied. However, the occurrence of neutropenia during lenalidomide therapy was more frequent among the CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA carriers (p=0.019), while the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA homozygosity characterized patients with high grade (3-4) neutropenia (p=0.044). No association was found for the CRBN polymorphism. These results suggest that the CTNNB1 polymorphisms may affect the clinical course and response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:26521987

  4. Parallel fluctuations of psychiatric and neurological symptoms in a patient with multiple sclerosis and bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Salmaggi, A; Eoli, M; La Mantia, L; Erbetta, A

    1995-11-01

    The case of a female patient affected by simultaneously onsetting multiple sclerosis and bipolar affective disorder at age 33 is reported. Over the following years, the patient displayed minor mood fluctuations but, at the ages of 41 and 42 years, respectively, she suffered from a major depressive and a manic episode, both of which were concomitant with a marked worsening in her neurological condition. PMID:8613416

  5. Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based…

  6. Modifications of a conserved regulatory network involving INDEHISCENT controls multiple aspects of reproductive tissue development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kay, P; Groszmann, M; Ross, J J; Parish, R W; Swain, S M

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting pollen tube growth and fertilization in Arabidopsis plants leads to reduced seed set and silique size, providing a powerful genetic system with which to identify genes with important roles in plant fertility. A transgenic Arabidopsis line with reduced pollen tube growth, seed set and silique growth was used as the progenitor in a genetic screen to isolate suppressors with increased seed set and silique size. This screen generated a new allele of INDEHISCENT (IND), a gene originally identified by its role in valve margin development and silique dehiscence (pod shatter). IND forms part of a regulatory network that involves several other transcriptional regulators and involves the plant hormones GA and auxin. Using GA and auxin mutants that alter various aspects of reproductive development, we have identified novel roles for IND, its paralogue HECATE3, and the MADS box proteins SHATTERPROOF1/2 in flower and fruit development. These results suggest that modified forms of the regulatory network originally described for the Arabidopsis valve margin, which include these genes and/or their recently evolved paralogs, function in multiple components of GA/auxin-regulated reproductive development. PMID:23126654

  7. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  8. Acquisition of the Korean Imperfective Aspect Markers "-ko iss-" and "-a iss-" by Japanese Learners: A Multiple-Factor Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Ju-Yeon; Horie, Kaoru; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-linguistic research on second language tense-aspect acquisition has uncovered universal tendencies concerning the association between verbal semantics and tense-aspect markers, it is still unclear what mechanisms underlie this link. This study investigates the acquisition of two imperfective aspect markers ("-ko iss-" and…

  9. Multiple Perspectives in a Rock: How Physical Geography Is Affected by Human Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obenchain, Kathryn M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching geography, focusing on the multiple perspectives associated with a physical place. Provides suggestions for exploring these perspectives at the primary, intermediate, and high school levels in a geography-centered social studies classroom. (CMK)

  10. Multiple time courses of salivary alpha-amylase and dimensions of affect in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Van Lenten, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has illustrated associations among daily experiences, emotions and stress-responding physiological systems. Recently, investigators have examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a surrogate marker of the autonomic nervous system, and its associations with affect. The current study examined associations among affective valence, arousal and sAA across three different time courses at the momentary, daily and inter-individual level to understand varying influences of adolescents' daily emotional experiences on sAA reactivity and diurnal sAA activity. Adolescents (N=82) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day for three consecutive days. They also completed self-report questionnaires on trait affect. Findings from multilevel growth curves demonstrated that adolescents in our sample displayed typical sAA diurnal rhythms with levels dropping 30 min after waking and then increasing across the day to a peak in the late afternoon. Within person momentary experiences of high arousal positive affect were associated with momentary sAA reactivity. Prior day experiences of high arousal negative affect were associated with a greater amylase awakening response (i.e., greater decrease) and flatter slopes the next day. Trait positive affect was also associated with flatter sAA slopes. Our findings suggest that both affective arousal and valence should be accounted for when examining differences in sAA reactivity and diurnal patterns. Further, our results indicated that emotion-physiology transactions among adolescents occur over varying time scales for salivary alpha-amylase as well as cortisol. PMID:25076484

  11. A steroid-induced bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head in an underage patient affected by multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Nistri, Lorenzo; Bracco, Laura; Giannini, Marta; Amato, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis are often treated by pulsed intravenous corticosteroids to manage acute relapses with positive outcomes. The intravenous administration is frequently associated to avascular necrosis of several bones, particularly the femur. The present report regards a case of an underage MS patient with a bilateral ANFH secondary to pulsed administrations of steroids, managed by a conservative approach on a hip, and by a novel surgical technique on the contralateral side. PMID:26811707

  12. A steroid-induced bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head in an underage patient affected by multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Christian; Nistri, Lorenzo; Bracco, Laura; Giannini, Marta; Amato, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis are often treated by pulsed intravenous corticosteroids to manage acute relapses with positive outcomes. The intravenous administration is frequently associated to avascular necrosis of several bones, particularly the femur. The present report regards a case of an underage MS patient with a bilateral ANFH secondary to pulsed administrations of steroids, managed by a conservative approach on a hip, and by a novel surgical technique on the contralateral side. PMID:26811707

  13. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  14. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  15. Stochastic analysis of multiple-passband spectral classifications systems affected by observation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsokos, C. P.

    1980-01-01

    The classification of targets viewed by a pushbroom type multiple band spectral scanner by algorithms suitable for implementation in high speed online digital circuits is considered. A class of algorithms suitable for use with a pipelined classifier is investigated through simulations based on observed data from agricultural targets. It is shown that time distribution of target types is an important determining factor in classification efficiency.

  16. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  17. An Analysis of Multiple Factors Affecting Retention in Web-Based Community College Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined four factors affecting retention in Web-based community college courses. Analyses were conducted on student demographics, student learning styles, course communication and external factors. The results suggest that Web-based courses are more attractive to busy students who are also more likely to fail or drop the course.…

  18. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  19. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  20. Pain affects depression through anxiety, fatigue and sleep in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Askew, Robert L.; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Ehde, Dawn M.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Kraft, George H.; Jones, Salene M.; Johnson, Kurt L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over a quarter million individuals in the US have Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Chronic pain and depression are disproportionately high in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic pain and depression in MS and to examine potentially meditational effects of anxiety, fatigue and sleep. Methods Cross-sectional data from self-reported instruments measuring multiple symptoms and quality of life indicators were used in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to model direct and indirect effects of pain on depression in a sample of 1245 community dwelling individuals with MS. Pain interference, depression, fatigue and sleep disturbance were modeled as latent variables with 2 to 3 indicators each. The model controlled for age, sex, disability status (EDSS) and social support. Results A model with indirect effects of pain on depression had adequate fit and accounted for nearly 80% of the variance in depression. The effects of chronic pain on depression were almost completely mediated by fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Higher pain was associated with greater fatigue, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, which in turn were associated with higher levels of depression. The largest mediating effect was through fatigue. Additional analyses excluded items with common content and suggested that the meditational effects observed were not attributable to content overlap across scales. Conclusions Individuals living with MS who report high levels of chronic pain and depressive symptoms may benefit from treatment approaches that can address sleep, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:25602361

  1. Self-categorization, affective commitment and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization.

    PubMed

    Bergami, M; Bagozzi, R P

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to distinguish between cognitive, affective and evaluative components of social identity in the organization and to show how the components instigate behaviours that benefit in-group members. A new scale for measuring cognitive organizational identification (i.e. self-categorization) is developed and compared to a leading scale. Internal consistency, convergent validity, predictive validity and generalizability of the two scales are established on a sample of Italian (N = 409) and Korean (N = 283) workers. Next, convergent and discriminant validity for measures of organizational identification, affective commitment and group self-esteem are demonstrated. Then, two antecedents of these components of social identity are examined: organization prestige and organization stereotypes. Finally, the mediating role of the components of social identity are investigated between the antecedents and five forms of citizenship behaviours. The last three analyses are performed on the Italian (N = 409) workers. Among other findings, the results show that affective commitment and self-esteem are the primary motivators of citizenship behaviours. Moreover, cognitive identification performs as a central mediator between prestige and stereotypes on the one hand, and affective commitment and self-esteem on the other. Identification is thus an indirect determinant of citizenship behaviours. PMID:11190685

  2. The Impact of Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Cognitive Conflict on Learners' Conceptual Change about Floating and Sinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjiachilleos, Stella; Valanides, Nicos; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive conflict has been identified as an important factor for bringing about students' conceptual change. Researchers draw attention to the need to study not only cognitive factors related to cognitive conflict but affective factors as well. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of cognitive…

  3. Relationships Among Depressive Symptoms, Benefit-Finding, Optimism, and Positive Affect in Multiple Sclerosis Patients After Psychotherapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Stacey L.; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience psychological problems, such as depression, benefit-finding is commonly reported. Using the Broaden-and-Build Model of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2001) and the Expectancy-Value Model of optimism (Carver & Scheier, 1998) as two related, yet, distinct conceptual frameworks, this study examined positive affect and optimism as mediators of the relationship between improved depression and enhanced benefit-finding. Design MS patients (N = 127), who participated in a larger, randomized clinical trial comparing two types of telephone psychotherapy for depression, were assessed at baseline, midtherapy (8 weeks), end of therapy (16 weeks), and 6- and 12-month posttherapy. Main Outcome Measures Depression was measured with a telephone administered version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; Positive Affect was measured with the Positive Affect Subscale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale; Optimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test—Revised; Benefit-Finding was measured with the revised version of the Stress-Related Growth Scale. Results Data were analyzed with multilevel random-effects models, controlling for time since MS diagnosis and type of treatment. Improved depression was associated with increased benefit-finding over time. The relationship between improved depression and benefit-finding was significantly mediated by both increased optimism and increased positive affect. Conclusion Findings provide support to both theoretical models. Positivity appears to promote benefit-finding in MS. PMID:18377142

  4. Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  5. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  6. Natalizumab Affects T-Cell Phenotype in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for JCV Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bellizzi, Anna; Morreale, Manuela; Pontecorvo, Simona; D’Abramo, Alessandra; Oliva, Alessandra; Anzivino, Elena; Lo Menzo, Sara; D’Agostino, Claudia; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Millefiorini, Enrico; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Francia, Ada; Vullo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD49d monoclonal antibody natalizumab is currently an effective therapy against the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab therapeutic efficacy is limited by the reactivation of the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV) and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). To correlate natalizumab-induced phenotypic modifications of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes with JCV reactivation, JCV-specific antibodies (serum), JCV-DNA (blood and urine), CD49d expression and relative abundance of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets were longitudinally assessed in 26 natalizumab-treated RRMS patients. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism and R. Natalizumab treatment reduced CD49d expression on memory and effector subsets of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Moreover, accumulation of peripheral blood CD8+ memory and effector cells was observed after 12 and 24 months of treatment. CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte immune-activation was increased after 24 months of treatment. Higher percentages of CD8+ effectors were observed in subjects with detectable JCV-DNA. Natalizumab reduces CD49d expression on CD8+ T-lymphocyte memory and effector subsets, limiting their migration to the central nervous system and determining their accumulation in peripheral blood. Impairment of central nervous system immune surveillance and reactivation of latent JCV, can explain the increased risk of PML development in natalizumab-treated RRMS subjects. PMID:27486658

  7. An unequivocal example of cysteine proteinase activity affected by multiple electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Harris, G W; Henderson, I M; Jones, S T; Pickersgill, R W; Sumner, I G; Warwicker, J

    1994-10-01

    The role of electrostatic interactions between the ionizable Asp158 and the active site thiolate-imidazolium ion pair of some cysteine proteinases has been the subject of controversy for some time. This study reports the expression of wild type procaricain and Asp158Glu, Asp158Asn and Asp158Ala mutants from Escherichia coli. Purification of autocatalytically matured enzymes yielded sufficient fully active material for pH (kcat/Km) profiles to be obtained. Use of both uncharged and charged substrates allowed the effects of different reactive enzyme species to be separated from the complications of electrostatic effects between enzyme and substrate. At least three ionizations are detectable in the acid limb of wild type caricain and the Glu and Asn mutants. Only two pKa values, however, are detectable in the acid limb using the Ala mutant. Comparison of pH activity profiles shows that whilst an ionizable residue at position 158 is not essential for the formation of the thiolate-imidazolium ion pair, it does form a substantial part of the electrostatic field responsible for increased catalytic competence. Changing the position of this ionizable group in any way reduces activity. Complete removal of the charged group reduces catalytic competence even further. This work indicates that hydronations distant to the active site are contributing to the electrostatic effects leading to multiple active ionization states of the enzyme. PMID:7855143

  8. Natalizumab Affects T-Cell Phenotype in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for JCV Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Iannetta, Marco; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Bellizzi, Anna; Morreale, Manuela; Pontecorvo, Simona; D'Abramo, Alessandra; Oliva, Alessandra; Anzivino, Elena; Lo Menzo, Sara; D'Agostino, Claudia; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Millefiorini, Enrico; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Francia, Ada; Vullo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The anti-CD49d monoclonal antibody natalizumab is currently an effective therapy against the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Natalizumab therapeutic efficacy is limited by the reactivation of the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV) and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). To correlate natalizumab-induced phenotypic modifications of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes with JCV reactivation, JCV-specific antibodies (serum), JCV-DNA (blood and urine), CD49d expression and relative abundance of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets were longitudinally assessed in 26 natalizumab-treated RRMS patients. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism and R. Natalizumab treatment reduced CD49d expression on memory and effector subsets of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Moreover, accumulation of peripheral blood CD8+ memory and effector cells was observed after 12 and 24 months of treatment. CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte immune-activation was increased after 24 months of treatment. Higher percentages of CD8+ effectors were observed in subjects with detectable JCV-DNA. Natalizumab reduces CD49d expression on CD8+ T-lymphocyte memory and effector subsets, limiting their migration to the central nervous system and determining their accumulation in peripheral blood. Impairment of central nervous system immune surveillance and reactivation of latent JCV, can explain the increased risk of PML development in natalizumab-treated RRMS subjects. PMID:27486658

  9. How multiple social networks affect user awareness: The information diffusion process in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Fang, Wenyi; Guo, Quantong; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-10-01

    The information diffusion process in single complex networks has been extensively studied, especially for modeling the spreading activities in online social networks. However, individuals usually use multiple social networks at the same time, and can share the information they have learned from one social network to another. This phenomenon gives rise to a new diffusion process on multiplex networks with more than one network layer. In this paper we account for this multiplex network spreading by proposing a model of information diffusion in two-layer multiplex networks. We develop a theoretical framework using bond percolation and cascading failure to describe the intralayer and interlayer diffusion. This allows us to obtain analytical solutions for the fraction of informed individuals as a function of transmissibility T and the interlayer transmission rate θ . Simulation results show that interaction between layers can greatly enhance the information diffusion process. And explosive diffusion can occur even if the transmissibility of the focal layer is under the critical threshold, due to interlayer transmission.

  10. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  11. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  12. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  13. Developmental Methoxychlor Exposure Affects Multiple Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian: Folliculogenesis and Gene Expression in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post-coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis. PMID:18848953

  14. Disability Progression in Multiple Sclerosis Is Affected by the Emergence of Comorbid Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dagan, Amir; Gringouz, Irina; Kliers, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed the prevalence and potential association of hypertension with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related disability progression. Methods This was a retrospective study of 2,813 patients who were followed for 20 years. We modeled the associations of several risk factors with the pattern of disability progression. The primary end point was the rate of disability progression. Results In total, 2,396 patients were available for analysis, of which 1,074 (44.8%) scored 4 (EDSS4) on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), 717 (29.9%) scored 6 (EDSS6), and 261 (10.9%) scored 8 (EDSS8). The mean times to reach scores of 4, 6, and 8 were 123.5, 163.1, and 218.9 months, respectively. Hypertension was present in 207 (8.6%) patients during follow-up. Hypertension was associated with a higher probability of reaching each EDSS score compared to non-hypertensive patients: 62% vs. 43% for EDSS4 (p<0.01), 51% vs. 28% for EDSS6 (p<0.01), and 17% vs. 10% for EDSS8 (p<0.01). Nevertheless, hypertensive MS patients experienced longer intervals to reach each EDSS score: longer by 51.6, 38.9, and 62.7 months to EDSS4, EDSS6, and EDSS8, respectively (p<0.01) when compared to non-hypertensive MS patients reaching the same EDSS scores. Conclusions Disability progression is more prevalent amongst hypertensive MS patients. However, they experience longer time intervals between the stages of disability progression. PMID:27273922

  15. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  16. Plasticity and epistasis strongly affect bacterial fitness after losing multiple metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Glen; Waschina, Silvio; Kaleta, Christoph; Kost, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Many bacterial lineages lack seemingly essential metabolic genes. Previous work suggested selective benefits could drive the loss of biosynthetic functions from bacterial genomes when the corresponding metabolites are sufficiently available in the environment. However, the factors that govern this "genome streamlining" remain poorly understood. Here we determine the effect of plasticity and epistasis on the fitness of Escherichia coli genotypes from whose genome biosynthetic genes for one, two, or three different amino acids have been deleted. Competitive fitness experiments between auxotrophic mutants and prototrophic wild-type cells in one of two carbon environments revealed that plasticity and epistasis strongly affected the mutants' fitness individually and interactively. Positive and negative epistatic interactions were prevalent, yet on average cancelled each other out. Moreover, epistasis correlated negatively with the expected effects of combined auxotrophy-causing mutations, thus producing a pattern of diminishing returns. Moreover, computationally analyzing 1,432 eubacterial metabolic networks revealed that most pairs of auxotrophies co-occurred significantly more often than expected by chance, suggesting epistatic interactions and/or environmental factors favored these combinations. Our results demonstrate that both the genetic background and environmental conditions determine the adaptive value of a loss-of-biochemical-function mutation and that fitness gains decelerate, as more biochemical functions are lost. PMID:25765095

  17. Methoxychlor affects multiple hormone signaling pathways in the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) liver

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Spade, Daniel J.; Blum, Jason L.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that has been shown to have estrogenic activity by activating estrogen receptors and inducing vitellogenin production in male fish. Previous studies report that exposure to MXC induces changes in mRNA abundance of reproductive genes in the liver and testes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The objective of the present study was to better characterize the mode of action of MXC by measuring the global transcriptomic response in the male largemouth liver using an oligonucleotide microarray. Microarray analysis identified highly significant changes in the expression of 37 transcripts (p<0.001) (20 induced and 17 decreased) in the liver after MXC injection and a total of 900 expression changes (p<0.05) in transcripts with high homology to known genes. Largemouth bass estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) were among the transcripts that were increased in the liver after MXC treatment. Functional enrichment analysis identified the molecular functions of steroid binding and androgen receptor activity as well as steroid hormone receptor activity as being significantly over-represented gene ontology terms. Pathway analysis identified c-fos signaling as being putatively affected through both estrogen and androgen signaling. This study provides evidence that MXC elicits transcriptional effects through the estrogen receptor as well as androgen receptor-mediated pathways in the liver. PMID:21276474

  18. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  19. Isoniazid affects multiple components of the type II fatty acid synthase system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Slayden, R A; Lee, R E; Barry, C E

    2000-11-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated two different target enzymes for isoniazid (INH) within the unique type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) system involved in the production of mycolic acids. These two components are an enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, InhA, and a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, KasA. We compared the consequences of INH treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with two inhibitors having well-defined targets: triclosan (TRC), which inhibits InhA; and thiolactomycin (TLM), which inhibits KasA. INH and TLM, but not TRC, upregulate the expression of an operon containing five FAS II components, including kasA and acpM. Although all three compounds inhibit mycolic acid synthesis, treatment with INH and TLM, but not with TRC, results in the accumulation of ACP-bound lipid precursors to mycolic acids that were 26 carbons long and fully saturated. TLM-resistant mutants of MTB were more cross-resistant to INH than TRC-resistant mutants. Overexpression of KasA conferred more resistance to TLM and INH than to TRC. Overexpression of InhA conferred more resistance to TRC than to INH and TLM. Co-overexpression of both InhA and KasA resulted in strongly enhanced levels of INH resistance, in addition to cross-resistance to both TLM and TRC. These results suggest that these components of the FAS II complex are not independently regulated and that alterations in the expression level of InhA affect expression levels of KasA. Nonetheless, INH appeared to resemble TLM more closely in overall mode of action, and KasA levels appeared to be tightly correlated with INH sensitivity. PMID:11069675

  20. Glycerol Affects Root Development through Regulation of Multiple Pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    treatment altered endogenous levels of G3P, phosphate and ROS, affected auxin distribution and cell division in the root meristem, and eventually resulted in modifications of root development. PMID:24465999

  1. Glycerol affects root development through regulation of multiple pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Jinfang; Zhou, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    treatment altered endogenous levels of G3P, phosphate and ROS, affected auxin distribution and cell division in the root meristem, and eventually resulted in modifications of root development. PMID:24465999

  2. Vitamin D depletion does not affect key aspects of the preeclamptic phenotype in a transgenic rodent model for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Golic, Michaela; Przybyl, Lukasz; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Fruekilde, Palle; von Versen-Höynck, Frauke; Herse, Florian; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Dechend, Ralf; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Haase, Nadine

    2016-07-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency is proposed as a risk factor for preeclampsia in humans. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates and high supplementation ameliorates the preeclampsia phenotype in an established transgenic rat model of human renin-angiotensin system-mediated preeclampsia. Adult rat dams, transgenic for human angiotensinogen (hAGT) and mated with male rats transgenic for human renin (hREN), were fed either vitamin D-depleted chow (VDd) or enriched chow (VDh) 2 weeks before mating and during pregnancy. Mean blood pressure was recorded by tail-cuff, and 24-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at days 6 and 18 of gestation. Rats were sacrificed at day 21 of gestation. Depleted dams (VDd) had negligible serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 levels (mean ± SEM; 2.95 ± 0.45 nmol/l vs. VDh 26.20 ± 2.88 nmol/l, P = .01), but in both groups, levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 remained below detection level of 25 pmol/l. Dietary vitamin D depletion did not aggravate hypertension (mean ± SEM BP, day 20 of gestation: 151.38 ± 5.65 mmHg VDd vs. 152.00 ± 4.10 mmHg VDh) or proteinuria. Fetal anthropometrics were similar between the groups, whereas VDd displayed lower placental:fetal weight ratios (0.15 vs. 0.16 g/g, P = .01) and increased sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Expression of hREN was lower in placenta of VDd dams (0.82 ± 0.44 AU vs. 1.52 ± 0.15 AU, P = .04). Expression of key vitamin D metabolizing enzymes was unchanged. Dietary vitamin D intervention did not alter key aspects of the preeclampsia phenotype using the transgenic rodent model of human renin-angiotensin system-mediated pre-eclampsia, plausibly due to altered vitamin D metabolism or excretion in the transgenic rats. PMID:27450577

  3. The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

    2008-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482

  4. Situation of classical swine fever and the epidemiologic and ecologic aspects affecting its distribution in the American continent.

