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Sample records for affects neuropsychological function

  1. Effects of light therapy on neuropsychological function and mood in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Michalon, M; Eskes, G A; Mate-Kole, C C

    1997-01-01

    To date, little attention has been paid to changes in neuropsychological function in seasonal affective disorders (SAD). In this study, we investigated the performance of 30 patients with SAD on a wide range of cognitive variables before and after 2 weeks of light treatment with either white or placebo red light, as well as later in the summertime. Performance of subjects with SAD on neuropsychological tests was compared with a group of 29 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects. The most consistent deficits associated with SAD were on tests of cognitive failures, visual memory, and visual-construction skills. In contrast to specific bright light effects on psychiatric measures, reports of cognitive failures did not change with either light treatment. Visual memory and constructional deficits responded nonspecifically to treatment with either white or the presumed placebo red light. Surprisingly, visual memory deficits were seen again in the summer, at a time when mood, cognitive failures, and other cognitive functions appeared at normal levels. These data suggest that cognitive functioning is affected by SAD. In addition, light treatment may have differential effects on mood and cognition. PMID:9002389

  2. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  3. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  4. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  5. Affective Infrastructures: Toward a Cultural Neuropsychology of Sport

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Leslie L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes’ social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable – that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes’ social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways. PMID:22069389

  6. Beating the Odds: Intact Neuropsychological Functioning despite TLE.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Ashima; Chopra, Sakshi

    2014-10-01

    Patients with Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) frequently display cognitive comorbidity and can have widespread network abnormalities, which might affect a variety of cognitive and intellectual functions. As a result, refractory TLE seems to be associated with slow but ongoing cognitive deterioration. The case is of a 32 year old, right handed male, engineering graduate, diagnosed with TLE- right mesial, 12 years ago. A number of head injuries were caused due to the seizure present, which includes a fall from height of 12 feet in childhood. The neuropsychological tests administered were Gesell's Drawing Test, Mini Mental State Examination, PGI Memory Scale, Battery of Performance Tests of Intelligence, Verbal Adult Intelligence Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Dysfunction Analysis Questionnaire. No impairment found on orientation; average cognitive functioning; above average attention and concentration, verbal working memory, visual and verbal memory; average practical ability, abstract ability, average verbal intellectual ability; superior ability on comprehension and average performance ability. Mild to moderate impairment on perceptuo-motor functioning and an evidence of depression were present. Patient showed high dysfunction in personal, social, vocational and cognitive areas. The study highlights that even despite chronic epilepsy, with a series of head injuries due to the seizures; an individual can still have average neuropsychological abilities. Holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation along with Vocational Retraining would go a long way in the functional independence of the patient. Neuropsychologists have a significant role in the assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with epilepsy. PMID:25452679

  7. Specifying the neuropsychology of affective disorders: clinical, demographic and neurobiological factors.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Thomas; Sinnamon, Grant; Baune, Bernhard T

    2011-12-01

    Neuropsychological research in patients with affective disorders shows heterogeneous results with regard to the severity and profile of cognitive impairments. In this paper we hypothesize that the investigation of clinical (subtypes, comorbidity, traumatization, personality, severity, diurnal swings, course, duration, age of onset, biased processing, rumination, motivation, experience of failure, sleep, suicidal tendencies, computer attitudes), demographic (age, education, gender) and neurobiological factors (structural and functional brain changes, glucocorticoids, medication, ECT) that are related to cognitive performance has specified the understanding of severity and profile of neuropsychological impairments. We reviewed the literature pertaining to clinical, demographic and neurobiological factors following Pubmed and PsychInfo databases using different combinations of general key-terms including "Affective Disorder," "Depression," "Mania," "Neuropsychological," "Neurobiological," "Moderator," and "Review" as well as more specific demographic, clinical and neurobiological search terms. Findings from the literature show that the consideration of these factors has improved knowledge about the severity of neuropsychological impairments in patients with affective disorders whereas the neuropsychological profile is still poorly understood. Despite limited understanding, however, the existent results provide promising suggestions for the development of treatment programs.

  8. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

  9. Orbital and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Neuropsychological Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-01-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced…

  10. Neuropsychological functioning among the elderly nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Faraone, S V; Seidman, L J; Kremen, W S; Toomey, R; Lyons, M J; Tsuang, M T

    1996-07-01

    In our prior work with a young sample (age < 60), we showed that three neuropsychological functions were impaired among relatives of schizophrenic patients: abstraction, verbal memory, and auditory attention. In the present work we show that these results do not generalize to an older sample aged 60 years and greater. Thus, although we and others have put forth measures of neuropsychological function as indicators of the schizophrenia genotype, the present study suggests that conclusions may be limited to non-elderly samples. Further work is needed to address this issue definitively.

  11. The Association of MRI Findings and Neuropsychological Functioning after the First Recognized Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Egelhoff, John C.; Kalnin, Andrew; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose To explore relationships between MRI abnormalities of the brain and neuropsychological functioning in children who were evaluated following their first recognized seizure. Methods Subjects were children aged 6 to 14 years with a first recognized seizure within the past 3 months who participated in a larger prospective study of child adaptation. The 249 children with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging were studied. Children underwent neuropsychological examination an average of 2.8 months and MRI examination an average of 1.3 months after the first recognized seizure. On factor analysis four factors were found for neuropsychological function: LANG = Language, PS = Processing Speed, EC = Executive/Construction, VMEM = Verbal Memory and Learning. For analysis, structural abnormalities found on MRI were classified as significant (yes/no) based on whether they were presumed to be related to the seizure condition. Results On MRI, 34 (14%) had structural abnormalities that were judged to be significant in that they were possibly related to their seizures. Children with significant abnormalities had significantly lower estimated IQ scores and significantly lower language, processing speed, executive/constructional ability, and verbal memory and learning factor scores than did children without significant abnormalities. Conclusions Children who have structural brain abnormalities at onset have slightly lower cognitive functioning overall, and all neuropsychological domains seemed to be affected relatively equally. This pattern was apparent even when we restricted the analysis to children with intellectual functioning in the broadly normal range. PMID:17442004

  12. Neuropsychological Profile in High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narzisi, Antonio; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses of children with autism may help to better describe their cognitive abilities and to design appropriate interventions. To this end we compared the NEPSY-II profiles of 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) with those of 44 healthy control…

  13. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  14. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome (TS)

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Soleimani, Maryam; Carroll, Alan; Hodlevskyy, Oleksander

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether children with Tourette syndrome (TS) displayed a unique pattern of neuropsychological deficits on the CANTAB® relative to control children. We also looked at whether children with TS and other comorbidities had more neuropsychological impairments than those with uncomplicated TS and how age was related to the profile of neuropsychological deficits in TS. Method: Participants included 38 children with TS (aged 7 to 13 years) and 38 control children (aged 6 to 12 years). All children were administered 8 subtests from the CANTAB® and parents and teachers completed the BRIEF rating scale on children in the TS group. Results: Children with TS displayed deficits relative to control children on measures of visual memory, executive functioning, and attention from the CANTAB®. Among the TS group, age was negatively correlated with performance on measures of executive functioning, speed of response and working memory. Conclusions: Identifying the pattern of neuropsychological deficits in children with TS on the CANTAB® is important for highlighting areas of deficit that can be targeted for intervention and teaching strategies. With further research, the CANTAB® may prove to be a useful resource in the assessment and treatment of children with TS. PMID:19881939

  15. Optimizing cross-sectional prediction of social functioning in youth referred for neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Potthoff, Lauren M; Hunter, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 - 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or "odd" behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social functioning

  16. Optimizing Cross-Sectional Prediction of Social Functioning in Youth Referred for Neuropsychological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Potthoff, Lauren M.; Hunter, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to establish a fine-grained, efficient characterization of the concurrent neuropsychological contributions to social functioning in neuropsychologically-referred youth. A secondary aim was to demonstrate a useful statistic approach for such investigations (Partial Least Squares Regression; PLSR), which is underutilized in this field. Forty-five participants (70 – 164 months; Mage = 110.89; 34 male) were recruited from a large neuropsychological assessment clinic. Participants completed subtests from the NEPSY-II focusing on neuropsychological constructs that have been linked to social functioning (affect decoding, social memory, motor skills, visuomotor skills, response inhibition, attention and set-shifting, and verbal comprehension). Mothers completed the BASC-2, from which Atypicality and Social Skills scales were analyzed. PLSR revealed that difficulty with social memory, sensorimotor integration, and the ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli combine to best predict atypical or “odd” behavior. In terms of social skills, two factors emerged. The first factor indicated that, counterintuitively, greater emotional perception, visuospatial perception, ability to attend to and accurately discriminate auditory stimuli, and understand instructions was related to poorer social skills. The second factor indicated that a pattern of better facial memory, and sensorimotor ability (execution & integration) characterized a distinct profile of greater social ability. PLSR results were compared to traditional OLS and Backwards Stepwise regression approaches to demonstrate utility. Results also suggested that these findings were consistent across age, gender, and diagnostic group, indicating common neuropsychological substrates of social functioning in this sample of referred youth. Overall, this study provides the first characterization of optimized combinations of neuropsychological variables in predicting social

  17. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression.

  18. Orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex functioning in Parkinson's disease: neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-06-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced stages of PD. This pattern has also been suggested by studies that have shown that dopaminergic drugs impair the performance of early PD patients in OMPFC tasks that involve reinforcement learning but enhance the performance of advanced PD patients. Based on these empirical findings, we reviewed the neuropsychological evidence of OMPFC functions in PD patients to test two hypotheses regarding the following: (1) OMPFC functions at different stages of PD; (2) different effects of dopaminergic drugs on OMPFC functions based on PD stage and task demand. We focused our review only on the neuropsychological tasks that were specific and sensitive to the functions of the OMPFC and that were adopted at different stages of PD, such as reversal learning tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task and the affective Theory of Mind task. We found robust empirical evidence that in early PD, OMPFC functions are preserved and dopaminergic drugs result in a detrimental effect when the task involves reinforcement learning. Further studies are needed to verify the status of OMPFC functions in non-demented, advanced PD and to describe the longitudinal course of OMPFC functions in this clinical population.

  19. The scientist-practitioner model: how do advances in clinical and cognitive neuroscience affect neuropsychology in the courtroom?

    PubMed

    Wood, Rodger Ll

    2009-01-01

    One of the core tenets of the scientist-practitioner model, slightly modified to make it applicable to modern neuropsychology, is that assessment procedures should be developed, applied, and interpreted in a relevant scientific framework. However, over the last 30 years, the general structure of a neuropsychological assessment has changed little, if at all. It has continued to focus mainly on the assessment of cognitive constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, and perception. During the same time period, cognitive neuroscience has focused on integrative systems, largely controlled by frontal mechanisms, that allow individuals to utilize cognitive functions in an adaptive way, especially in the context of novel situations or when social stimuli are ambiguous. Consequently, the gulf between cognitive neuroscience and the practice of clinical neuropsychology has grown uncomfortably large. This article attempts to review some of the developments in cognitive and affective neuroscience that are relevant to an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities, especially in a medicolegal context, to determine whether conventional neuropsychological methods can be considered fit for purpose.

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls, 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found evidence of separate executive functioning and intelligence (IQ) latent variables. Mother’s and father’s executive functioning were associated with child’s executive functioning (beta = 0.34 for father-child, 0.51 for mother-child), independently of parental IQ, which as expected was associated with child’s IQ (beta = 0.52 for father-child, 0.54 for mother-child). Familial correlations also showed a significant relationship of executive functioning between parents and offspring. These findings clarify that key elements of the executive functioning construct are reliably differentiable from IQ, and are transmitted in families. This work supports the utility of the construct of executive function in further study of the mechanisms and etiology of externalizing psychopathologies. PMID:19243871

  1. Motor assessment in pediatric neuropsychology: relationships to executive function.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Executive function often refers to control behaviors such as "initiating," "sustaining," "inhibiting," and "switching." These mechanisms contribute to regulation of thinking and emotion but can be observed most clearly in the motor system. Neuropsychology has been influenced by "top-down" models of cognitive control that emerged from information-processing theories of cognition. In fact, neural models provide evidence that control processes are highly interactive within the cortico-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Cognition unfolds in response to motor-driven adaptation, and evidence exists for similar firing of brain cells and circuits during "imagined action" as in actual motor behavior. The motor system develops early and yet is not routinely assessed in neuropsychological evaluation of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This article reviews some of the approaches to motor assessment that have sensitivity to neurodevelopmental disorders, and advocates for inclusion of motor assessment, particularly in evaluating control processes independent of culture, language, and other confounders.

  2. Motor assessment in pediatric neuropsychology: relationships to executive function.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Executive function often refers to control behaviors such as "initiating," "sustaining," "inhibiting," and "switching." These mechanisms contribute to regulation of thinking and emotion but can be observed most clearly in the motor system. Neuropsychology has been influenced by "top-down" models of cognitive control that emerged from information-processing theories of cognition. In fact, neural models provide evidence that control processes are highly interactive within the cortico-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Cognition unfolds in response to motor-driven adaptation, and evidence exists for similar firing of brain cells and circuits during "imagined action" as in actual motor behavior. The motor system develops early and yet is not routinely assessed in neuropsychological evaluation of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This article reviews some of the approaches to motor assessment that have sensitivity to neurodevelopmental disorders, and advocates for inclusion of motor assessment, particularly in evaluating control processes independent of culture, language, and other confounders. PMID:23745952

  3. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  4. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  6. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid psychiatric history and one or more possible precipitating factors for their amnesia. Eight of the 10 patients still had persistent retrograde amnesia at our last contact with them (median = 14 mo after the onset of amnesia). On tests of anterograde amnesia, the patients performed normally as a group, though some patients scored poorly on tests of verbal memory. On tests of retrograde amnesia, all patients had difficulty recollecting well-formed autobiographical memories of specific events from their past. In contrast, patients performed as well as controls at distinguishing the names of cities from fictitious city names. On remote memory tests for past public events and famous faces, different patients exhibited different but internally consistent patterns of impaired and spared performance. The variability in the clinical and neuropsychological findings among our patients may be understood by supposing that memory performance is poor in proportion to how directly a test appears to assess a patient's commonsense concept of memory. The presentation of patients with functional amnesia is as variable as humankind's concept of what memory is and how it works. PMID:15054137

  7. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly J; Smith, Megan M; Bruce, Jared M; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The current study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neuropsychological performance in HD. Participants with impaired oculomotor functioning performed worse than those with normal oculomotor functioning on cognitive tasks requiring oculomotor involvement, particularly on psychomotor speed tasks, controlling for covariates. Consideration of oculomotor dysfunction on neuropsychological performance is critical, particularly for populations with motor deficits.

  8. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly J; Smith, Megan M; Bruce, Jared M; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The current study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neuropsychological performance in HD. Participants with impaired oculomotor functioning performed worse than those with normal oculomotor functioning on cognitive tasks requiring oculomotor involvement, particularly on psychomotor speed tasks, controlling for covariates. Consideration of oculomotor dysfunction on neuropsychological performance is critical, particularly for populations with motor deficits. PMID:26745770

  9. A comprehensive neuropsychological mapping battery for functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Sirel; Baran, Zeynel; Ceylan, Arzu Ozkan; Tileylioglu, Emre; Tali, Turgut; Karakas, Hakki Muammer

    2013-11-01

    Existing batteries for FMRI do not precisely meet the criteria for comprehensive mapping of cognitive functions within minimum data acquisition times using standard scanners and head coils. The goal was to develop a battery of neuropsychological paradigms for FMRI that can also be used in other brain imaging techniques and behavioural research. Participants were 61 healthy, young adult volunteers (48 females and 13 males, mean age: 22.25 ± 3.39 years) from the university community. The battery included 8 paradigms for basic (visual, auditory, sensory-motor, emotional arousal) and complex (language, working memory, inhibition/interference control, learning) cognitive functions. Imaging was performed using standard functional imaging capabilities (1.5-T MR scanner, standard head coil). Structural and functional data series were analysed using Brain Voyager QX2.9 and Statistical Parametric Mapping-8. For basic processes, activation centres for individuals were within a distance of 3-11 mm of the group centres of the target regions and for complex cognitive processes, between 7 mm and 15 mm. Based on fixed-effect and random-effects analyses, the distance between the activation centres was 0-4 mm. There was spatial variability between individual cases; however, as shown by the distances between the centres found with fixed-effect and random-effects analyses, the coordinates for individual cases can be used to represent those of the group. The findings show that the neuropsychological brain mapping battery described here can be used in basic science studies that investigate the relationship of the brain to the mind and also as functional localiser in clinical studies for diagnosis, follow-up and pre-surgical mapping.

  10. Neuropsychological heterogeneity in preschool ADHD: investigating the interplay between cognitive, affective and motivation-based forms of regulation.

    PubMed

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Backman, Anna; Thorell, Lisa B

    2015-05-01

    There is a trend toward diagnosing ADHD prior to school entry. Despite this, there is a lack of studies investigating ADHD in the preschool years, at least studies including a large range of different neuropsychological functions. Our knowledge of the independent effects of different neuropsychological functions in relation to preschool ADHD is therefore limited. In order to address this issue, the present study investigated cognitive, affective, and motivation-based regulation in relation to ADHD symptoms in 104 preschool children (age M = 67.33 months, SD = 10.10; 65 % boys). Results showed that these regulatory processes were all significantly related to ADHD symptoms and that most of these relations remained after controlling for comorbid conduct problems. Most previous preschool studies have only included cognitive regulation, and to some extent motivation-based regulation. By also including affective regulation, we were able to explain a larger proportion of the variance in ADHD symptoms. However, it should be noted that the amount of variance explained was still small in comparison with what has been found in previous studies of school-aged children. This finding could be taken as an indication that further studies examining the nature of preschool ADHD are needed, and that it may be necessary to look beyond the neuropsychological factors that have been linked to the disorder in older children and adults. PMID:25239053

  11. The role of functional neuroimaging in the neuropsychology of depression.

    PubMed

    Liotti, M; Mayberg, H S

    2001-02-01

    Depressed individuals show impaired performance in tests of attention and concentration. They also exhibit PET resting state abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate, regions known to be substrates of attentional processing in healthy individuals. This chapter outlines a strategy to study neuropsychological mechanisms in emotional disorders using functional imaging methods. It reviews evidence strongly implicating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere, as a key brain structure in emotion/cognition interactions in negative mood states. It will be argued that this neocortical region is a crucial convergence zone, being the substrate of sustained attention to the external environment, and the main target of limbic-cortical influences during changes in mood state across health and disease.