    PubMed

    Vargas Terán, Moisés; Calcagno Ferrat, Nelson; Lubroth, Juan

    2004-10-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a viral transboundary animal disease that is highly contagious among domestic and wild pigs, such as boars and peccaries. Today, far from being what was classically described historically, the disease is characterized as having a varied clinical picture, and its diagnosis depends on resorting to proper sample collection and prompt dispatch to a laboratory that can employ several techniques to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Laboratory findings should be complemented with a field analysis of the occurrence of disease to have a better understanding of its epidemiology. The disease is still present in various regions and countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, thus hindering production, trade, and the livestock economy in the region. Consequently, it is among the diseases included in List A of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Currently, there are epidemiologic and ecologic aspects that characterize its geographical distribution in the region such as: continued trends in the demand for pork and pork products; an increase in swine investment with low production costs which are able to compete advantageously in international markets; the convention of associating CSF in the syndrome of "swine hemorrhagic diseases" owing to the historical description of its acute presentation and not to the new and more frequent subacute presentations or the diseases with which it may be confused (notably, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and porcine dermopathic nephropathy syndrome, among others); dissemination of the virus through asymptomatic hosts such as piglets infected in utero; frequent lack of quality control and registration of vaccines and vaccinations; feeding of swine with contaminated food waste (swill); the common practice of smuggling animals and by-products across borders; the backyard family production system or extensive open field methods of swine rearing with minimal input in care and feeding; poor

  5. Affective and somatic aspects of spontaneous and precipitated nicotine withdrawal in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice

    PubMed Central

    Stoker, Astrid K.; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2008-01-01

    The aversive aspects of nicotine withdrawal are powerful motivational forces contributing to the tobacco smoking habit. We evaluated measures of affective and somatic aspects of nicotine withdrawal in C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice. Nicotine withdrawal was induced by termination of chronic nicotine delivery through osmotic minipumps or precipitated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists mecamylamine or dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE). A rate-independent discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure was used to assess brain reward function. Anxiety-like behavior and sensorimotor gating were assessed in the light-dark box and prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, respectively. Acoustic startle response and somatic signs of withdrawal were also evaluated. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal after 14-day exposure to 10–40 mg/kg/day nicotine induced no alterations in anxiety-like behavior, startle reactivity, PPI, or somatic signs in either strain, and no changes in thresholds in C57BL/6J mice. Extended 28-day exposure to 40 mg/kg/day nicotine induced threshold elevations, increased somatic signs, and anxiety-like behavior 24 h post-nicotine in C57BL/6J mice; thresholds returned to baseline levels by day 4 in nicotine-exposed mice. Mecamylamine or DHβE administration induced threshold elevations in nicotine-exposed C57BL/6J mice compared with saline-exposed mice. In conclusion, administration of relatively high nicotine doses over prolonged periods of time induces both the affective and somatic aspects of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal in the mouse, while exposure to nicotine for shorter periods of time is sufficient for nAChR antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The current study is one of the first to demonstrate reward deficits associated with both spontaneous and nAChR antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:18452957

  6. Cultivating multiple aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation accounts for psychological well-being through decreased rumination

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, mindfulness meditation has gained prominence as an adjunctive psychotherapeutic technique. In fact, a vast literature of controlled studies has found that mindfulness meditation is related to improved mental health across a variety of disorders. Elucidating the components involved in mindfulness meditation’s positive impact on psychological well-being is an important step in more precisely identifying the populations that would most benefit from its therapeutic utilization. Yet, a consensus regarding the particular underlying mechanisms that contribute to these outcomes is very much limited. There are many reasons for this, including the inconsistent operationalization and use of mindfulness meditation across research investigations. Despite the elusive mechanisms, many studies seem to indicate that cultivating different aspects of attention is a feasible, consistent, and parsimonious starting point bridging mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Attention in itself is a complex construct. It comprises different networks, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, and is also explained in terms of the way it is regulated. This paper supports a previously suggested idea that cultivating all aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation leads to greater psychological well-being through decreased ruminative processes. Ruminative processes are decreased by engaging in both focused and receptive attention, which foster the ability to distract and decenter. PMID:26170728

  7. A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Ruehle, Marisa D; Zhang, Haibo; Sheridan, Ryan M; Mitra, Somdeb; Chen, Yuanwei; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cooperman, Barry S; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop. We explored the role of this loop and found that both the length and sequence are essential for translation in different types of IGR IRESs and from diverse viruses. We found that loop 3 affects two discrete elongation factor-dependent steps in the IRES initiation mechanism. Our results show how the IRES directs multiple steps after 80S ribosome placement and highlights the often underappreciated significance of discrete conformationally dynamic elements within the context of structured RNAs. PMID:26523395

  8. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Benkovics, Anna H.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple. PMID:26589551

  9. Addressing astronomy misconceptions and achieving national science standards utilizing aspects of multiple intelligences theory in the classroom and the planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazine, Angela Renee

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate multiple intelligences techniques in both a classroom and planetarium setting to create a significant increase in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. Utilizing a free-response questionnaire and a 25 item multiple choice pre-test/post-test design, this study identified middle school students' misconceptions and measured increases in student learning about the moon and lunar phases. The study spanned two semesters and contained six treatment groups which consisted of both single and multiple interventions. One group only attended the planetarium program. Two groups attended one of two classes a week prior to the planetarium program, and two groups attended one of two classes a week after the planetarium program. The most rigorous treatment group attended a class both a week before and after the planetarium program. Utilizing Rasch analysis techniques and parametric statistical tests, all six groups exhibited statistically significant gains in knowledge at the 0.05 level. There were no significant differences between students who attended only a planetarium program versus a single classroom program. Also, subjects who attended either a pre-planetarium class or a post- planetarium class did not show a statistically significant gain over the planetarium only situation. Equivalent effects on student learning were exhibited by the pre-planetarium class groups and post-planetarium class groups. Therefore, it was determined that the placement of the second intervention does not have a significant impact on student learning. However, a decrease in learning was observed with the addition of a third intervention. Further instruction and testing appeared to hinder student learning. This is perhaps an effect of subject fatigue.

  10. How the multiple antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid affect lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-02-18

    Lipid oxidation is a serious problem for oil-containing food products because it negatively affects shelf life and nutritional composition. An antioxidant strategy commonly employed to prevent or delay oxidation in foods is to remove oxygen from the closed food-packaging system. An alternative technique is use of an edible oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen within the food. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a particularly promising antioxidant because of its natural label and multiple antioxidative functions. In this study, AA was tested as an oxygen scavenger in buffer and an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. The effects of transition metals on the ability of AA to scavenge oxygen were determined. Headspace oxygen decrease less than 1% in the medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) O/W emulsion system (pH 3 and 7). AA was able to almost completely remove dissolved oxygen (DO) in a buffered solution. Transition metals (Fe(2+) and Cu(+)) significantly accelerated the degradation of AA; however, iron and copper only increased DO depletion rates, by 10.6-16.4% from day 1 to 7, compared to the control. AA (2.5-20 mM) decreased DO in a 1% O/W emulsion system 32.0-64.0% and delayed the formation of headspace hexanal in the emulsion from 7 to over 20 days. This research shows that, when AA is used in an O/W emulsion system, oxidation of the emulsion system can be delay by multiple mechanisms. PMID:25650525

  11. Identification of Circular RNAs from the Parental Genes Involved in Multiple Aspects of Cellular Metabolism in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Darbani, Behrooz; Noeparvar, Shahin; Borg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    RNA circularization made by head-to-tail back-splicing events is involved in the regulation of gene expression from transcriptional to post-translational levels. By exploiting RNA-Seq data and down-stream analysis, we shed light on the importance of circular RNAs in plants. The results introduce circular RNAs as novel interactors in the regulation of gene expression in plants and imply the comprehensiveness of this regulatory pathway by identifying circular RNAs for a diverse set of genes. These genes are involved in several aspects of cellular metabolism as hormonal signaling, intracellular protein sorting, carbohydrate metabolism and cell-wall biogenesis, respiration, amino acid biosynthesis, transcription and translation, and protein ubiquitination. Additionally, these parental loci of circular RNAs, from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, encode for different transcript classes including protein coding transcripts, microRNA, rRNA, and long non-coding/microprotein coding RNAs. The results shed light on the mitochondrial exonic circular RNAs and imply the importance of circular RNAs for regulation of mitochondrial genes. Importantly, we introduce circular RNAs in barley and elucidate their cellular-level alterations across tissues and in response to micronutrients iron and zinc. In further support of circular RNAs' functional roles in plants, we report several cases where fluctuations of circRNAs do not correlate with the levels of their parental-loci encoded linear transcripts. PMID:27375638

  12. Identification of Circular RNAs from the Parental Genes Involved in Multiple Aspects of Cellular Metabolism in Barley.

    PubMed

    Darbani, Behrooz; Noeparvar, Shahin; Borg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    RNA circularization made by head-to-tail back-splicing events is involved in the regulation of gene expression from transcriptional to post-translational levels. By exploiting RNA-Seq data and down-stream analysis, we shed light on the importance of circular RNAs in plants. The results introduce circular RNAs as novel interactors in the regulation of gene expression in plants and imply the comprehensiveness of this regulatory pathway by identifying circular RNAs for a diverse set of genes. These genes are involved in several aspects of cellular metabolism as hormonal signaling, intracellular protein sorting, carbohydrate metabolism and cell-wall biogenesis, respiration, amino acid biosynthesis, transcription and translation, and protein ubiquitination. Additionally, these parental loci of circular RNAs, from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, encode for different transcript classes including protein coding transcripts, microRNA, rRNA, and long non-coding/microprotein coding RNAs. The results shed light on the mitochondrial exonic circular RNAs and imply the importance of circular RNAs for regulation of mitochondrial genes. Importantly, we introduce circular RNAs in barley and elucidate their cellular-level alterations across tissues and in response to micronutrients iron and zinc. In further support of circular RNAs' functional roles in plants, we report several cases where fluctuations of circRNAs do not correlate with the levels of their parental-loci encoded linear transcripts. PMID:27375638

  13. A novel molecule integrating therapeutic and diagnostic activities reveals multiple aspects of stem cell-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Hingtgen, Shawn D; Kasmieh, Randa; van de Water, Jeroen; Weissleder, Ralph; Shah, Khalid

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells are promising therapeutic delivery vehicles; however pre-clinical and clinical applications of stem cell-based therapy would benefit significantly from the ability to simultaneously determine therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of therapies delivered by engineered stem cells. In this study, we engineered and screened numerous fusion variants that contained therapeutic (TRAIL) and diagnostic (luciferase) domains designed to allow simultaneous investigation of multiple events in stem cell-based therapy in vivo. When various stem cell lines were engineered with the optimized molecule, SRL(O)L(2)TR, diagnostic imaging showed marked differences in the levels and duration of secretion between stem cell lines, while the therapeutic activity of the molecule showed the different secretion levels translated to significant variability in tumor cell killing. In vivo, simultaneous diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring revealed that stem cell-based delivery significantly improved pharmacokinetics and anti-tumor effectiveness of the therapy compared to intravenous or intratumoral delivery. As treatment for highly malignant brain tumor xenografts, tracking SRL(O)L(2)TR showed stable stem cell-mediated delivery significantly regressed peripheral and intracranial tumors. Together, the integrated diagnostic and therapeutic properties of SRL(O)L(2)TR answer critical questions necessary for successful utilization of stem cells as novel therapeutic vehicles. PMID:20127797

  14. Empirical aspects of record linkage across multiple data sets using statistical linkage keys: the experience of the PIAC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Australia, many community service program data collections developed over the last decade, including several for aged care programs, contain a statistical linkage key (SLK) to enable derivation of client-level data. In addition, a common SLK is now used in many collections to facilitate the statistical examination of cross-program use. In 2005, the Pathways in Aged Care (PIAC) cohort study was funded to create a linked aged care database using the common SLK to enable analysis of pathways through aged care services. Linkage using an SLK is commonly deterministic. The purpose of this paper is to describe an extended deterministic record linkage strategy for situations where there is a general person identifier (e.g. an SLK) and several additional variables suitable for data linkage. This approach can allow for variation in client information recorded on different databases. Methods A stepwise deterministic record linkage algorithm was developed to link datasets using an SLK and several other variables. Three measures of likely match accuracy were used: the discriminating power of match key values, an estimated false match rate, and an estimated step-specific trade-off between true and false matches. The method was validated through examining link properties and clerical review of three samples of links. Results The deterministic algorithm resulted in up to an 11% increase in links compared with simple deterministic matching using an SLK. The links identified are of high quality: validation samples showed that less than 0.5% of links were false positives, and very few matches were made using non-unique match information (0.01%). There was a high degree of consistency in the characteristics of linked events. Conclusions The linkage strategy described in this paper has allowed the linking of multiple large aged care service datasets using a statistical linkage key while allowing for variation in its reporting. More widely, our deterministic algorithm

  15. Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Campagnac, Christine; Irigaray, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis. Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (<0.8) in all investigated cases. Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood

  16. A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruehle, Marisa D; Zhang, Haibo; Sheridan, Ryan M; Mitra, Somdeb; Chen, Yuanwei; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cooperman, Barry S; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop. We explored the role of this loop and found that both the length and sequence are essential for translation in different types of IGR IRESs and from diverse viruses. We found that loop 3 affects two discrete elongation factor-dependent steps in the IRES initiation mechanism. Our results show how the IRES directs multiple steps after 80S ribosome placement and highlights the often underappreciated significance of discrete conformationally dynamic elements within the context of structured RNAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08146.001 PMID:26523395

  17. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Cesare, Erica Di; Mattia, Fabiola De; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases. PMID:25153724

  18. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Di Cesare, Erica; De Mattia, Fabiola; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-08-15

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases. PMID:25153724

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  20. To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Tim M.; Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  1. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    PubMed

    Daw, Tim M; Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  2. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  3. Method development aspects for the quantitation of pharmaceutical compounds in human plasma with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Peter; Grivet, Chantal; Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    The present work investigates various method development aspects for the quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in human plasma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MALDI-MRM). Talinolol was selected as a model analyte. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and protein precipitation were evaluated regarding sensitivity and throughput for the MALDI-MRM technique and its applicability without and with chromatographic separation. Compared to classical electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) method development, with MALDI-MRM the tuning of the analyte in single MS mode is more challenging due to interfering matrix background ions. An approach is proposed using background subtraction. With LLE and using a 200 microL human plasma aliquot acceptable precision and accuracy could be obtained in the range of 1 to 1000 ng/mL without any LC separation. Approximately 3 s were required for one analysis. A full calibration curve and its quality control samples (20 samples) can be analyzed within 1 min. Combining LC with the MALDI analysis allowed improving the linearity down to 50 pg/mL, while reducing the throughput potential only by two-fold. Matrix effects are still a significant issue with MALDI but can be monitored in a similar way to that used for LC/ESI-MS analysis. PMID:17295425

  4. Separation of Competency and Affect Components of Multiple Dimensions of Academic Self-Concept: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda; Debus, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    Examined how separation of competency and affect components of self-concept domains varied in 7- to 13-year-olds. Found that Self-Description Questionnaire factor loadings were invariant over age comparisons. Correlations among reading, math, and school self-concepts decreased with age. Correlations between competency and affect within domains…

  5. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  6. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  7. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang Sun, Yang

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  8. Assessment of factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level in rural Zimbabwe - A case study of Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsi, Luckson; Siwadi, Japson; Guzha, Edward; Makoni, Fungai S.; Smits, Stef

    Water with all its multiple uses plays a pivotal role in the sustenance of rural livelihoods, especially the poor. As such, the provision of water which go beyond domestic to include water for small-scale productive uses should be encouraged to enhance peoples’ livelihood options by making significant contribution to household income, food security, improved nutrition and health. All these multiple benefits, if combined can assist in the fight against hunger and poverty. This study was conducted in Mashonaland East province, covering Marondera, Murehwa and Uzumba Maramba Pfungwe districts in Zimbabwe for the period December 2005-May 2006 to assess factors which affect multiple uses of water sources at household level. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools such as discussions, observations and interviews were used for data collection. The survey found that people indeed require water for productive purposes apart from domestic uses, which are often given top priority. The study found out that multiple uses of water sources at household level can be affected by segmentation of water services into domestic and productive water supply schemes, technology and system design, water quality and quantity and distance to water sources among other factors. The study recommends that water service providers to be able to provide appropriate, efficient and sustainable services, they should understand and appreciate that people’s water needs are integrated and are part and parcel of their multifaceted livelihood strategies.

  9. Binding of the wheat germ lectin to Cryptococcus neoformans chitooligomers affects multiple mechanisms required for fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Fernanda L.; Guimarães, Allan J.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Silva, Fernanda D.; Taborda, Carlos P.; Araujo, Glauber de S.; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2015-01-01

    The principal capsular component of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), interacts with surface glycans, including chitin-like oligomers. Although the role of GXM in cryptococcal infection has been well explored, there is no information on how chitooligomers affect fungal pathogenesis. In this study, surface chitooligomers of C. neoformans were blocked through the use of the wheat germ lectin (WGA) and the effects on animal pathogenesis, interaction with host cells, fungal growth and capsule formation were analyzed. Treatment of C. neoformans cells with WGA followed by infection of mice delayed mortality relative to animals infected with untreated fungal cells. This observation was associated with reduced brain colonization by lectin-treated cryptococci. Blocking chitooligomers also rendered yeast cells less efficient in their ability to associate with phagocytes. WGA did not affect fungal viability, but inhibited GXM release to the extracellular space and capsule formation. In WGA-treated yeast cells, genes that are involved in capsule formation and GXM traffic had their transcription levels decreased in comparison with untreated cells. Our results suggest that cellular pathways required for capsule formation and pathogenic mechanisms are affected by blocking chitin-derived structures at the cell surface of C. neoformans. Targeting chitooligomers with specific ligands may reveal new therapeutic alternatives to control cryptococcosis. PMID:23608320

  10. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration. PMID:23006315

  11. Biogenic reefs affect multiple components of intertidal soft-bottom benthic assemblages: the Lanice conchilega case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smet, Bart; D'Hondt, An-Sofie; Verhelst, Pieterjan; Fournier, Jérôme; Godet, Laurent; Desroy, Nicolas; Rabaut, Marijn; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Biogenic reefs composed of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega are important from a conservation point of view because they noticeably increase the biodiversity in otherwise species poor environments. However, up to now, little or no attention has been paid to the intertidal epi- and hyperbenthic communities associated with the reefs. Therefore, this is the first study which focuses on the effect of L. conchilega reefs on the entire bentho-pelagic community at two different locations. Environmental variables were measured and macro-, epi- and hyperbenthic communities were sampled within a L. conchilega reef and a control area at two locations in France: the bay of the Mont Saint-Michel (BMSM) and Boulogne-sur-Mer (Boulogne). The effect of the reef presence on the benthic community was studied with a 3-factor (Reef, Location and Period) Permanova. In addition, the relationship between the benthic community and the environmental variables was investigated using Distance-based linear models (DistLM). Most collected organisms were sampled in the reef area (macrobenthos: 91%, epibenthos: 81% and hyperbenthos: 78.5%) indicating that, independent of the location, the L. conchilega reefs positively affect all three associated benthic communities. However, the extent of the effect seems to be most pronounced for the macrobenthos and less distinct in case of the hyperbenthos. The macro-, and epibenthos are mainly structured by biotic variables (L. conchilega density and macrobenthic food availability respectively), while the hyperbenthos is rather structured by environmental variables. In general, L. conchilega reefs do not only affect abundances and diversity but they substantially steer the structure of the intertidal benthic sandy beach ecosystem.

  12. Identification of multiple cellular uptake pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting the uptake: relevance for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles may address challenges by human diseases through improving diagnosis, vaccination and treatment. The uptake mechanism regulates the type of threat a particle poses on the host cells and how a cell responds to it. Hence, understanding the uptake mechanisms and cellular interactions of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular level is a prerequisite for their effective biomedical applications. The present study shows the uptake mechanisms of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting their uptake in bone marrow-derived macrophages, 293T kidney epithelial cells and L929 fibroblasts. Labeling with the endocytic marker FM4-64 and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the nanoparticles were internalized rapidly via endocytosis and accumulated in intracellular vesicles. Soon after their internalizations, nanoparticles trafficked to organelles with acidic pH. Analysis of the ultrastructural morphology of the plasma membrane invaginations or extravasations provides clear evidence for the involvement of several uptake routes in parallel to internalize a given type of nanoparticles by mammalian cells, highlighting the complexity of the nanoparticle-cell interactions. Blocking the specific endocytic pathways by different pharmacological inhibitors shows similar outcomes. The potential to take up nanoparticles varies highly among different cell types in a particle sizes-, time- and energy-dependent manner. Furthermore, infection and the activation status of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly affect the uptake potential of the cells, indicating the need to understand the diseases' pathogenesis to establish effective and rational drug-delivery systems. This study enhances our understanding of the application of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences. PMID:25224362

  13. Statistical evaluation of biogeochemical variables affecting spatiotemporal distributions of multiple free metal ion concentrations in an urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Lewis, Christopher G; Burgess, Robert M; Coull, Brent; Shine, James P

    2016-05-01

    Free metal ion concentrations have been recognized as a better indicator of metal bioavailability in aquatic environments than total dissolved metal concentrations. However, our understanding of the determinants of free ion concentrations, especially in a metal mixture, is limited, due to underexplored techniques for measuring multiple free metal ions simultaneously. In this work, we performed statistical analyses on a large dataset containing repeated measurements of free ion concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd, the most commonly measured metals in seawater, at five inshore locations in Boston Harbor, previously collected using an in-situ equilibrium-based multi-metal free ion sampler, the 'Gellyfish'. We examined correlations among these five metals by season, and evaluated effects of 10 biogeochemical variables on free ion concentrations over time and location through multivariate regressions. We also explored potential clustering among the five metals through a principal component analysis. We found significant correlations among metals, with varying patterns over season. Our regression results suggest that instead of dissolved metals, pH, salinity, temperature and rainfall were the most significant determinants of free metal ion concentrations. For example, a one-unit decrease in pH was associated with a 2.2 (Cd) to 99 (Cu) times increase in free ion concentrations. This work is among the first to reveal key contributors to spatiotemporal variations in free ion concentrations, and demonstrated the usefulness of the Gellyfish sampler in routine sampling of free ions within metal mixtures and in generating data for statistical analyses. PMID:26901477

  14. SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE. PMID:21224894

  15. Target enhancement and distractor inhibition affect transitory surround suppression in dual tasks using multiple rapid serial visual presentation streams.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Greenwood, Pamela; Fu, Shimin

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the interaction between temporal and spatial dimensions on selective attention using dual tasks in the multiple rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. A phenomenon that the surround suppression in space changes over time (termed transitory surround suppression, TSS, in the present study) has been observed, suggesting the existence of this time-space interaction. However, it is still unclear whether target enhancement or distractor inhibition modulates TSS. Four behavioural experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of TSS by manipulating the temporal lag and spatial distance factors between two targets embedded in six RSVP streams. The TSS effect was replicated in a study that eliminated confounds of perceptual effects and attentional switch (Experiment 1). However, the TSS disappeared when two targets shared the same colour in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2a) and a within-subject design (Experiment 2b), suggesting the impact of target enhancement on TSS. Moreover, the TSS was larger for within-category than for between-category distractors (Experiment 3), indicating the impact of distractor inhibition on TSS. These two influences on TSS under different processing demands of target and distractor processing were further confirmed in a skeletal design (Experiment 4). Overall, combinative effects of target enhancement and distractor suppression contribute to the mechanisms of time-space interaction in selective attention during visual search. PMID:26447933

  16. Genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R affect multiple sclerosis disease risk and progression.

    PubMed

    Traboulsee, Anthony L; Bernales, Cecily Q; Ross, Jay P; Lee, Joshua D; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2014-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have associated genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study, we describe the association between IL2RA (rs2104286) and IL7R (rs6897932) in the Canadian population. Genotyping 1,978 MS patients and 830 controls failed to identify any significant association between these variants and disease risk. However, stratified analysis for family history of disease and disease course identified a trend towards association for IL2RA in patients without a family history (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 0.77) and a significant association between IL7R and patients who developed progressive MS (PrMS) (p = 0.002; odds ratio = 0.73). Although not statistically significant, the effect of IL2RA (rs2104286) in patients without a family history of MS indicates that the genetic components for familial and sporadic disease are perhaps distinct. This data suggests that the onset of sporadic disease is likely determined by a large number of variants of small effect, whereas MS in patients with a family history of disease is caused by a few deleterious variants. In addition, the significant association between PrMS and rs6897932 indicates that IL7R may not be disease-causing but a determinant of disease course. Further characterization of the effect of IL2RA and IL7R genetic variants in defined MS subtypes is warranted to evaluate the effect of these genes on specific clinical outcomes and to further elucidate the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. PMID:24770783

  17. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-01-01

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNAGln and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca2+ and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC. PMID:26324710

  18. Calpain Cleaves Most Components in the Multiple Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Complex and Affects Their Functions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Eriani, Gilbert; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-10-23

    Nine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and three scaffold proteins form a super multiple aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in the human cytoplasm. Domains that have been added progressively to MSC components during evolution are linked by unstructured flexible peptides, producing an elongated and multiarmed MSC structure that is easily attacked by proteases in vivo. A yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with LeuRS, a representative MSC member, identified calpain 2, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease. Calpain 2 and calpain 1 could partially hydrolyze most MSC components to generate specific fragments that resembled those reported previously. The cleavage sites of calpain in ArgRS, GlnRS, and p43 were precisely mapped. After cleavage, their N-terminal regions were removed. Sixty-three amino acid residues were removed from the N terminus of ArgRS to form ArgRSΔN63; GlnRS formed GlnRSΔN198, and p43 formed p43ΔN106. GlnRSΔN198 had a much weaker affinity for its substrates, tRNA(Gln) and glutamine. p43ΔN106 was the same as the previously reported p43-derived apoptosis-released factor. The formation of p43ΔN106 by calpain depended on Ca(2+) and could be specifically inhibited by calpeptin and by RNAi of the regulatory subunit of calpain in vivo. These results showed, for the first time, that calpain plays an essential role in dissociating the MSC and might regulate the canonical and non-canonical functions of certain components of the MSC. PMID:26324710

  19. Vitamin D Status Does Not Affect Disability Progression of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis over Three Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Joost; Rolf, Linda; Klinkenberg, Lieke J. J.; van der Linden, Noreen; Meex, Steven; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as MS disease activity is associated with vitamin D (25(OH)D) status. The relationship between the main functional disability hallmark of MS, disability progression, and 25(OH)D status is less well established though, especially not in MS patients with progressive disease. Methods This retrospective follow-up study included 554 MS patients with a serum baseline 25(OH)D level and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) with a minimum follow-up of three years. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the effect of baseline 25(OH)D status on relapse rate. Repeated measures linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effect on disability and disability progression. Results Baseline deseasonalized 25(OH)D status was associated with subsequent relapse risk (yes/no), but only in the younger MS patients (≤ 37.5 years; OR = 0.872, per 10 nmol/L 25(OH)D, p = 0.041). Baseline 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with either disability or disability progression, irrespective of MS phenotype. Conclusion Within the physiological range, 25(OH)D status is just significantly associated with the occurrence of relapses in younger MS patients, but is not associated with disability or disability progression over three years follow-up. Whether high dose supplementation to supra physiological 25(OH)D levels prevents disability progression in MS should become clear from long term follow-up of supplementation studies. PMID:27276080

  20. Psychosocial aspects of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, F

    1993-05-01

    Pain, and especially cancer pain, is not a pure nociceptive, physical experience, but involves different dimensions of man, such as personality, affect, cognition, behavior and social relations. Cancer pain is best conceptualized as the convergence of multiple activated systems with feedback mechanisms to a complex, multidimensional model. The psychosocial aspects of this multidimensional model will be analyzed with special emphasis on results from recent research. Although most research has been conducted on the role of affect and cognition in cancer pain, data on other factors such as personality, behavior or social aspects exist and will be presented. In the second part of this paper the implications of these results for therapeutic strategies in clinical work will be discussed. Although a considerable body of knowledge exists to support the hypothesis of a multidimensional model of cancer pain, where psychosocial variables play an important role, only a few studies address the issue of to what degree different factors exercise their influence. This may be different from patient to patient and may change over the course of the disease. Whatever importance these single variables in the multidimensional model of cancer pain may have, the patient is best treated when none of these aspects is neglected in the assessment and all are taken care of in the treatment. A multidisciplinary team, with a psychiatrist as one of the team members, is often best prepared to fulfill this task. PMID:8149139

  1. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Cox, M.H.; Runkel, R.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- 'reference' tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentrations measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  2. Multiple injected and natural conservative tracers quantify mixing in a stream confluence affected by acid mine drainage near Silverton, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2006-08-01

    The acidic discharge from Cement Creek, containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate, mixed with the circumneutral-pH Animas River over a several hundred metre reach (mixing zone) near Silverton, CO, during this study. Differences in concentrations of Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, and SO42- between the creek and the river were sufficiently large for these analytes to be used as natural tracers in the mixing zone. In addition, a sodium chloride (NaCl) tracer was injected into Cement Creek, which provided a Cl- reference tracer in the mixing zone. Conservative transport of the dissolved metals and sulphate through the mixing zone was verified by mass balances and by linear mixing plots relative to the injected reference tracer. At each of seven sites in the mixing zone, five samples were collected at evenly spaced increments of the observed across-channel gradients, as determined by specific conductance. This created sets of samples that adequately covered the ranges of mixtures (mixing ratios, in terms of the fraction of Animas River water, %AR). Concentratis measured in each mixing zone sample and in the upstream Animas River and Cement Creek were used to compute %AR for the reference and natural tracers. Values of %AR from natural tracers generally showed good agreement with values from the reference tracer, but variability in discharge and end-member concentrations and analytical errors contributed to unexpected outlier values for both injected and natural tracers. The median value (MV) %AR (calculated from all of the tracers) reduced scatter in the mixing plots for the dissolved metals, indicating that the MV estimate reduced the effects of various potential errors that could affect any tracer.