  12. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Pennington, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and math disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), and RD + MD (N = 188) and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and 10 neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD + MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD + MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and 7 of 10 neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur because of shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  13. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p < .01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  14. Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Function in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather E.; Lam, Janet C.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, ages 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance—including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness—(all p≤0.01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p<0.01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p≤0.01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p<0.01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD, rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  15. Neuropsychological Functions of μ- and δ-Opioid Systems

    PubMed Central

    Polunina, Anna G.; Bryun, Evgeny A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain opioid innervation is involved in many pathophysiological processes related to drug addiction. The main idea of the present review is that μ-/δ-opioid innervation is an intrinsic component of the motor/approach behavior network, which is activated synergetically with dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic network. Contribution of opioid innervation to the motor/approach behavior processing includes generation of positive emotions and inhibition of pain and stress reactions in order that the individual would be able to reach the vital goal. We cite the neuroanatomical data which showed that motor subcortical nuclei contain the most abundant opioid innervation and its activation is an obligatory component of positive emotions. In the majority of life situations, motor/approach behavior network concomitantly activates pain/stress control opioid network. Intensive cognitive activity induces activation of opioid innervation as well, and both enhancing and impairing effects of opioid agonists on cognitive functioning were demonstrated. Overall, the functioning of endogenous opioid networks may be summarized as following: NO physical/cognitive activity = NO positive emotions plus NO pain/stress control. We suppose that contemporary findings concerning neuropsychological functions of endogenous opioid system explain many controversial issues in neuropsychiatric conditions predisposing to drug addiction and neurological mechanisms of opioid addiction. PMID:25938117

  16. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  17. Neuropsychological evaluation of higher functioning homeless persons: a comparison of an abbreviated test battery to the mini-mental state exam.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, E A; Dieter, J N; Natale, R A; Tanner, S L

    2001-03-01

    This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a heterogeneous population of persons who were homeless (N = 60) and compared the value of the Abbreviated Halstead-Reitan Test Battery with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). A high incidence of neuropsychological dysfunction was evident with 80% of patients showing impaired test battery performance and 35% showing an impaired MMSE. Performance on the Trail Making Test, Part B was especially impaired. Patients impaired on Trails B more often showed impaired test battery performance, suggesting it may be a better screening tool than the MMSE. Neuropsychological performance was not significantly affected by the patients' gender, age, diagnosis, or past psychiatric and medical history. Regression analysis suggested that 29% of the variance in test battery performance was accounted for by the patients' education. Results support previous findings that large numbers of people who are homeless are neuropsychologically impaired; this should be considered when planning treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:11277354

  18. Clinical Pain and Neuropsychological Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Gwenda; Weeda, Wouter D.; Vlaar, Annemarie M. M.; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Pain is an important nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain areas such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex play an important role in the processing of pain. Since these brain areas are also involved in cognitive functioning, for example, episodic memory and executive functions, respectively, we examined whether a relationship exists between cognitive functioning and spontaneous pain in PD. Methods. Forty-eight patients with PD and 57 controls participated. Cognitive functioning was measured by a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Both the sensory-discriminative aspect and the motivational-affective aspect of pain were assessed. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess a relation between cognition and pain. Results. Cognition was related to neither the sensory nor the affective aspect of pain in our sample of PD patients. Variance in pain measures was primarily explained by symptoms of depression and anxiety. Discussion. The difference between the affective and the sensory aspect of pain might be due to the neuropathology of PD, which is mainly present in areas processing the affective aspect of pain. Pain treatment might improve when mood is taken into account. We provide several explanations for the lack of an association between pain and cognition. PMID:26881181

  19. Changes in neuropsychological functioning following treatment for late-life Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Butters, Meryl A.; Bhalla, Rishi K.; Andreescu, Carmen; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Mantella, Rose; Begley, Amy E.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in older adults is associated with neuropsychological impairment. Aims We examined neuropsychological functioning in older adults with GAD in comparison to psychiatrically healthy older adults and we examined changes during a 12-week, placebo controlled trial of escitalopram. Method One hundred-sixty non-demented participants aged ≥60 with current GAD and 37 comparison subjects without psychiatric history underwent neuropsychological assessment. One hundred twenty-nine GAD participants were re-assessed post-treatment. Results GAD participants performed worse than comparison subjects in information processing speed, working memory, inhibition, problem-solving (including concept formation and mental flexibility), and immediate and delayed memory. Neuropsychological functioning was correlated with everyday functioning. Low cognitive scorers experienced working memory, delayed memory and visuospatial ability improvement and those who reported clinical improvement in anxiety exhibited improvement in the ability to engage inhibition and episodic recall. These improvements were modest and of similar magnitude in both treatment conditions. Conclusion GAD in older adults is associated with neuropsychological impairments, which are associated with functional impairment. Those with GAD who either have low cognitive performance or report clinical improvement in anxiety post-treatment, show improvement in multiple cognitive domains. These findings underscore the importance of treatments that aid cognition as well as anxiety symptoms. PMID:21727232

  20. Functional impairments in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the mediating role of neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple neuropsychological deficits and the present study aimed to investigate to what extent these deficits are related to the functional impairments associated with the disorder. The results showed that all executive functioning deficits and reaction time variability acted as mediators in the relation between ADHD and academic achievement. However, only the effect of working memory for language skills, and the effects of reaction time variability and working memory for mathematics, remained significant when studying independent effects. Regulation of anger was a significant mediator for peer problems. Gender or symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) did not moderate these findings. PMID:24742310

  1. Functional Impairments in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Mediating Role of Neuropsychological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple neuropsychological deficits and the present study aimed to investigate to what extent these deficits are related to the functional impairments associated with the disorder. The results showed that all executive functioning deficits and reaction time variability acted as mediators in the relation between ADHD and academic achievement. However, only the effect of working memory for language skills, and the effects of reaction time variability and working memory for mathematics, remained significant when studying independent effects. Regulation of anger was a significant mediator for peer problems. Gender or symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) did not moderate these findings. PMID:24742310

  2. Work productivity and neuropsychological function in persons with skull base tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bethany D.; Weimer, Jason; Choi, Chienwen J.; Bradley, Cathy J.; Bender, Catherine M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Gardner, Paul; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Skull base tumors comprise many common benign brain tumors. Treatment has advanced, allowing many survivors to return to work. However, literature is limited about the neuropsychological status of these patients prior to treatment. Literature pertaining to the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and occupational ability prior to surgical intervention is even more limited. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the impact of neuropsychological function on work productivity in persons with skull base tumors prior to resection. Methods Neuropsychological function and work productivity were assessed in adults newly diagnosed with skull base tumors (n = 45) prior to surgical intervention. Univariate analyses identified potential predictors of work limitations; variables with P < .10 were analyzed using multivariate regression analyses controlled for age, sex, tumor type, and education. Results Poorer mental attention and flexibility (MF) and higher depressive symptoms (DS) were significantly associated with poor time management at work (MF: β = -0.59, P = .01; DS: β = 3.42, P < .01; R2 = 0.54). Difficulty meeting physical work demands was significantly associated with poorer visuospatial ability (VA) and higher depressive symptoms (VA: β = −3.30, P = .05; DS: β = 2.29, P < .01; R2 = 0.29). Lower learning and memory scores (LM) and higher depressive symptoms were significantly associated with difficulty meeting mental-interpersonal work demands (LM: β = −3.39, P = .04; DS: β = 3.25, P < .01; R2 = 0.47) and overall health-related loss of work productivity (LM: β = −0.72, P = .05; DS: β = 0.659, P < .001; R2 = 0.43). Conclusion Domains of neuropsychological function that predicted work productivity were identified. Future research should examine neuropsychological function, depressive symptoms, and work productivity across the care trajectory from diagnosis through long-term survivorship. PMID:25789168

  3. Retinal Vessel Caliber and Lifelong Neuropsychological Functioning: An Investigative Tool for Cognitive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Meier, Madeline H.; Houts, Renate M.; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol YL; Ikram, M. Kamram; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new non-invasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independent of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain, and extended to informant-reports of cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The finding indicates that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before dementing diseases’ onset, and suggests digital retinal imaging as an investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508

  4. Beyond functional architecture in cognitive neuropsychology: a reply to Coltheart (2010).

    PubMed

    Plaut, David C; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-01-01

    We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact on cognitive science due to a nearly exclusive reliance on (a) single-case studies, (b) dissociations in cognitive performance, and (c) shallow, box-and-arrow theorizing, and we advocated adopting a case-series methodology, considering associations as well as dissociations, and employing explicit computational modeling in studying "how the brain does its cognitive business." In reply, Coltheart (2010) claims that our concern is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture," without regard to how this is implemented in the brain. In this response, we do not dispute his characterization of cognitive neuropsychology as it has typically been practiced over the last 40 years, but we suggest that our understanding of brain structure and function has advanced to the point where studying the mind without regard to the brain is unwise and perpetuates the field's isolation.

  5. Executive Function and ADHD: A Comparison of Children's Performance during Neuropsychological Testing and Real-World Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vivienne; Houghton, Stephen; Douglas, Graham; Durkin, Kevin; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Current understanding of executive function deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is derived almost exclusively from neuropsychological testing conducted in laboratory settings. This study compared children's performance on both neuropsychological and real-life measures of executive function and processing speed.…

  6. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Veltman, Dick J; Booij, Jan; Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-07-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence, and excessive caffeine use, comparing stimulant abusers (SAs) to nondrug using healthy controls (HCs). Despite some inconsistencies, most studies indicated altered brain activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and insula in response to reward and punishment, and higher limbic and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/PFC activation during craving and attentional bias paradigms in SAs compared with HCs. Impulsivity in SAs was associated with lower ACC and presupplementary motor area activity compared with HCs, and related to both ventral (amygdala, ventrolateral PFC, insula) and dorsal (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal ACC, posterior parietal cortex) systems. Decision making in SAs was associated with low dorsolateral PFC activity and high orbitofrontal activity. Finally, executive function in SAs was associated with lower activation in frontotemporal regions and higher activation in premotor cortex compared with HCs. It is concluded that the lower activations compared with HCs are likely to reflect the neural substrate of impaired neurocognitive functions, whereas higher activations in SAs compared with HCs are likely to reflect compensatory cognitive control mechanisms to keep behavioral task performance to a similar level as in HCs. However, before final conclusions can be drawn, additional research is needed using neuroimaging in SAs and HCs using larger and more homogeneous samples as well as more comparable task paradigms, study designs, and statistical analyses. PMID:22950052

  7. Substrates of neuropsychological functioning in stimulant dependence: a review of functional neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Veltman, Dick J; Booij, Jan; Emmerik – van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant dependence is associated with neuropsychological impairments. Here, we summarize and integrate the existing neuroimaging literature on the neural substrates of neuropsychological (dys)function in stimulant dependence, including cocaine, (meth-)amphetamine, ecstasy and nicotine dependence, and excessive caffeine use, comparing stimulant abusers (SAs) to nondrug using healthy controls (HCs). Despite some inconsistencies, most studies indicated altered brain activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and insula in response to reward and punishment, and higher limbic and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/PFC activation during craving and attentional bias paradigms in SAs compared with HCs. Impulsivity in SAs was associated with lower ACC and presupplementary motor area activity compared with HCs, and related to both ventral (amygdala, ventrolateral PFC, insula) and dorsal (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal ACC, posterior parietal cortex) systems. Decision making in SAs was associated with low dorsolateral PFC activity and high orbitofrontal activity. Finally, executive function in SAs was associated with lower activation in frontotemporal regions and higher activation in premotor cortex compared with HCs. It is concluded that the lower activations compared with HCs are likely to reflect the neural substrate of impaired neurocognitive functions, whereas higher activations in SAs compared with HCs are likely to reflect compensatory cognitive control mechanisms to keep behavioral task performance to a similar level as in HCs. However, before final conclusions can be drawn, additional research is needed using neuroimaging in SAs and HCs using larger and more homogeneous samples as well as more comparable task paradigms, study designs, and statistical analyses. PMID:22950052

  8. [Neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions by means of virtual reality].

    PubMed

    Climent-Martínez, Gema; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Bombín-González, Igor; Cifuentes-Rodríguez, Alicia; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Díaz-Orueta, Unai

    2014-05-16

    Executive functions include a wide range of self regulatory functions that allow control, organization and coordination of other cognitive functions, emotional responses and behaviours. The traditional approach to evaluate these functions, by means of paper and pencil neuropsychological tests, shows a greater than expected performance within the normal range for patients whose daily life difficulties would predict an inferior performance. These discrepancies suggest that classical neuropsychological tests may not adequately reproduce the complexity and dynamic nature of real life situations. Latest developments in the field of virtual reality offer interesting options for the neuropsychological assessment of many cognitive processes. Virtual reality reproduces three-dimensional environments with which the patient interacts in a dynamic way, with a sense of immersion in the environment similar to the presence and exposure to a real environment. Furthermore, the presentation of these stimuli, as well as distractors and other variables, may be controlled in a systematic way. Moreover, more consistent and precise answers may be obtained, and an in-depth analysis of them is possible. The present review shows current problems in neuropsychological evaluation of executive functions and latest advances in the consecution of higher preciseness and validity of the evaluation by means of new technologies and virtual reality, with special mention to some developments performed in Spain.

  9. [Neuropsychological characterization of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in drug addicts: clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José M; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a stable correlate throughout the course of drug addiction. However, it has always been studied as a negative condition, linked to psychopathology. Dickman (1990) proposed two subdimensions of impulsivity, dysfunctional (DI) and functional (FI). He defines the latter as the tendency for rapid, goal-oriented decision-making characterized by well calculated risks. Only a few studies have attempted to differentiate between these two subdimensions using classical neuropsychological tests. Fifty two drug addicts in treatment were tested using Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory and a battery of classical neuropsychological tests. FI shows moderate to high correlations with many classical neuropsychological test scores in relation to enhanced executive functioning, whereas DI reveals surprisingly weak and scarce correlations with indicators of impaired executive functioning. DI appears to be a trait related to some difficulties in classical neuropsychological tests, while FI emerges as a consistent and much stronger predictor of higher attention capacity, lower distractibility, better precision, fewer errors, and better maintenance of goal-oriented strategies. Thus, functional impulsivity is related to positive conditions and more efficient cognitive functioning. Implications for the treatment of drug addictions are suggested.

  10. Effects of Emerging Alcohol and Marijuana Use Behaviors on Adolescents’ Neuropsychological Functioning Over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Louie, Tam T.; Castro, Norma; Matt, Georg E.; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brumback, Ty; Tapert, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a period of neuromaturation concomitant with increased substance involvement. Most substance use studies of adolescents have focused on categorical classifications (e.g., dependent vs. nondependent), but little is known about the influence of specific substance use behaviors on cognitive functioning in youth. Method: This study prospectively evaluated the quantitative effects of different substance use behaviors on neuropsychological functioning. A cognitive test battery was administered at baseline (ages 12–14 years), before substance use initiation, and at follow-up (M = 4.0 years, SD = 2.0) to evaluate changes in verbal memory, visuospatial ability, psychomotor speed, processing speed, and working memory. Robust regressions examined substance use behaviors as predictors of neuropsychological functioning (N = 234). Results: Several substance use behaviors predicted follow-up neuropsychological functioning above and beyond effects of baseline performance on the same measure (ps < .05). Specifically, more alcohol use days predicted worse verbal memory ( = -.15) and visuospatial ability ( = -.19). More postdrinking effects ( = -.15) and greater drug use ( = -.11) predicted worse psychomotor speed. Processing speed was not predicted by substance involvement (ps > .05). Unexpectedly, more alcohol use predicted better working memory performance ( = .12). Conclusions: The frequency and intensity of adolescent alcohol use may be more intricately linked to neuropsychological outcomes than previously considered. The low prevalence of substance use disorder in the sample suggests that subdiagnostic users may still experience adverse effects to verbal memory, visuospatial functioning, and psychomotor speed after initiating intense or frequent alcohol use. PMID:26402354

  11. Genetic Influences on Cognitive Function Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jamie J.; MacGregor, Alex J.; Cherkas, Lynn F.; Spector, Tim D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic relationship between intelligence and components of cognition remains controversial. Conflicting results may be a function of the limited number of methods used in experimental evaluation. The current study is the first to use CANTAB (The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). This is a battery of validated computerised…

  12. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  14. Neuropsychological Functioning in Specific Learning Disorders--Reading, Writing and Mixed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Adarsh; Kaur, Manreet; Mohanty, Manju; Malhotra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The study compared the pattern of deficits, intelligence and neuropsychological functioning in subcategories of learning disorders. Methods: Forty-six children (16 with reading disorders, 11 with writing disorders and 19 with both reading and writing disorders--mixed group) in the age range of 7-14 years were assessed using the NIMHANS Index…

  15. Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Function and Manganese in Air, Blood, Hair, and Toenails in Ohio Residents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: This study compares manganese (Mn) in air, blood, hair, and toenails and neuropsychological function of 110 women and 76 men, environmentally exposed to Mn in air (Mn-air) in two Ohio towns from a ferromanganese smelter and a soil Mn-packaging facility.Method: Biomark...

  16. Deficits in visual functions and neuropsychological inconsistency in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Thomas; Saavedra, Anamaria Silva; Mensebach, Christoph; Lange, Wolfgang; Markowitsch, Hans-Joachim; Rau, Harald; Woermann, Friedrich G; Driessen, Martin

    2006-12-01

    For Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) cognitive and perceptual impairments were reported in some but not all studies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the neuropsychological performance of BPD patients in different domains. Predominant impairments of visual functions and an increased intra-individual variation of test performances within neuropsychological domains were expected. We investigated 22 patients with BPD and a matched sample of 22 healthy control subjects. A comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological test battery was administered. Effect sizes indicate primarily deficits of visual functions such as visual memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, WMS-R: Visual pair associates and visual reproduction, Complex Figure Test: Recall) and visuo-spatial abilities (Leistungspruefsystem, LPS 9 and 10: Spatial imagination and embedded figures), but also of executive functions (Tower of Hanoi, Trail Making Test-B, semantic and figural fluency, LPS 4: Reasoning). In addition, the intra-individual ranges of neuropsychological test results in BPD patients were increased compared to those of healthy subjects. This finding might be due to a high degree of temporary stress that interferes with effective cognitive processing. Further research is needed to confirm the present results and to control for stress during the test procedure. PMID:17070927

  17. Neuropsychological and Socio-Occupational Functioning in Young Psychiatric Outpatients: A Longitudinal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Redoblado-Hodge, M. Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L.; Porter, Melanie A.; Kaur, Manreena; White, Django; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. Methods At baseline, 183 young psychiatric outpatients were assessed. Ninety-three returned for follow-up (M = 21.6 years old; SD = 4.5) with an average re-assessment interval of 21.6 months (SD = 7.0), and primary diagnoses of major depressive disorder (n = 34), bipolar disorder (n = 29), or psychosis (n = 30). The primary outcome measure was cross-validated with various other functional measures and structural equation modelling was used to map out the interrelationships between predictors and later functional outcome. Results Good socio-occupational functioning at follow-up was associated with better quality of life, less disability, current employment and being in a romantic relationship. The final structural equation model explained 47.5% of the variability in functional outcome at follow-up, with baseline neuropsychological functioning (a composite of memory, working memory and attentional switching) the best independent predictor of later functional outcome. Notably, depressive and negative symptoms were only associated with functioning cross-sectionally. Diagnosis at follow-up was not associated with functional outcome. Conclusions Neuropsychological functioning was the single best predictor of later socio-occupational outcome among young psychiatric outpatients. Therefore, framing psychiatric disorders along a neuropsychological continuum is likely to be more useful in predicting functional trajectory than traditional symptom-based classification systems. The current findings also have implications for early intervention utilising cognitive remediation approaches. PMID:23469268

  18. Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and affective psychosis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Annie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Russell, Ailsa; Murray, Robin

    2002-06-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits.One-hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SR) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic patients (APR) completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism; they were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The male relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives of affective psychotic patients. In the SR group, there were significant correlations between the TMT performance and the extraversion scores and, between the IQ scores and the psychoticism scores. However, when logistical regression analyses were performed, none of the three personality scores predicted any of the neuropsychological performance in either the SR or the APR group. These results indicate some specificity as well as sex differences in the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to psychosis whereas extraversion decreases it.

  19. The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Molloy, D W; Richardson, L D; Crilly, R G

    1988-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 3-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in a population of very elderly institutionalized women. Baseline neuropsychological testing was performed, and following 3 months of exercise or control intervention, subjects were retested 3-7 days after the completion of the study period. Apart from the Word Fluency Test, there was no significant improvement in any of the neuropsychological test scores. This study may not have shown any significant improvement in neuropsychological function because our exercise programme was too light to improve aerobic fitness, or because neuropsychological tests were repeated 3-7 days after exercise was completed and any acute effects of exercise may have disappeared by that time.

  20. Neuropsychology still needs to model organismic processes "from within".

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Arsalidou, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity.

  1. Neuropsychology still needs to model organismic processes "from within".

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Arsalidou, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity. PMID:26786086

  2. Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

    2014-09-01

    We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice.

  3. Changes in Neuropsychological Functioning over 10 Years Following Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Cummins, Kevin; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, Anderson, Ramo, Cummins, and Brown (2010) described six distinct patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use during the decade following adolescents’ treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (A/SUD). This time period represents a phase of significant neurodevelopment and the influence of substance use on the brain is a concern. In the present study we examined patterns of neuropsychological function over these 10 years in relation to the AOD trajectories identified for youth as they transition into their twenties. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project following adolescents with and without A/SUD who received neuropsychological examinations at baseline and up to 7 times thereafter spanning 10 years (N=213; 46% female at baseline). Neuropsychological trajectories were significantly related to substance involvement patterns over time on measures of verbal learning and memory (ps=.011 to <.0001), visuospatial memory (p=.0002), and verbal attention/working memory (p=.020), with heavier use patterns generally followed by poorer cognition. Heavy use of alcohol alone was independently associated with poorer verbal memory over time. Further, substance withdrawal symptoms during each follow-up time point were related to poorer verbal learning and memory scores (ps<.05), while substance abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were not related to neuropsychological performance levels. These findings suggest that AOD use during adolescence and young adulthood may primarily influence performance that relies on later maturing brain structures, although further research is needed. Higher levels of AOD withdrawal symptoms may signify greater neuropsychological impairment, reflecting potential neurotoxic effects of AOD use. PMID:21443308

  4. Neuropsychological functioning in young subjects with generalized anxiety disorder with and without pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tempesta, D; Mazza, M; Serroni, N; Moschetta, F S; Di Giannantonio, M; Ferrara, M; De Berardis, D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological functioning and the effect of antidepressant drug intake on cognitive performance in a group of relatively young generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. Forty patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD and 31 healthy subjects participated in the study (Control group, CON). None of the selected subjects had comorbid depression. GAD subjects were divided into two different subgroups: 18 were taking antidepressants [GAD-pharmacotherapy (GAD-p group)] and 22 were treatment-naïve (GAD group). Each group was administered with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess attention, memory and executive functions. Performance on executive and non-verbal memory tasks of both GAD groups was largely worse than the CON group. However, these deficits seem to be more marked in patients taking antidepressants, especially in the domains of attention, non-verbal memory and executive functions. The present study indicates that GAD is associated with cognitive impairments among young adults. However, the observed association of neuropsychological deficits and the use of pharmacotherapy suggest a possible effect of antidepressant treatment on attention, executive functioning and non-verbal memory. PMID:23796524

  5. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  6. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  7. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  8. Executive functions after orbital or lateral prefrontal lesions: Neuropsychological profiles and self-reported executive functions in everyday living

    PubMed Central

    LØVSTAD, M.; FUNDERUD, I.; ENDESTAD, T.; DUE-TØNNESSEN, P.; MELING, T. R.; LINDGREN, M.; KNIGHT, R. T.; SOLBAKK, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of chronic focal lesions to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on neuropsychological test performance and self-reported executive functioning in everyday living. Methods Fourteen adults with OFC lesions were compared to 10 patients with LPFC injuries and 21 healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests with emphasis on measures of cognitive executive function were administered along with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A) and a psychiatric screening instrument. Results The LPFC group differed from healthy controls on neuropsychological tests of sustained mental effort, response inhibition, working memory and mental switching, while the BRIEF-A provided more clinically important information on deficits in everyday life in the OFC group compared to the LPFC group. Correlations between neuropsychological test results and BRIEF-A were weak, while the BRIEF-A correlated strongly with emotional distress. Conclusions It was demonstrated that LPFC damage is particularly prone to cause cognitive executive deficit, while OFC injury is more strongly associated with self-reported dysexecutive symptoms in everyday living. The study illustrates the challenge of identifying executive deficit in individual patients and the lack of strong anatomical specificity of the currently employed methods. There is a need for an integrative methodological approach where standard testing batteries are supplemented with neuropsychiatric and frontal-specific rating scales. PMID:22731818

  9. [Memory function in patients with Parkinson's disease: in relation to neuropsychological tests and cerebral blood flow].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, N; Tachibana, H; Kawabata, K; Sugita, M

    2001-03-01

    We conducted a neuropsychological comparison between Parkinson's disease (PD; n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 12) using Rey's auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test (RCFT) assessing memory function. In addition, to determine the function of cortical and subcortical areas, we measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using N-isopropyl-p[123I]-iodoamhetamine (123I-IMP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and analyzed the relationships between brain regions and memory function. On the RAVLT, significant group differences in recall words were found on all learning trials between patients with PD and control subjects, whereas recognition, learning rate and forgetting rate were basically the same. In addition, the primacy/recency effect was statistically equal for both groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms in PD, whereas encoding and retention procesess did not prove to be affected. There were significant correlations between perfusion of the prefrontal and parietal cortices and total number of free recall in five trials. On the RCFT, recalls after 30 sec and 30 min were impaired in patients with PD although no significant difference in accuracy scores obtained in copy was noted. A percent recall score calculated using the formula 100 x [1 - (copy-recall)/copy] was also decreased in patients with PD. There were significant correlations between perfusion of the occipital and parietal cortices and percent recall score. Our data suggest that auditory memory deficits based on the RAVLT in PD may be mainly related to frontal and parietal cortical dysfunction, while visual recall deficits based on the RCFT may be related to the parieto-occipital cortical dysfunction.