  3. Examining the Interplay of Processes Across Multiple Time-Scales: Illustration With the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health, and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB)

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lorek, Amy; Rebar, Amanda; Roche, Michael J.; Coccia, Michael; Morack, Jennifer; Feldman, Josh; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Human development is characterized by the complex interplay of processes that manifest at multiple levels of analysis and time-scales. We introduce the Intraindividual Study of Affect, Health and Interpersonal Behavior (iSAHIB) as a model for how multiple time-scale study designs facilitate more precise articulation of developmental theory. Combining age heterogeneity, longitudinal panel, daily diary, and experience sampling protocols, the study made use of smartphone and web-based technologies to obtain intensive longitudinal data from 150 persons age 18–89 years as they completed three 21-day measurement bursts (t = 426 bursts, t = 8,557 days) wherein they provided reports on their social interactions (t = 64,112) as they went about their daily lives. We illustrate how multiple time-scales of data can be used to articulate bioecological models of development and the interplay among more ‘distal’ processes that manifest at ‘slower’ time-scales (e.g., age-related differences and burst-to-burst changes in mental health) and more ‘proximal’ processes that manifest at ‘faster’ time-scales (e.g., changes in context that progress in accordance with the weekly calendar and family influence processes). PMID:26989350

  4. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STC-1,p53, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (p-MEKK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), IkB kinase (p-IKK), nuclear factor (NF) κB, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and caspase-3 changed significantly in kidney cells isolated from a RIRI model when compared to those isolated from a sham control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, STC-1 overexpression or silence caused significant changes of the levels of these ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and

  5. Positive and Negative Aspects of the IWB and Tablet Computers in the First Grade of Primary School: A Multiple-Perspective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) and tablet computers use in the first grade of primary school from the perspectives of three groups of evaluators, namely the teachers, the pupils and an independent observer. The sample included three first grade classes with…

  6. Body fluid biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: how far we have come and how they could affect the clinic now and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Itay; Webb, Johanna; Stuve, Olaf; Haskins, William E.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which affects over 2.5 million people worldwide. Although MS has been extensively studied, many challenges still remain in regards to treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis. Typically, prognosis and individual responses to treatment are evaluated by clinical tests such the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, none of these measures correlate strongly with treatment efficacy or disease progression across heterogeneous patient populations and subtypes of MS. Numerous studies over the past decades have attempted to identify sensitive and specific biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy of MS. The objective of this article is to review and discuss the current literature on body fluid biomarkers in MS, including research on potential biomarker candidates in the areas of microRNA, messenger RNA, lipids, and proteins. PMID:25523168

  7. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Weigelt, Sarah; Kanwisher, Nancy; Jiang, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively characterize dynamic attentional function in children with ASD aged 5-12. While the ASD group performed significantly worse…

  8. Student assessment of teaching as a source of information about aspects of teaching quality in multiple subject domains: an application of multilevel bifactor structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Ronny; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Research on educational effectiveness most often uses student assessments of classroom instruction for measuring aspects of teaching quality. Given that crucial inferences on the success of education are based on these assessments, it is essential to ensure that they provide valid indicators. In this study, we illustrate the application of an innovative application of a multilevel bifactor structural equation model (ML-BFSEM) to examine the validity of student assessments. Analyzing a large-scale data set of 12,077 fourth-grade students in three countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden), we find that (i) three aspects of teaching quality and subject domain factors can be established; (ii) metric and scalar invariance could be established for the ML-BFSEM approach across countries; and (iii) significant relations between students' assessments of how easy the teacher is to understand and achievement in all subjects exist. In support of substantive research, we demonstrate a methodological approach for representing the complex nature of student assessments of teaching quality. We finally encourage substantive and methodological researchers to advance the ML-BFSEM. PMID:26500599

  9. Student assessment of teaching as a source of information about aspects of teaching quality in multiple subject domains: an application of multilevel bifactor structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Ronny; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2015-01-01

    Research on educational effectiveness most often uses student assessments of classroom instruction for measuring aspects of teaching quality. Given that crucial inferences on the success of education are based on these assessments, it is essential to ensure that they provide valid indicators. In this study, we illustrate the application of an innovative application of a multilevel bifactor structural equation model (ML-BFSEM) to examine the validity of student assessments. Analyzing a large-scale data set of 12,077 fourth-grade students in three countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden), we find that (i) three aspects of teaching quality and subject domain factors can be established; (ii) metric and scalar invariance could be established for the ML-BFSEM approach across countries; and (iii) significant relations between students’ assessments of how easy the teacher is to understand and achievement in all subjects exist. In support of substantive research, we demonstrate a methodological approach for representing the complex nature of student assessments of teaching quality. We finally encourage substantive and methodological researchers to advance the ML-BFSEM. PMID:26500599

  10. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  11. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the ... and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble ...

  12. Time-resolved stereo PIV measurements of the horseshoe vortex system at multiple locations in a low-aspect-ratio pin-fin array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Corey D.; Lynch, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Pin-fin arrays are a type of cooling feature found in heat exchangers, with elements (generally cylindrical or square) that span between two endwalls. Flow around the pin-fins generates highly turbulent mixing that increases convective heat transfer from the pins to the cooling flow. At the junction of a pin-fin and the endwall, a complex flow known as the horseshoe vortex (HSV) system is present. Although the HSV is a well-studied phenomenon, its behavior is not understood in the highly turbulent flow of a pin-fin array. Furthermore, the presence of close confining endwalls for low-aspect-ratio (short) pin-fins may have an impact on HSV dynamics. The present study utilized time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry to examine the fluid dynamics of the HSV system in rows 1, 3, and 5 of a low-aspect-ratio pin-fin array, for a range of Reynolds numbers. In the first row, instantaneous flowfields indicated a clearly defined HSV at the leading edge, with dynamics similar to previous studies of bluff-body junction flows. The time-averaged HSV system moved closer to the pin with increasing Reynolds number, with more concentrated vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). For downstream rows, there was a significant increase in the amount of mid-channel vorticity, with levels on the same order as the value in the core of the HSV. The time-averaged HSV system in downstream rows showed minimal variation with respect to either Reynolds number or row location. Regions of maximum streamwise and wall-normal turbulent fluctuations around the HSV were a result of its quasiperiodic oscillation between so-called backflow and zero-flow modes, which were present even in downstream rows despite the extremely high mid-channel turbulence. In the downstream rows, normalized TKE across the entire field of view decreased with increased Reynolds number, likely due to dissipation rates proportionally outpacing increases in mean channel velocity and Reynolds number. The flowfield

  13. Progression, Symptoms and Psychosocial Concerns among Those Severely Affected by Multiple Sclerosis: A Mixed-Methods Cross-Sectional Study of Black Caribbean and White British People

    PubMed Central

    Koffman, Jonathan; Gao, Wei; Goddard, Cassie; Burman, Rachel; Jackson, Diana; Shaw, Pauline; Barnes, Fiona; Silber, Eli; Higginson, Irene J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis is now more common among minority ethnic groups in the UK but little is known about their experiences, especially in advanced stages. We examine disease progression, symptoms and psychosocial concerns among Black Caribbean (BC) and White British (WB) people severely affected by MS. Design Mixed methods study of 43 BC and 43 WB people with MS (PwMS) with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ≥6 involving data from in clinical records, face-to-face structured interviews and a nested-qualitative component. Progression Index (PI) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) were calculated. To control for selection bias, propensity scores were derived for each patient and adjusted for in the comparative statistical analysis; qualitative data were analysed using the framework approach. Results Median EDSS for both groups was (6.5; range: 6.0–9.0). Progression Index (PI) and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) based on neurological assessment of current EDSS scores identified BC PwMS were more likely to have aggressive disease (PI F = 4.04, p = 0.048, MSSS F = 10.30, p<0.001). Patients’ reports of the time required to reach levels of functional decline equivalent to different EDSS levels varied by group; EDSS 4: BC 2.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years (U = 258.50, p = 0.013), EDSS 6∶6.1 years BC v/s WB 12.7 years (U = 535.500, p = 0.011), EDSS 8: BC 8.7 years v/s WB 10.2 years. Both groups reported high symptom burden. BC PwMS were more cognitively impaired than WB PwMS (F = 9.65, p = 0.003). Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews provides correspondence with quantitative findings; more BC than WB PwMS referred to feelings of extreme frustration and unresolved loss/confusion associated with their rapidly advancing disease. The interviews also reveal the centrality, meanings and impact of common MS-related symptoms. Conclusions Delays in diagnosis should be avoided and more frequent reviews may

  14. c-Myc Regulates Cyclin D-Cdk4 and -Cdk6 Activity but Affects Cell Cycle Progression at Multiple Independent Points

    PubMed Central

    Mateyak, Maria K.; Obaya, Alvaro J.; Sedivy, John M.

    1999-01-01

    c-myc is a cellular proto-oncogene associated with a variety of human cancers and is strongly implicated in the control of cellular proliferation, programmed cell death, and differentiation. We have previously reported the first isolation of a c-myc-null cell line. Loss of c-Myc causes a profound growth defect manifested by the lengthening of both the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. To gain a clearer understanding of the role of c-Myc in cellular proliferation, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the components that regulate cell cycle progression. The largest defect observed in c-myc−/− cells is a 12-fold reduction in the activity of cyclin D1-Cdk4 and -Cdk6 complexes during the G0-to-S transition. Downstream events, such as activation of cyclin E-Cdk2 and cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes, are delayed and reduced in magnitude. However, it is clear that c-Myc affects the cell cycle at multiple independent points, because restoration of the Cdk4 and -6 defect does not significantly increase growth rate. In exponentially cycling cells the absence of c-Myc reduces coordinately the activities of all cyclin–cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase complex regulators revealed increased expression of p27KIP1 and decreased expression of Cdk7 in c-myc−/− cells. We propose that c-Myc functions as a crucial link in the coordinate adjustment of growth rate to environmental conditions. PMID:10373516

  15. Deletion of astroglial CXCL10 delays clinical onset but does not affect progressive axon loss in a murine autoimmune multiple sclerosis model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. CXCL10 (IP-10), a chemokine for CXCR3+ T cells, is known to regulate T cell differentiation and migration in the periphery, but effects of CXCL10 produced endogenously in the CNS on immune cell trafficking are unknown. We created floxed cxcl10 mice and crossed them with mice carrying an astrocyte-specific Cre transgene (mGFAPcre) to ablate astroglial CXCL10 synthesis. These mice, and littermate controls, were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG peptide) to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In comparison to the control mice, spinal cord CXCL10 mRNA and protein were sharply diminished in the mGFAPcre/CXCL10fl/fl EAE mice, confirming that astroglia are chiefly responsible for EAE-induced CNS CXCL10 synthesis. Astroglial CXCL10 deletion did not significantly alter the overall composition of CD4+ lymphocytes and CD11b+ cells in the acutely inflamed CNS, but did diminish accumulation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the spinal cord perivascular spaces. Furthermore, IBA1+ microglia/macrophage accumulation within the lesions was not affected by CXCL10 deletion. Clinical deficits were milder and acute demyelination was substantially reduced in the astroglial CXCL10-deleted EAE mice, but long-term axon loss was equally severe in the two groups. We concluded that astroglial CXCL10 enhances spinal cord perivascular CD4+ lymphocyte accumulation and acute spinal cord demyelination in MOG peptide EAE, but does not play an important role in progressive axon loss in this MS model. PMID:24924222

  16. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  17. Multiple Independent Loci at Chromosome 15q25.1 Affect Smoking Quantity: a Meta-Analysis and Comparison with Lung Cancer and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Cannon, Dale S.; Chen, Xiangning; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Han, Shizhong; Han, Younghun; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Kong, Xiangyang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Ma, Jennie Z.; Short, Susan E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Sun, Lingwei; Wang, Yufei; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Breslau, Naomi; Broderick, Peter; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Heath, Andrew C.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hoft, Nicole R.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Niu, Tianhua; Payne, Thomas J.; Peltonen, Leena; Pergadia, Michele L.; Rice, John P.; Sherva, Richard; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sun, Juzhong; Wang, Jen C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Wheeler, William; Witt, Stephanie H.; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Caporaso, Neil E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Eisen, Tim; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gelernter, Joel; Houlston, Richard; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kraft, Peter; Leppert, Mark F.; Li, Ming D.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pillai, Sreekumar; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Schwartz, Ann; Amos, Christopher I.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP) is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking), lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers), and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers). We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10−35 and <10−8 respectively). Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10−6). In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10−20) and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01); the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765

  18. An Agitation Experiment with Multiple Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jordan L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a multifaceted agitation and mixing experiment. The relatively inexpensive apparatus includes a variable-speed stirrer motor, two polycarbonate tanks, and an instrumented torque table. Students measure torque as a function of stirrer speed, and use conductive tracer data to estimate two parameters of a flow model. The effect…

  19. Unmentalized aspects of panic and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Busch, Fredric N; Sandberg, Larry S

    2014-06-01

    Somatic or emotional experience that has not been symbolically represented, referred to as unmentalized experience, has been given an increasingly prominent role in understanding psychopathology. Panic and anxiety disorders provide a useful model for exploring these factors, as the affective and bodily symptoms can be understood in part as unmentalized experience. The authors explore models of Freud's actual neurosis, Marty and DeM'uzan's pensee operatoire, Klein's unconscious fantasy, Bion's alpha function, Bucci's multiple code system, and relational models to describe how somatic and affective experiences can be translated into symbolic representations, and what factors can interfere with these processes. Approaches to unmentalized aspects of panic and anxiety include symbolizing somatic symptoms, identifying emotional states, and identifying contextual and traumatic links to symptoms. PMID:24828589

  20. Multiple Requests in Arabic as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carsten; Al-Gahtani, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Research in second language pragmatics is increasingly investigating the sequential organization of interaction and how it might be affected by second language learners' developing proficiency. In this paper, we are focusing on a specific aspect of request organization, namely multiple requests. Through data from natural interaction and role…

  1. Novel Replication-Competent Circular DNA Molecules from Healthy Cattle Serum and Milk and Multiple Sclerosis-Affected Human Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Corinna; Gunst, Karin; Müller, Hermann; Funk, Mathis; zur Hausen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data point to the involvement of a cow milk factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven circular DNA molecules closely related to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 1.76 were isolated from healthy cattle serum, cow milk, and serum and brain tissue from MS patients. PMID:25169859

  2. The Effects of the Layoff Process on K-12 Teachers: How Do Multiple Years of Layoff Notices Affect Teacher Attitude, Persistence, and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Cara Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the effects of multiple years of layoff notices on first- or second-year, K-12 teachers employed in a Northern California, suburban school district in 2008-2009. During years of budget crisis in California, teachers new to the profession experienced ongoing employment uncertainty. This study endeavored to understand…

  3. Novel replication-competent circular DNA molecules from healthy cattle serum and milk and multiple sclerosis-affected human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Corinna; Gunst, Karin; Müller, Hermann; Funk, Mathis; Zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data point to the involvement of a cow milk factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven circular DNA molecules closely related to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated isolate Sphinx 1.76 were isolated from healthy cattle serum, cow milk, and serum and brain tissue from MS patients. PMID:25169859

  4. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  5. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  6. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  7. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis. This disease affects the brain and spinal cord ( ... your doctor may prescribe medicine. Some people with multiple sclerosis need to use a urinary catheter . This is ...

  8. Mangiferin Reduces the Inhibition of Chondrogenic Differentiation by IL-1β in Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Subchondral Bone and Targets Multiple Aspects of the Smad and SOX9 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Koh, Pil-Seong; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Park, Yeon-Chul; Baek, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Dong-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural immunomodulator found in plants including mango trees. The effects of mangiferin on chondrogenesis and cartilage repair have not yet been reported. This study was designed to determine the effect of mangiferin on chondrogenic differentiation in IL-1β-stimulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from subchondral bone and to explore the mechanisms underlying these effects. MSCs were isolated from the subchondral bone of rabbit and treated with mangiferin alone and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Mangiferin induced chondrogenic differentiation in MSCs by upregulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and BMP-4 and several key markers of chondrogenesis, including sex-determining region Y–box (SRY-box) containing gene 9 (SOX9), type 2α1 collagen (Col2α1), cartilage link protein, and aggrecan. In IL-1β-stimulated MSCs, mangiferin significantly reversed the production of TGF-β, BMP-2, BMP-4, SOX9, Col2α1, cartilage link protein, and aggrecan, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS5). Mangiferin upregulated the phosphorylation of Smad 2, Smad 3, Smad 1/5/8, and SOX9 in IL-1β-stimulated MSCs. In the presence of mangiferin, SOX9 siRNA suppressed the activation of Smad 2, Smad 3, Smad 1/5/8, aggrecan, and Col2α1 expression. In conclusion, mangiferin exhibits both chondrogenic and chondroprotective effects on damaged MSCs and mediates these effects by targeting multiple aspects of the Smad and SOX9 signaling pathways. PMID:25216336

  9. Novel TetR family transcriptional factor regulates expression of multiple transport-related genes and affects rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huicong; Yang, Min; He, Zheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Transport-related genes significantly affect bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the effects of these genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance in several mycobacterial species, including the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen M. tuberculosis and M. avium have not been clearly characterized. We identified Ms4022 (MSMEG_4022) as a novel TetR family regulator that activates the expression of seven transport-related genes and affects drug resistance in M. smegmatis. Overexpression of Ms4022 inhibited M. smegmatis growth and enhanced mycobacterial resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin (RIF). By contrast, the Ms4022-deleted mycobacterial strain has shown sensitive to RIF. Ms4022 recognized three 19 bp non-palindromic motifs containing a 9 bp conserved region at their 5′ end and it directly regulated seven transport-related genes, which affects mycobacterial resistance to RIF. Overexpression of three of seven transport-related genes (Ms1448, Ms1613, and Ms5278) inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis. This study improves our understanding of the function of mycobacterial transport-related genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance. PMID:27271013

  10. Novel TetR family transcriptional factor regulates expression of multiple transport-related genes and affects rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huicong; Yang, Min; He, Zheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Transport-related genes significantly affect bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, the effects of these genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance in several mycobacterial species, including the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis, the pathogen M. tuberculosis and M. avium have not been clearly characterized. We identified Ms4022 (MSMEG_4022) as a novel TetR family regulator that activates the expression of seven transport-related genes and affects drug resistance in M. smegmatis. Overexpression of Ms4022 inhibited M. smegmatis growth and enhanced mycobacterial resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin (RIF). By contrast, the Ms4022-deleted mycobacterial strain has shown sensitive to RIF. Ms4022 recognized three 19 bp non-palindromic motifs containing a 9 bp conserved region at their 5' end and it directly regulated seven transport-related genes, which affects mycobacterial resistance to RIF. Overexpression of three of seven transport-related genes (Ms1448, Ms1613, and Ms5278) inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis. This study improves our understanding of the function of mycobacterial transport-related genes and their regulation of bacterial drug resistance. PMID:27271013

  11. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis. PMID:27151697

  12. Efficiency of typing unaffected relatives in an affected-sib-pair linkage study with single-locus and multiple tightly linked markers

    SciTech Connect

    Holmans, P.; Clayton, D.

    1995-11-01

    In an affected-sib-pair study, the parents are often unavailable for typing, particularly for diseases of late onset. In many cases, however, it is possible to sample unaffected siblings. It is therefore desirable to assess the contribution of such siblings to the power of such a study. The likelihood ratio introduced by Risch and improved by Holmans was extended to incorporate data from unaffected siblings. Tests based on two likelihoods were considered: the full likelihood of the data, based on the identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing states of the entire sibship, and a pseudolikelihood based on the IBD sharing states of the affected pair only, using the unaffected siblings to infer parental genotypes. The latter approach was found to be more powerful, except when penetrance was high. Typing an unaffected sibling, or just one parent, was found to give only a small increase in power except when the PIC of the marker was low. Even then, typing an unaffected relative increased the overall number of individuals that had to be typed to achieve a given power. If there is no highly informative marker locus in the area under study, it may be possible to {open_quotes}build{close_quotes} one by combining the alleles from two or more neighboring tightly linked loci into haplotypes. Typing two loci gave a sizeable power increase over a single locus, but typing further loci gave much smaller gains. Building haplotypes will introduce phase uncertainties, with the result that such a system will yield less power than will a single locus with the same number of alleles. This power loss was small, however, and did not affect the conclusions regarding the worth of typing unaffected relatives. 14 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. A functional variant that affects exon-skipping and protein expression of SP140 as genetic mechanism predisposing to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Matesanz, Fuencisla; Potenciano, Victor; Fedetz, Maria; Ramos-Mozo, Priscila; Abad-Grau, María del Mar; Karaky, Mohamad; Barrionuevo, Cristina; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; García-Sánchez, María Isabel; Lucas, Miguel; Fernández, Óscar; Leyva, Laura; Otaegui, David; Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Olascoaga, Javier; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Alloza, Iraide; Astobiza, Ianire; Antigüedad, Alfredo; Villar, Luisa María; Álvarez-Cermeño, José Carlos; Malhotra, Sunny; Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Saiz, Albert; Blanco, Yolanda; Arroyo, Rafael; Varadé, Jezabel; Urcelay, Elena; Alcina, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Several variants in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) at the SP140 locus have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), Crohn's disease (CD) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To determine the causal polymorphism, we have integrated high-density data sets of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), using GEUVADIS RNA sequences and 1000 Genomes genotypes, with MS-risk variants of the high-density Immunochip array performed by the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetic Consortium (IMSGC). The variants most associated with MS were also correlated with a decreased expression of the full-length RNA isoform of SP140 and an increase of an isoform lacking exon 7. By exon splicing assay, we have demonstrated that the rs28445040 variant was the causal factor for skipping of exon 7. Western blots of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS patients showed a significant allele-dependent reduction of the SP140 protein expression. To confirm the association of this functional variant with MS and to compare it with the best-associated variant previously reported by GWAS (rs10201872), a case-control study including 4384 MS patients and 3197 controls was performed. Both variants, in strong LD (r(2) = 0.93), were found similarly associated with MS [P-values, odds ratios: 1.9E-9, OR = 1.35 (1.22-1.49) and 4.9E-10, OR = 1.37 (1.24-1.51), respectively]. In conclusion, our data uncover the causal variant for the SP140 locus and the molecular mechanism associated with MS risk. In addition, this study and others previously reported strongly suggest that this functional variant may be shared with other immune-mediated diseases as CD and CLL. PMID:26152201

  14. Genetic variation in aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) affects the expression and activity of multiple cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Yasuda, Kazuto; Yang, Xia; Fan, Yiping; Strom, Stephen C; Schuetz, Erin G

    2013-08-01

    Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3'-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1's putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3'-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network. PMID:23704699

  15. Correlation of mRNA expression and protein abundance affected by multiple sequence features related to translational efficiency in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: A quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-12-01

    The modest correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance in large scale datasets is explained in part by experimental challenges, such as technological limitations, and in part by fundamental biological factors in the transcription and translation processes. Among various factors affecting the mRNA-protein correlation, the roles of biological factors related to translation are poorly understood. In this study, using experimental mRNA expression and protein abundance data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris by DNA microarray and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, we quantitatively examined the effects of several translational-efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Three classes of sequence features were investigated according to different translational stages: (1) initiation: Shine-Dalgarno sequences, start codon identity and start codon context; (2) elongation: codon usage and amino acid usage; and (3) termination: stop codon identity and stop codon context. Surprisingly, although it is widely accepted that translation initiation is a rate-limiting step for translation, our results showed that the mRNA-protein correlation was affected the most by the features at elongation stages, codon usage and amino acid composition (7.4-12.6% and 5.3-9.3% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation, respectively), followed by stop codon context and the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (2.5-4.2% and 2.3%, respectively). Taken together, all sequence features contributed to 18.4-21.8% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation. As the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the mRNA-protein correlation in bacterial D. vulgaris, our results suggest that the traditional view of the relative importance of various sequence features in prokaryotic protein translation might be questionable.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Multiple Myeloma at 3.0 Tesla: How Do Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Percentage and Selection of Protocols Affect Lesion Conspicuity?

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Miyuki; Tamura, Takayuki; Kaichi, Yoko; Tanitame, Keizo; Akiyama, Yuji; Date, Shuji; Sakai, Akira; Kuroda, Yoshiaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare various pulse sequences in terms of percent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for detection of focal multiple myeloma lesions and to assess the dependence of lesion conspicuity on the bone marrow plasma cell percent (BMPC%). Materials and Methods Sagittal T1-weighted FSE, fat-suppressed T2-weighted FSE (FS- T2 FSE), fast STIR and iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) imaging of the lumbar spine were performed (n = 45). Bone marrow (BM)-focal myeloma lesion percent contrast and CNR were calculated. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were obtained between percent contrast, CNR and BMPC%. Percent contrasts and CNRs were compared among the three imaging sequences. Results BM-focal lesion percent contrasts, CNRs and BMPC% showed significant negative correlations in the three fat-suppression techniques. Percent contrast and CNRs were significantly higher for FS- T2 FSE than for STIR (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), but no significant differences were found among the three fat-suppression methods in the low tumor load BM group. Conclusion The higher BMPC% was within BM, the less conspicuous the focal lesion was on fat-suppressed MRI. The most effective protocol for detecting focal lesions was FS- T2 FSE. In the high tumor load BM group, no significant differences in lesion conspicuity were identified among the three fat-suppression techniques. PMID:24489680

  17. A mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. Multiple oxygen-responsive steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway affect Hap1 activity.

    PubMed

    Hon, Thomas; Dodd, Athena; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Gorman, Nadia; Sinclair, Peter R; Zhang, Li; Poyton, Robert O

    2003-12-12

    Heme plays central roles in oxygen sensing and utilization in many living organisms. In yeast, heme mediates the effect of oxygen on the expression of many genes involved in using or detoxifying oxygen. However, a direct link between intracellular heme level and oxygen concentration has not been vigorously established. In this report, we have examined the relationships among oxygen levels, heme levels, Hap1 activity, and HAP1 expression. We found that Hap1 activity is controlled in vivo by heme and not by its precursors and that heme activates Hap1 even in anoxic cells. We also found that Hap1 activity exhibits the same oxygen dose-response curves as Hap1-dependent aerobic genes and that these dose-response curves have a sharp break at approximately 1 microM O2. The results show that the intracellular signaling heme level, reflected as Hap1 activity, is closely correlated with oxygen concentration. Furthermore, we found that bypass of all heme synthetic steps but ferrochelatase by deuteroporphyrin IX does not circumvent the need for oxygen in Hap1 full activation by heme, suggesting that the last step of heme synthesis, catalyzed by ferrochelatase, is also subjected to oxygen control. Our results show that multiple heme synthetic steps can sense oxygen concentration and provide significant insights into the mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. PMID:14512429

  18. The low EOMES/TBX21 molecular phenotype in multiple sclerosis reflects CD56+ cell dysregulation and is affected by immunomodulatory therapies.

    PubMed

    McKay, Fiona C; Gatt, Prudence N; Fewings, Nicole; Parnell, Grant P; Schibeci, Stephen D; Basuki, Monica A I; Powell, Joseph E; Goldinger, Anita; Fabis-Pedrini, Marzena J; Kermode, Allan G; Burke, Therese; Vucic, Steve; Stewart, Graeme J; Booth, David R

    2016-02-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease treated by therapies targeting peripheral blood cells. We previously identified that expression of two MS-risk genes, the transcription factors EOMES and TBX21 (ET), was low in blood from MS and stable over time. Here we replicated the low ET expression in a new MS cohort (p<0.0007 for EOMES, p<0.028 for TBX21) and demonstrate longitudinal stability (p<10(-4)) and high heritability (h(2)=0.48 for EOMES) for this molecular phenotype. Genes whose expression correlated with ET, especially those controlling cell migration, further defined the phenotype. CD56+ cells and other subsets expressed lower levels of Eomes or T-bet protein and/or were under-represented in MS. EOMES and TBX21 risk SNP genotypes, and serum EBNA-1 titres were not correlated with ET expression, but HLA-DRB1*1501 genotype was. ET expression was normalised to healthy control levels with natalizumab, and was highly variable for glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, interferon-beta, dimethyl fumarate. PMID:26762769

  19. Clarifying the Relation Between Extraversion and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Luke D; DeYoung, Colin G; Hall, Phillip J

    2015-10-01

    This article clarifies two sources of ambiguity surrounding the relation between extraversion and positive affect. First, positive affect is defined differently across major models of the structure of affect. Second, no previous research has examined potentially diverging associations of lower-order aspects of extraversion (i.e., assertiveness and enthusiasm) with positive affect. Australian (Study 1: N = 437, 78% female, Mage  = 20.41) and American (Study 2: N = 262, 39% female, Mage  = 33.86) participants completed multiple measures of extraversion and positive affect. Correlations were employed to examine relations among these measures. In both studies, extraversion was most clearly associated with positive affect as conceptualized within a major factor model of affect-specifically, as positive activation (Watson & Tellegen, 1985)-rather than the valence-based conceptualization of positive affect provided by a circumplex model of affect (Russell, 1980). This was also the case for the assertiveness and enthusiasm aspects of extraversion. Our findings clarify the nature of the positive affective component of extraversion, which is best described in terms of both positive valence and high activation. PMID:25234441

  20. Impact of multiple anthropogenic stressors on freshwater: how do glyphosate and the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei affect microbial communities and water quality?

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Haydée; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Sinistro, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Marina; Rodríguez, Patricia; Vinocur, Alicia; Cataldo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study of the joint effect of multiple anthropogenic stressors is important because the emerging consequences are often unpredictable on the basis of knowledge of single effects. We explored the joint impact of glyphosate and the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei on freshwater phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and periphyton, and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We manipulated both stressors simultaneously in a 25-day experiment using outdoor mesocosms; we assayed technical-grade glyphosate acid at four concentrations: 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg gly L(−1) under scenarios with and without mussels. The addition of the glyphosate significantly increased total phosphorus according to the concentration used; the high clearance rate of L. fortunei significantly decreased phytoplanktonic abundance leading to low values of turbidity. The mussel significantly stimulated the development of filamentous green algae (metaphyton). Interestingly, the combined effect revealed that L. fortunei accelerated the dissipation of glyphosate, which showed a 4-fold decrease in its half-life; this promoted the rapid bioavailability of glyphosate-derived phosphorus in the water. The interaction had a synergistic effect on soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations and was directly dependent on the concentration of glyphosate. A synergistic effect was also observed on bacterioplankton, water turbidity and metaphyton, thus inducing enhanced and rapid eutrophication. The ability of mussels to reduce glyphosate in water may be valued as positive, but our results allow us to predict that the invasion of Limnoperna fortunei in natural freshwater systems contaminated by glyphosate will accelerate the negative impact of the herbicide associated with eutrophication. PMID:26467805

  1. Analysis of Multiple Families With Single Individuals Affected by Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B) Reveals Only One Novel Maternally Inherited GNAS Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Takatani, Rieko; Molinaro, Angelo; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Tafaj, Olta; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Reyes, Monica; Sharma, Amita; Singhal, Vibha; Raymond, F Lucy; Linglart, Agnès; Jüppner, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are preeminent abnormalities in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B), but resistance toward other hormones as well as variable features of Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) can occur also. Genomic DNA from PHP1B patients shows epigenetic changes at one or multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, the gene encoding Gαs and splice variants thereof. In the autosomal dominant disease variant, these methylation abnormalities are caused by deletions in STX16 or GNAS on the maternal allele. The molecular defect(s) leading to sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) remains in most cases unknown and we therefore analyzed 60 sporPHP1B patients and available family members by microsatellite markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and methylation-specific MLPA (MS-MLPA). All investigated cases revealed broad GNAS methylation changes, but no evidence for inheritance of two paternal chromosome 20q alleles. Some patients with partial epigenetic modifications in DNA from peripheral blood cells showed more complete GNAS methylation changes when testing their immortalized lymphoblastoid cells. Analysis of siblings and children of sporPHP1B patients provided no evidence for an abnormal mineral ion regulation and no changes in GNAS methylation. Only one patient revealed, based on MLPA and microsatellite analyses, evidence for an allelic loss, which resulted in the discovery of two adjacent, maternally inherited deletions (37,597 and 1427 bp, respectively) that remove the area between GNAS antisense exons 3 and 5, including exon NESP. Our findings thus emphasize that the region comprising antisense exons 3 and 4 is required for establishing all maternal GNAS methylation imprints. The genetic defect(s) leading in sporPHP1B to epigenetic GNAS changes and thus PTH-resistance remains unknown, but

  2. Analysis of Multiple Families With Single Individuals Affected by Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B) Reveals Only One Novel Maternally Inherited GNAS Deletion.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Rieko; Molinaro, Angelo; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Tafaj, Olta; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Reyes, Monica; Sharma, Amita; Singhal, Vibha; Raymond, F Lucy; Linglart, Agnès; Jüppner, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are preeminent abnormalities in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B), but resistance toward other hormones as well as variable features of Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) can occur also. Genomic DNA from PHP1B patients shows epigenetic changes at one or multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS, the gene encoding Gαs and splice variants thereof. In the autosomal dominant disease variant, these methylation abnormalities are caused by deletions in STX16 or GNAS on the maternal allele. The molecular defect(s) leading to sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) remains in most cases unknown and we therefore analyzed 60 sporPHP1B patients and available family members by microsatellite markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and methylation-specific MLPA (MS-MLPA). All investigated cases revealed broad GNAS methylation changes, but no evidence for inheritance of two paternal chromosome 20q alleles. Some patients with partial epigenetic modifications in DNA from peripheral blood cells showed more complete GNAS methylation changes when testing their immortalized lymphoblastoid cells. Analysis of siblings and children of sporPHP1B patients provided no evidence for an abnormal mineral ion regulation and no changes in GNAS methylation. Only one patient revealed, based on MLPA and microsatellite analyses, evidence for an allelic loss, which resulted in the discovery of two adjacent, maternally inherited deletions (37,597 and 1427 bp, respectively) that remove the area between GNAS antisense exons 3 and 5, including exon NESP. Our findings thus emphasize that the region comprising antisense exons 3 and 4 is required for establishing all maternal GNAS methylation imprints. The genetic defect(s) leading in sporPHP1B to epigenetic GNAS changes and thus PTH-resistance remains unknown, but it

  3. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Denman, Antony R; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G M; Phillips, Paul S; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    To test whether an association exists between radon gas concentration in the home and increased multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence, a retrospective study was undertaken of MS incidence in known areas of raised domestic radon concentration in England and Wales, using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) clinical research database. The study population comprised 20,140,498 person-years of clinical monitoring (males: 10,056,628: 49.93%; females: 10,083,870: 50.07%), representing a mean annual population of 2.5 million individuals. To allow for the possible latency of MS initiation following exposure, data extraction was limited to patients with at least five years registration history with the same GP practice before first diagnosis. Patient records were allocated to one of nine radon concentration bands depending on the average radon level in their postcode sector. MS incidence was analysed by searching for patients with first MS diagnosis over the eight calendar years 2005-2012 inclusive. 1512 new MS cases were diagnosed, 1070 females, 442 males, equivalent to raw incidence rates of 7.51, 10.61 and 4.40 per 10(5) person-years respectively, comparable to previously reported results. Of these new cases, 115 could be allocated to one of the radon bands representing high radon areas. Standardising to the UK 2010 population, excess relative risk (ERR) figures for MS were calculated for each radon band. Linear regression of ERR against mean band radon concentration shows a positive gradient of 0.22 per 100 Bq·m(-3) (R(2) = 0.25, p = 0.0961) when forced through the origin to represent a linear-no-threshold response. The null hypothesis falls inside the 95% confidence interval for the linear fit and therefore this fit is not statistically significant. We conclude that, despite THIN sampling around 5% of the population, insufficient data was available to confirm or refute the hypothesised association between MS incidence and radon concentration. PMID:26809141

  4. Oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Proctor, R; Kumar, N; Stein, A; Moles, D; Porter, S

    2005-03-01

    The present article reviews, in detail, the current knowledge of the oral and dental aspects of chronic renal failure (CRF). Worldwide, increasing numbers of persons have CRF; thus, oral health care staffs are increasingly likely to provide care for patients with such disease. Chronic renal failure can give rise to a wide spectrum of oral manifestations, affecting the hard or soft tissues of the mouth. The majority of affected individuals have disease that does not complicate oral health care; nevertheless, the dental management of such individuals does require that the clinician understand the multiple systems that can be affected. The clinician should also consider the adverse side-effects of drug therapy and appropriate prescribing, in view of compromised renal clearance. PMID:15723858

  5. Structure/Function Studies Involving the V3 Region of the HIV-1 Envelope Delineate Multiple Factors That Affect Neutralization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sandra Sharpe; Boyd, David; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Seaman, Michael; Nussenzweig, Michel; Klein, Florian; Overbaugh, Julie; Totrov, Max

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibodies (Abs) specific for the V3 loop of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope neutralize most tier 1 and many tier 2 viruses and are present in essentially all HIV-infected individuals as well as immunized humans and animals. Vaccine-induced V3 Abs are associated with reduced HIV infection rates in humans and affect the nature of transmitted viruses in infected vaccinees, despite the fact that V3 is often occluded in the envelope trimer. Here, we link structural and experimental data showing how conformational alterations of the envelope trimer render viruses exceptionally sensitive to V3 Abs. The experiments interrogated the neutralization sensitivity of pseudoviruses with single amino acid mutations in various regions of gp120 that were predicted to alter packing of the V3 loop in the Env trimer. The results indicate that the V3 loop is metastable in the envelope trimer on the virion surface, flickering between states in which V3 is either occluded or available for binding to chemokine receptors (leading to infection) and to V3 Abs (leading to virus neutralization). The spring-loaded V3 in the envelope trimer is easily released by disruption of the stability of the V3 pocket in the unliganded trimer or disruption of favorable V3/pocket interactions. Formation of the V3 pocket requires appropriate positioning of the V1V2 domain, which is, in turn, dependent on the conformation of the bridging sheet and on the stability of the V1V2 B-C strand-connecting loop. IMPORTANCE The levels of antibodies to the third variable region (V3) of the HIV envelope protein correlate with reduced HIV infection rates. Previous studies showed that V3 is often occluded, as it sits in a pocket of the envelope trimer on the surface of virions; however, the trimer is flexible, allowing occluded portions of the envelope (like V3) to flicker into an exposed position that binds antibodies. Here we provide a systematic interrogation of mechanisms by which single amino acid changes in various

  6. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: microradiographic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dhem, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Coppens, J

    1998-01-01

    A comparative microradiographic and histologic analysis of undecalcified bone samples was performed in men and women aged 18-98 years. These morphological methods showed that besides usual lamellar bone remodelling, all the so-called inert surfaces, namely both haversian and vascular canals as well as trabecular surfaces, were involved in weathering alterations of the superficial lamellae, resulting in eroded outlines devoid of osteoclast. These aspects, recorded in all pieces of our material, were visible from the earliest adult age and were randomly distributed. Except the grade of osteoporosis at a given age, the microradiographic and histologic aspects were similar in both aged men and women and did not allow sex distinction. These observations were consistent with the hypothesis of a particular destructive process affecting all the quiescent lamellar bone surfaces without osteoclast or cell participation. This kind of erosion, termed delitescence, could be at least partially responsible for the age-related and postmenopausal bone loss. In order to explain the increasing osteoporosis after menopause, it has been suggested that the estrogen deficiency could increase the percentage of dead osteocytes. Thereby the reduced cellular control on the bone surface could impair the remodeling process and fail to adapt the bone structure by repairing the microscopic lesions. PMID:11315966

  7. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS. PMID:25979578

  8. [The role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Kfoczyńska, Medea; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease which affects the central nervous system and is linked to autoimmune disorders. Although the precise causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, some evidence points towards hypovitaminosis D. Apart from the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, vitamin D also plays a major role in other aspects of human health. It is caused by the vitamin D receptor, which is present in many human organs and tissues. Vitamin D is an immunomodulating factor and accordingly has a potential to be effective in both preventing and treating autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The aim of this review was to present up-to-date knowledge about vitamin D, especially its impact on risk of multiple sclerosis onset, relapses, and potential to modify the immune response. A further objective was to describe the role of vitamin D supplementation and its provision in the everyday diet for both prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis. PMID:25897104

  9. Explorations of Affection and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuntich, Richard J.; Shapiro, Richard

    Considerable effort has been devoted to investigating various aspects of love and affection, but there have been few studies about direct expressions of affection. Relationships between gender composition of a dyad and the affection/aggression expressed by the dyad were examined as was the possibility of increasing the amount of affectionate…

  10. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  11. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  12. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  13. Dynamic musical communication of core affect.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Nicole K; Large, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956) have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified "scene" that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that (1) neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that (2) music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience. PMID:24672492

  14. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  15. Gender issues in multiple sclerosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Céline; Larochelle, Catherine; Parpal, Hélène; Coyle, Patricia K; Duquette, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) affects both women and men, women are more susceptible to MS than men. Accumulating evidence indicates that the incidence and prevalence of MS is increasing, more so in women than in men. Owing to pregnancy, differing hormonal states and distinct social roles, the impact of MS differs between women and men. Since Patricia K Coyle published a review on gender issues in MS, multiple studies have added to the body of knowledge. This update will summarize the current thinking on gender-related issues in MS and we will address incidence and prevalence, hormonal factors, pregnancy and breastfeeding, genetics, course and prognosis, imaging, treatment and psychosocial aspects. Future progression within this field will help elucidate the cause of and define the treatment of MS. PMID:21118039

  16. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  17. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  18. Multiple sclerosis in men: management considerations.

    PubMed

    Bove, Riley; McHenry, Allison; Hellwig, Kerstin; Houtchens, Maria; Razaz, Neda; Smyth, Penelope; Tremlett, Helen; Sadovnick, A D; Rintell, D

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a lifelong disease typically affecting individuals in young to middle adulthood. There are recognized sex differences in MS onset and clinical course. MS affects approximately three times more women than men, thus resulting in less attention to the male experience (i.e. diagnosis, management, societal dimensions). Here, we review current scientific evidence on sex differences in MS risk and course, highlight potential sources of bias, and suggest avenues of further inquiry. We then describe what is known about male experiences with MS diagnosis, treatment, and symptom management (particularly mood and sexual function). Finally, we consider ways in which healthcare providers might engage male patients in the broader aspects of living with MS (e.g. familial and societal relationships) to influence their long-term quality of life (QOL). When possible, we draw from published sources to underscore our collective clinical and scientific experiences. PMID:26725085

  19. Genetic aspects of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kolačkov, Katarzyna; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are derived from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla which synthesize and secrete catecholamines, thus affecting the cardiovascular system and metabolic processes. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the following multicarcinoma hereditary syndromes: type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, type 1 neurofibromatosis and the pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas syndrome. Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare, and because of non-specific manifestation of these tumors and the possible lack of signs and symptoms for extended periods of time, the diagnosis may be delayed, which may, in turn, lead to death. Pheochromocytomas may occur sporadically. However, due to the frequent incidence of hereditary forms of these cancers, the presymptomatic genetic testing of family members with a positive family history is indicated, thus allowing for selecting people with higher risk of cancer. Early detection of the syndrome and the coexisting tumors (which may be malignant) may lead to a correct diagnosis, regular surveillance, preventive examinations and implementation of appropriate early treatment. Recent examinations have shown significant involvement of RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB and SDHD as well as the newly discovered KIF1Bβ, TMEM127 and MAX genes in pathogenesis of these tumors. The microarray-gene expression studies, based on the analysis of cellular pathways, have revealed two distinct clusters indicating two different routes of tumorgenesis. The genotype-phenotype correlations are still being studied and future research can give us clearer information about the function of these genes, which may prove crucial from the clinical point of view. PMID:23457139

  20. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  1. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  2. Multiple osteochondromas

    PubMed Central

    Bovée, Judith VMG

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15–18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5–5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection

  3. Affective Aspects of Language Learning: Beliefs, Attitudes, Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Purdie, Nola; Rochecouste, Judith

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this study is the relationship between language attitude, beliefs, efficacy, English language competence, and language achievement. Two hundred and eighty-five students from five metropolitan primary schools in Western Australia completed a specially designed questionnaire based on the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (Gardner,…

  4. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  5. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  6. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  7. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  8. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  9. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  10. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  11. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  12. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  13. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  14. Family Intimacy and Affection: A Sociology of Positive Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Floyd M.

    This paper deals with aspects of positive family affect in intimate family relationships such as: (1) the nuclear family of orientation, including the child-parent subgroup and the sibling subgroup; (2) the nuclear family of procreation, including the marital subgroup and parent-child subgroup; and (3) the dating relationship. Interpersonal…

  15. Stereoscopic Height Estimation from Multiple Aspect Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    SciTech Connect

    DELAURENTIS,JOHN M.; DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2001-08-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a two-dimensional projection of the radar reflectivity from a 3-dimensional object or scene. Stereoscopic SAR employs two SAR images from distinct flight paths that can be processed together to extract information of the third collapsed dimension (typically height) with some degree of accuracy. However, more than two SAR images of the same scene can similarly be processed to further improve height accuracy, and hence 3-dimensional position accuracy. This report shows how.

  16. Multiple Metaphors: Teaching Tense and Aspect to English-Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Karen

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a synthesis of instructional methods from both traditional/explicit grammar and learner-centered/constructivist camps that also incorporates many types of metaphors (abstract, visual, and kinesthetic) in order to lead learners from declarative to proceduralized to automatized knowledge. This integrative, synthetic approach…

  17. Acupuncture Stimulation Analyzed from Multiple Aspects of Western Medical Science.

    PubMed

    Inanç, Betül Battaloğlu

    2016-01-01

    Skin is the biggest and most important organ of us. It has a large surface area and it is easily accessible. While we touch skin, piezoelectric stimulation starts, fundamental property of biological tissues, pressure electrification. And after this stimulation, ferroelectric and pyroelectric effects occur. While we insert the acupuncture needle into skin, we have created a conscious trauma and damage. After this, inflammatory phase, proliferation and tissue formation phase and tissue remodeling phase start. With embryological perspective, at that moment, we give stimulus ectodermal and mesodermal layer of the skin also. We stimulate these embryologic layers and cells not only into skin but also whole body. Because, while we start stimulation with a cell, cell stimulates other cells and cells stimulate body. Also we stimulate neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, neuro-hormones and receptors. The skin is the largest immunologically active receptor organ in the body. And we see, peripheral local stress response (brain-skin) works same as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. So, what we have done? We only insert the acupuncture needle into skin consciously. PMID:27244951

  18. Multiple interactions between molecular and supramolecular ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, M.; Emanuele, A.; Martorana, V.; Bulone, D.; San Biagio, P. L.; Palma-Vittorelli, M. B.; Palma, M. U.

    1999-02-01

    We report studies of the interplay among processes of molecular conformational changes, spinodal demixing of the solution, and molecular crosslinking involved in the physical gelation of a biopolysaccharide-water system. Multiple interactions and kinetic competition among these processes were studied under largely different absolute and relative values of their individual rates by appropriate choices of the quenching temperature at constant polymer concentration. Quenching temperature strongly affects the rate of growth but not the final value of the fractal dimension of the gel. Kinetic competition plays a central role in determining the final conformation of individual molecules and the structure and properties of the final gel. This behavior highlights the frustrated nature of the system, and the need of bringing kinetics sharply into focus in gelation theories. General aspects of the present findings and, specifically, the interplay of molecular conformation changes, solution demixing, and molecular crosslinking extend the relevance of these studies to the fast growing field of amyloid condensation and Prion diseases.

  19. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  20. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

  1. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  2. Aspects of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Dwight

    A survey of the substance of linguistics and of the activities of linguists is presented in an attempt to acquaint ordinary readers with the various aspects of la"guage. A discussion of the human tendency toward speech, of the traits of language, and of phonetic elements prepares the way for an analysis of the structure of languag e in terms of…

  3. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  4. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  5. [Fascioliasis hepatis--computed tomographic aspect].

    PubMed

    Goebel, N; Markwalder, K; Siegenthaler, W

    1984-12-01

    In a patient with liver fascioliasis (already excreting eggs with the faeces) a CT scan of the liver showed after i. v. contrast injection a relatively characteristic aspect with multiple, small, hypodense areas, partly in formations of bunches of grapes, partly in a street-like arrangement towards the portal vein - bile duct - areas. 9 months later the hypodense lesions had markedly decreased. PMID:6518725

  6. Genetics Home Reference: multiple lentigines syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... often affects the lower left chamber of the heart (the left ventricle). Up to 20 percent of people with multiple lentigines syndrome who have heart problems have pulmonary stenosis. People with multiple lentigines ...