  10. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  11. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  12. Consequences and risks of <1000-g birth weight for neuropsychological skills, achievement, and adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Drotar, Dennis; Schluchter, Mark; Hack, Maureen

    2006-12-01

    A cohort of 219 children with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g, extremely low birth weight [ELBW]) born from 1992 to 1995 was followed to mean age 8 years to evaluate outcomes and identify risk factors. We compared 204 of these children with 176 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) controls on neuropsychological skills, academic achievement, and adaptive behavior. The ELBW group had worse outcomes than the NBW on all measures. Within the ELBW group, lower scores on NEPSY tests of executive function and memory were related to <750 g birth weight, B (SE) = -0.93 (0.36), p =.010; cranial ultrasound abnormality, B = -1.03 (0.22), p =.002; postnatal steroid therapy, B = -1.00 (0.33), p =.003; and necrotizing enterocolitis, B = -2.26 (0.75), p =.008. A lower score on the Test of Motor Proficiency was related to chronic lung disease, B = -7.33 (1.98), p <.001. Neuropsychological skills mediated the effects of neonatal risk on achievement and adaptive functioning. The findings document the neuropsychological consequences of ELBW at school age in a recently born cohort and identify risks for adverse outcomes.

  13. The use of neuropsychological data to detect altered neurological functioning in a child with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Ashcraft, E W

    1993-12-01

    Although children with myelomeningocele often display atypical patterns on psychometric testing, this case study demonstrates the sensitivity of neuropsychological instruments to detect altered neurological functioning in a patient with spina bifida. The subject had a history of myelomeningocele at the lumbosacral level and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. During a routine neuropsychological evaluation, a 44-point discrepancy between his verbal (verbal IQ = 98) and nonverbal abilities (performance IQ = 54) on the Wechsler Intelligence for Children-Revised was found. In comparison to high average academic achievement, test findings suggested depressed memory skills and extreme slowing in psychomotor speed. A pattern of acute decline in overall cognitive functioning was suggested. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left frontoparietal brain mass, which was surgically removed. Follow-up neuropsychological testing 9 months postsurgery indicated an increase in nonverbal intelligence with improved psychomotor speed and information processing. This case study illustrates the importance of obtaining baseline evaluations in this neurologically high-risk population as well as the clinical usefulness of psychometric data in diagnostic workups. PMID:8126234

  14. Verbal Neuropsychological Functions in Aphasia: An Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Báez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework which considers the verbal functions of the brain under a multivariate and comprehensive cognitive model was statistically analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify whether some recognized aphasia constructs can be hierarchically integrated as latent factors from a homogenously verbal test. The Brief…

  15. Neuropsychology of Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Specific Executive Function Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Marilyn C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and unaffected peers were evaluated on four executive function (EF) tasks and one nonexecutive task. The PKU children scored lower than unaffected children on EF tasks, but not on the nonexecutive task. The PKU children's composite EF score was correlated with concurrent and mean lifetime phenylalanine…

  16. Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well understood due to small sample sizes and lack of adequate control conditions. We examined neuropsychological functioning in relatively large and well-characterized samples of children with TS, TS-plus-ADHD, ADHD, and unaffected controls. Method Fifty-six children with TS-only, 45 with TS-plus-ADHD, 64 with ADHD and 71 healthy community control subjects were assessed on a battery of neuropsychological measures including the Connors’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop), the Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI), and the Purdue Pegboard Test. Results There were no differences between children with TS-only and unaffected controls on the measures of response inhibition and visual-motor integration. Boys with TS-only but not girls with TS-only were impaired in the dominant hand Purdue performance. Children with ADHD were impaired on all study measures. Children with TS-plus-ADHD revealed no deficits on the Stroop, VMI and Purdue tests but were impaired on the sustained attention portion of the CPT. Conclusions These results indicate that co-occurring ADHD may be responsible for the neuropsychological deficits, or at least those assessed in the present study, in children with TS. Explanations in terms of neurobiological mechanisms of co-occurring TS and ADHD as well as possible compensatory mechanisms in children with TS are discussed. PMID:20970703

  17. Single Case Study: Neuropsychological Functioning in a Patient Diagnosed with Intermittent Explosive Disorder Pre and Post Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Alonso, María José; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Castaño-León, Ana María; Lagares, Alfonso; Rubio, Gabriel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa

    2016-05-10

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterized by a difficulty to resist the urge to carry out a recognized harmful behavior. The central symptom is aggressiveness, expressed in isolated episodes. Executive function impairments are habitually found in impulse control disorders. Neuropsychology of impulsivity is related to dysfunctions in the orbito-frontal cortex, dorsolateral cortex and anterior-cingulated regions, being consequently involved in cognitive mechanisms of inhibition. Lesions in those areas are common in IED. In the most severe cases of IED, surgical procedures are required for treatment. In this study, we examined JML; a patient suffering from a severe case of IED. He experienced frequent episodes of auto and heteroaggression and multiple psychiatric admissions, and thus stereotactic surgery was the recommended treatment. The procedure consisted of an electrode situated lateral to the lateral ventricle, targeting the projections between frontal and subcortical affected regions. We aimed to study the neuropsychological functioning of JML, before and after electrode implantation. Our results suggested that surgery in IED improves cognitive performance at some levels. JML significantly improved his cognitive flexibility, measured with WCST, and alternate attention assessed with CPT and TMT-B tests, after electrode implantation. Cognitive flexibility deficits may be also related to increased aggressiveness. Therefore, improvements at this level may involve a reduction of impulsivity and aggressive behavior.

  18. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.; Holland, J.C.; Tull, R.; Berman, A.; Brecher, M.L.; Harris, M.; Glicksman, A.S.; Forman, E.

    1984-12-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

  19. Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Susan L; Widholm, John J; Rice, Deborah C

    2003-03-01

    In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil, air, water, sediments, foodstuffs, and human tissues have become available. These data have revealed that the PCB residues in environmental media and human tissues may not closely resemble any of the commercial PCB mixtures, depending on source of exposure, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and weathering of PCBs in the environment. At the same time, toxicological research has led to a growing awareness that different classes of PCB congeners have different profiles of toxicity. These advances in analytic techniques and toxicological knowledge are beginning to influence the risk assessment process. As the data from ongoing PCB studies assessing the mediators of neurobehavioral outcomes in children are published, the weight of evidence for PCB effects on neurodevelopment is growing. Studies in Taiwan, Michigan (USA), New York (USA), Holland, Germany, and the Faroe Islands have all reported negative associations between prenatal PCB exposure and measures of cognitive functioning in infancy or childhood. The German study also reported a negative association between postnatal PCB exposure and cognitive function in early childhood--a result that had not been found in previous studies. Only one published study in North Carolina (USA) has failed to find an association between PCB exposure and cognitive outcomes. Despite the fact that several more recent studies have used congener-specific analytic techniques, there have been only limited attempts to assess the role of specific PCB congeners or classes of congeners in mediating neurodevelopmental outcomes. From a statistical standpoint, attempts to determine the role of individual congeners in mediating outcomes are hampered by the fact that concentrations of most

  20. Intellectual functioning of inpatients with dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Cognitive and neuropsychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rossini, E D; Schwartz, D R; Braun, B G

    1996-05-01

    The intellectual functioning of 105 inpatients with multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised as part of a comprehensive research protocol. There were no significant intellectual differences between the groups on any major intelligence quotient summary score or any of the age-adjusted empirical factor scores. The anecdotal but widely accepted hypotheses that dissociative patients either have above average premorbid intelligence or that their current intellectual functioning is deleteriously affected by their fluctuant psychiatric disorder were not supported in this sample. A significant subsample of the multiple personality disorder group manifested abnormal interest scatter on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised verbal subtests, and this variability was attributed to subtle neuropsychological deficits on the Memory/Distractibility factor. We speculate that dissociative patients might need to be evaluated for attention deficit disorder in addition to the range of dissociative symptoms in a comprehensive evaluation.

  1. Impact of Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Use on Neuropsychological Functioning in Young Adulthood: 10-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen L.; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Padula, Claudia B.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) are common among youth and often continue into adulthood; therefore, the neurocognitive effects of substance use are of great concern. Because neuromaturation continues into young adulthood, youth with AUD/SUD may be at risk for lasting cognitive decrements. This study prospectively examines neuropsychological functioning over 10 years as a function of AUD/SUD history and outcomes. Methods The 51 participants consisted of 18 youth with persisting AUD/SUD, 19 youth with remitted AUD/SUD, and 14 community youth with no AUD/SUD history followed over 10 years (ages 16 to 27 on average) with neuropsychological testing and substance use interviews on 8 occasions. Neuropsychological performance from baseline to 10-year follow-up was compared between the three groups. Results Despite scoring higher than controls at intake, both AUD/SUD groups showed a relative decline in visuospatial construction at 10-year follow-up (p=.001). Regressions showed that alcohol use (β=−.33, p < .01) and drug withdrawal symptoms (β=−.31, p<.05) over follow-up were predictive of year 10 visuospatial function. Alcohol use also predicted verbal learning and memory (β=−.28, p<.05), while stimulant use predicted visual learning and memory function (β=−.33, p=.01). More recent substance use was associated with poorer executive function (β=.28, p<.05). Discussion These findings confirm prior studies suggesting that heavy, chronic alcohol and other substance use persisting from adolescence to young adulthood may produce cognitive disadvantages, primarily in visuospatial and memory abilities. Youth who chronically consume heavy quantities of alcohol and/or experience drug withdrawal symptoms may be particularly at risk for cognitive deterioration by young adulthood. PMID:21532924

  2. [Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and by affective psychosis].

    PubMed

    Laurent, A; Gilvarry, C; Russel, A; Mathieu-Cura, C; Murray, R

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits. One hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (AS) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic (APA) patients completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism. They were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). In the AS group, the male relatives scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives in the APA group. There were no significant differences in personality between female relatives of the 2 patients groups. In the AS group, the NART scores were superior when the psychoticism scores were lower and the TMT performance was better when the extraversion scores were higher. These results seem to indicate some specificity as well as sex differences of the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to schizophrenia whereas extraversion decreases it.

  3. Effects of the 5HT antagonist cyproheptadine on neuropsychological function in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, I B; Soni, S D; Hellewell, J S E; Deakin, J F W

    2002-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the ability of atypical neuroleptics to improve negative symptoms is due to 5HT-receptor antagonism and enhanced frontal lobe function. We investigated the effects of cyproheptadine (a 5HT2 antagonist) on neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe functions in chronic schizophrenic patients. Eighteen stable schizophrenic patients on depot neuroleptic medication participated in a 4-week double blind crossover study. Outcome measures were clinical symptoms rating scales, neuropsychological tests (verbal fluency, Stroop colour word task, trail making) and antisaccade eye movements. During the cyproheptadine phase statistically significant improvement was seen on Stroop colour word task, verbal fluency and Trail B tests. The ability to suppress reflexive eye movement to a target light in an anti saccade task was also significantly enhanced. The patients had low clinical ratings of negative symptoms and they were unaffected by cyproheptadine. The results indicate that 5HT2C receptors selectively modulate speed and motor control mechanisms related to frontal lobe functions but this was not associated with changes in symptoms.

  4. Neuropsychological Profile of Executive Function in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Jessica W.; Dowell, Lauren R.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8–13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD. PMID:20639299

  5. Neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D

    1992-06-01

    The aging population of the United States and many other countries guarantees that disorders common in elderly persons will continue to become more prevalent. In the past decade or so, we already have witnessed the beginning of this trend, with the rapid rise in the number of patients with degenerative dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. On another track, sophisticated and timely medical and surgical interventions have produced a growing number of patients who survive serious head injury. These patients are typically young, and may live for many decades after their brain injury. In both examples, a core feature of the condition is impaired cognition and behavior; that is, defects in higher-level capacities such as memory, intellectual function, language, and decision-making. Neuropsychological assessment cannot be viewed as a luxury in cases such as these but rather, as a vital component of the neurodiagnostic evaluation. The neuropsychologist uses a set of standardized instruments to measure cognition and behavior in a comprehensive and precise manner, yielding rich information that may assist in accurate diagnosis, prudent management, and optimal rehabilitation. The neuropsychological examination may provide the only means with which to detect alterations in brain function, as in cases of mild head injury or low-level toxic exposure, which may not be revealed through other procedures. Finally, neuropsychological assessment will continue to play a key role in the scientific programs that are dedicated to advancing our understanding of the neural substrates of complex behavior.

  6. Neuropsychological performance and affective temperaments in Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ester; Holtzman, Jessica N; Tannenhaus, Lucila; Monchablon, Romina; Rago, Carlo Mario; Lolich, Maria; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-04-30

    Affective temperament has been suggested as a potential mediator of the effect between genetic predisposition and neurocognitive functioning. As such, this report seeks to assess the extent of the correlation between affective temperament and cognitive function in a group of bipolar II subjects. 46 bipolar II outpatients [mean age 41.4 years (SD 18.2); female 58.9%] and 46 healthy controls [mean age 35.1 years (SD 18); female 56.5%] were evaluated with regard to their demographic and clinical characteristics, affective temperament, and neurocognitive performance. Crude bivariate correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were constructed between five affective temperament subscales and eight neurocognitive domains. Significant correlations were identified in bipolar patients between hyperthymic temperament and verbal memory and premorbid IQ; cyclothymic temperament and attention; and irritable temperament, attention, and verbal fluency. In adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between temperament and cognitive function, the strongest mediating factors among the euthymic bipolar patients were found to be residual manic and depressive symptoms. It is therefore concluded that affective temperaments may partially influence the neurocognitive performance of both healthy controls and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type II in several specific domains.

  7. [Neuropsychological treatment of cognitive deficits in substance abuse disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders - current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Buschert, V C; Zwanzger, P; Brunnauer, A

    2015-05-01

    Neuropsychological treatment represents a promising therapeutic approach in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognitive impairment constitutes a core feature that often persists beyond psychopathological symptoms having a significant impact on psychosocial functioning. However, research interest and evidence of efficacy vary considerably between disease groups. Although neuropsychological treatment is frequently used in clinical practice, there are, with the exception of schizophrenia, relatively few studies on its effectiveness.

  8. Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: paroxetine vs. bupropion.

    PubMed

    Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael

    2015-02-28

    Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in patients with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicide Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk.

  9. Neuropsychological function in older subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Atiea, J A; Moses, J L; Sinclair, A J

    1995-08-01

    Neuropsychological function was compared in three well-matched groups of subjects: Group 1, 20 diabetic patients with hypertension, mean age 69.1 +/- 4.8 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 2, 20 normotensive diabetic patients, mean age 69.0 +/- 6.2 years, 14 males and 6 females; Group 3, 20 healthy community controls, mean age 68.1 +/- 4.5 years, 13 males and 7 females. There were no significant differences between the groups in education or estimated IQ using the NART (National Adult Reading Test). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in duration of diabetes (mean 10.6 and 9.5 years, respectively), or mean glycosylated haemoglobin, HbA1 (mean 9.8 and 10.6%, respectively), or mean blood glucose before and after testing. On a battery neuropsychological tests, sensitive to cognitive impairment in older subjects, analysis of covariance using estimated IQ as the covariate showed no significant differences between the groups on tests of recall, with (Brown-Peterson Test) and without (Kendrick Object Learning Test) interference, forward and backward digit span, concentration (serial subtraction), verbal fluency, immediate and delayed prose recall, digit symbol substitution or psychomotor speed (Kendrick Digit Copying Test). These results provide no support for an association between cognitive deficits and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older subjects or for the view that such deficits may also be mediated by hypertension.

  10. Regional specific groundwater arsenic levels and neuropsychological functioning: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melissa; Johnson, Leigh; Mauer, Cortney; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to examine the link between GIS-estimated regional specific groundwater levels and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Methods This cross-sectional study design analyzed data from 1390 participants (733 Alzheimer's disease, 127 Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 530 with normal cognition) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. Geographic information systems analyses were used to estimate regional specific groundwater arsenic concentrations using the Environmental Systems Research Institute and arsenic concentrations from the Texas Water Development Board. Results In the full cohort, regional specific arsenic concentrations were positively associated with language abilities (p=0.008), but associated with poorer verbal memory, immediate (p=0.008) and delayed (p<0.001) as well as poorer visual memory, immediate (p=0.02) and delayed (p<0.001). The findings varied by diagnostic category with arsenic being related with cognition most prominently among MCI cases. Conclusions Overall, estimated regional specific groundwater arsenic levels were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance. PMID:24506178

  11. Experience with V-STORE: considerations on presence in virtual environments for effective neuropsychological rehabilitation of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Lo Priore, Corrado; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Liccione, Diego; Liccione, Davide

    2003-06-01

    The paper discusses the use of immersive virtual reality systems for the cognitive rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndrome, usually caused by prefrontal brain injuries. With respect to classical P&P and flat-screen computer rehabilitative tools, IVR systems might prove capable of evoking a more intense and compelling sense of presence, thanks to the highly naturalistic subject-environment interaction allowed. Within a constructivist framework applied to holistic rehabilitation, we suggest that this difference might enhance the ecological validity of cognitive training, partly overcoming the implicit limits of a lab setting, which seem to affect non-immersive procedures especially when applied to dysexecutive symptoms. We tested presence in a pilot study applied to a new VR-based rehabilitation tool for executive functions, V-Store; it allows patients to explore a virtual environment where they solve six series of tasks, ordered for complexity and designed to stimulate executive functions, programming, categorical abstraction, short-term memory and attention. We compared sense of presence experienced by unskilled normal subjects, randomly assigned to immersive or non-immersive (flat screen) sessions of V-Store, through four different indexes: self-report questionnaire, psychophysiological (GSR, skin conductance), neuropsychological (incidental recall memory test related to auditory information coming from the "real" environment) and count of breaks in presence (BIPs). Preliminary results show in the immersive group a significantly higher GSR response during tasks; neuropsychological data (fewer recalled elements from "reality") and less BIPs only show a congruent but yet non-significant advantage for the immersive condition; no differences were evident from the self-report questionnaire. A larger experimental group is currently under examination to evaluate significance of these data, which also might prove interesting with respect to the question of objective

  12. The executive functions and self-regulation: an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Barkley, R A

    2001-03-01

    Neuropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, "Why executive functioning?" The present paper encourages neuropsychologists to contemplate the longer-term, functional nature of the executive functions (EFs), using an evolutionary perspective. For purely illustrative purposes, a previously developed model of the EFs is briefly presented and is then examined from an evolutionary perspective. That model views the EFs as forms of behavior-to-the-self that evolved from overt (public) to covert (private) responses as a means of self-regulation. That was necessary given the interpersonal competition that arises within this group-living species. The EFs serve to shift the control of behavior from the immediate context, social others, and the temporal now to self-regulation by internal representations regarding the hypothetical social future. The EFs seem to meet the requirements of a biological adaptation, being an improbable complex design for a purpose that exists universally in humans. Discovering the adaptive problems that the EFs evolved to solve offers an invaluable research agenda for neuropsychology lest that agenda be resolved first by other scientific disciplines. Some adaptive problems that the EFs may have evolved to solve are then considered, among them being social exchange (reciprocal altruism or selfish cooperation), imitation and vicarious learning as types of experiential theft, mimetic skill (private behavioral rehearsal) and gestural communication, and social self-defense against such theft and interpersonal manipulation. Although clearly speculative at the moment, these proposals demonstrate the merit of considering the larger adaptive problems that the EFs evolved to solve. Taking the evolutionary stance toward the EFs would achieve not

  13. Does neonatal morphine use affect neuropsychological outcomes at 8 to 9 years of age?

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joke; van Lingen, Richard A; Valkenburg, Abraham J; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Morphine is widely used to treat severe pain in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Animal studies suggest adverse long-term side effects of neonatal morphine, but a follow-up study of 5-year-old children who participated in a morphine-placebo controlled trial as newborns found no such effects on the child's general functioning. This study indicated that morphine may negatively affect response inhibition, a domain of executive functions. Therefore, we performed a second follow-up study in the same population at the age of 8 to 9 years, focused on the child's general functioning in terms of intelligence, visual motor integration, and behavior and on executive functions. Children in the morphine group showed significantly less externalizing problems according to the parents but more internalizing behavior according to the teachers, but only after adjustment for intelligence quotient (IQ), potential confounders using a propensity score, and additional open-label morphine. Morphine-treated children showed significantly fewer problems with executive functions in daily life as rated by parents for the subscales inhibition and organization of materials and for planning/organizing as rated by the teachers. After adjustment for IQ and the propensity score, executive functioning as rated by the parents remained statistically significantly better in the morphine-treated group. The influence of the additional morphine given was not of a significant influence for any of the outcome variables. Overall, the present study demonstrates that continuous morphine infusion of 10 μg/kg/h during the neonatal period does not harm general functioning and may even have a positive influence on executive functions at 8 to 9 years.