  7. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  8. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  9. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  10. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  11. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management. PMID:20159661

  12. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  13. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marc S; Podar, Klaus; Breitkreutz, Iris; Richardson, Paul G; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2009-07-25

    Multiple myeloma is characterised by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells, and mounting evidence indicates that the bone marrow microenvironment of tumour cells has a pivotal role in myeloma pathogenesis. This knowledge has already expanded treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma. Prototypic drugs thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have each been approved for the treatment of this disease by targeting both multiple myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Although benefit was first shown in relapsed and refractory disease, improved overall response, duration of response, and progression-free and overall survival can be achieved when these drugs are part of first-line regimens. This treatment framework promises to improve outcome not only for patients with multiple myeloma, but also with other haematological malignancies and solid tumours. PMID:19541364

  14. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, S.A.; Jiwa, Theresa I.

    1991-01-01

    Successful management of patients with multiple sclerosis depends upon the involvement of the family physician. All contacts with either a multiple sclerosis clinic or a neurologist should be made at the instigation of the family practitioner. Constant contact with the family physician ensures that the individual receives proper care. While specialty care is needed for many of the symptoms, psychosocial problems are dealt with best by the individual's own family physician. PMID:21229090

  15. Multiple pterygium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Chang, C H; Misra, R P; Peters, H A; Grijalva, N S; Opitz, J M

    1980-01-01

    We describe a sporadic case and four sibs from a consanguineous Nicaraguan family affected with the multiple pterygium syndrome. Clinical manifestations included normal intelligence; short stature; pterygia of neck, axillary, antecubital, popliteal, digital, and intercrural areas; multiple joint contractures with a crouched stance; a flat, sad, motionless facial appearance; and cleft palate. Males had small penis and scrotum and cryptorchidism; females had apparent aplasia of labia majora and small clitoris. Skeletal anomalies included fusion of cervical vertebrae, scoliosis, flexion contractures of fingers and "rocker-bottom" feet with vertical talus. This review documents genetic heterogeneity: Autosomal recessive inheritance in many cases, autosomal dominant determination in others, and sporadic occurrence. PMID:7468651

  16. Multiple Intelligence for Every Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Pokey

    2003-01-01

    An overview is presented of multiple intelligence (MI) theory along with practical applications of the model. Three basic aspects of the theory (teaching strategies, curricular adaptations, and student assessment) are described relative to the infusion of MI theory in general education classrooms to ensure appropriate inclusion for students with…

  17. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  18. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  19. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  20. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  1. 25 CFR 87.9 - Programming aspects of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Programming aspects of plans. 87.9 Section 87.9 Indians... JUDGMENT FUNDS § 87.9 Programming aspects of plans. In assessing any tribal programming proposal the... such reservation residents; the nature of recent programming affecting the subject tribe or group...

  2. Mechanisms and Clinical Applications of Genome Instability in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Cagnetta, Antonia; Lovera, Davide; Grasso, Raffaella; Colombo, Nicoletta; Canepa, Letizia; Ballerini, Filippo; Calvio, Marino; Miglino, Maurizio; Gobbi, Marco; Lemoli, Roberto; Cea, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing genomic instability represents a hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, which manifests largely as whole chromosome- or translocation-based aneuploidy. Importantly, although it supports tumorigenesis, progression and, response to treatment in MM patients, it remains one of the least understood components of malignant transformation in terms of molecular basis. Therefore these aspects make the comprehension of genomic instability a pioneering strategy for novel therapeutic and clinical speculations to use in the management of MM patients. Here we will review mechanisms mediating genomic instability in MM cells with an emphasis placed on pathogenic mutations affecting DNA recombination, replication and repair, telomere function and mitotic regulation of spindle attachment, centrosome function, and chromosomal segregation. We will discuss the mechanisms by which genetic aberrations give rise to multiple pathogenic events required for myelomagenesis and conclude with a discussion of the clinical applications of these findings in MM patients. PMID:26579543

  3. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. PMID:27234913

  4. Aspects of emergent symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Pedro R. S.

    2016-03-01

    These are intended to be review notes on emergent symmetries, i.e. symmetries which manifest themselves in specific sectors of energy in many systems. The emphasis is on the physical aspects rather than computation methods. We include some background material and go through more recent problems in field theory, statistical mechanics and condensed matter. These problems illustrate how some important symmetries, such as Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry, usually believed to be fundamental, can arise naturally in low-energy regimes of systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The aim is to discuss how these examples could help us to face other complex and fundamental problems.

  5. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  6. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Padroni, Marina; Bernardoni, Andrea; Tamborino, Carmine; Roversi, Gloria; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; De Vito, Alessandro; Azzini, Cristiano; Borgatti, Luca; Marcello, Onofrio; d’Esterre, Christopher; Ceruti, Stefano; Casetta, Ilaria; Lee, Ting-Yim; Fainardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The capability of CT perfusion (CTP) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients is still questioned. Methods 62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT), recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after onset were recorded. Results Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001). CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS≤2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001). CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02) only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome. Conclusions Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size. PMID:26824672

  7. Familial multiple lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Rabbiosi, G; Borroni, G; Scuderi, N

    1977-01-01

    A clinical study was made of 14 cases of multiple symmetrical lipomata in two families. There were 7 female and 7 male patients. In one family the members affected were observed in four generations. The disease set in during the third or fourth decade of life. The lipomata ranged in size from that of a pea to that of a hen's egg. They were limited to the forearms and trunk were asymptomatic. PMID:71835

  8. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Airas, Laura; Kaaja, Risto

    2012-01-01

    The relapse rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) is typically reduced during late pregnancy but increases in the postpartum period. The reasons for the increased postpartum activity are not entirely clear, but factors such as the abrupt decrease in oestrogen levels immediately after the delivery and the loss of the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy are likely of importance. There is a general view that MS does not affect the course or outcome of pregnancy.

  9. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  10. [Interfamilial violence, medicolegal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2010-09-01

    Domestic or interfamilial violence--which is certainly not confined to disadvantaged social or cultural classes--is a process in which one partner carries against his spouse within the framework of private and privileged relationship (marriage, cohabitation, etc.), aggressive, violent and destructive behavior. All sectors of society are affected, whether urban or rural, and regardless of education or ethnic origin or religion. Such violence particularly affects women, but there are also violence perpetrated against men. This violence can take many forms, but we will only consider here the forensic clinical aspects, emphasizing the relevant legislation and medical ethics. PMID:21089423

  11. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. PMID:26260323

  12. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  13. [Immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis : review and update].

    PubMed

    Havla, J; Kümpfel, T; Hohlfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, presumably autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. Early stages of the disease are characterized by conspicuous inflammation of the white and grey matter. During later stages, presumably secondary neurodegeneration leads to physical disability progression. Over the last decade increasingly effective therapeutic options have been approved. Currently 11 immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive therapies targeting relapse rate, disease progression and paraclinical disease activity are available, mostly for relapsing forms of MS. However, the ideal of "precision medicine" is still in the distant future since biomarkers for individualized treatment are lacking. For implementation of risk-management plans to minimize the risk of severe side effects, interdisciplinary collaboration between neurologists and internists is essential. In this review article we summarize practical aspects of the implemented risk-management plans, and discuss possible side effects and special caveats of the three new immunotherapies teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and alemtuzumab. This article is based on, among others, the recently updated guidelines of the German Society of Neurology. Particular attention is given to the risks of new therapies, monitoring, and on special aspects needing attention when changing treatments. Teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and alemtuzumab expand treatment options for relapsing-remitting MS. Treatment selection should take into consideration the safety profile of the substance, previous and concomitant diseases, and other individual factors. This requires in-depth consultation and individual assessment of current disease activity, the potential efficacy of the therapy, and the possible risks and side effects. PMID:25720530

  14. Multiple sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... incontinence ) Eye symptoms: Double vision Eye discomfort Uncontrollable eye movements Vision loss (usually affects one eye at a ... pupil responses Changes in the visual fields or eye movements Decreased visual acuity Problems with the inside parts ...

  15. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  16. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  17. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  18. Immunotherapy in all aspects.

    PubMed

    Hanci, Deniz; Şahin, Ethem; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a form of long-term treatment that decreases symptoms for many people with allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. In this review, we presented the important topics in immunotherapy. The important aspects of immunotherapy are considered to be "Immunologıcal responses to immunotherapy"; "The principal types of immunotherapy"; "Effectiveness"; "Indications"; "Contraindications"; "Allergen immunotherapy in children"; "Safety"; and "Anaphylactic reactions after immunotherapy". The principal types of immunotherapy are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy. Both of them can be used in indicated cases. When using SCIT, physicians must be more careful because of reported rare fatal cases. The risks and benefits of continuing allergen immunotherapy in patients who have experienced severe systemic reactions should be carefully considered. PMID:25673026

  19. Various aspects of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Marcin

    2007-12-01

    This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

  20. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  1. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  2. Altered molecular expression of TLR-signaling pathways affects the steady-state release of IL-12p70 and IFN-α in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deckx, Nathalie; Willekens, Barbara; Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Goossens, Herman; Van Damme, Pierre; Berneman, Zwi N; Cools, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests a key role of dendritic cells (DC) in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Whereas dysfunction of DC was reported in MS patients, the underlying cause for this is not fully elucidated yet. The aim of the present study was to compare the gene expression profile of molecules involved in TLR4 and TLR7 signaling in DC from patients with MS and healthy controls. For this, circulating DC subsets were purified from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and from healthy controls for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Additionally, TLR responsiveness in peripheral blood was investigated. We observed an aberrant steady-state release of IL-12p70 and IFN-α in patients with RRMS compared with healthy controls. Expression of IRF1 and JUN was reduced in conventional DC from patients with RRMS. In plasmacytoid DC from patients with RRMS, expression of IRF7 and IFNGR1 was reduced, while higher expression levels of TLR4 and LY86 were found compared with DC from healthy controls. The observed alterations in the gene expression of molecules involved in the TLR4 and TLR7 signaling pathways in circulating DC subsets may underlie the impaired IL-12p70 and IFN-α secretion in patients with RRMS, thereby potentially contributing to the disease pathogenesis of MS. PMID:27036414

  3. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  4. Time of interferon-beta 1a injection and duration of treatment affect clinical side effects and acute changes of plasma hormone and cytokine levels in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kümpfel, T; Schwan, M; Pollmächer, Th; Yassouridis, A; Uhr, M; Trenkwalder, C; Weber, F

    2007-11-01

    During initiation of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) therapy, many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience systemic side effects which may depend on the time point of IFN-beta injection. We investigated the time course of plasma hormone-, cytokine- and cytokine-receptor concentrations after the first injection of IFN-beta either at 8.00 a.m. (group A) or at 6.00 p.m. (group B) and quantified clinical side effects within the first 9 h in 16 medication free patients with relapsing-remitting MS. This investigation was repeated after 6-month IFN-beta therapy. Plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations followed their physiological rhythms, with lower levels in the evening compared to the morning, but raised earlier and stronger in group B after IFN-beta administration. IFN-beta injection in the evening led to a prompter increase of plasma IL-6 concentrations and temperature during the first hours and correlated to more intense clinical side effects compared to group A. Plasma IL-10 concentrations increased more in group A compared to group B, but sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII concentrations raised 7 h after IFN-beta injection only in group B. Acute effects on plasma hormone and cytokine concentrations adapted after 6-month IFN-beta treatment, while diurnal variations were still present. Baseline sTNF-RII concentrations were elevated after 6-month IFN-beta therapy only in group A. Our results show that time point of IFN-beta injection has differential effects on acute changes of plasma hormone and cytokine concentrations and is related to systemic side effects. This may have implications on the tolerability and effectiveness of IFN-beta therapy. PMID:17967841

  5. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  6. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  7. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  8. Photodynamic therapy--aspects of pain management.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christine; Enk, Alexander; Gholam, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly effective and safe treatment method for actinic keratoses with an excellent cosmetic outcome and is commonly used for the therapy of large areas of photodamaged skin with multiple clinically manifest and subclinical lesions. However, the major drawback of photodynamic therapy is the pain experienced during the treatment that can be intense and sometimes even intolerable for patients, requiring interruption or termination of the process. Several strategies for controlling pain during photodynamic therapy have been studied but few effective methods are currently available. Therefore, this review puts the spotlight on predictors on pain intensity and aspects of pain management during photodynamic therapy. PMID:25640485

  9. [Transcultural aspects of depression].

    PubMed

    Aichberger, M C; Schouler-Ocak, M; Rapp, M A; Heinz, A

    2008-04-01

    For many decades it was assumed that depressive disorders are mainly a problem of Western societies. However, a World Bank report published in 1993 revealed that Major Depression is already the fifth leading contributor to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) among women in developmentally disadvantaged countries. The core symptoms of depression are disorders of affect, conduct and somatic complaints. In Western societies, the key symptom of depression is regarded to be a disorder of affect. However, in other cultural settings, different symptoms may be more central for depression. Nowadays mental health specialists have regular contact with patients from different cultural backgrounds. In order to achieve optimal results in diagnosing and treating mental disorders, it is important to consider the cultural background of a patient and her or his explanatory model of the disease. Transcultural psychiatry and psychotherapy aims at developing culture-sensitive concepts for treatment and mental health services and tries to increase insight in culture-related psychopathology and epidemiology. PMID:18345470

  10. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  11. Daily fluctuations in positive affect positively co-vary with working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Brose, Annette; Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier. PMID:24364855

  12. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. PMID:25732942

  13. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  14. [Psychosomatic aspects of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Lütje, W; Brandenburg, U

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis is a varied and unspecific disorder, which can be detected by way of subtle diagnostics in almost every woman. In one case it is a minor accidental finding, in another case it is a cancer-like, mostly incurable, chronic painful a disease, which often has sterility and aggressive therapies as subsequence. For the origin of endometriosis many causes are discussed. The theory of retrograde menstruation through an hyperperistaltic-dystocic uterus presents on one hand an organic explanation-concept. From the psychosomatic point of view this unphysiological menstruation could also be seen as the result of an unsolved conflict, which might be connected with the gender-role or personal, familiar and social attitudes about menstruation. The exo- and endogenic supply with hormones in a time with less pregnancies and therefore more menstruation is also a contributing factor to the origin and development of this disturbance. Beside the theory of endometriosis as an autoimmune disease also implicates psychosomatic thoughts. Though there is always a repeatedly talk the "cancer of the career-woman", there are however very few psychosomatic research projects regarding endometriosis. Therefore it is a characteristic of this disease, that finding and feeling are very often controversial. This emphasizes the importance of psychosomatic, psychosexual, social and biographical aspects in connection with endometriosis. This point of view makes a relative plausible and comfortable explanation for the CPPS and sterility uncertain. Without question diagnosis and therapy of endometriosis followed on one hand by stigmatization and on the other hand by often restriction of quality of life leads to a lot of subsequent psychosocial problems. PMID:14505264

  15. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  16. Genetic aspects of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis are complex inflammatory disorders of the pancreas with unpredictable severity, complications, and clinical courses. Growing evidence for genetic risk and modifying factors, plus strong evidence that only a minority of patients with these disorders are heavy alcohol drinkers, has revolutionized our concept of these diseases. Once considered a self-inflicted injury, pancreatitis is now recognized as a complex inflammatory condition like inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic linkage and candidate gene studies have identified six pancreas-targeting factors that are associated with changes in susceptibility to acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, including cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Patients with mutations in these genes are at increased risk of pancreatitis caused by a variety of stresses including hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Multiple studies are reporting new polymorphisms, as well as complex gene x gene and gene x environmental interactions. PMID:20059346

  17. Nutritional aspect of nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is associated with a variety of abnormalities in urinary composition. These abnormal urinary risk factors are due to dietary indiscretions, physiological-metabolic disturbances or both. Stone disease is morbid and costly, and the recurrence rates may be as high as 30-50% after 5 years. Efforts to prevent stone formation are, therefore, essential. Dietary factors play an important role in kidney stone formation. Tailored dietary recommendations based on metabolic evaluation should be offered to patients for the prevention of recurrence of stone formation. Dietary intervention and subsequent evaluations of therapeutic efficacy should be based on results from multiple 24-h urine collections. Urine flow of >1 ml/kg/h almost eliminates the risk of supersaturation for calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid, thus protecting from the formation of corresponding kidney stones. In patients with cystenuria, the required urine flow may even be higher and, in cases such as primary xanthinuria, high fluid intake is required. Milk intake in these patients should be within the RDA of calcium and protein. In children, recommendation of a high fluid intake has only limited success. Nevertheless, each patient should be advised about adequate fluid intake to increase urine volume in accordance with body size. Although children with hypocitraturia may benefit from therapeutic agents that raise the urine citrate concentration, all children bearing residual fragments should be counseled on adequate fluid intake along with potassium citrate treatment to prevent stone regrowth or formation. PMID:21369385

  18. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  19. Hypercalcemia. Pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Žofková, I

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic pathways that contribute to maintain serum calcium concentration in narrow physiological range include the bone remodeling process, intestinal absorption and renal tubule resorption. Dysbalance in these regulations may lead to hyper- or hypocalcemia. Hypercalcemia is a potentionally life-threatening and relatively common clinical problem, which is mostly associated with hyperparathyroidism and/or malignant diseases (90 %). Scarce causes of hypercalcemia involve renal failure, kidney transplantation, endocrinopathies, granulomatous diseases, and the long-term treatment with some pharmaceuticals (vitamin D, retinoic acid, lithium). Genetic causes of hypercalcemia involve familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia associated with an inactivation mutation in the calcium sensing receptor gene and/or a mutation in the CYP24A1 gene. Furthermore, hypercalcemia accompanying primary hyperparathyroidism, which develops as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1 and MEN2), is also genetically determined. In this review mechanisms of hypercalcemia are discussed. The objective of this article is a review of hypercalcemia obtained from a Medline bibliographic search. PMID:26596315

  20. How and why multiple MCMs are loaded at origins of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Das, Shankar P; Rhind, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Recent work suggests that DNA replication origins are regulated by the number of multiple mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) complexes loaded. Origins are defined by the loading of MCM - the replicative helicase which initiates DNA replication and replication kinetics determined by origin's location and firing times. However, activation of MCM is heterogeneous; different origins firing at different times in different cells. Also, more MCMs are loaded in G1 than are used in S phase. These aspects of MCM biology are explained by the observation that multiple MCMs are loaded at origins. Having more MCMs at early origins makes them more likely to fire, effecting differences in origin efficiency that define replication timing. Nonetheless, multiple MCM loading raises new questions, such as how they are loaded, where these MCMs reside at origins, and how their presence affects replication timing. In this review, we address these questions and discuss future avenues of research. PMID:27174869

  1. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients. PMID:18345425

  2. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  3. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  4. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  5. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  6. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  7. Photovoltaic multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    1997-04-01

    A multicell solar energy converter, produced in 1959/60 at the Shockley Transistor Corporation, is reviewed. The feasibility of this device, one of the first involving principles of Si integrated circuits, was demonstrated in anticipation of large-area Si sheets, to be pulled from Si/Pb binary melts. Secondly, the generation of multiple carrier pairs by absorption of merely one photon is discussed. Experiments on high-quality Si solar cells demonstrated this effect, which relies on inverse Auger generation. In principle, much higher maximal conversion efficiencies would be possible; novel criteria for materials optimization result. The new challenge of the inverse band structure problem arises. Finally, multistage optical transitions via deep centers in solar cells are briefly appraised.

  8. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  9. Psychopathology in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Demyelinization of nerve fibres not only affects the motor and sensory systems functionally, but may also cause psychopathological signs and symptoms. In addition to the psychiatric manifestations of MS, many patients have reactive psychological problems that are often hard to distinguish from the ‘organic’ causation of psychopathology. In any event, psychiatric comorbidity in MS deserves greater clinical attention than has been previously paid, because the presence of psychopathology may have deleterious effects on the disease process and impair coping with disability. PMID:21180640

  10. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This

  11. Astrocytes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ludwin, Samuel K; Rao, Vijayaraghava Ts; Moore, Craig S; Antel, Jack P

    2016-08-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies on astrocytes are unraveling the capabilities of these multi-functional cells in normal homeostasis, and in central nervous system (CNS) disease. This review focuses on understanding their behavior in all aspects of the initiation, evolution, and resolution of the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion. Astrocytes display remarkable flexibility and variability of their physical structure and biochemical output, each aspect finely tuned to the specific stage and location of the disease, participating in both pathogenic and beneficial changes seen in acute and progressive forms. As examples, chemo-attractive or repulsive molecules may facilitate the entry of destructive immune cells but may also aid in the recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursors, essential for repair. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may attack pathogenic cells and also destroy normal oligodendrocytes, myelin, and axons. Protective trophic factors may also open the blood-brain barrier and modulate the extracellular matrix to favor recruitment and persistence of CNS-specific immune cells. A chronic glial scar may confer structural support following tissue loss and inhibit ingress of further noxious insults and also inhibit migration of reparative cells and molecules into the damaged tissue. Continual study into these processes offers the therapeutic opportunities to enhance the beneficial capabilities of these cells while limiting their destructive effects. PMID:27207458

  12. Clinical aspects of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrell, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Communication among physicians is an essential in order to combine our experiences for the elucidation and application of new knowledge and for the accurate and uniform application of established medical practice. This communication requires an adequate understanding of the culture of the patient and the social context of disease and indeed the culture of the physician. Malnutrition in Bangladesh means caloric insufficiency, and a program to lower cholesterol would be impertinent, while a program to enhance the nutrition of patients in Texas by an international effort to import more grain would be ludicrous. In the same vein a public health effort to combat alcoholic cirrhosis in Mecca would be as silly as a program to increase fiber in the diet of the Bantu. Clinical communication must acknowledge the culture of the issue at hand and the differences in the experiential base of the physicians. Not only do geography and culture affect the potential differences in the experiential bases, but the world utilizes very different traditions of education and science in training physicians. We are influenced by the diseases we treat, and learn to look for the expected at least as much as we are attentive to the unexpected. A physician in Siberia would be much more likely to recognize frostbite than one from Buenos Aires, and the Argentine doctor would much more likely consider Chaga's Disease to explain abdominal pain than a colleague in Zurich. Beyond these obvious issues in communication among physicians we must deal with the many languages and idioms used in the world. An overview of using Telemedicine SpaceBridge after the earthquake in the Republic of Armenia in 1988 is presented.

  13. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  14. Affect Consciousness in children with internalizing problems: Assessment of affect integration.

    PubMed

    Taarvig, Eva; Solbakken, Ole André; Grova, Bjørg; Monsen, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Affect integration was operationalized through the Affect Consciousness (AC) construct as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression and conceptual expression of 11 affects. These aspects are assessed through a semi-structured Affect Consciousness Interview (ACI) and separate rating scales (Affect Consciousness Scales (ACSs)) developed for use in research and clinical work with adults with psychopathological disorders. Age-adjusted changes were made in the interview and rating system. This study explored the applicability of the adjusted ACI to a sample of 11-year-old children with internalizing problems through examining inter-rater reliability of the adjusted ACI, along with relationships between the AC aspects and aspects of mental health as symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety, social competence, besides general intelligence. Satisfactory inter-rater reliability was found, as well as consistent relationships between the AC aspects and the various aspects of mental health, a finding which coincides with previous research. The finding indicates that the attainment of the capacity to deal adaptively with affect is probably an important contributor to the development of adequate social competence and maybe in the prevention of psychopathology in children. The results indicate that the adjusted ACI and rating scales are useful tools in treatment planning with children at least from the age of 11 years. PMID:24941941

  15. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  16. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Röllig, Christoph; Knop, Stefan; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2015-05-30

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease characterised by proliferation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and typically accompanied by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins that are detectable in the serum or urine. Increased understanding of the microenvironmental interactions between malignant plasma cells and the bone marrow niche, and their role in disease progression and acquisition of therapy resistance, has helped the development of novel therapeutic drugs for use in combination with cytostatic therapy. Together with autologous stem cell transplantation and advances in supportive care, the use of novel drugs such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs has increased response rates and survival substantially in the past several years. Present clinical research focuses on the balance between treatment efficacy and quality of life, the optimum sequencing of treatment options, the question of long-term remission and potential cure by multimodal treatment, the pre-emptive treatment of high-risk smouldering myeloma, and the role of maintenance. Upcoming results of ongoing clinical trials, together with a pipeline of promising new treatments, raise the hope for continuous improvements in the prognosis of patients with myeloma in the future. PMID:25540889

  17. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Preziosa, Paolo; Rocca, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Due to its sensitivity to the different multiple sclerosis (MS)-related abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established tool to diagnose MS and to monitor its evolution. MRI has been included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, and ad hoc criteria have been proposed and are regularly updated. In patients with definite MS, the ability of conventional MRI techniques to explain patients' clinical status and progression of disability is still suboptimal. Several advanced MRI-based technologies have been applied to estimate overall MS burden in the different phases of the disease. Their use has allowed the heterogeneity of MS pathology in focal lesions, normal-appearing white matter and gray matter to be graded in vivo. Recently, additional features of MS pathology, including macrophage infiltration and abnormal iron deposition, have become quantifiable. All of this, combined with functional imaging techniques, is improving our understanding of the mechanisms associated with MS evolution. In the near future, the use of ultrahigh-field systems is likely to provide additional insight into disease pathophysiology. However, the utility of advanced MRI techniques in clinical trial monitoring and in assessing individual patients' response to treatment still needs to be assessed. PMID:27432676

  18. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  19. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  20. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  1. Multiple loci affect genetic predisposition to hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manenti, G.; Gariboldi, M.; Canzian, F.