  14. Neuropsychological function in retired workers with previous long-term occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W. E.; Claypoole, K. H.; Checkoway, H.; Smith-Weller, T.; Dager, S. R.; Townes, B. D.; Rosenstock, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is plausible that neurodegenerative processes of aging might have a contributing role in the development of chronic effects of exposure to organic solvents. This study evaluated the risk for neuropsychological deficits among retired workers, relative to their histories of exposure to occupational solvents. METHODS: This cross sectional study evaluated retired male workers, 62-74 years of age, including 89 people with previous long-term occupational exposure to solvents (67 retired painters and 22 retired aerospace manufacturing workers), and 126 retired carpenters with relatively minimal previous exposure to solvents. Subjects completed a standardised neuropsychological evaluation and psychiatric interview, structured interviews for histories of occupational exposure and alcohol consumption, and questionnaires assessing neurological and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: By comparison with the carpenters, the painters on average reported greater cumulative alcohol consumption and had lower scores on the WAIS-R vocabulary subtest, usually presumed to reflect premorbid intellectual functioning. These findings, however, were not sufficient to account for the other study findings. Controlling for age, education, vocabulary score, and alcohol use, the painters had lower mean scores on test measures of motor, memory, and reasoning ability; and a subgroup of aerospace workers with moderate to high cumulative exposure to solvents (n = 8) had lower mean scores on measures of visuomotor speed, and motor, attention, memory, and reasoning ability. Subjects were more likely to have an increased number of relatively abnormal test scores (three or more outlier scores on 17 test measures) among both the painter group (odds ratio (OR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5 to 6.2) and the subgroup of aerospace workers with higher cumulative exposure (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 38). The painters, but not the aerospace workers, reported significantly more neurological and

  15. A meta-analysis of neuropsychological functioning in first-episode bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Redoblado-Hodge, M Antoinette; Naismith, Sharon L; Lagopoulos, Jim; Griffiths, Kristi R; Porter, Melanie A; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-10-01

    Broad neuropsychological deficits have been consistently demonstrated in well-established bipolar disorder. The aim of the current study was to systematically review neuropsychological studies in first-episode bipolar disorders to determine the breadth, extent and predictors of cognitive dysfunction at this early stage of illness through meta-analytic procedures. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 1980 and December 2013. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria (N = 341, mean age = 28.2 years), and pooled effect sizes (ES) were calculated across eight cognitive domains. Moderator analyses were conducted to identify predictors of between-study heterogeneity. Controlling for known confounds, medium to large deficits (ES ≥ 0.5) in psychomotor speed, attention and working memory, and cognitive flexibility were identified, whereas smaller deficits (ES 0.20-0.49) were found in the domains of verbal learning and memory, attentional switching, and verbal fluency. A medium to large deficit in response inhibition was only detected in non-euthymic cases. Visual learning and memory functioning was not significantly worse in cases compared with controls. Overall, first-episode bipolar disorders are associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction. Since euthymia was not associated with superior cognitive performance in most domains, these results indicate that even in the earliest stages of disease, cognitive deficits are not mood-state dependent. The current findings have important implications for whether cognitive impairments represent neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes. Future studies need to more clearly characterise the presence of psychotic features, and the nature and number of previous mood episodes.

  16. Neuropsychologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Palta, P; Snitz, B; Carlson, M C

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the use of neuropsychologic assessment in epidemiologic studies. First, we provide a brief introduction to the history of clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychologic assessment. We expand on the principal components of a neuropsychologic assessment and cognitive domains most commonly examined. This chapter also seeks to highlight specific domains and tests with validated psychometric properties that are widely accepted in clinical practice, as well as how data from a neuropsychologic test should be interpreted. Additionally, the important roles that neuropsychologic assessments play in tracking normative changes, patient diagnoses, care, and research will be discussed. Factors to consider when deciding on the inclusion of test instruments for a research study will also be reviewed. Lastly, we shed light on the contributions that neuropsychology has played in epidemiologic studies, as well as some challenges frequently faced when participating in this field of research. PMID:27637955

  17. Is Insomnia Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Functioning? Evidence from a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice M.; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: People with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seeking and community-based insomnia study samples, measures subjective as well as objective cognitive functioning, and considers participants' pre-insomnia cognitive function. Design and Participants: We used data from the Dunedin Study, a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals, to examine whether insomnia in early midlife was associated with subjective and objective cognitive functioning. We also tested whether individuals with insomnia who reported seeking treatment for their sleep problems (treatment-seekers) showed greater impairment than other individuals with insomnia (non-treatment-seekers). The role of key confounders, including childhood cognitive ability and comorbid health conditions, was evaluated. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Objective neuropsychological assessments at age 38 included the WAIS-IV IQ test, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Trail-Making Test. Childhood cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). Results: A total of 949 cohort members were assessed for insomnia symptoms and other study measures at age 38. Although cohort members with insomnia (n = 186, 19.6%) had greater subjective cognitive impairment than their peers at age 38, they did not exhibit greater objective impairment on formal testing. Treatment-seekers, however, exhibited significant objective impairment compared to non-treatment-seekers. Controlling for comorbidity, daytime impairment, and medications slightly decreased this association. Childhood cognitive deficits antedated the adult cognitive deficits of treatment-seekers. Conclusions: Links between insomnia and cognitive impairment may be strongest among

  18. [Neuropsychology in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Helmstaedter, C; Witt, J-A

    2009-11-01

    In order to understand cognitive impairment associated with epilepsy, it is essential to appreciate that independent static and dynamic factors affect brain function in this disease. Whereas morphological lesions or structural changes are associated with more or less irreversible deficits, epileptic activity, seizures, and the treatment of epilepsy can cause dynamic and principally reversible impairment. The relative contribution of these factors differs depending on the type of epilepsy, the age at lesion/epilepsy onset, the localization and lateralization of epilepsy and individual demographic patient characteristics. Altered brain structure and function can result in epilepsy, but epilepsy can also alter the functional cerebral organization of the brain. Thus epilepsy-related cognitive impairment must be integrated within a developmental neuropsychological framework. The aetiology of epilepsy is strongly related to the age of onset. From a neuropsychological point of view, it makes a big difference for cognitive outcome as to whether epilepsy hits the maturing versus mature or aging brain. Dependent on this, epilepsy can result in retardation, loss of acquired functions, or accelerated mental decline. It will be demonstrated that cognitive impairments in epilepsy mostly exist from the beginning of epilepsy, that early onset lesions/epilepsy interfere with mental development, and that a progressive aetiology, severe seizures, and lesions secondary to epilepsy may accelerate mental decline. It will furthermore be discussed that uncontrolled epilepsy and epileptic activity may reversibly and irreversibly contribute to cognitive impairment. The same is demonstrated with regard to the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy. Finally, the cognitive risks and benefits of epilepsy surgery and the advantages of selective surgery will be addressed. The consequences for the neuropsychological assessment are discussed in part two of this review.

  19. Change in Neuropsychological Functioning over One Year in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; McFarlane, William R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Verdi, Mary B.; Cook, William L.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders are associated with significant neuropsychological (NP) impairments. Yet the onset and developmental evolution of these impairments remains incompletely characterized. This study examined NP functioning over one year in a sample of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis participating in a treatment study. We assessed functioning across six cognitive domains at two time points in a sample of 53 CHR and 32 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Linear regression of HC one-year scores was used to predict one-year performance for CHR from baseline scores and relevant demographic variables. We used raw scores and MANOVAs of the standardized residuals to test for progressive impairment over time. NP functioning of CHR at one year fell significantly below predicted levels. Effects were largest and most consistent for a failure of normative improvement on tests of executive function. CHR who reached the highest positive symptom rating (6, severe and psychotic) on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes after the baseline assessment (n = 10/53) demonstrated a particularly large (d= −1.89), although non-significant, discrepancy between observed and predicted one-year verbal memory test performance. Findings suggest that, although much of the cognitive impairment associated with psychosis is present prior to the full expression of the psychotic syndrome, some progressive NP impairments may accompany risk for psychosis and be greatest for those who develop psychotic level symptoms. PMID:23434505

  20. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  1. Neuropsychological Functioning of Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Followed Prospectively into Adolescence: Evidence for Continuing Deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Carte, Estol T.; Fan, Catherine; Jassy, Jonathan S.; Owens, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with a matched comparison sample, five years after childhood neuropsychological assessments. Follow-up neuropsychological measures emphasized attentional skills, executive functions, and language abilities. Paralleling childhood findings, the childhood-diagnosed ADHD group displayed moderate to large deficits in executive/attentional performance as well as rapid naming, relative to the comparison group, at follow-up (M age = 14.2 years). ADHD-Inattentive vs. ADHD-Combined contrasts were nonsignificant and of negligible effect size, even when a refined, “sluggish cognitive tempo” subgroup of the Inattentive type was examined. Although ADHD vs. comparison differences largely withstood statistical control of baseline demographics and comorbidities, control of childhood IQ reduced EF differences to nonsignificance. Yet when the subset of girls meeting diagnostic criteria for ADHD in adolescence were compared to the remainder of the participants, neuropsychological deficits emerged even with full statistical control. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological and executive deficits that persist for at least 5 years. PMID:17402826

  2. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  3. Neuropsychological function-brain structure relationships and stage of illness: an investigation into chronic and first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Kumari, Veena; Corr, Philip J J; Fannon, Dominic; Sharma, Tonmoy

    2008-04-15

    Neuropsychological function-brain structure relationships may differ as a function of illness stage because of progressive brain matter loss through the course of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested whether neuropsychological function-brain structure relationships differed as a function of illness stage. In addition, we tested whether these relationships differed between older and young healthy controls. Function-structure relationships were examined in 35 first-episode patients (31 with schizophrenia, 4 with schizoaffective disorder), 54 chronic schizophrenia patients, 21 older healthy controls and 20 young healthy controls. MRI volumes of frontal and temporal lobe structures, as well as the whole brain, were estimated using a region-of-interest approach. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed between the MRI and neuropsychological measures. Stronger relationships of immediate memory-total prefrontal cortex (PFC) volume in chronic than first-episode patients, and in older than young controls were observed. The abstract reasoning (WCST perseverative errors)-total temporal lobe volume relationship was stronger in older than young controls. These function-structure relationships appeared unexplained by whole brain volume or age in chronic patients. A similar dissociation between young and older subjects of both healthy and patient groups suggests that a 'bigger-is-better' relationship style is present in older individuals regardless of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:18226505

  4. Initiating moderate to heavy alcohol use predicts changes in neuropsychological functioning for adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Spadoni, Andrea D; Infante, M Alejandra; Myers, Mark G; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-12-01

    This study prospectively examines the influence of alcohol on neuropsychological functioning in boys and girls characterized prior to initiating drinking (N = 76, ages 12-14). Adolescents who transitioned into heavy (n = 25; 11 girls, 14 boys) or moderate (n = 11; 2 girls, 9 boys) drinking were compared with matched controls who remained nonusers throughout the approximately 3-year follow-up period (N = 40; 16 girls, 24 boys). For girls, more past year drinking days predicted a greater reduction in visuospatial task performance from baseline to follow-up, above and beyond performance on equivalent measures at baseline (R2Delta = 10%, p < .05), particularly on tests of visuospatial memory (R2Delta = 8%, p < .05). For boys, a tendency was seen for more past year hangover symptoms to predict worsened sustained attention (R2Delta = 7%, p < .05). These preliminary longitudinal findings suggest that initiating moderately heavy alcohol use and incurring hangover during adolescence may adversely influence neurocognitive functioning. Neurocognitive deficits linked to heavy drinking during this critical developmental period may lead to direct and indirect changes in neuromaturational course, with effects that would extend into adulthood.

  5. Evidence of an Age Related Threshold Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Neuropsychological Functioning in a Native American Population

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Richard F.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.; Morse, Gayle S.; Tarbell, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been suspected for some time of having adverse effects on neuropsychological functioning in humans. While there is evidence of slowing of cognitive function in children associated with exposure to PCBs, the evidence of comparable effects on adults is far less well understood. We report here on the neuropsychological evaluation of 277 Native American adults, ranging in age from 18 -79, who were exposed to PCBs by way of environmental contamination in the St. Lawrence region of upstate New York. PCB body burden was estimated by 101 PCB congeners and neuropsychological functioning was assessed by a battery of 18 tests. Spline regression models were fitted to the latent variables of memory, motor function, and higher-order executive functioning. After adjusting for age, gender, and education the analyses revealed a threshold effect of PCBs at approximately 2 ppb. An age-by-PCB interaction effect was also observed for several variables which suggests that the threshold effect was largely confined to the age range of 40-79 and was not observable in the 18-40 year old group. Implications of these results are discussed in comparison to previously published similar work with adults and in terms of its potential clinical meaningfulness. PMID:19041090

  6. [Neuropsychology of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Katrin; Gauggel, Siegfried

    2006-03-01

    In this article the contribution of neuropsychological research for a better understanding of the psychopathology of mood disorders is reviewed. First, the broad spectrum of bipolar disorders is described. Second, a selective review of important results of neuropsychological studies with patients with mood disorders is presented. Although several methodological problems limit the interpretation of the findings, there is evidence that patients with a bipolar disorder show a consistent impairment in attention, memory/learning and executive functions. The cognitive deficits are still visible during clinical recovery (euthymia) and closely associated with psychosocial limitation in daily life. Finally, the impact of neuropsychological findings is considered in relation to assessment, treatment and prognosis.

  7. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  8. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  9. Detection and assessment of stroke in patients with sickle cell disease: neuropsychological functioning and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Johnson, Caroline B; Treadwell, Marsha J; Hans, Nitu; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2008-06-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased risk of stroke and cognitive impairment. This study describes a retrospective review of 65 patients who underwent routine neuropsychological testing and MRI during treatment at a comprehensive sickle cell center. It was hypothesized that (1) children with no evidence of CVA would perform lower than expected on cognitive tasks compared to population-based normative data, (2) children with strokes and children with silent infarcts would perform lower on cognitive tasks and motor skills as compared to patients with no evidence of CVA, and (3) children with evidence of silent infarcts would perform better than children with known overt strokes. This final hypothesis has not been studied previously, as children with known overt stroke and silent infarct were grouped together. Sixty-five children with SCD who were sent for routine neuropsychological testing and brain MRI were identified via retrospective chart review. Patients had been administered neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive, executive and motor function. Brain MRI was obtained from each patient and was analyzed for evidence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Based on MRI analysis, 27% of patients with SCD had experienced a stroke and 13% a silent infarct. The majority (59%) of patients diagnosed with stroke or infarct sustained cortical damage to the frontal lobe. Patients with SCD and no evidence of CVA functioned normally on tests of cognitive ability and achievement, but patients with CVA displayed impairments in cognitive function and comparatively lower scores on verbal and performance scales. Neuropsychological testing can identify impairments in patients with SCD with no known cerebrovascular accident. Investigations of neurocognitive functioning will help characterize patterns of deficits and can inform the ability to implement comprehensive care strategies for patients with SCD and cognitive impairment.

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrene C.

    1986-01-01

    Comprehensive batteries for neuropsychological assessment of children with learning problems,such as the Reitan-Indiana and Luria-Nebraska Children's Batteries, have demonstrated diagnostic validity. Guidelines are proposed for the neuropsychological interpretation of assessment instruments commonly used by school psychologists and educational…

  11. Sperm function in affective illness.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, J; Winokur, A; Levin, R

    1981-04-01

    There is evidence for functional changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of patients with affective disorders. Little is known concerning spermatogenesis or sperm function in depressed men. We systematically evaluated the sperm indices in a group of depressed males complaining of diminished libido, and a healthy control group. No differences were noted in sperm parameters between the groups.

  12. Qualitative neuropsychological performance characteristics in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J; Stopford, C; Snowden, J; Neary, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease are clinically distinct disorders, yet neuropsychological studies have had variable success in distinguishing them. A possible reason is that studies typically rely on overall accuracy scores, which may obscure differences in reasons for failure. Objectives: To explore the hypothesis that analysis of qualitative performance characteristics and error types, in addition to overall numerical scores, would enhance the neuropsychological distinction between FTD and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: 38 patients with FTD and 73 with Alzheimer's disease underwent assessment of language, visuospatial abilities, memory, and executive function, using a neuropsychological screening instrument and standard neuropsychological tests. In each of these cognitive domains, performance characteristics and error types were documented, in addition to numerical scores on tests. Results: Whereas comparison of neuropsychological test scores revealed some group differences, these did not occur consistently across tests within cognitive domains. However, analysis of performance characteristics and error types revealed qualitative differences between the two groups. In particular, FTD patients displayed features associated with frontal lobe dysfunction, such as concrete thought, perseveration, confabulation, and poor organisation, which disrupted performance across the range of neuropsychological tests. Conclusions: Numerical scores on neuropsychological tests alone are of limited value in differentiating FTD and Alzheimer's disease, but performance characteristics and error types enhance the distinction between the two disorders. FTD is associated with a profound behavioural syndrome that affects performance on cognitive assessment, obscuring group differences. Qualitative information should be included in neuropsychological research and clinical assessments. PMID:15965196

  13. Monitoring cognitive function and need with the automated neuropsychological assessment metrics in Decompression Sickness (DCS) research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesthus, Thomas E.; Schiflett, Sammuel G.

    1993-01-01

    Hypobaric decompression sickness (DCS) research presents the medical monitor with the difficult task of assessing the onset and progression of DCS largely on the basis of subjective symptoms. Even with the introduction of precordial Doppler ultrasound techniques for the detection of venous gas emboli (VGE), correct prediction of DCS can be made only about 65 percent of the time according to data from the Armstrong Laboratory's (AL's) hypobaric DCS database. An AL research protocol concerned with exercise and its effects on denitrogenation efficiency includes implementation of a performance assessment test battery to evaluate cognitive functioning during a 4-h simulated 30,000 ft (9144 m) exposure. Information gained from such a test battery may assist the medical monitor in identifying early signs of DCS and subtle neurologic dysfunction related to cases of asymptomatic, but advanced, DCS. This presentation concerns the selection and integration of a test battery and the timely graphic display of subject test results for the principal investigator and medical monitor. A subset of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) developed through the Office of Military Performance Assessment Technology (OMPAT) was selected. The ANAM software provides a library of simple tests designed for precise measurement of processing efficiency in a variety of cognitive domains. For our application and time constraints, two tests requiring high levels of cognitive processing and memory were chosen along with one test requiring fine psychomotor performance. Accuracy, speed, and processing throughout variables as well as RMS error were collected. An automated mood survey provided 'state' information on six scales including anger, happiness, fear, depression, activity, and fatigue. An integrated and interactive LOTUS 1-2-3 macro was developed to import and display past and present task performance and mood-change information.

  14. The Relationship of Neuropsychological Skills and Functional Outcome in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    Typically, neuropsychological assessment has been used to predict various diagnostic parameters. In the elderly, referrals are often made to psychologists for the purpose of facilitating diagnosis of psychiatric or organic conditions, such as depression or Alzheimer's disease. However, psychologists are routinely requested to make recommendations…

  15. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  16. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS) in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition) of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI. PMID:22676227

  17. Neuropsychological, Academic, and Adaptive Functioning in Children Who Survive In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robin D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 25 children, ages 2-15, who survived a cardiac arrest while hospitalized, found that a majority of subjects exhibited low-average to deficient levels of performance on neuropsychologic, achievement, and adaptive behavior measures. Duration of cardiac arrest and a medical risk score were significantly correlated with decreased…

  18. Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

  19. Neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents with restrictive-type anorexia nervosa: an in-depth investigation with NEPSY-II.

    PubMed

    Calderoni, Sara; Muratori, Filippo; Leggero, Chiara; Narzisi, Antonio; Apicella, Fabio; Balottin, Umberto; Carigi, Tiziana; Maestro, Sandra; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the neuropsychological functioning of patients with anorexia nervosa restrictive type (AN-r), but results are conflicting. Here we compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 female children and adolescents with AN-r and of 46 typical controls (aged 9-16 years) using the second edition of the NEPSY (a Developmental Neuropsychology Assessment) neuropsychological battery. AN-r patients presented subtle cognitive flexibility impairments in audiomotor responses (p = .033). Conversely, superior performance in verbal fluency (p = .024) and memory (p = .034) was observed only in AN-r patients with an associated unipolar mood disorder. This profile of marginally impaired and enhanced performance was independent from illness duration and starvation degree, suggesting that it may preexist and represent a vulnerability factor for the disease onset.

  20. Self-reported quality of life and clinician-rated functioning in mood and anxiety disorders: relationships and neuropsychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Caldirola, Daniela; Grassi, Massimiliano; Riva, Alice; Daccò, Silvia; De Berardis, Domenico; Dal Santo, Barbara; Perna, Giampaolo

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate 1) the relationship between subjective perception of quality of life (QoL) and clinician-rated levels of psychosocial functioning and 2) the relationship of these indicators with neuropsychological performances, in a sample of 117 subjects with mood and anxiety disorders hospitalized for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation program. At the beginning of the hospitalization, QoL and clinician-rated functioning were respectively measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and subjects were administered a neuropsychological battery evaluating verbal and visual memory, working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency and comprehension. We did not find any association between WHOQOL-BREF and GAF scores and between cognitive impairment and lower QoL or clinician-rated functioning. Our results suggest that 1) the individuals' condition encompasses different dimensions that are not fully captured by using only clinician-rated or self-administered evaluations; 2) the GAF scale seems unable to indicate the cognitive impairments of our subjects and the WHOQOL-BREF does not appear to be influenced by these deficits. Overall, our findings suggest the need of simultaneously use of multiple assessment tools, including objective evaluations of functioning and different measures of QoL, in order to obtain a more complete clinical picture of the patients. This may allow to identify more specific targets of therapeutic interventions and more reliable measures of outcome.

  1. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  2. Decreased homovanilic acid in cerebrospinal fluid correlates with impaired neuropsychologic function in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    di Rocco, A; Bottiglieri, T; Dorfman, D; Werner, P; Morrison, C; Simpson, D

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to HVA levels in CSF in a group of 13 healthy control subjects. HIV-infected patients were also assessed with a battery of neuropsychologic tests and HVA levels were then correlated with performance on specific neuropsychologic tests. The mean (+/-SD) HVA level in CSF was 100.9 +/- 29.3 nmol/L in the HIV-infected study group and 230.5 +/- 50.0 nmol/L in the non-HIV-infected control group (p < 0.0001). The decrease in concentrations of HVA in CSF correlated with impairment on performance on neuropsychologic testing (Spearman r = 0.67; p = 0.03). When the relationship between HVA levels and specific cognitive domains was evaluated, we observed trends for positive correlation between HVA levels and tests that measure motor speed (r = 0.59; p = 0.074) and those testing attention, concentration, and executive control (r = 0.54; p = 0.108). There was no relationship between performance on memory tests and CSF HVA levels (r = -0.0061; p = 0.987). These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and suggest that specific motor and cognitive abnormalities may be related to depressed dopaminergic activity. This may have important implications for the development of treatments or preventive strategies for ADC. PMID:11020122

  3. Neuropsychological Function in a Case of Dandy-Walker Variant in a 68-Year-Old Veteran.

    PubMed

    Gross, Patricia L; Kays, Jill L; Shura, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital brain malformation that is characterized by partial or complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle that shifts ventrolaterally to displace the cerebellar hemispheres. This case is a 68-year-old male veteran with complaints of new-onset cognitive disorder who was found to have previously unsuspected DWS on head computed tomography. This is one of the first case studies to present complete neuropsychological test results in a veteran with DWS. Despite the level of abnormality on imaging, the veteran functioned well until onset of mild cognitive impairments in late adulthood.

  4. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills. PMID:26601407

  5. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  6. The neuropsychology of mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2006-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is central to our understanding of mood disorders in terms of patient experiences, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and psychological models. In this article, we highlight key findings from studies that have used neuropsychological tests and functional neuroimaging techniques to explore cognitive dysfunction in patients with depression and mania. In particular, we focus on affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, and decision making. Results are discussed in the context of current conceptualizations of dysfunctional neural circuitry, and in relation to important clinical research implications.

  7. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  8. Neuropsychological measures of attention and memory function in schizophrenia: relationships with symptom dimensions and serum monoamine activity

    PubMed Central

    Oades, Robert D; Röpcke, Bernd; Henning, Uwe; Klimke, Ansgard

    2005-01-01

    Background Some clinical symptoms or cognitive functions have been related to the overall state of monoamine activity in patients with schizophrenia, (e.g. inverse correlation of the dopamine metabolite HVA with delusions or visual-masking performance). However, profiles (as presented here) of the relations of the activity of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin to neuropsychologic (dys)functions in major patient sub-groups with their very different symptomatic and cognitive characteristics have not been reported. Methods Serum measures of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin turnover were examined by regression analyses for the prediction of performance on 10 neuropsychological measures reflecting left- and right-hemispheric and frontal-, parietal- and temporal-lobe function in 108 patients with schizophrenia and 63 matched controls. The neuropsychological battery included tests of verbal fluency, Stroop interference, trail-making, block-design, Mooney faces recognition, picture-completion, immediate and delayed visual and verbal recall. Paranoid and nonparanoid subgroups were based on ratings from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Groups with high and low ratings of ideas-of-reference and thought-disorder were formed from a median split on the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Results Verbal-fluency and Stroop-interference (left frontal and fronto-cingulate function) were negatively associated with noradrenergic turnover in nonparanoid and thought-disordered patients. High dopamine turnover related to speeded trail-making (frontal modulation of set switching) in those with many ideas-of-reference. In contrast, low dopamine turnover predicted poor recall in nonparanoid patients and those with little thought disorder. Serotonin metabolism did not independently contribute to the prediction any measure of cognitive performance. But, with regard to the relative activity between monoaminergic systems, increased HVA/5-HIAA ratios

  9. Normal birth weight variation and children's neuropsychological functioning: links between language, executive functioning, and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Browne, D T; Madigan, S; Plamondon, A; Jenkins, J M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of low birth weight on children's development has been documented for a range of neurocognitive outcomes. However, few previous studies have examined the effect of birth weight variability within the normal range on children's neuropsychological development. The current study examined birth weight variation amongst children weighing ≥2500 g in relation to their language, executive functioning (EF), and theory of mind (ToM), and specified a developmental pathway in which birth weight was hypothesized to be associated with children's EF and ToM through their intermediary language skills. The current study used a prospective community birth cohort of 468 children. Families were recruited when children were newborns and followed up every 18 months until children were age 4.5. Language was assessed at age 3 using a standardized measure of receptive vocabulary (PPVT), and EF and ToM were measured at age 4.5 using previously validated and developmentally appropriate tasks. After controlling for potential confounding variables (family income, parent education, gestational age), birth weight within the normal range was associated with language ability at age 3 (β=.17; p=.012); and the effect of birth weight on both EF (z=2.09; p=.03) and ToM (z=2.07; p=.03) at age 4.5 operated indirectly through their language ability at age 3. Our findings indicate that the effects of birth weight on child neurocognition extend into the normal range of birth weight, and specific developmental mechanisms may link these skills over time.

  10. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN.

  11. Neuropsychological functioning in HIV-positive African-American women with a history of drug use.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, K. I.; Campbell, A.; Hawkins, P.; Madhere, S.; Johnson, K.; Takushi-Chinen, R.

    1998-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined neuropsychological performance in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative African-American women with a history of drug use. The study population was comprised of 10 HIV-negative, 9 asymptomatic HIV-positive, 13 symptomatic HIV-positive, and 10 acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) patients. A neuropsychological battery designed to assess attention, psychomotor processing, verbal memory, and visual memory was administered to participants. No evidence of HIV-related cognitive impairment was found in patients in the early stages of HIV infection. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant deficits in psychomotor processing and verbal recall in persons with AIDS. These individuals showed greater difficulty in tasks requiring maintained attention and performed poorly on measures of immediate and delayed verbal recall. In contrast, HIV status was not related to visual memory, verbal recognition, or the number of errors made during a verbal recall task. The pattern of cognitive deficits observed in persons with AIDS resembles that commonly associated with subcortical pathology. The cognitive deficits observed were not related to depression or recentness of drug use. PMID:9828581

  12. Neuropsychological Assessment of a New Computerized Cognitive Task that Was Developed to Train Several Cognitive Functions Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Nozomu; Matsuyama, Kiyoji; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we observed mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task requires not only working memory, but also attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously. PMID:27148110

  13. Neuropsychological Assessment of a New Computerized Cognitive Task that Was Developed to Train Several Cognitive Functions Simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ikeda, Nozomu; Matsuyama, Kiyoji; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we observed mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task requires not only working memory, but also attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously. PMID:27148110

  14. Neuropsychological functioning in preschool-age children with sickle cell disease: the role of illness-related and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, Reem A; Grant, Mitzie L; Ely, Elizabeth; Barakat, Lamia P

    2007-03-01

    Cognitive and academic deficits have been identified in school-aged children with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, there have been very few identified studies that examine neuropsychological functioning in preschool-age children with SCD. It is important to understand effects of SCD from a developmental perspective and to consider the contribution of environmental factors in this at-risk population. Neuropsychological functioning of preschool-age children with SCD and no history of overt stroke (n = 26) was examined across several domains (language, immediate memory/brief attention, visuospatial/visuoconstructional, motor/visuomotor). The mean Full Scale IQ for the sample was 89.0. Performance on the Immediate Memory/ Brief Attention domain was significantly higher than the other domains, although the pattern of performance was relatively consistent, with mean standard scores ranging from 88.0 to 95.0. Disease severity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning in this group of young children with SCD. Socioeconomic status (SES) was significantly correlated with most domain scores and, based on regression analyses, accounted for 18% to 47% of the variance in functioning. Psychosocial factors, such as number of children living in the home and parental stress levels, were negatively associated with Motor/Visuomotor skills, and weekly hours in school/day care was positively associated with language-related skills. Results suggest that, at this young age, psychosocial risk factors appear to be appropriate targets for intervention, with the goal of improving long-term outcome in children with SCD. Further investigations should include comparison to a matched control group.

  15. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and ‘weak’ central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  16. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure.

  17. [The dream as mind's "organizer": neuropsychological contribution into the function and significance of the oneiric activity].

    PubMed

    Riboldi, A

    1994-06-01

    The author examines the oneiric activity in a neuropsychologic prospect, as he considers this approach as valid and capable of giving good results for the understanding of psychic phenomena. After explaining synthetically the principles of the psychophysiologic school of Chicago, of the neuro-physiologic school of professor M. Jouvet in Lyon, and the theoretic hypotheses derived from clinical knowledge like that of the neurologist O. Sacks, the author develops Jouvet's principle of the dream as "endogenous phylogenetic learning". The author is of the opinion that the dream, from a psycho-biological standpoint, has such features that it can be considered as a process that is very similar to the creative one, as intended by S. Arieti, and that has its roots in the "homo naturalis". The oneiric activity seems to be able to implement a creative synthesis between nature and culture, between soma and psyche, between rational world and archetypalinstinctive world, in compliance with the fundamental creative process on which the evolution is based, as explained by K. Lorenz and Teilhard de Chardin with the expressions "unity from diversity" and "créer c'est unir". Therefore, it can be an instrument capable of helping the contemporary man, whose identity is threatened by the excessive discrepancy between the rational conscious process, that is conditioned by the extremely quick cultural transformation (mainly due to technology) and the unconscious archetypal-instinctive process, which is connected with the slow phylogenetic evolution.

  18. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Marie N; Barnes, Sunni A; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A and B and Total Trials 1-5 of the California Verbal Learning Test-II measured neuropsychological outcomes in 128 TBI survivors with moderate or severe TBI. Results showed that the presence of a heart condition or diabetes/high blood sugar was associated with lower functional outcomes by discharge. A history of a heart condition, stroke, or respiratory condition prior to TBI was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility. Those with preexisting diabetes/high blood sugar demonstrated poorer visual attention, visuomotor processing speed, and ability to learn and recall verbal information. Those with pre-TBI cancer also had greater auditory-verbal memory deficits. The findings showed that specific preexisting medical conditions are independently associated with lower functional and cognitive outcomes for patients with TBI. By screening patients for preexisting medical conditions, multidisciplinary TBI rehabilitation teams can identify patients who require more aggressive treatments or greater length of stay. PMID:27365869

  19. The impact of preexisting illness and substance use on functional and neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sunni A.; Buros, Amy; Allmon, Andrew; Dubiel, Rosemary; Dunklin, Cynthia; Callender, Librada; Shafi, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the US. Specific preexisting medical illnesses delay recovery after TBI and increase mortality or risk of repeat TBI. This study examined the impact of preexisting illness and substance use on patient rehabilitation outcomes following TBI. The Functional Independence Measure total score and Disability Rating Scale score measured functional outcomes at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, while the Trail Making Test A and B and Total Trials 1–5 of the California Verbal Learning Test–II measured neuropsychological outcomes in 128 TBI survivors with moderate or severe TBI. Results showed that the presence of a heart condition or diabetes/high blood sugar was associated with lower functional outcomes by discharge. A history of a heart condition, stroke, or respiratory condition prior to TBI was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility. Those with preexisting diabetes/high blood sugar demonstrated poorer visual attention, visuomotor processing speed, and ability to learn and recall verbal information. Those with pre-TBI cancer also had greater auditory-verbal memory deficits. The findings showed that specific preexisting medical conditions are independently associated with lower functional and cognitive outcomes for patients with TBI. By screening patients for preexisting medical conditions, multidisciplinary TBI rehabilitation teams can identify patients who require more aggressive treatments or greater length of stay. PMID:27365869

  20. [Neuropsychological testing in medicolegal cases].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Because the assessment of cognitive function is among the most important diagnostic evaluations in medicolegal cases, neuropsychological testing, the optimal scientific method available to determine the manifestation of brain dysfunction, is a potentially very strong tool in those cases. However, the use of neuropsychological testing in a medicolegal setting should be done with caution. Firstly, the nature of any neuropsychological testing is complex, and cannot be simplified as "Test A measures Function A' ". Oversimplified explanation of a test is misleading, resulting in serious misjudgment in the legal procedure. Secondly, the result of the test shows someone's cognitive function at the time of the test, not the time of the act in question (i. e., a crime). Finally and most importantly, the cognitive function measured by neuropsychological testing does not directly correspond to the legal questions being asked, even when the terms used in the fields of law and neuroscience are similar. In determining whether an individual meets a specified legal standard (e. g., criminal responsibility), the results of neuropsychological testing are far from sufficient and substantial additional information is required. With these caveats in mind, an expert witness should carefully choose the neuropsychological testing battery in each case, which may greatly help to understand the individual's mental state at the time of the act in question. PMID:24341071

  1. Social facilitation effect of examiner attention or inattention to computer-administered neuropsychological tests: first sign that the examiner may affect results.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christinex J; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that third-party observation impairs performance on some types of neuropsychological tests. The current study was designed to determine if the examiner's attention or inattention during computerized tests would have similar effects on performance as third-party presence or absence. This study examined the effects of the test administrator's attention or inattention on the performance of 74 undergraduates on computerized versions of the Word Memory Test, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The results from independent samples t-tests showed that there were significantly more total errors on the TOMM in the unobserved group than the observed group. This is the first indication that computerized symptom validity tests may be affected by examiner's attention to the examinee's performance.

  2. Social facilitation effect of examiner attention or inattention to computer-administered neuropsychological tests: first sign that the examiner may affect results.

    PubMed

    Yantz, Christinex J; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that third-party observation impairs performance on some types of neuropsychological tests. The current study was designed to determine if the examiner's attention or inattention during computerized tests would have similar effects on performance as third-party presence or absence. This study examined the effects of the test administrator's attention or inattention on the performance of 74 undergraduates on computerized versions of the Word Memory Test, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The results from independent samples t-tests showed that there were significantly more total errors on the TOMM in the unobserved group than the observed group. This is the first indication that computerized symptom validity tests may be affected by examiner's attention to the examinee's performance. PMID:17613984

  3. Impact of gender and age on executive functioning: do girls and boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder differ neuropsychologically in preteen and teenage years?

    PubMed

    Seidman, Larry J; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Valera, Eve; Doyle, Alysa E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is known to have neuropsychological correlates, characterized mainly by executive function (EF) deficits. However, most available data are based on studies of boys through age 12. Our goal was to assess whether girls with ADHD express neuropsychological features similar to those found in boys, and whether these impairments are found in both preteen and teen samples. Participants were 101 girls and 103 boys with DSM-III-R ADHD, and 109 comparison girls and 70 boys without ADHD, ages 9 to 17 years. Information on neuropsychological performance was obtained in a standardized manner blind to clinical status. Primary regression analyses controlled for age, socioeconomic status, learning disability, and psychiatric comorbidity. Girls and boys with ADHD were significantly more impaired on some measures of EFs than healthy comparisons but did not differ significantly from each other. With the exception of 1 test score there were no significant Sex x Diagnosis interactions. Moreover, there were no more significant interactions among age, gender, and diagnosis than would be expected by chance. Neuropsychological measures of EFs were comparably impaired in girls compared to boys with ADHD, and these impairments are found at ages 9 to 12 and ages 13 to 17. These findings suggest that executive dysfunctions are correlates of ADHD regardless of gender and age, at least through the late teen years. PMID:15737943

  4. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  5. Functional foveal splitting: evidence from neuropsychological and multimodal MRI investigations in a Chinese patient with a splenium lesion.

    PubMed

    Luo, Benyan; Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    It remains controversial and hotly debated whether foveal information is double-projected to both hemispheres or split at the midline between the two hemispheres. We investigated this issue in a unique patient with lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum and the left medial occipitotemporal region, through a series of neuropsychological tests and multimodal MRI scans. Behavioral experiments showed that (1) the patient had difficulties in reading simple and compound Chinese characters when they were presented in the foveal but left to the fixation, (2) he failed to recognize the left component of compound characters when the compound characters were presented in the central foveal field, (3) his judgments of the gender of centrally presented chimeric faces were exclusively based on the left half-face and he was unaware that the faces were chimeric. Functional MRI data showed that Chinese characters, only when presented in the right foveal field but not in the left foveal field, activated a region in the left occipitotemporal sulcus in the mid-fusiform, which is recognized as visual word form area. Together with existing evidence in the literature, results of the current study suggest that the representation of foveal stimuli is functionally split at object processing levels.

  6. Dose–effect relationships between manganese exposure and neurological, neuropsychological and pulmonary function in confined space bridge welders

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Diamond, Emily; Park, Robert; Koller, William; Bowler, Russell P; Mergler, Donna; Bouchard, Maryse; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Doty, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Background Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore‐processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. Methods Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge without adequate protection was studied using a multidisciplinary method to identify the dose–effect relationship between adverse health effects and Mn in air or whole blood. Bridge welders (n = 43) with little or no personal protection equipment and exposed to a welding fume containing Mn, were administered neurological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological and pulmonary tests. Outcome variables were analysed in relation to whole blood Mn (MnB) and a Cumulative Exposure Index (CEI) based on Mn‐air, duration and type of welding. Welders performed a mean of 16.5 months of welding on the bridge, were on average 43.8 years of age and had on average 12.6 years of education. Results The mean time weighted average of Mn‐air ranged from 0.11–0.46 mg/m3 (55% >0.20 mg/m3). MnB >10 µg/l was found in 43% of the workers, but the concentrations of Mn in urine, lead in blood and copper and iron in plasma were normal. Forced expiratory volume at 1s: forced vital capacity ratios (FEV1/FVC) were found to be abnormal in 33.3% of the welders after about 1.5 years of welding at the bridge. Mean scores of bradykinesia and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale exceeded 4 and 6, respectively. Computer assisted tremor analysis system hand tremor and body sway tests, and University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test showed impairment in 38.5/61.5, 51.4 and 88% of the welders, respectively. Significant inverse dose–effect relationships with CEI and/or MnB were found for IQ (p⩽0.05), executive function (p⩽0.03), sustaining concentration and sequencing (p⩽0.04), verbal learning (p

  7. Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Elkins, L E; Pollina, D A; Scheffer, S R; Krupp, L B

    1999-01-01

    The neuropsychiatric sequelae of chronic Lyme disease remains unclear. This study sought to characterize the psychological status of a group of participants who met criteria for post-Lyme syndrome (PLS). These measures were then used to examine the influence of psychological status on neuropsychological performances. Thirty PLS participants completed a structured psychiatric interview, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Lyme Symptom Checklist, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. As a group, the PLS participants did not appear to have an elevated incidence of psychiatric disorders, and psychiatric history was not useful for understanding neuropsychological performances or symptom reports. The mood of the PLS participants was characterized by lowered levels of positive affect (PA) and typical levels of negative affect. This combination can be distinguished from depression and is consistent with previous findings of affect patterns in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. PA was also linked to both total symptom severity and severity of cognitive complaints, but not to duration of illness, neurological manifestations at initial diagnosis, or treatment history. Relative to published normative data, neuropsychological performances were not in the impaired range on any measure. Neither psychological status nor symptom report were useful for understanding any aspect of cognitive functioning. It is concluded that decreased PA is the most useful marker of psychological functioning in PLS.

  8. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  9. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  10. Treatment-related alteration of cortisol predicts change in neuropsychological function during acute treatment of late-life anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Eric J.; Dixon, David; Mantella, Rose C.; Dore, Peter M.; Andreescu, Carmen; Reynolds, Charles F.; Newcomer, John W.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Older adults with anxiety disorders are burdened by impairment in neurocognition, which may be mediated by elevated circulating cortisol levels. In a randomized controlled trial of acute serotonin-reuptake inhibitor treatment for late-life anxiety disorder, we examined whether change in salivary cortisol concentrations during treatment predicted improvements in measures of memory and executive function. Methods We examined 60 adults aged 60 and older, who took part in a 12-week trial of escitalopram vs. placebo for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. All subjects had pre- and post-treatment assessments that included monitoring of peak and total daily cortisol and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Results Salivary cortisol changes during treatment showed significant associations with changes in immediate and delayed memory, but no association with executive tasks (measures of working memory and set-shifting). Analyses suggested that a decrease in cortisol due to serotonin-reuptake inhibitor treatment was responsible for the memory changes: memory improvement was seen with cortisol reduction among patients receiving escitalopram, but not among patients receiving placebo. Conclusion Serotonin-reuptake inhibitor-induced alteration in circulating cortisol during treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder predicted changes in immediate and delayed memory. This finding suggests a novel treatment strategy in late-life anxiety disorders: targeting HPA axis dysfunction to improve memory. PMID:21681817

  11. Influence of personality and neuropsychological ability on social functioning and self-management in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-10-30

    A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder.