    1994-09-01

    The C3H/He mouse represents a good experimental model of genetic predispositoin to hepatocellular tumor development. We analyzed an interspecific test-cross population of 106 urethane-treated male (C3H/He x Mus spretus) x C57BL/6J mice, typed with 222 genetic markers to locate precisely the hepatocellular tumor susceptibility (Hcs) loci. Three regions, on chromosomes 2, 5, and 19, showed a significant linkage with hepatocellular tumor development, as indicated by different quantitative indexes estimating liver tumor size. Liver tumor frequency was not genetically controlled. These loci are different from three other Hcs loci that we have previously mapped in an F2 progeny of the C3H/He mouse crossed with the resistant laboratory strain A/J. The present result indicates a multigenic model of inheritance for hepatocellular tumor susceptibility.

  2. Colloidal aspects of texture perception.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Ton; van Aken, George A; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Hamer, Rob J

    2009-08-30

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake, mastication, swallowing of it and during the cleaning of the mouth after swallowing. Moreover, their perception is modulated by the interaction with other basic attributes, such as taste and aroma attributes (e.g. sourness and vanilla). To be able to link the composition and structure of food products to more complicated texture attributes, their initial physical/colloid chemical properties and the oral processing of these products must be well understood. Understanding of the processes in the mouth at colloidal length scales turned out to be essential to grasp the interplay between perception, oral physiology and food properties. In view of the huge differences in physical chemical properties between food products, it is practical to make a distinction between solid, semi-solid, and liquid food products. The latter ones are often liquid dispersions of emulsion droplets or particles in general. For liquid food products for instance flow behaviour and colloidal stability of dispersed particles play a main role in determining their textural properties. For most solid products stiffness and fracture behaviour in relation to water content are essential while for semi-solids a much larger range of mechanical properties will play a role. Examples of colloidal aspects of texture perception will be discussed for these three categories of products based on selected sensory attributes and/or relevant colloidal processes. For solid products some main factors determining crispness will be discussed. For crispiness of dry cellular solid products these are water content and the architecture of the product at mesoscopic length scales (20-1000 microm). In addition the distribution of

  3. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  4. Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; OWJI, Mahsa; SAURAIAN, Mohammad Ali; NASER MOGHADASI, Abdorreza; AZIMI, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects physical and emotional aspects of patient’s lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate Emotional Intelligence (EI) in cases with MS. Methods One hundred sixty six clinically definite MS and 110 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants filled valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire, which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Results Mean EI total score and 12 out of 15 subscales were significantly different between patients and controls. Total EI score and most of its subscales were significantly higher in patients with RR (Relapsing Remitting) than Secondary Progressive (SP) ones. There was significant negative correlation between EDSS and total EI score (rho=-0.4, P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis between the EI as a dependent variable and sex, type of disease, level of education, age and marital status as independent variables in patients showed that type of disease and level of education were independent predictors of EI. Conclusion Emotional intelligence as the ability to behave better and communicate with others should be considered in MS cases as their physical and psychological health are affected by their illness. PMID:26060723

  5. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  6. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  7. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF VETERINARY LISTERIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited presentation updates the clinical aspects of Listeria monocytogenes in food animals. It summarizes the epidemiology and diagnostic methods. Virtually all domesticated animal species are susceptible to listeric infection, with a large proportion of healthy asymptomatic animals shedding...

  8. Affect, Albert Ellis, and Rational-Emotive Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, G. Barry

    1989-01-01

    Contends affect is integral component of Rational Emotive Therapy model. Reviews affective aspect of the model in terms of theoretical constructs and therapeutic techniques. Makes references to author-observed interactions of Albert Ellis and describes his life-style to permit inferences regarding the role of affect. Includes commentary by Ellis…

  9. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  10. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: multiple sulfatase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition that mainly affects the brain, skin, and skeleton. Because the signs and symptoms of multiple sulfatase ... of cells in particular tissues, specifically the brain, skeleton, and skin, cause many of the signs and ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: multiple pterygium syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A side-to-side curvature of the spine ( scoliosis ) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have ... Boston Children's Hospital: Respiratory Distress Boston Children's Hospital: Scoliosis in Children Cleveland Clinic: Scoliosis Disease InfoSearch: Multiple ...

  13. Behavioral momentum and accumulation of mass in multiple schedules.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral momentum theory suggests that the relation between a discriminative-stimulus situation and reinforcers obtained in that context (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation) governs persistence of operant behavior. Within the theory, a mass-like aspect of behavior has been shown to be a power function of predisruption reinforcement rates. Previous investigations of resistance to change in multiple schedules, however, have been restricted to examining response persistence following protracted periods of stability in reinforcer rates within a discriminative situation. Thus, it is unclear how long a stimulus-reinforcer relation must be in effect prior to disruption in order to affect resistance to change. The present experiment examined resistance to change of pigeon's key pecking following baseline conditions where reinforcer rates that were correlated with discriminative-stimulus situations changed. Across conditions, one multiple-schedule component arranged either relatively higher rates or lower rates of variable-interval food delivery, while the other component arranged the opposite rate. These schedules alternated between multiple-schedule components across blocks of sessions such that reinforcer rates in the components were held constant for 20, 5, 3, 2, or 1 session(s) between alternations. Resistance to extinction was higher in the component that most recently was associated with higher rates of food delivery in all conditions except when schedules alternated daily or every other day. These data suggest that resistance to change in multiple schedules is related to recently experienced reinforcer rates but only when multiple-schedule components are associated with specific reinforcer rates for several sessions. PMID:25787824

  14. NEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN GLYCOSYLATION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Eklund, Erik A.; Ng, Bobby G.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    This review will present principles of glycosylation, describe the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlight some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. Over 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Between these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of mis-glycosylated products afflicting a myriad of processes including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with limited analytic tools has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies, and to date few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  15. Coping with stressful or traumatic events: what aspects of trauma reactions are associated with health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Boals, Adriel; Riggs, Shelley A; Kraha, Amanda

    2013-04-01

    The presence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been shown to be related to a number of health outcomes. In the current study, we explored which specific aspects of PTSD are most related to health measures. The associations between the specific DSM-IV-TR PTSD criteria (criteria A-F) and five indicators of health and well-being--physical health symptoms, quality of life, mental health, depression and negative affect--were examined. The sample consisted of 711 undergraduates. A non-clinical sample was recruited so there would be variability in the various criteria for PTSD. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the hyperarousal (criterion D) was the most consistent and strongest predictor of outcomes. However, the F criterion (causes significant impairment) predicted additional variance in quality of life, depression and negative affect. These results suggest that it is not just the mere frequency of trauma symptoms that affect well-being but also the disruptive capability of these symptoms. In addition, follow-up analyses indicated that hyperarousal mediated the association between the A2 criterion (traumatic response) and all five outcome measures. These results underscore the importance of the hyperarousal criterion, while also suggesting the need for increased attention to the F criterion when considering the impact of stressful events on health and well-being. PMID:22888078

  16. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  17. Games, Gaming, and Gamification: Some Aspects of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Unsupported claims have been made for the use of games in education and the gamification (game-like aspects, such as scores and point goals) of various learning elements. This brief article examines what may be the motivational basis of gaming and how it can affect students' behavior and ultimate success.

  18. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  19. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  20. How Coriolis meter design affects field performance

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, A.; Dudiak, A.

    1995-12-31

    Although many possibilities exist for the design of Coriolis flowmeters, a common set of fundamental physical principles affect practical meter design. Design criteria such as tube geometry, alloy section, operating frequencies, stress levels, and tubing wall thickness have varying impacts on meter performance. Additionally, field conditions such as changing temperature, pressure, pipeline stress and vibration affect measurement performance. The challenge created in Coriolis flow meter design is to maximize the sensitivity of the meter Coriolis forces, while minimizing the impact of outside environmental influences. Data are presented on the physical principles that affect Coriolis flowmeters, and how the various aspects of meter design influence field performance.

  1. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  2. Multiple Lesions in the Upper Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Gedik, R; Gedik, S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Buccal exostoses are benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the upper jaw (maxilla) or, less commonly, the lower jaw (mandible). They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over years. We report here an adult man with multiple masses of the maxilla above the teeth. PMID:25867570

  3. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-04-01

    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. PMID:22524360

  4. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  5. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization. PMID:25559654

  6. Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts.

    PubMed

    Dias, R; Robbins, T W; Roberts, A C

    1996-03-01

    The prefrontal cortex is implicated in such human characteristics as volition, planning, abstract reasoning and affect. Frontal-lobe damage can cause disinhibition such that the behaviour of a subject is guided by previously acquired responses that are inappropriate to the current situation. Here we demonstrate that disinhibition, or a loss of inhibitory control, can be selective for particular cognitive functions and that different regions of the prefrontal cortex provide inhibitory control in different aspects of cognitive processing. Thus, whereas damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 9) in monkeys causes a loss of inhibitory control in attentional selection, damage to the orbito-frontal cortex in monkeys causes a loss of inhibitory control in 'affective' processing, thereby impairing the ability to alter behaviour in response to fluctuations in the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings not only support the view that the prefrontal cortex has multiple functions, but also provide evidence for the distribution of different cognitive functions within specific regions of prefrontal cortex. PMID:8598908

  7. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  8. Multiple Assessments for Multiple Intelligences. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanca, James; Chapman, Carolyn; Swartz, Elizabeth

    This book is designed to align assessment with instructional practices that promote the development of the multiple intelligences outlined by Howard Gardner. To facilitate the use of multiple assessments for the multiple intelligences, the information in this book is transferable to the classroom. The book explains how a teacher can design…

  9. Wrappers, Aspects, Quantification and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Talk overview: Object infrastructure framework (OIF). A system development to simplify building distributed applications by allowing independent implementation of multiple concern. Essence and state of AOP. Trinity. Quantification over events. Current work on a generalized AOP technology.

  10. Multiple cystic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Francisco, Flavia Angélica; Soares Souza, Arthur; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-12-01

    Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt-Hogg-Dubé); other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management. PMID:26621970

  11. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  12. Immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racke, Michael K

    2009-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a suspected autoimmune disease in which myelin-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells enter the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate an inflammatory response directed against myelin and other components of the CNS. Acute MS exacerbations are believed be the result of active inflammation, and progression of disability is generally believed to reflect accumulation of damage to the CNS, particularly axonal damage. Over the last several years, the pathophysiology of MS is being appreciated to be much more complex, and it appears that the development of the MS plaque involves a large number of cell populations, including CD8+ T lymphocytes, B cells, and Th17 cells (a population of helper T cells that secrete the inflammatory cytokine IL-17). The axonal transection and degeneration that is thought to represent the basis for progressive MS is now recognized to begin early in the disease process and to continue in the progressive forms of the disease. Molecules important for limiting aberrant neural connections in the CNS have been identified, which suppress axonal sprouting and regeneration of transected axons within the CNS. Pathways have also been identified that prevent remyelination of the MS lesion by oligodendrocyte precursors. Novel neuroimaging methodologies and potential biomarkers are being developed to monitor various aspects of the disease process in MS. As we identify the pathways responsible for the clinical phenomena of MS, we will be able to develop new therapeutic strategies for this disabling illness of young adults. PMID:20182567

  13. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  14. Computational aspects of multibody dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Computational aspects are addressed which impact the requirements for developing a next generation software system for flexible multibody dynamics simulation which include: criteria for selecting candidate formulation, pairing of formulations with appropriate solution procedures, need for concurrent algorithms to utilize computer hardware advances, and provisions for allowing open-ended yet modular analysis modules.

  15. Language Arts Scenarios Using "Aspects."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamstra, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Outlines how the computer groupware program for Macintosh computers called "Aspects" was used at every level of a K-12 school system to enhance collaborative writing and writing skills. Imagines possible future uses of the program in linking classrooms from different areas of the world. (HB)

  16. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  17. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  18. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  19. Linguistic Aspects of Sociopolitical Keywords.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahane, Henry; Kahane, Renee

    1984-01-01

    Four aspects of sociopolitical language are: (1) keywords are defined by a movement; (2) a movement, realized in its language, must be analyzed as having both surface and hidden meanings; (3) the propagandistic function of sociopolitical language forces "value" on the keyword; and (4) a movement creates its linguistic field. (MSE)

  20. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  1. The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1981-12-01

    Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case. PMID:7340512

  2. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. PMID:25732948

  3. Digital processing of histopathological aspects in renal transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque Araujo, Arnaldo; de Andrade, Marcos C.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; dos Santos, A. M. M.

    1993-07-01

    We describe here our initial experience with the digital image processing of histopathological aspects from multiple renal biopsies of transplanted kidney in a patient treated with Cyclosporine (CsA), a powerful immunosupressor drug whose use has improved the chances of a successful vascularized organ transplantation (Tx). Unfortunately, CsA promotes morphological alterations to the glomerular structure of the kidneys. To characterize this process, glomeruli, tufts, and lumen areas distributions are measured. The results are presented in form of graphics.

  4. Audio-visual affective expression recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Thomas S.; Zeng, Zhihong

    2007-11-01

    Automatic affective expression recognition has attracted more and more attention of researchers from different disciplines, which will significantly contribute to a new paradigm for human computer interaction (affect-sensitive interfaces, socially intelligent environments) and advance the research in the affect-related fields including psychology, psychiatry, and education. Multimodal information integration is a process that enables human to assess affective states robustly and flexibly. In order to understand the richness and subtleness of human emotion behavior, the computer should be able to integrate information from multiple sensors. We introduce in this paper our efforts toward machine understanding of audio-visual affective behavior, based on both deliberate and spontaneous displays. Some promising methods are presented to integrate information from both audio and visual modalities. Our experiments show the advantage of audio-visual fusion in affective expression recognition over audio-only or visual-only approaches.

  5. Rapid micromachining of high aspect ratio holes in fused silica glass by high repetition rate picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimelahi, Samira; Abolghasemi, Ladan; Herman, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    We present multiple methods of high aspect ratio hole drilling in fused silica glass, taking advantage of high power and high repetition rate picosecond lasers and flexible beam delivery methods to excise deep holes with minimal collateral damage. Combinations of static and synchronous scanning of laser focus were explored over a range of laser repetition rates and burst-train profiles that dramatically vary laser plume interaction dynamics, heat-affected zone, and heat accumulation physics. Chemically assisted etching of picosecond laser modification tracks are also presented as an extension from femtosecond laser writing of volume nanograting to form high aspect ratio (77) channels. Processing windows are identified for the various beam delivery methods that optimize the laser exposure over energy, wavelength, and repetition rate to reduce microcracking and deleterious heating effects. The results show the benefits of femtosecond laser interactions in glass extend into the picosecond domain, where the attributes of higher power further yield wide processing windows and significantly faster fabrication speed. High aspect ratio holes of 400 μm depth were formed over widely varying rates of 333 holes per second for mildly cracked holes in static-focal positioning through to one hole per second for low-damage and taper free holes in synchronous scanning.

  6. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  7. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  8. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  9. Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Centonze, Diego; Mori, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Buttari, Fabio; Codecà, Claudia; Rossi, Silvia; Cencioni, Maria Teresa; Bari, Monica; Fiore, Stefania; Bernardi, Giorgio; Battistini, Luca; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), and relief from pain and spasticity has been reported in MS patients self-medicating with marijuana. A cannabis-based medication containing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (Sativex) has been approved in some countries for the treatment of MS-associated pain. The effects of this pharmaceutical preparation on other clinically relevant aspects of MS pathophysiology, however, are still unclear. In 20 MS patients, we measured the effects of Sativex on clinically measured spasticity and on neurophysiological and laboratory parameters that correlate with spasticity severity or with the modulation of the ECS. Sativex failed to affect spasticity and stretch reflex excitability. This compound also failed to affect the synthesis and the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as the expression of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in various subpopulations of peripheral lymphocytes. PMID:19768368

  10. Multiple Intelligences: Curriculum and Assessment Project. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Aine, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "Multiple Intelligences, Curriculum and Assessment Project" at University College Cork was a collaborative project carried out between 1995 and 1999. The key research question focused on whether Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences could be applied to, and enhance, aspects of curriculum and assessment at primary and second level…

  11. Alternative Multiple Imputation Inference for Mean and Covariance Structure Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Model-based multiple imputation has become an indispensable method in the educational and behavioral sciences. Mean and covariance structure models are often fitted to multiply imputed data sets. However, the presence of multiple random imputations complicates model fit testing, which is an important aspect of mean and covariance structure…

  12. [Medical decision making: some aspects].

    PubMed

    Steurer, J

    2004-09-22

    Three main aspects of medical decision making will be shortly described in this article. Comprehensible information is required to make decisions. The question is, how much information is needed to make decisions, and a third aspect in this article concerns the decision maker. Research in the field of information transfer has shown that medical information, as presented in most journals, is difficult to understand. According to the classic decision theory, decisions are taken after collecting all available information. More recent research in decision making proves the hypothesis that human beings are able to decide correctly with much less information than presumed earlier. In medicine the patient is the decision maker, and the primary task of physicians is to inform the patient about his health status and enable him to reach a conclusion. PMID:15500244

  13. Reverse engineering of the multiple launch rocket system. Human factors, manpower, personnel, and training in the weapons system acquisition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabian, J. M.; Hartel, C. R.; Kaplan, J. D.; Marcus, A.; Promisel, D. M.

    1984-06-01

    In a briefing format, this report on the Multiple Launch Rocket System summarizes an examination of human factors, manpower, personnel and training (HMPT) issues during the systems acquisition process. The report is one of four reverse engineering studies prepared at the request of Gen. M. R. Thurman, Army Vice Chief of Staff. The four systems were studied as a representative sample of Army weapons systems. They serve as the basis for drawing conclusions about aspects of the weapons system acquisition process which most affect HMPT considerations. A synthesis of the four system studies appears in the final report of the Reverse Engineering Task Force U.S. Army Research Institute.

  14. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  15. Precision digital solar aspect sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a digital solar aspect sensor with a resolution of approximately 14 arc-seconds is discussed. An interpolation technique was used to generate the fine angle measurements. The sensor and its mode of operation are described. The electronic and mechanical design of the sensor were completed, and two flight units, one for the OAO 4 and the other for determining the attitude of a spinning spacecraft, are being fabricated.

  16. [Current aspects of quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Hartung, K

    2016-05-01

    The regulations for quality management in the rheumatology laboratory are demanding and on a qualitatively high level. They are the result of continuously more detailed quality requirements and their implementation. Not only the process of correctly measuring analytes but also aspects of preanalytics, postanalytics and interpretation of the results as well as validation of new test methods are becoming increasingly more important for the diagnostic process. PMID:27125945

  17. Ecological aspects of indanthrone production

    SciTech Connect

    Sadchenko, L.S.; Zinchenko, Yu.Ya.; Bobrovskaya, T.D.; Rogovik, V.I.

    1986-12-10

    The authors develop and describe an ecologically acceptable technology for the production of indanthrone from aminoanthraquinone through the action of potassium hydroxide and an organic solvent. The technology not only reduces the harmful environmental effects of current production methods but also eliminates those aspects of the process whose energy efficiency is low and allows for the recovery of valuable reagents and other materials from the resulting wastes.

  18. Functions: Historical and pedagogical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Israel

    1993-06-01

    This paper has two related objectives: to describe various aspects of the evolution of the notion of function and, based on the historical account, to make suggestions about teaching and learning related to functionality. In its formative stages, the concept of function was intimately related to analysis, and it is this aspect of its history that we recount here. We begin with a brief sketch of the prehistory of the function concept, then turn to its emergence and consolidation in the 18th century, and to the use in that century of power series for representing functions. Of 19th-century developments we single out the description of functions by integrals, their definition as solutions of differential equations, and their representation by Fourier series. The next three sections, which cut across historical time periods, deal respectively with continuity, conceptual aspects of functionality, and representability of functions by formulas. The concluding section touches on the definition of a function as a set of ordered pairs. The historical account in each of the ten sections is followed by pedagogical comments. These refer to such issues as what a formula is, when and how to introduce functions, calculus without functions, functions defined on a “split domain”, the desirability of the early introduction of power series into the calculus, the distinction between a function and its description(s), mathematical honesty and mathematical rigor.

  19. Extreme Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Paul

    1997-11-01

    Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the extreme-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with extremely compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.

  20. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  1. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Introducing Aspect-Oriented Programming Into a Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticki, I.; Katic, M.; Martin,S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the educational benefits of introducing the aspect-oriented programming paradigm into a programming course in a study on a sample of 75 undergraduate software engineering students. It discusses how using the aspect-oriented paradigm, in addition to the object-oriented programming paradigm, affects students' programs, their…

  2. Notes on the Heart: Affective Issues in the Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Susan H.

    The most used model for empirical research on the writing process is based on cognitive psychology and does not take into account affective phenomena, although it has long been recognized that affect (that is, the noncognitive aspects of mental activity) plays a large role in writing and learning to write. To understand the complete picture, it is…

  3. Values and Affectivity from a Piagetian Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Terrance

    This paper, which analyzes the evaluative aspect of affectivity, argues that the functional internalization of organic evolution for the formation of the intellectual system of human beings required that some means of selecting behavioral variations be devised, and that the selective mechanism devised was the affective system. From this…

  4. Defining and Assessing Affective Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Claire L.

    1990-01-01

    The affective aspect of the curriculum is defined as the development of appropriate and measurable values such as ethical behavior, honesty, tolerance, and becoming a life-long learner. In outcome assessment of the affective category, the goal is to evaluate the transition of the student to a professional. (MLW)

  5. Isoniazid: metabolic aspects and toxicological correlates.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    For over half a century, pyridine-4-carboxy hydrazide (isonicotinyl hydrazide; isoniazid - INH) has been a front-line weapon in the battle against tuberculosis. Its metabolism has been the subject of important research, much of which has focused on the pharmacodynamic and toxicological aspects of certain INH metabolites. Since 1952, when the drug was first introduced, multiple INH metabolites have been identified, including hydrazine (HZ), isonicotinic acid (INA), ammonia, the acetylated derivative N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-isonicotinylhydrazide (AcINH), hydrazones with pyruvic and ketoglutaric acids (INH-PA and INH-KA, respectively), monoacetylhydrazine (AcHZ), diacetylhydrazine (DiAcHZ), and oxidizing free radicals. Their formation is the result of hydrolysis (INA, HZ), cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent oxidation (HZ, NH(3), oxidizing free radicals), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity (AcINH, AcHZ, DiAcHZ). Doubts remain about isonicotinamide (INAAM) as an INH metabolite in mammals. Quantitatively speaking, one of the major metabolites is AcINH, which is produced by the enzyme NAT. It has virtually no antitubercular activity and is far less toxic than INH. Its formation and elimination are genetically controlled, and its elimination profile is trimodal (rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylation). Slow acetylation, which is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, increases the risk for peripheral neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in INH users. Thus far, there is no conclusive pharmacogenetic evidence that the formation of HZ and oxidizing radicals are linked to CYP polymorphisms. This article examines INH, HZ and its mono- and diacetylated metabolites, and ammonia (which in vitro and in vivo studies indicate as another derivative of HZ) in terms of their potential to cause neurotoxic and hepatotoxic effects (the two major forms of INH toxicity observed in animals and humans). INH hepatotoxicity seems to be related mainly to HZ, AcHZ, and other HZ metabolites that are

  6. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  7. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  8. [Dialysis and quality of life: identifying and managing critical aspects].

    PubMed

    Del Corso, C; Caravello, G; Betti, M G; Ferretti, S; Lunardi, W; Tavolaro, A; Capitanini, A; Petrone, I; Rossi, A; Cerri, A; Galati, V; Marini, M; Sardi, T; Valenti, I

    2008-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease is for the patient a ''disease experience'' that also affects the psychosocial sphere and has a negative impact on perceived quality of life. To estimate the effect of dialysis on the perceived quality of life and to identify by means of a specific questionnaire the aspects that are compromised most. From our results it emerged that the examined patients had a sufficiently good total perception of quality of life, even though about 30% of the patients reported critical aspects related to daily life and, in some age groups, also related to dialysis method. This study confirms the importance of developing educational and supportive predialysis programs in order to identify and reduce the critical aspects. PMID:18350501

  9. Medical Aspects of Scuba Diving

    PubMed Central

    Suke, Ralph

    1985-01-01

    Scuba divers may encounter dangerous levels of stress, due to increased ambient pressures and hostile environments. Divers therefore require a high level of mental and cardiorespiratory fitness. They must be informed of specific contraindications to diving. Family physicians with a basic knowledge of the medical aspects of scuba diving are in a very good position to examine and advise sports divers. Screening mainly involves an assessment of emotional stability and cardiorespiratory fitness, and an ear, nose and throat examination. Common problems suffered by scuba divers are discussed, as are temporary and permanent contraindications to diving. PMID:21274131

  10. Nutritional aspects related to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Gabriela; Schor, Eduardo; Kopelman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This literature review analyzed the evidence on nutritional aspects related to the pathogenesis and progression of endometriosis. Diets deficient in nutrients result in changes in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and promote epigenetic abnormalities, that may be involved in the genesis and progression of the disease. Foods rich in omega 3 with anti-inflammatory effects, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine, vitamin D and resveratrol, in addition to the increased consumption of fruits, vegetables (preferably organic) and whole grains exert a protective effect, reducing the risk of development and possible regression of disease. Dietary re-education seems to be a promising tool in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis. PMID:26841161

  11. [Inflammation and bone : Osteoimmunological aspects].