  12. Influence of personality and neuropsychological ability on social functioning and self-management in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-10-30

    A majority of bipolar patients (BD) show functional difficulties even in remission. In recent years cognitive functions and personality characteristics have been associated with occupational and psychosocial outcomes, but findings are not consistent. We assessed personality and cognitive functioning through a range of tests in BD and control participants. Three cognitive domains-verbal memory, facial-executive, and spatial memory-were extracted by principal component analysis. These factors and selected personality dimensions were included in hierarchical regression analysis to predict psychosocial functioning and the use of self-management strategies while controlling for mood status. The best determinants of good psychosocial functioning were good verbal memory and high self-directedness. The use of self-management techniques was associated with a low level of harm-avoidance. Our findings indicate that strategies to improve memory and self-directedness may be useful for increasing functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:26282228

  13. Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning of New Zealand Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have studies included a female Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sample when investigating neurocognitive functioning of individuals with ADHD. As such, the generalisability of findings of impaired executive functioning is limited to ADHD males. This study compared four groups aged 13-17 years: 30 male controls, 35…

  14. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  15. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  16. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  17. The remediation of executive functions in children with cognitive disorders: the Vygotsky-Luria neuropsychological approach.

    PubMed

    Akhutina, T V

    1997-04-01

    The demands of methods of effective remediation arising from the Vygotsky-Luria approach to the structure and development of higher mental functions are discussed. These demands suggest the structuring of a therapeutic interaction in accordance with the rules of the internalization process, taking into account a weak component of the child's functional systems and the emotional involvement of a child in that interaction. In order to provide a theoretical framework for developing methods of executive function remediation, the approaches of Vygotsky and Luria, as well as modern views on the structure and development of executive functions, are discussed. The Method of Numerical Sequence is presented as an example of the application of the general principles discussed above. The Method of Numerical Sequence provides a background for following the development of successive processing, programming and planning, and can be considered as a complement to the development of the metacognitive aspects of self-regulation. This method was verified experimentally in groups of 5-8-year-old children with intellectual disability. PMID:9161926

  18. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: A repeated-measures clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although many studies have investigated the relation between breakfast consumption and various domains of cognitive functioning within children, some of the reported findings are inconsistent. The goal of this study was to determine the short-term effects of a breakfast meal on the neuropsychologica...

  19. Impaired Executive Functions in Subjects with Frequent Nightmares as Reflected by Performance in Different Neuropsychological Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simor, Peter; Pajkossy, Peter; Horvath, Klara; Bodizs, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic…

  20. Italian neuropsychological instruments to assess memory, attention and frontal functions for developmental age.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, P; Piazzini, A; Pesenti, G; Brovedani, P; Toraldo, A; Turner, K; Scotti, S; Dal Lago, C; Perelli, V; Brizzolara, D; Canger, R; Canevini, M P; Bottini, G

    2006-12-01

    In this study, a series of tests exploring long-term verbal memory (the Short Story Test), attention (a modified version of Attentional Matrices and the Trail Making Test) and frontal functions (a modified version of the Frontal Assessment Battery) have been standardised on an Italian population of 283 children aged 5-14. Raw scores for each test have been adjusted for a series of variables (child's age, years of parents' education, handedness, gender) and transformed in equivalent scores enabling direct comparison across measures. This study was promoted by LICE (the Italian League Against Epilepsy) in order to provide Italian instruments standardised on the developmental age population and to study some of the most frequently impaired cognitive functions in epilepsy. PMID:17205223

  1. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's < 0.05). To investigate cognitive profiles, 12 variables were entered into a support vector machine (SVM), which achieved good classification accuracy (81%) at a level significantly better than chance (P < 0.0001). After correcting for multiple correlations, there were no significant associations between cognitive performance and severity of either autistic or comorbid symptomatology. There were no significant differences between AS and HFA groups on the cognitive tasks. Cognitive classification models could be a useful aid to the diagnostic process when used in conjunction with other data sources—including clinical history. Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  2. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642

  3. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  4. Cyber-Neuropsychology: application of new technologies in neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Ramos, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Soto-Pérez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation deals with the study of cerebral functioning through the persons' performance. It makes it possible to collaborate the clinical diagnosis and to provide information on deficit and skills. Specialized care in rural environments is uncommon, and often means impossibility to access some services. This study has aimed to evaluate the possibility of using neuropsychological evaluation by internet videoconferences. Our research was based on the traditional and online application of the SCIP-S to 30 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both groups underwent the two conditions inversely. The results show some differences and similarities when the results in both types of applications SCIP-S are compared. In conclusion, cyber-neuropsychology is possible and may be a complement and alternative to traditional assessment when they cannot develop.

  5. A Preliminary Validity Study of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery for the Assessment of Executive Function in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; An, Yong Min; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the executive function subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess cognitive function in diverse psychiatric illnesses, few studies have verified the validity of this battery for Korean psychiatric patients. Therefore, this preliminary study evaluated the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients by comparing it with subtests of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT). Methods Three subtests of the CANTAB and three subtests of the CNT were administered to 36 patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subtests of the CANTAB included the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM). Differences between groups on each subtest as well as correlations between the subtests of the CANTAB and the CNT were assessed. Results The schizophrenia group performed significantly more poorly on the IED and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the bipolar disorder group. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between the IED and the WCST; a positive correlation between the SOC and the Trail Making Test, Part B and the Stroop test; and a significant correlation between the SWM and the Stroop test. Conclusion This study verified the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients and suggests that the subtests of this battery would be useful and appropriate for assessing deficits in executive function in Korean clinical settings. PMID:25395970

  6. Neuropsychological assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Steven W; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y; Johnson, Amy M; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. A total of 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with no neurologic disease (N = 185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N = 40), Parkinson's disease (N = 91), or stroke (N = 29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18-mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems.

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  8. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  9. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  10. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; Richman, Mara J

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses.

  11. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (p<0.05), verbal and visual-spatial memory abilities (p<0.01), visual perception and visual-motor integration global abilities (p<0.01), manual dexterity tasks (p<0.05), some language tasks (p<0.05), reading and writing abilities (p<0.01) and arithmetic ability (p<0.01). The presence of cognitive dysfunctions in subjects with EBOS supports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other

  12. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe.

  13. The problem of not developing normally and pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation: theMitchell Rosenthal Lecture.

    PubMed

    Prigatano, George P

    2008-01-01

    Children who suffer moderately severe-to-severe traumatic brain injury often fail to develop normal cognitive and affective functioning necessary for independent adult living. The cognitive and psychiatric consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury are outlined and 6 barriers to providing neuropsychological rehabilitation for these children are identified. Suggestions are made to help reduce the impact of those barriers.

  14. Applications of Technology in Neuropsychological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parsey, Carolyn M.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments include at least one measure that is administered, scored, or interpreted by computers or other technologies. Despite supportive findings for these technology-based assessments, there is resistance in the field of neuropsychology to adopt additional measures that incorporate technology components. This literature review addresses the research findings of technology-based neuropsychological assessments, including computer-, and virtual reality-based measures of cognitive and functional abilities. We evaluate the strengths and limitations of each approach, and examine the utility of technology-based assessments to obtain supplemental cognitive and behavioral information that may be otherwise undetected by traditional paper and pencil measures. We argue that the potential of technology use in neuropsychological assessment has not yet been realized, and continued adoption of new technologies could result in more comprehensive assessment of cognitive dysfunction and in turn, better informed diagnosis and treatments. Recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:24041037

  15. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  16. [Vitamin D and neuropsychological assessment of cognitive functions: a study of their relationships in a sample of 244 patients attending a memory clinic].

    PubMed

    Vicente, Pavla; Herr, Marie; Mahieux, Florence; Ankri, Joël

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence of a role of vitamin D in cognitive functioning, but little is known about the type of functions involved. To describe vitamin D status in a population of old patients with memory complaints and its relationships with cognitive performance and white matter lesions. A retrospective single-centre observational study from the medical records of 244 patients who had a measurement of serum 25OHD together with a battery of neuropsychological tests during a complete geriatric and memory assessment in a day care hospital. The results of the 10 neuropsychological tests considered in this study were analysed as binary variables, opposing patients with results within the highest two tertiles to patients with the worse results or unable to perform the test. Mean age of people included was 80.2 ± 8.1 years and 64% of patients were women. Severe deficiency in vitamin D (25OHD <10 ng/mL) was found in 34 patients (13.9%) and moderate deficiency (10 ≤ 25OHD < 30 ng/mL) in 148 (60.7%). Compared to subjects with sufficient concentrations in vitamin D, patients with severe deficiency performed significantly worse on a global test, the Mini mental state examination, and two tests of verbal memory, the 5 words and the 16-item free and cued recall, independently from age, gender, education, body mass index and autonomy (OR = 2.85 [1.04-7.85], 4.31 [1.42-13.07], and 3.04 [1.01-9.19] respectively). Levels of vitamin D did not differ according to the extent of white matter lesions, visualized semi-quantitatively on magnetic resonance imaging of 115 subjects. This study confirms the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly population and suggests a link between vitamin D deficiency and memory. PMID:26707563

  17. Impact of the HIV Tat C30C31S dicysteine substitution on neuropsychological function in patients with clade C disease

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert H.; Joska, John A.; Woods, Carol; Seedat, Soraya; Engelbrecht, Susan; Hoare, Jacqueline; Heaps, Jodi; Valcour, Victor; Ances, Beau; Baker, Laurie M.; Salminen, Lauren E.; Stein, Dan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous animal studies have identified a C31S residue substitution in the C30C31 dicysteine motif of the Tat protein that is associated with reduced neurovirulence in clade C HIV. However, clinical studies of patients infected with clade C HIV have reported significant levels of cognitive impairment. To date no study has specifically examined cognitive function in clade C-infected patients as a function of the presence or absence of the Tat C31 substitution. The present study investigated the impact of the Tat C30C31S genetic substitution among individuals residing in South Africa infected with clade C HIV that either exhibited the C30C31 motif (n = 128) or the C31S motif (n = 46). A control group of seronegative individuals were included to examine the overall impact of HIV on cognitive performance. All individuals completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery consisting of tests sensitive to HIV. Results revealed that clade C-infected individuals performed significantly worse across cognitive tests compared to seronegative controls. However, there were no significant differences in cognitive performances between individuals with the C31S motif versus those without the C31S substitution. Proximal CD4 cell count and plasma viral load were unrelated to cognitive performances for either group. Results confirm that the C31S dicysteine motif substitution of the Tat protein does not appreciably moderate neuropsychological outcomes in clade C. Further, these findings highlight the importance of clinical management of cognitive symptoms among individuals infected with this viral clade worldwide. PMID:25366660

  18. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P < .05) to alertness functions. Eight patients displayed behavioral problems: emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness.

  19. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression. PMID:18024027

  20. [Neuropsychology of dementia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    As cognitive dysfunction is the core symptom of dementia, the assessment of it is essential for the clinical practice. The role of "neuropsychology" is none other than analysis and interpretation of the central symptoms of brain damaged including dementing illnesses. "Neuropsychology" in this sense does not refer only to the neuropsychological tests that psychologists employ, but certainly implies mental status examination as a part of the neurological examination, which enables us to make focal diagnosis and differential diagnosis, to evaluate the disability, to predict the problems in living, and to measure disease severity, rate of progression, and response to treatment are essential. This paper, citing aphasia due to degenerative diseases, behavioral neurological signs, and the relationship between visuoperceptive impairments and visual hallucinations as examples, discussed the clinical roles and scientific potentials of neuropsychology in dementia. PMID:25672718

  1. Merging Clinical Neuropsychology and Functional Neuroimaging to Evaluate the Construct Validity and Neural Network Engagement of the n-Back Task

    PubMed Central

    Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E.; Fausett, Jennifer S.; Gess, Jennifer L.; Reno, Ashley; Peraza, Jennifer; Kilts, Clint D.; James, G. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The n-back task is a widely used neuroimaging paradigm for studying the neural basis of working memory (WM); however, its neuropsychometric properties have received little empirical investigation. The present study merged clinical neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the construct validity of the letter variant of the n-back task (LNB) and to further identify the task-evoked networks involved in WM. Construct validity of the LNB task was investigated using a bootstrapping approach to correlate LNB task performance across clinically validated neuropsychological measures of WM to establish convergent validity, as well as measures of related but distinct cognitive constructs (i.e., attention and short-term memory) to establish discriminant validity. Independent component analysis (ICA) identified brain networks active during the LNB task in 34 healthy control participants, and general linear modeling determined task-relatedness of these networks. Bootstrap correlation analyses revealed moderate to high correlations among measures expected to converge with LNB (|ρ| ≥0.37) and weak correlations among measures expected to discriminate (|ρ| ≤0.29), controlling for age and education. ICA identified 35 independent networks, 17 of which demonstrated engagement significantly related to task condition, controlling for reaction time variability. Of these, the bilateral frontoparietal networks, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral superior parietal lobules including precuneus, and frontoinsular network were preferentially recruited by the 2-back condition compared to 0-back control condition, indicating WM involvement. These results support the use of the LNB as a measure of WM and confirm its use in probing the network-level neural correlates of WM processing. PMID:24963641

  2. Merging clinical neuropsychology and functional neuroimaging to evaluate the construct validity and neural network engagement of the n-back task.

    PubMed

    Kearney-Ramos, Tonisha E; Fausett, Jennifer S; Gess, Jennifer L; Reno, Ashley; Peraza, Jennifer; Kilts, Clint D; James, G Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The n-back task is a widely used neuroimaging paradigm for studying the neural basis of working memory (WM); however, its neuropsychometric properties have received little empirical investigation. The present study merged clinical neuropsychology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the construct validity of the letter variant of the n-back task (LNB) and to further identify the task-evoked networks involved in WM. Construct validity of the LNB task was investigated using a bootstrapping approach to correlate LNB task performance across clinically validated neuropsychological measures of WM to establish convergent validity, as well as measures of related but distinct cognitive constructs (i.e., attention and short-term memory) to establish discriminant validity. Independent component analysis (ICA) identified brain networks active during the LNB task in 34 healthy control participants, and general linear modeling determined task-relatedness of these networks. Bootstrap correlation analyses revealed moderate to high correlations among measures expected to converge with LNB (|ρ|≥ 0.37) and weak correlations among measures expected to discriminate (|ρ|≤ 0.29), controlling for age and education. ICA identified 35 independent networks, 17 of which demonstrated engagement significantly related to task condition, controlling for reaction time variability. Of these, the bilateral frontoparietal networks, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral superior parietal lobules including precuneus, and frontoinsular network were preferentially recruited by the 2-back condition compared to 0-back control condition, indicating WM involvement. These results support the use of the LNB as a measure of WM and confirm its use in probing the network-level neural correlates of WM processing.

  3. Influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on neuropsychological and functional outcomes of classical rehabilitation and cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bosia, Marta; Bechi, Margherita; Marino, Elena; Anselmetti, Simona; Poletti, Sara; Cocchi, Federica; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are recognized as core features of schizophrenia and have a great impact on functional outcome. Recent reports have suggested that a functional polymorphism, Val158Met, of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, partially influences cognitive performances (mainly cognitive flexibility and working memory) both in schizophrenic patients and in healthy controls, probably by modulating prefrontal dopamine function. While previous studies focused on single evaluation of cognitive functioning, we aimed to analyse the additive effect of COMT genotype and cognitive exercise on dynamic modulation of cognitive performances. We analysed the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in 50 patients with chronic schizophrenia randomly allocated to two treatment conditions for 3 months: standard rehabilitation treatment (SRT) alone and SRT plus specific cognitive exercise of impaired functions. We then divided our sample in four subgroups on the basis of genotype (Val/Val versus Met carriers) and treatment (placebo versus active). We assessed patients with a neuropsychological battery, the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) at enrolment, after 3 months of therapy and after further 3 months of follow-up. We found significantly greater improvement of cognitive flexibility performance and QLS total score for Met carriers on active treatment in comparison to Val/Val on placebo. The findings support the hypothesis that COMT polymorphism influences individual capacity to recover from cognitive deficit through rehabilitation therapy after a wider intervention also including deficit-specific cognitive exercise as a potentiating tool.

  4. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  5. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  6. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  7. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REMEDIATION OF HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Neena; Rao, Shobini L.

    1997-01-01

    Hyperkinesis is associated with deficits of attention (poor allocation of attention resources, susceptibility to interference and perseveration); vigilance and perceptual sensitivity. Three boys aged 7-8 years with simple hyperkinesis were given cognitive tasks to improve the above functions in daily one hour sessions for a month. The children improved significantly in the above functions and behaviour. Three other children aged 5-8 years with simple hyperkinesis who were on medication improved only slightly in their behaviour during this period. Behavioural intervention and parental counselling were additional inputs to the children in both groups. Neuropsychological remediation combined with parental counselling and behavioural intervention shows promise in treating hyperactive children. PMID:21584098

  9. Relationship of Medication Management Test-Revised (MMT-R) performance to neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral adherence in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Patton, Doyle E; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald; Cattie, Jordan E; Heaton, Robert K; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina; Clifford, David; Gelman, Benjamin; McArthur, Justin; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David; McCutchan, J Allen; Grant, Igor

    2012-11-01

    While performance-based tests of everyday functioning offer promise in facilitating diagnosis and classification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), there remains a dearth of well-validated instruments. In the present study, clinical correlates of performance on one such measure (i.e., Medication Management Test-Revised; MMT-R) were examined in 448 HIV+ adults who were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Significant bivariate relationships were found between MMT-R scores and demographics (e.g., education), hepatitis C co-infection, estimated premorbid IQ, neuropsychological functioning, and practical work abilities. MMT-R scores were not related to HIV disease severity, psychiatric factors, or self-reported adherence among participants with a broad range of current health status. However, lower MMT-R scores were strongly and uniquely associated with poorer adherence among participants with CD4 T cell counts <200. In multivariate analyses, MMT-R scores were predicted by practical work abilities, estimated premorbid functioning, attention/working memory, learning, and education. Findings provide overall mixed support for the construct validity of the MMT-R and are discussed in the context of their clinical and research implications for evaluation of HAND.

  10. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  11. Neuropsychological, Cognitive, and Theoretical Considerations for Evaluation of Bilingual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Arentoft, Alyssa; Germano, Kaori Kubo; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2008-01-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike. PMID:18841477

  12. Neuropsychological, cognitive, and theoretical considerations for evaluation of bilingual individuals.

    PubMed

    Rivera Mindt, Monica; Arentoft, Alyssa; Kubo Germano, Kaori; D'Aquila, Erica; Scheiner, Diane; Pizzirusso, Maria; Sandoval, Tiffany C; Gollan, Tamar H

    2008-09-01

    As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike.

  13. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  14. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  15. Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. Although many studies have…

  16. Relation of Infant Motor Development with Nonverbal Intelligence, Language Comprehension and Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdarevic, Fadila; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Mous, Sabine E.; White, Tonya; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Tiemeier, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Within a population-based study of 3356 children, we investigated whether infant neuromotor development was associated with cognition in early childhood. Neuromotor development was examined with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between 9 and 20 weeks. Parents rated their children's executive functioning at 4 years. At…

  17. The Impact of Subcortical Band Heterotopia and Associated Complications on the Neuropsychological Functioning of a 13-Year-Old Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Beata S.; Hill, James M.; Ming, Sue X.

    2007-01-01

    Motor impairment in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism (HFA) has been reported previously. This study presents results of a quantitative assessment of neuromotor skills in 14-22 year old HFA/AS. Sixteen HFA/AS and 16 IQ-matched controls were assessed by the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA). The HFA/AS group showed…

  18. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  19. Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Nakano, Chizuru; Ito, Ai; Shimoji, Yasuo; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a treatment program for the rehabilitation of aphasic patients with speech production disorders. We report a case of severe chronic non-fluent aphasia unresponsive to several years of conventional therapy that showed a marked improvement following intensive 9-day training on the Japanese version of MIT (MIT-J). The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of MIT-J by functional assessment and examine associated changes in neural processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging. MIT improved language output and auditory comprehension, and decreased the response time for picture naming. Following MIT-J, an area of the right hemisphere was less activated on correct naming trials than compared with before training but similarly activated on incorrect trials. These results suggest that the aphasic symptoms of our patient were improved by increased neural processing efficiency and a concomitant decrease in cognitive load.

  20. Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Nakano, Chizuru; Ito, Ai; Shimoji, Yasuo; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a treatment program for the rehabilitation of aphasic patients with speech production disorders. We report a case of severe chronic non-fluent aphasia unresponsive to several years of conventional therapy that showed a marked improvement following intensive 9-day training on the Japanese version of MIT (MIT-J). The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of MIT-J by functional assessment and examine associated changes in neural processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging. MIT improved language output and auditory comprehension, and decreased the response time for picture naming. Following MIT-J, an area of the right hemisphere was less activated on correct naming trials than compared with before training but similarly activated on incorrect trials. These results suggest that the aphasic symptoms of our patient were improved by increased neural processing efficiency and a concomitant decrease in cognitive load. PMID:27698650

  1. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  2. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  3. Neuropsychology of Swedenborg's visions.