    PubMed

    Frommer, K W; Neumann, E; Lange, U

    2016-06-01

    Microscopic fractures (so-called microcracks) or traumatic macrofractures require bone, as the basic scaffold of the human body, to have a high regenerative capability. In order to be able to provide this regenerative capability, bone is in a constant process of remodeling. This finely tuned homeostasis of bone formation and degradation can become disrupted, which leads to osteoporosis or other bone disorders. It has been shown that the immune system is substantially involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and that chronic inflammation in particular can disturb this balance; therefore, this article reviews the osteoimmunological aspects contributing to osteoporosis and other diseases associated with bone degradation. PMID:27250491

  12. [Legal aspects of sports injuries].

    PubMed

    Allard, R H B

    2005-05-01

    Victims of sports injuries have to be advised about aspects of legal liablity, especially in case of luxation or avulsion of teeth, since there still may be dental consequences years later. The transference of information by the first-aid-dentist to the sportsman's own dentist should take place with care. If the patient has no family dentist, the first-aid-dentist should at least keep the sportsman free of pain, for example by starting endodontic treatment. Because sports injuries mostly occur beyond normal practice-hours, there may be reasons to deviate from the clinical guideline. PMID:15932047

  13. [Clinical aspects of trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Laurent, B; Keravel, Y; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Primary trigeminal neuralgia, termed "classical" in the international nomenclature, is an epilepsy-like disease. Diagnosis is easy when the disorder typical in presentation, based on clinical features and responsiveness to anticonvulsants. However, diagnosis can be difficult when atypical and/or in the long-duration forms. Furthermore, trigeminal neuralgia - even if typical in its clinical aspects - may be caused by a specific lesion and reveal a pathology. In other words, it may be symptomatic (secondary). Imaging, especially MRI, is of prime importance in identifying the cause and guiding the appropriate treatment. PMID:19328503

  14. [Hospital infection--ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Hossne, W S

    1995-01-01

    The author focuses the question of hospital infection, analysing the background on which the control committees were created. The hospital infection is discussed under bioethical principles and the Medical Ethics Code, examining the aspects related to the government, the Hospital Directorship, the Committee and the Control Service of Hospital Infection, and the assisting physician. A closer integration between the activities of the Program of Control of Hospital Infections and those of the Medical Ethics Committee is proposed, aiming at the patient and at the community, "targets of total medical attention". PMID:7550409

  15. Mathematical Aspects of Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhr, Claude

    In these lectures we discuss some of the mathematical structures that appear when computing multi-loop Feynman integrals. We focus on a specific class of special functions, the so-called multiple polylogarithms, and introduce their Hopf algebra structure. We show how these mathematical concepts are useful in physics by illustrating on several examples how these algebraic structures are useful to perform analytic computations of loop integrals, in particular to derive functional equations among polylogarithms.

  16. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise. PMID:23079364

  17. RHESSI imager and aspect systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, Alex; Bialkowski, Jacek; Burri, F.; Fivian, Martin; Henneck, Reinhold; Mchedlishvili, A.; Ming, P.; Welte, J.; Thomsen, Knud; Clark, David; Dennis, Brian R.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Curtis, David W.; Harvey, Peter R.; Pankow, David H.

    2003-02-01

    RHESSI uses nine Rotating Modulation Collimators (RMCs) for imaging, each consisting of a pair of grids mounted on the rotating spacecraft. The angular resolutions range from 2.3 arcsec to 3arcmin. The relative twist between the two grids of each pair is the most critical parameter. It must be less than 20 arcsec for the finest grid. After precision alignment, it is monitored by the Twist Monitoring System (TMS) to a few arcsec. The Sun-pointing must be known better than 0.4 arcsec for the image reconstruction. This is achieved by the Solar Aspect System (SAS), which consists of a set of three Sun sensors. Each sensor is focusing the filtered Sun light onto a linear CCD. The onboard Aspect Data Processor (ADP) selects the 6 limb positions, which over-define the pointing offset of the Sun center in respect to the imaging axis of the imager. The Roll Angle System (RAS) continuously measures the roll angle of RHESSI within arcmin accuracy. The RAS is a continuously operating CCD star scanner. The time of the passage of a star image over the CCD is recorded and defines the roll angle, comparing its pixel position and amplitude with a star map.

  18. Nutritional aspect of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: its clinical importance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence of the disease is rapidly increasing worldwide, and a number of patients are diagnosed during their childhood or adolescence. Aside from controlling the gastrointestinal symptoms, nutritional aspects such as growth, bone mineral density, anemia, micronutrient deficiency, hair loss, and diet should also be closely monitored and managed by the pediatric IBD team especially since the patients are in the development phase. PMID:26576179

  19. Aspects of abuse: abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Tanya; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Jackson, Allison M; Khademian, Zarir

    2015-03-01

    Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is a form of child physical abuse that involves inflicted injury to the brain and its associated structures. Abusive Head Trauma, colloquially called Shaken Baby Syndrome, is the most common cause of serious or fatal brain injuries in children aged 2 years and younger. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the term Abusive Head Trauma, as opposed to Shaken Baby Syndrome, as the former term encompasses multiple forms of inflicted head injury (inertial, contact, and hypoxic-ischemic) and a range of clinical presentations and radiologic findings and their sequelae. Children diagnosed with AHT are 5 times more likely to die compared with accidentally head-injured children, yet signs and symptoms are not always obvious, and therefore the diagnosis can be overlooked. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics has tasked pediatricians with knowing how and when to begin an evaluation of children with signs and symptoms that could possibly be due to AHT. Overall, a detailed history of present illness and medical history, recognition of physical and radiological findings, and careful interpretation of retinal pathology are important aspects of formulating the differential diagnoses and increasing or decreasing the index of suspicion for AHT. PMID:25771265

  20. Test aspects of the JPL Viterbi decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breuer, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of test vectors and design-for-test aspects of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Viterbi decoder chip is discussed. Each processor integrated circuit (IC) contains over 20,000 gates. To achieve a high degree of testability, a scan architecture is employed. The logic has been partitioned so that very few test vectors are required to test the entire chip. In addition, since several blocks of logic are replicated numerous times on this chip, test vectors need only be generated for each block, rather than for the entire circuit. These unique blocks of logic have been identified and test sets generated for them. The approach employed for testing was to use pseudo-exhaustive test vectors whenever feasible. That is, each cone of logid is tested exhaustively. Using this approach, no detailed logic design or fault model is required. All faults which modify the function of a block of combinational logic are detected, such as all irredundant single and multiple stuck-at faults.

  1. Security aspects of space operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with data security. It identifies security threats to European Space Agency's (ESA) In Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) and proposes a method of dealing with its complex data structures from the security point of view. It is part of the 'Analysis of Failure Modes, Effects Hazards and Risks of the IOI GS for Operations, including Backup Facilities and Functions' carried out on behalf of the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). The security part of this analysis has been prepared with the following aspects in mind: ESA's large decentralized ground facilities for operations, the multiple organizations/users involved in the operations and the developments of ground data systems, and the large heterogeneous network structure enabling access to (sensitive) data which does involve crossing organizational boundaries. An IOI GS data objects classification is introduced to determine the extent of the necessary protection mechanisms. The proposal of security countermeasures is oriented towards the European 'Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)' whose hierarchically organized requirements can be directly mapped to the security sensitivity classification.

  2. [Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth J

    2006-06-30

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) can exhibit an exceptionally wide variety of symptoms. This is largely due to the semi-random distribution of the lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Most lesions occur in apparently "silent" areas in the brain, and so cause no detectable symptoms. The disease is therefore much more active than a mere clinical monitoring would suggest. Most symptoms are related to a loss of function. During the relapses, this is due to a failure of axonal conduction at the site of the lesion(s). The conduction block is caused by the local demyelination which prevents the saltatory conduction but also seemingly, to some extend, by the inflammation per se. Remissions are related to a recovery of function of the affected axons owing to a spreading of sodium channels along the demyelinated axolemma but also to cerebral functional plasticity and remyelination. However, nerve conduction remains slower and less secure than normal, easily altered by physico-chemical changes such as the increase in body temperature (Uhthoff's phenomenon). Remission is incomplete when the lesion has led to axonal transaction and therefore axonal loss. Progression in MS is mainly related to "slow-burning" diffuse and chronic axonal loss in a toxic inflammatory milieu. Lastly, some symptoms in MS are so-called "positive" arising from an acquired hyperexcitability of demyelinated axons and occur either spontaneously (e.g. paresthesias) or mechanically (e.g. Lhermitte's sign). PMID:16948217

  3. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  4. Assessing Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2009-01-01

    Student affect--the attitudes, interests, and values that students exhibit and acquire in school--can play a profoundly important role in students' postschool lives, possibly an even more significant role than that played by students' cognitive achievements. If student affect is so crucial, then why don't teachers assess it? One deterrent is that…

  5. Affective Involvement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K.

    1970-01-01

    The Affective Involvement Instrument (AII) describes and classifies affective involvement in the process of decision-making as it occurs during classroom activities such as role-playing or group discussions. The thirty-celled instrument behaviorizes the six processes involved in decision-making and combines them with the taxonomic levels of the…

  6. Affectional Patterns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a shift with age in affection (1) from parents to friends, (2) from one parent to the other, and (3) from same-sex to opposite-sex friends. Subjects, eighth graders and eleventh graders, completed the Measurement of Family Affective Structure. (Author)

  7. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  8. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 ... support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's ...

  9. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  10. What Is Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... other tissues. If someone has only a single plasma cell tumor, the disease is called an isolated (or solitary ) plasmacytoma . If someone has more than one plasmacytoma, they have multiple myeloma . Multiple myeloma is ...

  11. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic issues associated with multiple pregnancies. These issues should ... births can also be helpful during difficult times. ECONOMIC ISSUES • The health care cost for delivery and ...

  12. Multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000757.htm Multiple system atrophy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare condition that causes ...

  13. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    Home - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... DIAGNOSED IN 2009 You Can Live Well with MS A healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management and ...

  14. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Fatigue - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... help* daily life for: positive-mom* The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? ...

  15. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis affecting temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Amandeep; Naik, Shobha; Pai, Anuradha; Anuradha, Ardra

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is characterized by joint inflammation, erosive properties and symmetric multiple joint involvement. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is very rare to be affected in the early phase of the disease, thus posing diagnostic challenges for the dentist. Conventional radiographs fail to show the early lesions due to its limitations. More recently cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been found to diagnose the early degenerative changes of TMJ and hence aid in the diagnosis of the lesions more accurately. Our case highlights the involvement of TMJ in RA and the role of advanced imaging (CBCT) in diagnosing the bony changes in the early phase of the disease. PMID:25684928

  17. Effects of the detection efficiency on multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, A. H.; Wang, G.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we investigate how a finite detection efficiency affects three popular multiplicity distributions, namely, the Poisson, the binomial, and the negative binomial distributions. We found that a multiplicity-independent detection efficiency does not change the characteristic of a distribution, while a multiplicity-dependent detection efficiency does. We layout a procedure to study the deviation of moments and their derivative quantities from the baseline distribution due to a multiplicity-dependent detection efficiency.

  18. Hereditary multiple exostoses: report of a kindred.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, S L; Buchanan, J R; Ladda, R L

    1981-01-01

    In a large family with 37 members with multiple exostoses, only one person has developed sarcomatous degeneration of a lesion. Our review of published reports revealed great variation in the incidence of malignancy in multiple exostoses (10 to 25%). Most studies had sampling errors leading to the apparent overstatement of risk. In large pedigrees with essentially complete ascertainment of affected subjects, the risk of malignancy is nearer 3% or less. This lower risk for malignancy may be more appropriate in counselling affected subjects. Images PMID:6977644

  19. Familial multiple symmetric lipomatosis with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chalk, C H; Mills, K R; Jacobs, J M; Donaghy, M

    1990-08-01

    We describe coexisting peripheral neuropathy and multiple symmetric lipomatosis in 4 of 7 siblings. The absence of either condition in 3 other generations of this family suggests autosomal recessive inheritance. None of the affected siblings were alcoholic, a factor some have proposed to explain the frequent occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in sporadic multiple symmetric lipomatosis. Serum lipid studies, including apoprotein A levels, were normal. Sural nerve biopsy from 1 patient showed nerve fiber loss, predominantly affecting large myelinated fibers. The relationship between myelin sheath thickness and axon diameter was normal, arguing that this neuropathy is not due to primary axonal atrophy. PMID:2166247

  20. Pedestrian flow through multiple bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the evacuation process with multiple bottlenecks using the floor field model. To deal with this problem, we first focus on a part of the system and report its microscopic behavior. The system is controlled by parameters of inflow and the competitiveness of the pedestrians, and large inflow leads to a congested situation. Through simulations, the metastable state induced by conflicts of pedestrians is observed. The metastability is related to the phase transition from free flow to congestion. The critical condition of the transition is theoretically derived. In addition, we give simulation results of situations with multiple bottlenecks. They imply that local improvement of pedestrian flow sometimes adversely affects the total evacuation time, and that the total optimization of the system is not straightforward.

  1. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  2. New aspects of injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O P

    2001-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious and safe contraceptive agents, not all women's contraceptive needs are being met. An injectable contraceptive method offers convenience and encourages compliance, both very important aspects for women seeking ideal contraception. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a long-acting injectable, and is highly effective; one injection provides 3 months of contraception. Drawbacks of DMPA include irregular bleeding and a slow return to fertility. A new monthly injectable contraceptive agent is medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate suspension (Lunelle). It provides menstrual regulation and a rapid return to fertility. The estrogen ensures a withdrawal bleed monthly; however, women with contraindications to estrogen-containing contraception are not candidates for Lunelle. PMID:11294618

  3. Epidemiological aspects of heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Tao, Ziqi; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of mortality in heart patients following stroke, rheumatic heart disease and myocardial infarctions. Approximately 80% of individuals succumb to CVDs, due to poor living conditions in low and middle income families and malnutrition. Infectious diseases, human immunodeficiency, tuberculosis, malaria, high blood pressure or hypertension, obesity and overweight, and nutritional disorders including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high salt and sugar intake, as well as other factors are responsible for CVDs and CHDs in young as well as elderly individuals. The focus of the present review are recent epidemiological aspects of CVD and CHD as well as the usefulness of a Mediterranean diet for heart patients and the prevention of heart diseases. PMID:27602082

  4. [Modern psychosomatic aspects of dermatology].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Duran, V; Poljacki, M; Misić-Pavkov, G; Matović, L; Subotić, M; Golub, R

    1994-01-01

    Concerning their origin most diseases are multifactorial and that goes for skin diseases too. Emphasizing just one must not exclude further research and other aspects of etiopathogenetic mechanisms. It has been known for along time that psychological factors have a certain influence on the start, aggravation and maintenance on skin changes and that cosmetic defects of this kind disturb the psychological peace of the sick person and his capacity of establishing satisfactory social relations. Psychosomatic approach in dermatology cannot be reduced to investigation of specific etiology in the field of psyche without physical or social spheres. It unites all of them and in that way the old question what cause and what the consequence is has no importance, because there is no time or distance limit among them. They act simultaneously, holistically. PMID:7739438

  5. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  6. Psychiatric Aspects of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, G.; Desousa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surgical transplantation of human organs from deceased as well as living donors to sick and dying patients began after the Second World War. Over the past 50 years the transplantation of human organs, tissues and cells has become a worldwide practice which has extended, and greatly enhanced the quality of hundreds of thousands of lives. The field of transplantation medicine provides an important chance for liaison between psychiatric professionals and other transplant physicians and surgeons. The discrepancy between the ever-increasing demand for organs but the decreasing supply makes it important to evaluate and prioritize individuals who are in dire need of the organ. However, this also gives rise to certain ethical questions. The following paper discusses various psychiatric aspects of organ transplantation in general. PMID:25013589

  7. Global aspects of drug development.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2011-01-01

    About nine million children die every year before they reach the age of 5 years, of conditions largely amendable with existing medicines. Lack of medicines is not the single most important health problem of children, but work to provide children with better access to appropriate medicines is essential for achievement of the child health goals set. Taking into consideration the global aspect in the development of paediatric medicines the benefits of the regional paediatric initiatives can be spread worldwide. This chapter provides insights in the challenges and opportunities of developing paediatric medicines for health needs of children in the developing world. The Essential Medicines List for children first made available in 2008 serves as an example of the many tools available from WHO to improve children's access to the medicines they need. PMID:21882121

  8. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra Rao, R S

    2016-05-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  9. Ergonomical aspects of anaesthetic practice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra Rao, RS

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthesiologist's service begins as a general physician, goes on as an investigator cum data analyser leading to the architectural planning of a forthcoming surgical event, but only after articulately convincing the subject along with his kith and kin. In the era of rapid developments in the field of medicine which includes relevant developments in anaesthetic care, an adequate work environment has to be provided to the anaesthesia team so that all anaesthetic procedures can be carried out safely and efficiently and an optimal workflow can be established in the operating room environment. Such ecological state demands an updated knowledge and ergonomics to aid him. Unfortunately, ergonomics is an area of anaesthesia that has received little attention and should be addressed through more education and training for workplace well-ness. Hence, an attempt is made to discuss few aspects on ergonomics for the interface between anaesthesiologist-machine-patient systems regarded as human-machine-system. PMID:27212716

  10. Institutional aspects of lake management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Stephen M.; Rumery, Carolyn

    1989-01-01

    The major barriers to successful lake management are institutional. However, in contrast to the technical and limnological dimensions of lake management, the institutional aspects of managing lakes have received little attention. The institutional factors that are important for successful lake management outcomes are: overlapping areal jurisdiction among governmental units, fragmented functional program responsibilities, ineffective coordination, limited authority, financial constraints, private sector roles, and inadequate public awareness and consensus. The range of typical institutional problems confronting lake management are well illustrated through experiences from the state of Wisconsin, USA. Because lake management programs with institutional shortcomings rarely realize their goals, it is critical to assimilate, evaluate, and apply our experience to date with the institutional arrangements necessary to effectively manage lake resources.

  11. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions. PMID:9632951

  12. Flaw Tolerance for Multiple Fatique Cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselin, Stephen R.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Carter, R. G.

    2005-07-01

    This paper documents important details of the technical bases for changes to Appendix L. Calculations identified aspect ratios for equivalent single cracks (ESC) between the extremes of a 6:1 ratio and a full circumferential crack that can be used in Appendix L flaw tolerance assessments to account for the initiation, growth, and linking of multiple fatigue cracks. Probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) calculations determined ESC aspect ratios that result in the same through-wall crack probability as multiple small cracks (0.02 inch depth) that initiate and coalesce. The computations considered two materials (stainless and low alloy steels), three pipe diameters, five cyclic membrane-to-gradient stress ratios and a wide range of primary loads. Subsequent deterministic calculations identified the ESC aspect ratio for the hypothetical reference flaw depth assumptions in Appendix L. This paper also describes computations that compare the Appendix L flaw tolerance allowable operating period for the ESC models with results obtained when the a single default 6:1 aspect ratio reference flaw.

  13. Biological Aspects of Computer Virology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Vasileios; Spinellis, Diomidis; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Stefanos

    Recent malware epidemics proved beyond any doubt that frightful predictions of fast-spreading worms have been well founded. While we can identify and neutralize many types of malicious code, often we are not able to do that in a timely enough manner to suppress its uncontrolled propagation. In this paper we discuss the decisive factors that affect the propagation of a worm and evaluate their effectiveness.

  14. General aspects in polymer synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Reimschuessel, H K

    1975-01-01

    The term, synthetic polymer, denotes a macromolecule composed of simple structural units and usually derived from monomers by a process of polymerization. This process is possible only if certain chemical, thermodynamical, and mechanistic conditions are satisfied. The monomer must have a functionality of two or higher. The polymerization process must be characterized by a negative free energy change. The monomer must have activable or reactive functions. Activable structures are polarizable multiple bonds, and bonds entailing heteroatoms in ring compounds. Suitable reactive functions are those that participate in: carbonyl addition, substitution, multiple bond addition, and free-radical coupling. According to their growth mechanisms, polymerization reactions are divided into two major groups: chain-growth polymerization and step-growth polymerization. Polyaddition and polycondensation occur in either group, but polyinsertion is a chain-growth process exclusively. Radical, ionic, and heterogeneous initiations are entailed in chain growth, whereas both nucleophilic and electrophilic initiation prevails in step-growth. The chemical structure of polymers is determined mainly by constitutional and configuration parameters. Principal constitutional ones are related to interlinking of chains and structural units, composition, substituents, endgroups, and the molecular weight. Configurational ones refer particularly to the position of substituents on a central chain atom relative to the neighboring structural unit and thus to the tacticity of the polymer. PMID:1175572

  15. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  16. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-04-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  17. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  18. Aspects across Software Life Cycle: A Goal-Driven Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Yu, Yijun; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Ernst, Neil; Sampaio Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar; Mylopoulos, John

    Goal modeling fits model-driven engineering (MDE) in that it captures stakeholder concerns and the interdependencies using concepts that are much less bound to the underlying implementation technology and are much closer to the problem languages. Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) provides language constructs to facilitate the representation of multiple perceptions and to alleviate tangling and scattering concerns. Synthesis of AOSD and MDE not only manages software complexity but also improves productivity, as well as model quality and longevity. In this paper, we propose a model-driven framework for tracing aspects from requirements to implementation and testing, where goal models become engineering assets and straightforward model-to-code transformation bridges the gap between domain concepts and implementation technologies. We test our hypotheses and evaluate the framework’s applicability and usefulness with a case study of an open-source e-commerce platform written in PHP.

  19. Evolution of cooling-channel properties for varying aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarelli, M.; Nasuti, F.; Onofri, M.

    2016-07-01

    A trade-off analysis is performed on a cooling channel system representative of liquid rocket engine cooling systems. This analysis requires multiple cooling channel flow calculations which are performed by means of a proper numerical approach, referred to as quasi-two-dimensional (2D) model. This model, which is suited to high-aspect-ratio cooling channels (HARCC), permits to have a fast prediction of both the coolant flow evolution and the temperature distribution along the whole cooling channel structure. Before using the quasi-2D model for the trade-off analysis, its validation by comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results is presented and discussed. The results show that the pump power required to overcome losses in the cooling circuit can be minimized selecting a channel shaped with a suitably high aspect ratio.

  20. Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, ChengXiang

    2011-01-01

    Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching. PMID:22711970

  1. Neurobiological aspects of sleep physiology.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, Alex; Murray, Brian James

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is characterized by changes in neural firing and chemistry compared with wakefulness. Many neurologic diseases affect pathways that regulate control of sleep state and some primary sleep disorders have abnormalities of this circuitry. Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alternate in an approximately 90-minute cycle. Recent findings have expanded understanding of the control of sleep state, and will facilitate development of novel therapeutics to assist patients with a variety of disorders of sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of sleep and wake disorders can assist patients with a variety of neurologic problems. PMID:23099125

  2. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  3. Leptin: pharmacological aspects in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sorace, M; Tripodi, L; Tripodi, A; Groppetti, D; Cremonesi, F

    2006-01-01

    Hematic levels of leptin vary in relation to numerous metabolic factors and are able to interact in perfect synchrony with the hormones involved in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis during the various phases of the reproductive cycle. In general it is maintained that the complex and multiple action mechanisms of leptin need to be clarified by further in-depth research studies. It is likely that valid pharmacological applications of leptin will be found for human use although it is too premature to talk about concrete pharmacological answers and to formulate the relative complete technical protocols. In medicine the therapeutic use of leptin for humans has been reported in only a few cases. In fact human recombinant leptin has already been administered in gynecology for hypothalamic amenorrhea with precise protocols. In addition, very recent studies have provided the basis for new strategies to be developed concerning the use of leptin to fight multiple sclerosis. At present there are considerable technical and economic problems in the production of leptin on a large scale. Most likely these problems will be overcome in the foreseeable future, and will involve new techniques related to genetics, cellular reprograming, and stem cells. In fact, new pharmacogenetic research has provided encouraging results for the production in industrial quantities of a more effective and fail-proof leptin. Even considering that norms have not yet been proposed for pharmacological interventions with leptin for use directly on humans, in our work we have studied by immunohistochemistry methods the distribution of leptin and its receptor (Ob-R) in the ovaries of the female dog as a biological model, in the pre- and postpubertal phases and in other phases of the ovarian cycle. Given the hypothesis that the information obtained from immunohistochemical localization of the hormone and its receptor in various ovarian structures is transferable to humans, it could be useful to define

  4. Metabolic aspects of bacterial persisters

    PubMed Central

    Prax, Marcel; Bertram, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Persister cells form a multi-drug tolerant subpopulation within an isogenic culture of bacteria that are genetically susceptible to antibiotics. Studies with different Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria have identified a large number of genes associated with the persister state. In contrast, the revelation of persister metabolism has only been addressed recently. We here summarize metabolic aspects of persisters, which includes an overview about the bifunctional role of selected carbohydrates as both triggers for the exit from the drug tolerant state and metabolites which persisters feed on. Also alarmones as indicators for starvation have been shown to influence persister levels via different signaling cascades involving the activation of toxin-antitoxin systems and other regulatory factors. Finally, recent data obtained by 13C-isotopolog profiling demonstrated an active amino acid anabolism in Staphylococcus aureus cultures challenged with high drug concentrations. Understanding the metabolism of persister cells poses challenges but also paves the way for the development of anti-persister compounds. PMID:25374846

  5. [Economic aspects of integrated care].