    PubMed

    Bradford, D T

    1999-04-01

    In 1744, the 56-yr.-old scientist Emanuel Swedenborg underwent a transformative event that could be characterized as convulsive. He subsequently became a visionary and spent the remaining 28 years of his life exploring the spirit world and describing his experiences in an extensive corpus of writings. Retrospective analysis of his visions and trance states indicates signs and symptoms consistent with a vascular anomaly in the posterior area of the left cerebral hemisphere and associated effects due to partial seizures with complex symptomatology. Swedenborg's writings have formed the basis of a church that remains active to this day. His visionary experiences can be interpreted as an instance of neuropsychological symptomatology, under the shaping influence of a powerful intellect, contributing to the formation of an historically significant religious movement. The term neuropathography is proposed for a new genre of neuropsychological case study in which the emphasis on brain-related symptomatology is balanced by attention to autobiographical and broad cultural factors.

  4. Is executive function specifically impaired in children with neurofibromatosis type 1? A neuropsychological investigation of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnaud; Barbarot, Sébastien; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Charbonnier, Valérie; Fasotti, Luciano; Stalder, Jean-François; Le Gall, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated spontaneous versus reactive cognitive flexibility in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and their comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty children with NF1 aged 7 to 12 years old were compared to 60 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and parental education. On the basis of Eslinger and Grattan's definition ( 1993 ), spontaneous shifting was assessed using fluency tests, whereas reactive flexibility was measured by a child adaptation of the Modified Card-Sorting Test and the Brixton Test. IQ and basic skills were taken into account as confounding variables that might influence executive measures. NF1 children performed below the level of healthy children on both reactive flexibility tasks, even when intelligence and basic skills were partialled out, but ADHD symptomatology was not found to adversely affect the performance of patients. Our findings support the hypothesis of a specific executive impairment in NF1, uncovering a dissociation between (impaired) reactive flexibility and (preserved) spontaneous shifting, with no impact of ADHD on executive performance.

  5. Is executive function specifically impaired in children with neurofibromatosis type 1? A neuropsychological investigation of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnaud; Barbarot, Sébastien; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Charbonnier, Valérie; Fasotti, Luciano; Stalder, Jean-François; Le Gall, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated spontaneous versus reactive cognitive flexibility in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and their comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty children with NF1 aged 7 to 12 years old were compared to 60 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and parental education. On the basis of Eslinger and Grattan's definition ( 1993 ), spontaneous shifting was assessed using fluency tests, whereas reactive flexibility was measured by a child adaptation of the Modified Card-Sorting Test and the Brixton Test. IQ and basic skills were taken into account as confounding variables that might influence executive measures. NF1 children performed below the level of healthy children on both reactive flexibility tasks, even when intelligence and basic skills were partialled out, but ADHD symptomatology was not found to adversely affect the performance of patients. Our findings support the hypothesis of a specific executive impairment in NF1, uncovering a dissociation between (impaired) reactive flexibility and (preserved) spontaneous shifting, with no impact of ADHD on executive performance. PMID:24716868

  6. Neuropsychological evidence of impaired cognitive empathy in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Harari, Hagai; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2009-01-01

    The empathic abilities have never been examined in bipolar disorder patients, despite frequent observations of impaired social behavior. To examine the neuropsychological processes that underlie the affective and cognitive empathic ability in bipolar disorder, the authors compared affective and cognitive empathic abilities, as well as theory of mind and executive functions, of euthymic bipolar disorder patients and healthy comparison subjects. Significant deficits in cognitive empathy and theory of mind were observed, while affective empathy was elevated in bipolar disorder. Patients showed impaired cognitive flexibility (shifting and reversal learning) but intact planning behavior. Impaired cognitive empathy was related with performance in neurocognitive tasks of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that prefrontal cortical dysfunction may account for impaired cognitive empathy in bipolar disorder. PMID:19359453

  7. [Neuropsychological symptomatology in normal pressure hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    De Mol, J

    1986-01-01

    The neuropsychological observations of 63 patients undergoing surgery for "normal pressure hydrocephalus" (NPH) have been analyzed retrospectively. To make a semiological picture of mental disturbances in NPH, the level of consciousness, behaviour and cognitive functions were studied. A neuropsychological investigation of the main cognitive functions (language, gnosis, praxis, calculation, memory) enables us to specify the characteristics of dementia shown by these patients. A mental picture of the most frequent neuropsychological signs is described. The mental syndrome which characterized NPH reveals an alteration of alertness and concentration, a deficiency in memory, a disorganization of graphism (writing and drawing), a dyscalculia and behaviour problems (bradypsychy, apathy, indifference). Such a syndrome points out a bilateral frontal lesion. On the other hand, the less frequent signs are largely verbal and show different stages of aphasia. These signs can usually be found in patients who don't improve after ventricular drainage and are more suggestive of a degenerative disease of the Alzheimer type. The results are compared with the psychometric and neuropsychological data of the literature. More specific attention is accorded to differential diagnosis. PMID:2428104

  8. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  9. The Neuropsychological Profile of Autism and The Broad Autism Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Losh, Molly; Adolphs, Ralph; Poe, Michele D.; Couture, Shannon; Penn, David; Baranek, Grace T.; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Context There now exist multiple reports of a constellation of language, personality, and social-behavioral features present among relatives that mirror the symptom domains of autism, but much milder in expression. Studies of this ‘broad autism phenotype’ (BAP) may provide a potentially important, complementary approach for detecting the genes causing autism and defining associated neural circuitry, by identifying more refined phenotypes which can be measured quantitatively in both affected and unaffected individuals, and which are tied to functioning in particular regions of the brain. Objective To gain insights into neuropsychological features that index genetic liability to autism. Design Case-control. Setting General community. Participants Thirty-eight high-functioning individuals with autism and parents of autistic individuals, both with and without the BAP (N=83), as well as control groups. Main Outcome Measures A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks tapping social cognition, executive function, and global/local processing strategies (central coherence). Results Both individuals with autism and parents with the BAP differed from controls on measures of social cognition, with performance in the other two domains more similar to controls. Conclusions Data suggest that the social cognitive domain may be an important target for linking phenotype to cognitive process to brain structure in autism, and may ultimately provide insights into genes involved in autism. PMID:19414711

  10. Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information.

  11. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau. PMID:14590626

  12. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  13. Future directions in the neuropsychology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Taylor, Joanne; Hamberger, Marla; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Schefft, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Two important themes for future clinical research in the neuropsychology of epilepsy are proposed: (1) the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie neuropsychological impairment in people with epilepsy, and (2) neuropsychological status of persons with new-onset epilepsy.

  14. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  15. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision.

  16. Lying in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  17. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico. PMID:21264515

  18. [Neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Isler, H; Jagella, C; Röhrenbach, C

    1995-12-12

    The 17th centuryś origins of neuropsychiatry are found in the works of Thomas Willis, who introduced the terms 'psychologia' and 'neurologia' and developed a complete neuropsychiatric concept. His views were revived by 18th-century animists and vitalists who were able to accept body-mind interactions, unlike the followers of Leibniz (e.g. Haller) who stuck to his psychophysical parallelism without possible interaction. This was also the creed of John Hughlings Jackson, whose influence on the development of neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology in the first decades of the 20th century was second to none. Neuropsychiatry, a Germanic specialty, was able to germinate in 1845 in Griesinger's 'Pathology and therapy of mental diseases', after Gall, Mesmer, Johannes Müller and many others had reformed and expanded the concept of mind-body interaction. In the second half of the 19th century, in the German-speaking countries progress in both neurology and psychiatry was usually achieved by neuro-psychiatrists. Neuropsychology (Lashley, 1913) was a product of both Jacksonian and Germanic neuropsychiatric ideas. During the 20th century neurology was separated from psychiatry, but new trends and their names such as 'psychobiology' and 'biological psychiatry', although quite old, are suggestive of a new kind of neuropsychiatry.

  19. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  20. The effect of acute stress on subsequent neuropsychological test performance (2003).

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard; Al'Absi, Mustafa

    2004-06-01

    Acute mental stressors have been implicated as variables that may deleteriously affect neuropsychological test performance by increasing distractibility and decreasing working memory function. This study examined 25 subjects with no known neurological or psychiatric impairment on a brief battery of neuropsychological measures on alternate days following either rest or induced mental stress in a counterbalanced design. The test battery consisted of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, the Rey Complex Figure, and three Wechsler Memory Scale-III subtests (Logical Memory, Digit Span, and Visual Memory Span). The Ss average age was 24.8 years (S.D. = 10.1) and average education was 15.0 years (S.D. = 1.6). The mental stressor employed was a videotaped public-speaking exercise that has been shown in previous work to induce negative mood, cardiovascular reactivity, and perceived mental stress. Ss demonstrated statistically significant (P < .05) increases in negative mood, heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure as well as elevated cortisol concentration following induced stress, suggesting substantially increased adrenocortical reactivity and cardiovascular stress response. There were, however, no statistically significant differences in any of the neuropsychological measures when stress versus rest days were compared. The results suggest that acute mental stressors may have no measurable effect on subsequent performance on selected neuropsychological tests in a normal population. Further work is suggested to determine whether pre-existing anxiety-related psychopathology or pre-existing neurological compromise might interact with induced mental stress to cause decrements in neuropsychological test performance.

  1. Specificity of neuropsychological impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Liebowitz, M R; Aronowitz, B R

    1996-01-01

    Specificity of neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed by comparing neuropsychological performance in 65 OCD patients, 17 social phobic patients, and 32 normal control subjects. Although both patient groups showed visual constructional impairment relative to normal subjects, only patients with social phobia showed executive dysfunction. Nonconcurrent state anxiety did not correlate with neuropsychological performance. Among anxiety disorders, neuropsychological dysfunction may not be specific to OCD, but the functions implicated may differ across patient groups.

  2. Neuropsychological sequelae of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K; Reid, W; Homewood, J; Cook, R

    2002-01-01

    Methods: 17 patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery before and six months after bilateral pallidotomy. A comparison group (n = 8) was also assessed at six month intervals. Outcome variables were tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, attention, executive skills, and depression. Results: Despite a large number of variables studied, a significant postsurgical change was found only in performance of the tower of London task, a measure of planning abilities. The effect size of this change was larger than that of the comparison group, and a reliable change index score established that 5 of 13 surgical patients had statistically reliable reductions in planning performance. Conclusions: Patients with a young age of onset and long duration of Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral pallidotomy had a relatively circumscribed reduction in neuropsychological functioning, being limited to motor planning efficiency. These data suggest that the cognitive role of the posteroventral globus pallidus is limited, at least in people with Parkinson's disease. PMID:12235317

  3. Affect integration and reflective function: clarification of central conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Solbakken, Ole André; Hansen, Roger Sandvik; Monsen, Jon Trygve

    2011-07-01

    The importance of affect regulation, modulation or integration for higher-order reflection and adequate functioning is increasingly emphasized across different therapeutic approaches and theories of change. These processes are probably central to any psychotherapeutic endeavor, whether explicitly conceptualized or not, and in recent years a number of therapeutic approaches have been developed that explicitly target them as a primary area of change. However, there still is important lack of clarity in the field regarding the understanding and operationalization of affect integration, particularly when it comes to specifying underlying mechanisms, the significance of different affect states, and the establishment of operational criteria for measurement. The conceptual relationship between affect integration and reflective function thus remains ambiguous. The present article addresses these topics, indicating ways in which a more complex and exhaustive understanding of integration of affect, cognition and behavior can be attained.

  4. Emerging issues in the neuropsychology of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jessica; Ettenhofer, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Hinkin, Charles H

    2008-11-01

    Neurocognitive compromise, a common sequela of HIV infection, ranges in severity from minor motor and information-processing speed decrements to severely incapacitating symptoms that affect functional independence. However, with the emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neurocognitive phenotypes have become highly heterogeneous and increasingly fail to resemble pre-HAART presentations. This article provides an overview of our current knowledge of HIV-associated neuropsychological abnormalities, with an emphasis on the most recent attempts to classify cognitive impairment within Western and developing societies, the emergence of diverse cognitive presentations in the post-HAART era, factors that moderate the development or impact of HIV-related neurocognitive and functional deficits, and the neurophysiologic consequences of infection.

  5. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  6. The Neuropsychological and Academic Substrate of New-Onset Epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, DC; Dabbs, K; Walker, NM; Jones, JE; Hsu, DA; Stafstrom, CE; Seidenberg, M; Hermann, BP

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize neuropsychological and academic status in children, age 8-18 years, with new/recent-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE) compared with healthy controls. Study design Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and parents were interviewed regarding their child’s academic history. Cognitive scores for children with epilepsy were age- and sex-adjusted and compared with controls across both broad-band (IGE n = 41 and ILRE n = 53) and narrow-band (childhood/juvenile absence, juvenile myoclonic, benign epilepsy with centro-temproral spikes, and focal [temporal/frontal/NOS]) syndromes. Academic histories were examined including problems antecedent to epilepsy onset and diagnosis. Results Children with new-onset epilepsies exhibit considerable cognitive abnormality at baseline including patterns of shared abnormalities across syndromes (e.g., psychomotor slowing) as well as unique syndrome-specific cognitive effects (eg, executive function in IGE and language/verbal memory in ILRE) that are observed and sometimes exacerbated in specific IGE and ILRE syndromes. Academic difficulties are evident in approximately 50% of the children with epilepsy, affecting all syndrome groups to an equal degree. Discussion Patterns of shared and syndrome-specific cognitive abnormalities and academic problems are present early in the course of virtually all epilepsy syndromes examined here, including syndromes classically viewed as benign. This is the base upon which the effects of recurrent seizures, treatment and psychosocial effects will be added over time. PMID:23219245

  7. Frontal and posterior subtypes of neuropsychological deficit in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ivy N; Neargarder, Sandy; Risi, Megan M; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2013-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is heterogeneous in regard to affected domains. Although patterns of cognitive performance that may predict later dementia are as yet undetermined, posterior- versus frontal-type assessments show promise for differential predictive value. The present study included 70 individuals: 42 with idiopathic PD without dementia and 28 age- and education-matched healthy control adults (HC). Participants completed assessments of cognition with emphasis on tests that are sensitive to frontal and posterior deficits. PD patients were classified into cognitive subgroups and the subgroups were compared on demographic and disease variables. Individual performance across neuropsychological tests was evaluated for the PD group. Patients with PD performed more poorly than HC on several measures of cognition, and they were classified into frontal (12), posterior (3), both (10) and neither subgroups (17), the latter two in reference to frontal- and posterior-type deficits. The neither subgroup was distinguished by less motor impairment than the both subgroup, but the four subgroups did not otherwise differ on demographic or disease variables. Across patients, the tests most sensitive to cognitive impairment included measures of attention and executive functioning (frontal-type tests). Examination of individual test performance for PD revealed substantial heterogeneity across tests with respect to number and severity of deficits. The current study provides insight into which commonly used neuropsychological tests are most sensitive to cognitive deficits (strictly defined) in a nondemented, well characterized PD sample, and into the relation of cognitive subgroups to demographic and disease-specific variables.

  8. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    SciTech Connect

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-08-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.

  9. Age-Related Changes of Adaptive and Neuropsychological Features in Persons with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is characterised by premature aging and an accelerated decline of cognitive functions in the vast majority of cases. As the life expectancy of DS persons is rapidly increasing, this decline is becoming a dramatic health problem. The aim of this study was to thoroughly evaluate a group of 67 non-demented persons with DS of different ages (11 to 66 years), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly identify early signs predictive of cognitive decline. The main finding of this study is that both neuropsychological functions and adaptive skills are lower in adult DS persons over 40 years old, compared to younger ones. In particular, language and short memory skills, frontal lobe functions, visuo-spatial abilities and adaptive behaviour appear to be the more affected domains. A growing deficit in verbal comprehension, along with social isolation, loss of interest and greater fatigue in daily tasks, are the main features found in older, non demented DS persons evaluated in our study. It is proposed that these signs can be alarm bells for incipient dementia, and that neuro-cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-pharmacological interventions must start as soon as the fourth decade (or even earlier) in DS persons, i.e. at an age where interventions can have the greatest efficacy. PMID:25419980

  10. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions. PMID:21075867

  11. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions.

  12. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Carissa L; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function-which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry-could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology.

  13. Tourette's syndrome in children: neurological, neuropsychological and psychiatric issues.

    PubMed

    Brovedani, P; Masi, G

    2000-06-01

    The interplay between neurologic, neuropsychologic and psychiatric features makes Tourette's syndrome (TS) a paradigmatic model for neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this paper is to review this complex interplay of clinical features. After a survey of some epidemiological studies, the natural history of neurological, behavioral and psychological characteristics of the syndrome is described. The problem of high psychiatric comorbidity, firstly with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, is discussed. Neuropsychological features of TS are considered, as they can negatively affect the quality of life of affected patients. Considerations on treatment, pharmacologic as well as educational and psychotherapeutic, conclude this review.

  14. Neuropsychological deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fengqing; Kang, Hai; You, Libo; Rastogi, Priyanka; Venkatesh, D; Chandra, Mina

    2014-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizures with temporal lobe origin of electrical abnormality. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures affect all aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory, language, praxis, executive functions, and social judgment, among several others. In this article, we will review these cognitive impairments along with their neuropathological correlates in a comprehensive manner. We will see that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in TLE. Much of the effort has been laid on memory due to the notion that temporal lobe brain structures involved in TLE play a central role in consolidating information into memory. It seems that damage to the mesial structure of the temporal lobe, particularly the amygdale and hippocampus, has the main role in these memory difficulties and the neurobiological plausibility of the role of the temporal lobe in different aspects of memory. Here, we will cover the sub-domains of working memory and episodic memory deficits. This is we will further proceed to evaluate the evidences of executive function deficits in TLE and will see that set-shifting among other EFs is specifically affected in TLE as is social cognition. Finally, critical components of language related deficits are also found in the form of word-finding difficulties. To conclude, TLE affects several of cognitive function domains, but the etiopathogenesis of all these dysfunctions remain elusive. Further well-designed studies are needed for a better understanding of these disorders. PMID:25506156

  15. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  16. Standard of Care for Neuropsychological Monitoring in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Lessons From the Children's Oncology Group (COG).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Karin S; Noll, Robert B; Annett, Robert D; Patel, Sunita K; Patenaude, Andrea F; Embry, Leanne

    2016-02-01

    As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care.

  17. Neuropsychological consequence of soccer play in adolescent U.K. School team soccer players.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Rutherford, Andrew; Potter, Douglas; Fernie, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    To assess mild head injury effects in adolescent soccer players, neuropsychological performance across school team soccer players, rugby players and noncontact sport players was assessed in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design. One hundred eighty-five males were tested (ages 13-16; response rate 55%) and 86 contributed data to the analyses after exclusion for recent concussion and overlapping sports participation. Soccer players showed lower premorbid intellectual functioning, but neither soccer players nor rugby players showed neuropsychological decrement compared with noncontact sport players. Cumulative heading did not predict neuropsychological performance. While no specific attribute of soccer was linked with neuropsychological impairment, head injury predicted reduced attention for all participants.

  18. The course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Neil D

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological impairment and abnormalities in brain structure are commonly observed in psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Shared deficits in neuropsychological functioning and abnormalities in brain structure suggest overlapping neuropathology between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder which has important implications for psychiatric nosology, treatment, and our understanding of the etiology of psychotic illnesses. However, the emergence and trajectory of brain dysfunction in psychotic disorders is less well understood. Differences in the course and progression of neuropsychological impairment and brain abnormalities among psychotic disorders may point to unique neuropathological processes. This article reviews the course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  19. Learning disabilities: the need for neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Cheryl H; Ruff, Ronald M; Iverson, Grant L; Barth, Jeffrey T; Broshek, Donna K; Bush, Shane S; Koffler, Sandra P; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2008-03-01

    A learning disability (LD) is a neurobiological disorder that presents as a serious difficulty with reading, arithmetic, and/or written expression that is unexpected, given the individual's intellectual ability. A learning disability is not an emotional disorder nor is it caused by an emotional disorder. If inadequately or improperly evaluated, a learning disability has the potential to impact an individual's functioning adversely and produce functional impairment in multiple life domains. When a learning disability is suspected, an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities is necessary to determine the source of the difficulty as well as the areas of neurocognitive strength that can serve as a foundation for compensatory strategies and treatment options.