    PubMed

    Lange, A; Braun, S; Greiner, W

    2012-05-01

    For more than 10 years integrated care has been an inherent part of the German healthcare system. The aims of selective contracts are to minimize interface problems between outpatient and inpatient sectors, generalist und specialist care as well as to intensify competition. Despite repeated efforts by the legislator, comprehensive integrated healthcare is still limited to a few flagship projects. This is mainly due to low incentives on the part of both suppliers and customers. Therefore, this article focuses on the economic aspects of integrated care. From a theoretical perspective, integrated care improves efficiency in the healthcare sector by reducing interface problems and asymmetric information as well as by intensifying competition. In practice, however, there are a number of obstacles to implementation. Particularly noteworthy are the financial difficulties in addition to problems regarding sectoral budgeting and the long-term nature of investments. However, the political environment and thus the financial arrangements within the statutory health insurance seem to be more important for further development of integrated care in Germany than the financing issues. PMID:22526852

  6. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  7. [Forensic medicine aspects of resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Bauer, G

    1987-12-15

    Nowadays, in almost all cases of clinical death, there is at least a remote chance of resuscitation, of restoring breathing and circulation by means of modern methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Statistically, there are more cases of cardiocirculatory arrest due to an internal cause than to a traumatic cause. Just as medical activity in general, resuscitation is increasingly discussed in its legal and ethical aspects. The duty to exercise due care and proper qualification require a very specific approach in the case of resuscitation, as the chain of persons potentially involved in life saving stretches from the medical layman to the specialist trained to deal with emergency situations. As opposed to conditions in other countries, in Austria the duty to render aid and assistance as statutory provision of the penal code can be of great importance in such cases. Criteria and definition, especially in the ad hoc establishment of death, assume a special significance in resuscitation. Over the past years, resuscitation measures within the complex of the procurement of death have repeatedly been put up for discussion. Examples from US judicature may help to define the problem more clearly and also to offer solutions for similar cases. Such decisions should essentially be guided by the consideration of the presumed will of the patient who no longer is in a position to exercise the right of self-determination. PMID:3326291

  8. Aspects of sleep in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Spadafora, F L; Curti, A; Teti, R; Belmonte, M; Castagna, A; Mercurio, M; Infusino, P; Tavernese, G; Iannazzo, P S; Iorio, C; Mattace, R

    1996-01-01

    Sleeping habits of 48 Calabrian centenarians (12 males, 36 females) were evaluated. Their average age was 102 +/- 1.87 years (range 100-107 years). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of sleep were recorded, such as the length of sleeping (hrs), the time of falling asleep (regular or variable) and the time of awakening (regular or variable). Moreover, we recorded and included in the global hours an eventual afternoon sleeping, during a 24-hour-period. The quality of sleeping was classified as: night sleeping, and morning sleeping; and for the subjects were grouped as short sleepers (subjects that fall asleep easily), and long sleepers (subjects with problems to fall asleep). We also considered if sleeping was uninterrupted or interrupted during the night and if the subjects followed particular habits to facilitate the sleeping (sleeping pills, alcohol, etc.). This study demonstrated that all the examined centenarians go to sleep early in the evening, have no problems in falling asleep, wake up early in the morning, take a nap in the afternoon and do not take pills before going to bed. Among the environmental factors, the quality, the quantity and the habits of sleeping might have great influence for longevity. PMID:18653070

  9. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.M.

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S{sub 1}{sup 2} and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S{sub q}{sup 2} and CP{sub q}(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP{sub q}(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  10. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Raju, M S V K

    2014-01-01

    Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier's mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives. PMID:25788805

  11. Psychological aspects of peacekeeping operations

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peacekeeping operations are but one aspect of the systems of peace that have evolved over the past seven decades in a world that is riven with violence of all kinds. With the end of cold war in the late eighties of the last century we have come to see much intrastate violence, in addition to usual interstate hostilities and war, arising out of religious, political, ethnic and economic differences between people. In the changed scenario peacekeeping operations have become complex politico-military-humanitarian efforts. A soldier, trained for conventional military operations, is obliged to participate in the unconventional operations of waging peace in alien lands often in volatile and violent situations and in the process he stands to get exposed to widely variable demands for adjustment that have the potential to bring to the fore many maladaptive responses. Peacekeeping operations also have the potential to offer opportunities for growth and resilience. India is a major player in peacekeeping activities for well over sixty years all over the world. It is necessary for the commanders and mental health professionals to understand the multifarious factors that impinge on the peacekeeping soldier's mind and the emerging patterns of responses thereof for effective management trained manpower and fulfillment of mission objectives PMID:25788805

  12. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero. PMID:22322655

  13. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  14. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  15. On the practical aspects of recording wideline QCPMG NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong

    2010-06-01

    The practical aspects of applying CPMG for acquisition of wideline powder patterns are examined. It is shown that most distortions/modulations of spikelet spectra can be traced to the incoherent signal averaging from multiple coherence transfer pathways. A strategy for minimizing these distortions/modulations is described. Also, a few interesting observations regarding the implementation of the wideline WURST-QCPMG experiment are presented, namely the accumulation of second-order signal phase and the effects of varying the sweep rate and rf field of chirp pulses. PMID:20359918

  16. Arthrogryposis: an update on clinical aspects, etiology, and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Feluś, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Arthrogryposes – multiple joint contractures – are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous class of diseases, where accurate diagnosis, recognition of the underlying pathology and classification are of key importance for the prognosis as well as for selection of appropriate management. This treatment remains challenging and optimally in arthrogrypotic patients should be carried out by a team of specialists familiar with all aspects of arthrogryposis pathology and treatment modalities: rehabilitation, orthotics and surgery. In this comprehensive review article, based on literature and clinical experience, the authors present an update on current knowledge on etiology, classifications and treatment options for skeletal deformations possible in arthrogryposis. PMID:26925114

  17. Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutjes, R. W. A.; Kabat, P.; Running, S. W.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Field, C.; Bass, B.; da Silva Dias, M. F.; Avissar, R.; Becker, A.; Claussen, M.; Dolman, A. J.; Feddes, R. A.; Fosberg, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Gash, J. H. C.; Guenni, L.; Hoff, H.; Jarvis, P. G.; Kayane, I.; Krenke, A. N.; Liu, Changming; Meybeck, M.; Nobre, C. A.; Oyebande, L.; Pitman, A.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Raupach, M.; Saugier, B.; Schulze, E. D.; Sellers, P. J.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Valentini, R.; Victoria, R. L.; Vörösmarty, C. J.

    1998-12-01

    The Core Project Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle (BAHC) of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) addresses the biospheric aspects of the hydrological cycle through experiments and modelling of energy, water, carbon dioxide and sediment fluxes in the soil- vegetation-atmosphere system at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Active regulation of water, energy and carbon dioxide fluxes by the vegetation make it an important factor in regulating the Earth's hydrological cycle and in the formation of the climate. Consequently, human induced conversion of vegetation cover is an important driver for climate change. A number of recent studies, discussed in this paper, emphasise the importance of the terrestrial biosphere for the climate system. Initially, these studies demonstrate the influence of the land surface on tropical weather and climate, revealing the mechanisms, acting at various scales, that connect increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall to large-scale deforestation and other forms of land degradation. More recently, the significance of the land surface processes for water cycle and for weather and climate in temperate and boreal zones was demonstrated. In addition the terrestrial biosphere plays a significant role in the carbon dioxide fluxes and in global carbon balance. Recent work suggests that many ecosystems both in the tropics and in temperate zones may act as a substantial sink for carbon dioxide, though the temporal variability of this sink strength is yet unclear. Further, carbon dioxide uptake and evaporation by vegetation are intrinsically coupled, leading to links and feedbacks between land surface and climate that are hardly explored yet. Earth's vegetation cover and its changes owing to human impact have a profound influence on a lateral redistribution of water and transported constituents, such as nutrients and sediments, and acts therefore as an important moderator of Earth's biogeochemical cycles. In

  18. Cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being in later life

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-01-01

    The hedonic view on well-being, consisting of both cognitive and affective aspects, assumes that through maximizing pleasurable experiences, and minimizing suffering, the highest levels of well-being can be achieved. The eudemonic approach departs from the concept of a good life that is not just about pleasure and happiness, but involves developing one-self, being autonomous and realizing one’s potential. While these approaches are often positioned against each other on theoretical grounds, this paper investigates the empirical plausibility of this two dimensional view on subjective well-being. The interrelations between common measures such as the General Health Questionnaire, the CES-D inventory of depressive symptoms, the satisfaction with life scale and the eudemonic CASP scale are examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework using the third wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). A multidimensional structure of well-being, distinguishing cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being, is shown to be the best fitting empirical solution. This three dimensional second order structure is neutral to gender in its measurement. A lower influence of feeling energetic on self-actualisation, and of somatic symptoms of depression on affective well-being was noted for respondents in the fourth age in comparison to respondents in the third age. These small measurement artefacts underline that somatic symptoms of later life depression should be distinguished from mood symptoms. Two main social facts are confirmed when we compare the different forms of well-being over gender and life stage: men tend to have a higher level of well-being than women, and well-being is lower in the fourth age than in the third age. Although the three measures are very closely related, with high correlations between .74 and .88, they each have their specific meaning. While affective and cognitive well-being emphasize the use of an internal yardstick to measure well

  19. Working session 5: Operational aspects and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Donoghue, J.

    1997-02-01

    A general observation is that both operational aspects and risk analysis cannot be adequately discussed without information presented in other sessions. Some overlap of conclusions and recommendations is therefore to be expected. Further, it was assumed that recommendations concerning improvements in some related topics were generated by other sessions and are not repeated here. These include: (1) Knowledge on degradation mechanisms (initiation, progression, and failure). (2) Modeling of degradation (initiation, progression, and failure). (3) Capabilities of NDE methods. (4) Preventive maintenance and repair. One should note here, however, that all of these directly affect both operational and risk aspects of affected plants. A list of conclusions and recommendations is based on available presentations and discussions addressing risk and operational experience. The authors aimed at reaching as broad a consensus as possible. It should be noted here that there is no strict delineation between operational and safety aspects of degradation of steam generator tubes. This is caused by different risk perceptions in different countries/societies. The conclusions and recommendations were divided into four broad groups: human reliability; leakage monitoring; risk impact; and consequence assessment.

  20. Affective brain–computer music interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Kirke, Alexis; Weaver, James; Malik, Asad; Hwang, Faustina; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. We aim to develop and evaluate an affective brain–computer music interface (aBCMI) for modulating the affective states of its users. Approach. An aBCMI is constructed to detect a user's current affective state and attempt to modulate it in order to achieve specific objectives (for example, making the user calmer or happier) by playing music which is generated according to a specific affective target by an algorithmic music composition system and a case-based reasoning system. The system is trained and tested in a longitudinal study on a population of eight healthy participants, with each participant returning for multiple sessions. Main results. The final online aBCMI is able to detect its users current affective states with classification accuracies of up to 65% (3 class, p\\lt 0.01) and modulate its user's affective states significantly above chance level (p\\lt 0.05). Significance. Our system represents one of the first demonstrations of an online aBCMI that is able to accurately detect and respond to user's affective states. Possible applications include use in music therapy and entertainment.

  1. Multiple environmental contexts and preterm birth risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human health is affected by simultaneous exposure to numerous stressors and amenities, but research often focuses on single exposure models. To address this, a United States county-level Multiple Environmental Domain Index (MEDI) was constructed with data representing five envir...

  2. [Cowden's disease. Syndrome of multiple hamartomas].

    PubMed

    Flageat, J; Vircens, J L; Benameur, M; Sekkat, A; Bouhamama, L; Metges, P J

    1984-10-01

    Cowden's disease is a phacomatosis (multiple hamartomas), which is a familial, hereditary, dominant autosomal affection presenting as typical buccolabial mucocutaneous lesions associated with digestive tract polyps. Differential diagnosis of the predominantly digestive form of the disease is polyposis. A new case of this rare disorder is reported, only 62 cases being documented in literature. PMID:6527339

  3. Affective instability and suicidal ideation and behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Eynan, Rahel; Heisel, Marnin J; Barr, Aiala; Korzekwa, Marilyn; McMain, Shelley; Ball, Jeffrey S

    2007-02-01

    This study employed an Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) to test whether various elements of affective instability can predict future suicide ideation in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of recurrent suicidal behavior. Eighty-two individuals with BPD and a history of recurrent suicidal behavior were followed prospectively for one month during which time they recorded their current mood states, 6 times daily over three weeks. Accounting for a set of robust suicide risk factors in multiple regression analyses, only negative mood intensity was significantly related to intensity of self-reported suicide ideation and to number of suicidal behaviors over the past year. Other elements of affective instability examined (e.g., mood amplitude, dyscontrol, and reactivity) were not associated with future suicide ideation or with recent suicidal behavior. Affective instability in patients with BPD is highly variable from one individual to another and is characterized by high levels of intense negative mood. These negative mood states, versus other aspects of mood variability, seem to be more closely tied to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:17373891

  4. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  5. Trauma exposure and cigarette smoking: the impact of negative affect and affect-regulatory smoking motives.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Beckham, Jean C; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts. Negative affect and affect-modulation motives for smoking may contribute to the trauma-smoking association. PMID:25299617

  6. Trauma Exposure and Cigarette Smoking: The Impact of Negative Affect and Affect-Regulatory Smoking Motives

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Beckham, Jean C.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts. Negative affect and affect-modulation motives for smoking may contribute to the trauma-smoking association. PMID:25299617

  7. [Fundamental aspects of extreme aging].

    PubMed

    Tréton, J

    2002-07-01

    Major developments in molecular biology in invertebrates have recently shown the determining effect of genetics on aging. The first finding was that artificial selection can highlight the genetic aspect of the aging process, demonstrating the polygenetic property of longevity. Another finding showed that certain gene transfers can modulate the lifespan of an organism. Recent progress has been made in three fields: genetic markers of aging, biological basis of cell maintenance, and hereditary factors contributing to late onset genetic disease. These new developments open new avenues of research in clinical biology. In regard to genetic markers of aging, it has been demonstrated that the ends of the chromosomes, telomeres, play a role in cell senescence. Telomeres can be viewed as markers of aging. Shortened telomeres are associated with replicative senescence and antitumor action. DNA anomalies are also more frequent: simple or double breaks, additions and base substitutions. Data on the biological basis of cell maintenance obtained in invertebrates show the polygenetic property of aging involving four significant mechanisms, control of metabolism, resistance to stress, chromatin-dependent gene regulation of genetic homeostasis. Finally, recent studies have shown that late onset hereditary diseases would be linked with particular genes, some of which have been identified. Two non-exclusive mechanisms could be involved: an adaptive mechanism involving gene selection during the evolutionary process, for example in obesity; and non-adaptive accumulation of gene expression during the post-reproductive phase, for example in Alzheimer's disease. These findings open a new era for the biology of aging. PMID:12596689

  8. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  9. New Aspects of Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart; Eliasson, Bengt

    2008-03-01

    Nonlinear collective processes in very dense plasmas / P. K. Shukla, B. Eliasson and D. Shaikh -- Quantum, spin and QED effects in plasmas / G. Brodin and M. Marklund -- Spin quantum plasmas - new aspects of collective dynamics / M. Marklund and G. Brodin -- Revised quantum electrodynamics with fundamental applications / B. Lehnert -- Quantum methodologies in beam, fluid and plasma physics / R. Fedele -- Plasma effects in cold atom physics / J. T. Mendonca ... [et al.] -- General properties of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in different plasma configurations: the plasma foil model / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a plasma foil accelerated by the radiation pressure of an ultra intense laser pulse / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- Generation of galactic seed magnetic fields / H. Saleem -- Nonlinear dynamics of mirror waves in non-Maxwellian plasmas / O. A. Pokhotelov et al. -- Formation of mirror structures near instability threshold / E. A. Kuznetsov, T. Passot and P. L. Sulem -- Nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves in magnetoplasmas / P. K. Shukla ... [et al.] -- Properties of drift and Alfvén waves in collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes, S. Poedts and B. P. Pandey -- Current driven acoustic perturbations in partially ionized collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes ... [et al.] -- Multifluid theory of solitons / F. Verheest -- Nonlinear wavepackets in pair-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas / I. Kourakis et al. -- Electro-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas / A. A. Mamun and P. K. Shukla -- Physics of dust in magnetic fusion devices / Z. Wang et al. -- Short wavelength ballooning mode in Tokamaks / A. Hirose and N. Joiner -- Effects of perpendicular shear superposition and hybrid ions intruduction on parallel shear driven plasma instabilities / T. Kaneko and R. Hatakeyama.

  10. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  11. Regulatory aspects of clinical xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation attracted interest from regulatory authorities, particularly after the demonstration of pig-to-human transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (1996). This added to the risk of a product, resulting in a Guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration (2003). This addresses the full flow chart in product manufacturing, starting with the designated pathogen-free status of the source animal; and special aspects regarding the recipient like informed consent and monitoring for infectious pathogens. Also archiving of records from the donor and recipient, as well as storage of samples is described. The European Medicines Agency issued a Guideline on xenogeneic cell therapy products (2009). Cell-based medicinal products are subject to specific regulations and directives, which apply also to xenogeneic products: the xenotransplant guidances/guidelines are an addition to these regulations. Noteworthy, acellular products like heart valves and decellularized cornea are not considered a cell therapy product, but rather a medical device with its own regulation. WHO issued relevant documents, especially about safety, and the International Xenotransplantation Association published consensus documents, a.o., addressing preclinical efficacy requirements before entering clinical trials. This manuscript presents an overview of the regulatory framework, with special focus on cell therapy products necause these are expected to reach the market first (i.e., pancreatic islets, hepatocytes and cellularized cornea); major illustrations are from the European situation. Albeit being complex, the regulation of xenotransplant products does not form a block in product development, but rather supports the introduction of efficacious and safe products to meet the medical need. PMID:26408947

  12. [Nutritional health aspects of mycotoxins].

    PubMed

    Kovács, Melinda

    2004-08-22

    Mycotoxins produced by mould fungi can enter into the human food chain directly through foods of plant origin (cereal grains), consumer goods (coffee and bear) and indirectly through foods of animal origin (kidney, liver, milk and eggs). Mycotoxins occur in small amount in the foods; however their continuous intake even in microdoses can result in accumulation in the organism. Synergic effects of the mycotoxins as well as their possible additive multi-toxic effects seem to be especially dangerous. Mycotoxin problems are very important in Hungary because these natural toxins occur mainly in those cereals (e.g. wheat, maize) that amount to high proportion of the sowing area in Hungary and provide the main foods to the inhabitants. Public health risks of the toxins accumulating in the human and animal bodies during the long term consumption of the mycotoxins containing foods--even in small doses--have not been evaluated yet as thoroughly as their importance would require. However, there are more and more direct and indirect expressions of the danger resulting from the toxins. The most frequently observed human health effects are carcinogen effects (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, patulin); effects causing developmental abnormalities (zearalenon, ochratoxin); effects harmful to the reproduction (zearalenon, and trichotecenes), effects decreasing the resistance; immunosuppressive effects (trichotecenes), and effects causing injury of the nervous system (ochratoxin A, fumonisins). Prevention of the injury of the health caused by mycotoxins can be completed by joint and integrated activity of the various disciplines only and requires a comprehensive interdisciplinary cooperation. This paper gives a discussion on health injuring effects of the most frequently occurring mycotoxins that are very important from human health aspects in Hungary; on their occurrence in the foods and on their human risk. PMID:15493122

  13. Innovatory aspects of population education.

    PubMed

    Casassus, J

    1985-06-01

    The expansion of population education activities in the last 10 years has led some authors to consider it as 1 of the most rapidly growing educational innovations in the world. This paper considers some of the most significant innovative aspects that can be drawn from the experience of different countries in the implementation of population education in the formal school system. Educational innovations present 2 phases: 1) the conception phase when the need is identified and the contents are determined and 2) the conduct of the innovation, which is the process through which the innovation is developed, evaluated, expanded, and becomes institutionalized. In the process of construction of population contents, 3 related approaches are used in order to render them meaningful: 1) interdisciplinarity, 2) the systemic approach, and 3) the interrelation between the macro and the micro level. It is commonly accepted that educational contents should meet the following 3 imperatives: relevance, coherence, and balance. The pedagogical act is conditioned by 3 interrelated elements: 1) by goals of education as they are expressed through the curriculum design and the contents developed, 2) by the role assumed by the teacher and the learner in the learning process, and 3) the pedagogical technics used by the teacher in order to attain the desired goals. In several countries, the role of population education has been enlarged to cover areas which had been traditionally confined to the private or family realm. Population education, by the nature of its contents and by the learning methodologies required, can become and has become in some countries, a major source for the renewal of education. PMID:12268121

  14. Drugs affecting glycosaminoglycan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ghiselli, Giancarlo; Maccarana, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are charged polysaccharides ubiquitously present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. GAGs are crucial for cellular homeostasis, and their metabolism is altered during pathological processes. However, little consideration has been given to the regulation of the GAG milieu through pharmacological interventions. In this review, we provide a classification of small molecules affecting GAG metabolism based on their mechanism of action. Furthermore, we present evidence to show that clinically approved drugs affect GAG metabolism and that this could contribute to their therapeutic benefit. PMID:27217160

  15. Changing aspects of radiation enteropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, L.; Hart, M.; Lugo, D.; Friedman, N.B.

    1985-11-01

    Fifty-two patients with radiation enteropathy secondary to radiation for abdominal or pelvic malignant neoplasms are described. This series (1977 to 1984) is compared with a series of 50 patients from the same institution over an earlier period (1961 to 1977). Intestinal obstruction was the principal complication in both series; 96% of the patients underwent either intestinal resection or anastomotic bypass of the affected segment. Changes that have occurred since the last report are as follows: changes in source of radiation energy (linear accelerator); less evidence of mucosal damage; increased serosal reaction (''serosal peel''); and increased use of elemental diets, parenteral nutrition, and long intestinal tubes in surgical management. Since postoperative radiation injury occurs most frequently in the pelvis, new developments for the exclusion of small bowel from the pelvis during radiation are reviewed. Changes in fractionation of radiation dosage should also be considered in patients with enteric symptoms during radiation therapy.

  16. Aspects of growth and form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.

    1994-12-01

    A model of the development of living organisms is presented which couples the geometry of the middle surface of a (closed) epithelial surface to a “morphogen”, and the morphogen in turn is affected by the geometry of the surface in a closed system of two partial differential equations. A number of “desiderata” are set out for the identification of a suitable morphogen. Four parameters are involved in the model, which are assumed to be under genetic control. The morphogen is pictured as an adhesive molecule on the cell surface, and a suggestion is made for a particular molecular manifestation of this morphogen. A simple picture of gastrulation is presented as an example of the formalism.

  17. Nutritional Aspect of Tryptophan Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Mammals, including humans, can synthesize the vitamin nicotinamide from tryptophan in the liver. The resultant nicotinamide is distributed to non-hepatic tissues. We have studied the effects of changes in tryptophan–nicotinamide metabolism on niacin nutritional status. The liver plays a critical role in nicotinamide supply. Animal studies showed that the tryptophan–nicotinamide pathway is affected by physiological conditions, the presence of disease, nutrients, hormones, and chemicals. Human studies have shown that 1 mg of nicotinamide is produced from 67 mg of tryptophan intake, and that the conversion ratio of tryptophan to nicotinamide is enhanced from mid to late pregnancy. These findings have contributed to the determination of dietary reference intakes for niacin recommended in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Our findings suggest that the conversion of nicotinamide from tryptophan is important in maintaining niacin nutrition. PMID:23922498

  18. Evolutionary aspects of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Price, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473

  19. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators. PMID:25580377

  20. Enhancing multiple-point geostatistical modeling: 2. Iterative simulation and multiple distance function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    This series addresses a fundamental issue in multiple-point statistical (MPS) simulation for generation of realizations of large-scale porous media. Past methods suffer from the fact that they generate discontinuities and patchiness in the realizations that, in turn, affect their flow and transport properties. Part I of this series addressed certain aspects of this fundamental issue, and proposed two ways of improving of one such MPS method, namely, the cross correlation-based simulation (CCSIM) method that was proposed by the authors. In the present paper, a new algorithm is proposed to further improve the quality of the realizations. The method utilizes the realizations generated by the algorithm introduced in Part I, iteratively removes any possible remaining discontinuities in them, and addresses the problem with honoring hard (quantitative) data, using an error map. The map represents the differences between the patterns in the training image (TI) and the current iteration of a realization. The resulting iterative CCSIM—the iCCSIM algorithm—utilizes a random path and the error map to identify the locations in the current realization in the iteration process that need further "repairing;" that is, those locations at which discontinuities may still exist. The computational time of the new iterative algorithm is considerably lower than one in which every cell of the simulation grid is visited in order to repair the discontinuities. Furthermore, several efficient distance functions are introduced by which one extracts effectively key information from the TIs. To increase the quality of the realizations and extracting the maximum amount of information from the TIs, the distance functions can be used simultaneously. The performance of the iCCSIM algorithm is studied using very complex 2-D and 3-D examples, including those that are process-based. Comparison is made between the quality and accuracy of the results with those generated by the original CCSIM