  20. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  1. Interictal epileptiform discharge effects on neuropsychological assessment and epilepsy surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Drane, Daniel L; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kim, Michelle S; Gross, Robert E; Miller, John W; Faught, R Edward; Loring, David W

    2016-03-01

    Both animal research and human research suggest that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) may affect cognition, although the significance of such findings remains controversial. We review a wide range of literature with bearing on this topic and present relevant epilepsy surgery cases, which suggest that the effects of IEDs may be substantial and informative for surgical planning. In the first case, we present a patient with epilepsy with left anterior temporal lobe (TL) seizure onset who experienced frequent IEDs during preoperative neuropsychological assessment. Cognitive results strongly lateralized to the left TL. Because the patient failed performance validity tests and appeared amnestic for verbal materials inconsistent with his work history, selected neuropsychological tests were repeated 6 weeks later. Scores improved one to two standard deviations over the initial evaluation and because of this improvement, were only mildly suggestive of left TL impairment. The second case involves another patient with documented left TL epilepsy who experienced epileptiform activity while undergoing neurocognitive testing and simultaneous ambulatory EEG recording. This patient's verbal memory performance was impaired during the period that IEDs were present but near normal when such activity was absent. Overall, although the presence of IEDs may be helpful in confirming laterality of seizure onset, frequent IEDs might disrupt focal cognitive functions and distort accurate measurement of neuropsychological ability, interfering with accurate characterization of surgical risks and benefits. Such transient effects on daily performance may also contribute to significant functional compromise. We include a discussion of the manner in which IED effects during presurgical assessment can hinder individual patient presurgical planning as well as distort outcome research (e.g., IEDs occurring during presurgical assessment may lead to an underestimation of postoperative

  2. Neuropsychology Review Submission

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, P. Justin; Okun, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to address some of the disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) can evoke unintended effects, especially on non-motor behavior. This observation has catalyzed more than a decade of research concentrated on establishing trends and identifying potential mechanisms for these non-motor effects. While many issues remain unresolved, the collective result of many research studies and clinical observations has been a general recognition of the role of the STN in mediating limbic function. In particular, the STN has been implicated in impulse control and the related construct of valence processing. A better understanding of STN involvement in these phenomena could have important implications for treating impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs affect up to 40% of PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy and approximately 15% of PD patients overall. ICDs have been reported to be associated with STN DBS. In this paper we will focus on impulse control and review pre-clinical, clinical, behavioral, imaging, and electrophysiological studies pertaining to the limbic function of the STN. PMID:26577509

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L.; McLaren, Donald; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K.; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as valid indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI. PMID:22777078

  4. Cognitive function in the affective disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bulbena, A; Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study of 50 subjects confirmed claims that major depression or mania may cause temporary disorders of attention, memory, visuo-spatial function, and choice reaction time, and cause-independently of medication-the appearance of glabellar tap, positive hand-face test, nuchocephalic reflex, and graphesthesia. On follow-up, all these phenomena either disappeared or markedly improved. Age and age of onset, but not pre-morbid intelligence or history of ECT, seemed to modulate the severity of the cognitive impairment. Presence of delusions predicted poor (but reversible) visuo-spatial function. Cognitive impairment accompanied by reversible soft neurological signs was more marked but patients thus affected surprisingly showed lower depressive scores; this was interpreted as representing a secondary, 'organic' form of affective disorder (i.e. a behavioural phenocopy of depression) characterised by a reduced capacity to experience depressive symptoms and by little improvement at follow-up.

  5. Neuropsychology of cognitive ageing, minimal cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Jaap; Weinstein, Henry

    2004-04-19

    In this review, the neuropsychological symptoms of different diseases in the elderly are described. After a brief explanation of relevant principles in the neuropsychological assessment of older individuals, a summary of the complex relation between ageing and cognition is presented. It may be concluded that cognitive decline is not an inevitable outcome of ageing, and may well be the result of unrecognised pathology. The term mild cognitive impairment is reserved for patients whose impairment is objectively demonstrable but is not pronounced in more than one domain of cognition and does not seriously affect activities of daily living. The initial phase of Alzheimer's disease is marked by a progressive deterioration of episodic memory. When the process advances, the impairment spreads to other functions, such as semantic memory, language and visuo-spatial ability. Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia; however, it is increasingly being recognised that vascular dementia is actually a heterogeneous syndrome and that several vascular pathologies can lead to cognitive deterioration. In contrast to the striking deficits produced by cortical infarcts, lesions of the subcortical white matter are mainly associated with a non-specific slowing of behaviour. Cerebrovascular disease also plays an important role in forms of cognitive decline other than dementia, and as such, it appears to be no less prevalent in old age than Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology is an important asset to the study and treatment of cognitive decline, but must be embedded in a multi-disciplinary context.

  6. Implications of neuropsychological evidence for theories of normal memory.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, A D

    1982-06-25

    The relation between neuropsychology and the study of normal cognitive function is discussed in the context of recent research on human memory. It is suggested that neuropsychological evidence has clear implications for the fractionation of human memory into subsystems. The distinction between long-term and short-term memory, between semantic and episodic memory, and the further fractionation of short-term or working memory all offer examples of concepts that have been successfully applied within the neuropsychological domain, and where the neuropsychological evidence has led to a modification and development of the original concept. Attempts to offer a cognitive interpretation of the amnesic syndrome are discussed. While none of these is entirely satisfactory, such work has led to a potentially important distinction between autobiographical memory or recollection, which is defective in amnesic patients, and a more perceptual or procedural learning process, which appears to be intact in such patients. Recent research on normal subjects is beginning to reveal a similar distinction. It is concluded that the relation between neuropsychology and the study of normal cognitive function continues to be an extremely fruitful one.

  7. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  8. A Developmental Neuropsychological Model for the Study of Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others

    A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…

  9. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  10. [Neuropsychology and forensic assessment in brain injured patients].

    PubMed

    Mazaux, J-M; Ricbourg, B

    2006-09-01

    Neuropsychology, which deals with the relationships between upper mental functions and brain structures is directly involved with psychiatric and psychological disorders and thus constitutes one of the major domains of cognitive sciences. The impairment of upper mental functions is evident after severe brain injuries causing significant motor deficits. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that even mild or moderate brain injuries can cause sequelae which are difficult to analyze and quantify clinically. These sequelae constitute an "invisible handicap" which may greatly interfere with the patient's professional, relational and social life. The neuropsychological evaluation must be systematic and complete and has to be carried out with a sufficient hindsight (two to three years after the trauma) using neuropsychological and behavioural deficiency evaluation scales. Psychometric tests are also necessary. The data obtained from this evaluation must be correctly interpreted and constitutes the main exhibit in the forensic examination of the brain injured patient.

  11. Neuropsychological studies of perception and visuomotor control.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, A D

    1998-01-01

    According to recent conceptualizations, there are two separate cortical visual systems--each with its own distinctive cortical and subcortical links--and these two systems respectively serve the functions of perception and of motor control. These ideas have been arrived at through a confluence of neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, behavioural, and neuropsychological research. It is proposed that this distinction between two broad purposes of vision and their neural bases can provide useful working procedures for analysing both: (i) the nature of visuomotor processing in the normal brain; and also (ii) the abnormal patterns of visual processing that are seen in certain neurological conditions. PMID:9770230

  12. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion. PMID:27099226

  13. Construct and criterion validity of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in children referred for neuropsychological assessment after paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; DenBraber, Deborah; Vos, Leia

    2010-09-01

    The construct and criterion validities of the parent version of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were evaluated in a sample of 100 6- to 16-year-old children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Maximum-likelihood factor analysis identified two latent constructs that largely replicated the factor structure reported for the standardization sample, with the notable exception that the Inhibit scale covaried primarily with the metacognition factor and not with behavioural regulation factor. Only the former factor demonstrated evidence for sensitivity to the severity of TBI. Results on both factors were affected by a premorbid history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or other out-patient psychiatric treatment. It is concluded that the BRIEF has construct and criterion validity in the evaluation of children with TBI but that findings on this instrument can only be interpreted within the context of review of the child's premorbid history.

  14. Prospective memory functioning: a new area of investigation in the clinical neuropsychology and rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    The integrity of prospective memory (PM) is likely crucial for independent human behavior. PM refers to the ability to execute an intention after a certain delay. Its impaired functioning may significantly affect the correct execution of common daily activities, such as taking a pill at a certain time or complying with future plans. The results of recent studies indicate that PM is impaired pervasively and early in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we reviewed studies investigating the characteristics of PM disorders in these individuals and the potential for cognitive rehabilitation. The PM profiles of individuals with MCI and PD indicate that interventions aimed at enhancing the different cognitive processes underlying their PM disorders could be useful. At the current state of the art, however, no evidence-based protocols are available. Therefore, the discussion proposed here should be considered an attempt to identify some valuable perspectives for future research and interventions.

  15. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  16. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  17. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology.

  18. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:27348785

  19. Neuropsychological follow-up in early-treated congenital hypothyroidism: a problem-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Bargagna, S; Canepa, G; Costagli, C; Dinetti, D; Marcheschi, M; Millepiedi, S; Montanelli, L; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    2000-03-01

    Screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) dramatically improved the neuropsychological prognosis in affected children. However, mild impairments in cognitive performances, poorer motor skills, defective language abilities, and learning problems have been reported in some studies of early-treated CH children. The occurrence of these defects makes neuropsychological follow-up mandatory. The aim of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological functions that are more frequently affected in early-treated CH children and that might require prompt rehabilitation treatment to prevent permanent defects. The study group involved 24 CH children. Levothyroxine (LT4) treatment (initial dose 8-10 microg/kg per day) was started at mean age of 28 days (range 15-45) and was then adjusted with the goal to keep thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroid hormone levels in the normal range. Cognitive evaluation was performed at 3, 5, and 7 years of age and did not significantly differ from that of controls. Mean neurological scores were lower in children 5 years of age than in controls. Children with severe neonatal hypothyroidism (serum thyroxine [T4] < 2 microg/dL) had significantly lower neurological scores compared to less affected CH children and normal controls. The most affected functions were balance, extremity coordination, fine motricity, quality of movements, associated movements, and head movements. Language disorders were observed in half of CH children at 3 and 5 years of age, but moderately severe defects were restricted to those with severe neonatal hypothyroidism. In conclusion, a problem-oriented, simplified neuropsychological follow-up of early-treated children with CH should not systematically include the frequent repetition of time-consuming and expensive psychometric tests because individual IQ scores are in the normal range of tests in almost all CH children and can be differentiated from those of normal controls only on a population

  20. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  1. On the Neuropsychology of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1989-01-01

    Three neuropsychological case studies of individuals with learning disabilities support the possibility that nonverbal learning disability is associated with greater emotional dysfunction and the potential for suicide. Further research to resolve some concerns about this possible predisposition to suicidal behavior is recommended. (MSE)

  2. Cultural differences in neuropsychological abilities required to perform intelligence tasks.

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that culture has a basic role in intelligence tests performance. Nevertheless, the specific neuropsychological abilities used by different cultures to perform an intelligence test have never been explored. In this study, we examine the differences between Spaniards and Moroccans in the neuropsychological abilities utilized to perform the Beta III as a non-verbal intelligence test. The results showed that the Spaniard group obtained a higher IQ than the Moroccan group in the Beta III. Moreover, the neuropsychological abilities that predicted scores for the Beta III were dependent on the country of origin and were different for each subtest. Besides showing the cultural effect on non-verbal intelligence test performance, our results suggest that a single test may measure different functions, depending on the subject's cultural background. PMID:24055883

  3. Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Academic Sequelae in Children with Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald T.; Madan-Swain, Avi

    1993-01-01

    This research review finds that children with leukemia exhibit deficits in cognitive and neuropsychological functioning following either central nervous system irradiation or intrathecal chemotherapy. Implications of increased life expectancies for school reentry and the need for special education services are addressed. (DB)

  4. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  5. Neuropsychological resiliency after treatment for advanced stage neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Carpentieri, S C; Diller, L R

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the neuropsychological functioning of survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma. In all, 16 survivors, diagnosed at a median of 2.8 years, who had received intensive chemotherapy and surgical treatments, were identified; 11 had received myeloablative consolidation therapy, eight with total body irradiation (TBI). All patients were evaluated with a neuropsychological assessment battery at a median age of 8.8 years. Analyses included comparison of the performances of the TBI group vs the no-TBI group; determination of whether the proportion of individuals with impaired or superior performance on each measure exceeded normative expectations; and performance indexes reflecting patterns of performance. Results indicate no significant deleterious impact of TBI and/or presence or absence of myeloablative therapy on neurocognitive and neurobehavioral functioning. For this cohort, resilience to neuropsychological vulnerability was observed, which included the emergence of a profile of full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and mathematical achievement well above average expectations. We concluded that the results document a lack of neuropsychological morbidity among this cohort of survivors of advanced stage neuroblastoma, regardless of the inclusion of TBI. Moreover, a striking pattern of excellent neurocognitive functioning with intact neurobehavioral functioning was observed.

  6. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  7. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  8. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  9. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth

  10. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  11. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.

  12. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing. PMID:20336685

  13. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  14. Alexithymia and aging: a neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Onor, Marialuisa; Trevisiol, Marianna; Spano, Mariangela; Aguglia, Eugenio; Paradiso, Sergio

    2010-12-01

    Consistent with the emotional changes associated with later life, higher alexithymia scores are widely reported in older adults, but their significance has not been fully examined. We posited that association between alexithymia and poorer neurocognition would support the deficit nature of alexithymia in later life. Widely used neurocognitive tests assessing the relative integrity of the left and right hemisphere functions were used to examine the extent to which alexithymia of older age is associated with poor left or right hemisphere functioning. Healthy community-dwelling volunteers (20 young and 20 elderly subjects) were studied with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Neurocognitive competence was assessed using a neuropsychological battery measuring attention, language, memory, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions. Neurocognitive abilities were strongly age-related and indirectly correlated with alexithymia. Alexithymia total score appeared to be uniquely predicted by Raven Matrices and Rey's Figure Recall. These results support the deficit hypothesis alexithymia of older age. PMID:21135641

  15. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  16. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  17. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  18. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  19. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population.

  20. Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have adopted numerous (and sometimes conflicting) approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships. We review the historical development of these approaches and we advocate an approach to clinical neuropsychology that is informed by recent findings from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical assessment of executive and emotional processes associated with the frontal lobes of the human brain has yet to incorporate the numerous experimental neuroscience findings on this topic. We review both standard and newer techniques for assessment of frontal lobe functions, including control operations involved in language, memory, attention, emotions, self-regulation, and social functioning. Clinical and experimental research has converged to indicate the fractionation of frontal subprocesses and the initial mapping of these subprocesses to discrete frontal regions. One anatomical distinction consistent in the literature is that between dorsal and ventral functions, which can be considered cognitive and affective, respectively. The frontal lobes, in particular the frontal poles, are involved in uniquely human capacities, including self-awareness and mental time travel.

  1. Adult clinical neuropsychology: lessons from studies of the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have adopted numerous (and sometimes conflicting) approaches to the assessment of brain-behavior relationships. We review the historical development of these approaches and we advocate an approach to clinical neuropsychology that is informed by recent findings from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical assessment of executive and emotional processes associated with the frontal lobes of the human brain has yet to incorporate the numerous experimental neuroscience findings on this topic. We review both standard and newer techniques for assessment of frontal lobe functions, including control operations involved in language, memory, attention, emotions, self-regulation, and social functioning. Clinical and experimental research has converged to indicate the fractionation of frontal subprocesses and the initial mapping of these subprocesses to discrete frontal regions. One anatomical distinction consistent in the literature is that between dorsal and ventral functions, which can be considered cognitive and affective, respectively. The frontal lobes, in particular the frontal poles, are involved in uniquely human capacities, including self-awareness and mental time travel. PMID:11752491

  2. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  3. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardized test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to 200 participants aged 18–50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified 11 factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts. PMID:26941628

  4. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  5. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  6. Functional Roles Affect Diversity-Succession Relationships for Boreal Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of “functional” groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

  7. How cognitive neuroscience could be more biological—and what it might learn from clinical neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Three widespread assumptions of Cognitive-affective Neuroscience are discussed: first, mental functions are assumed to be localized in circumscribed brain areas which can be exactly determined, at least in principle (localizationism). Second, this assumption is associated with the more general claim that these functions (and dysfunctions, such as in neurological or mental diseases) are somehow generated inside the brain (internalism). Third, these functions are seen to be “biological” in the sense that they can be decomposed and finally explained on the basis of elementary biological causes (i.e., genetic, molecular, neurophysiological etc.), causes that can be identified by experimental methods as the gold standard (isolationism). Clinical neuropsychology is widely assumed to support these tenets. However, by making reference to the ideas of Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965), one of its most important founders, I argue that none of these assumptions is sufficiently supported. From the perspective of a clinical-neuropsychological practitioner, assessing and treating brain damage sequelae reveals a quite different picture of the brain as well as of us “brain carriers”, making the organism (or person) in its specific environment the crucial reference point. This conclusion can be further elaborated: all experimental and clinical research on humans presupposes the notion of a situated, reflecting, and interacting subject, which precedes all kinds of scientific decomposition, however useful. These implications support the core assumptions of the embodiment approach to brain and mind, and, as I argue, Goldstein and his clinical-neuropsychological observations are part of its very origin, for both theoretical and historical reasons. PMID:25100981

  8. Neuropsychological Features of Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifer, Steven G.

    This literature review provides support for the idea that subtle anatomical and functional deviations in the brain correlate with specific types of reading disorders. It finds evidence that symmetry or reversed asymmetry in the plana temporale may be associated with difficulty in acquiring sound/symbol relationships. Studies are reported to show…

  9. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions.

  10. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. PMID:25897231

  11. Clinical neuropsychology in the criminal forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Denney, R L; Wynkoop, T F

    2000-04-01

    This article reviews the application of clinical neuropsychology to criminal court proceedings, a complex, underserved, yet growing area of neuropsychological practice. The authors write from the perspective that the audience is primarily neurorehabilitation clinicians with limited experience in criminal matters. Discussions on the theoretical differences between clinical and forensic work, the forensic evaluation process with conceptual model, historical and current perspectives on criminal competencies and responsibility, prediction of dangerousness, and professional and ethical issues often encountered in criminal neuropsychology are provided.

  12. Psychopathology and neuropsychological impairments in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Shi, Chuan; Yi, Jinyao

    2008-03-15

    Deficit schizophrenia is a relatively homogeneous subtype of patients which is considered helpful to explore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to reexamine the clinical characteristics of deficit (n=30) and nondeficit schizophrenia (n=93) in a Chinese sample and investigate the differences of neurocognitive function among the two subtypes of schizophrenia and the normal controls (n=103). Schizophrenia patients completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Additionally, all participants completed an abbreviated version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC) and a neuropsychological test battery examining the executive functions, visuospatial abilities and explicit memory related to the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe functions. The deficit group received higher scores than the nondeficit group on the BPRS anergia factor and SANS affective flattening, alogia, avolition-apathy, anhedonia-asociality subscales, but not on the SAPS. Both two schizophrenia subgroups performed more poorly on the WAIS-RC and neuropsychological tests than the normal controls. Moreover, deficit patients performed worse than nondeficit patients on the prorated IQ, the Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting test and Block Design test. The present study replicated symptom profiles in deficit vs. nondeficit schizophrenia in the Chinese sample. Furthermore, this study suggested that deficit schizophrenia is associated with frontal and parietal lobe impairment, and that temporal lobe dysfunction may be a common basis for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia as a whole.

  13. Neurocysticercosis and performance on neuropsychologic tests: a family study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Levav, M; Mirsky, A F; Cruz, M E; Cruz, I

    1995-11-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common neurologic disorder in developing countries, where it may pose a major public health challenge. Recently, the disorder has become more commonly diagnosed in developed countries as a result of the influx of migrants from countries where the disease is endemic. The clinical syndrome associated with NCC includes neurologic, physical, and functional problems. Since the locus of the infection is mainly the central nervous system, there is a risk of neuropsychologic dysfunction. This study was conducted in Ecuador in a group of 123 subjects (49 males and 74 females, 9-62 years of age) from a community sample that was part of a larger neuroepidemiologic inquiry. A discriminant function procedure was used to select the tests that would be most sensitive at distinguishing between affected and nonaffected individuals. The results suggest that behavioral functions that include aspects of inhibitory control, motor, and visual-motor output are impaired in adolescent and adult subjects with NCC.

  14. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  15. Neuropsychologic effects of saturation diving.

    PubMed

    Vaernes, R J; Kløve, H; Ellertsen, B

    1989-05-01

    Neuropsychologic status of saturation divers was assessed before and after 300-500 msw dives (deep saturation diving--DSD group) and before and after 3.5 yr of ordinary saturation diving (saturation diving--SD group). Average baseline results showed the divers to be slightly superior to nondiving controls. Mild-to-moderate neuropsychologic changes (greater than 10% impairment) were found in measures of tremor, spatial memory, vigilance, and automatic reactivity in 20% of the divers after deep dives (DSD group). One year postdive no recovery was observed except for a vigilance test. In the SD group, 20% of the divers showed greater than 10% impairment after 3.5 yr of ordinary saturation diving. Significant reduction in autonomic reactivity was also found and there was a relationship between low autonomic reactivity before saturation diving and number of greater than 10% impairments. For the whole group (DSD + SD divers), negative correlations were found between saturation experience and results on memory and complex visuomotor tests. Years of diving from first to last examination was positively correlated with number of greater than 10% impairments and with reduction in autonomic reactivity. No similar correlations were found to dive variables after about 3 yr of air diving. The mild-to-moderate changes seen in some divers, therefore, seem to be the effects of saturation diving. Since one deep dive may cause an effect similar to the effect of 3.5 yr of ordinary saturation diving, there is reason to believe that repeated deep diving may lead to more pronounced neuropsychologic impairment.

  16. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed.

  17. Methamphetamine use parameters do not predict neuropsychological impairment in currently abstinent dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Cherner, Mariana; Suarez, Paola; Casey, Corinna; Deiss, Robert; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas; Vaida, Florin; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2010-01-15

    Methamphetamine (meth) abuse is increasingly of public health concern and has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Some previous studies have been hampered by background differences between meth users and comparison subjects, as well as unknown HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) status, which can also affect brain functioning. We compared the neurocognitive functioning of 54 meth dependent (METH+) study participants who had been abstinent for an average of 129 days, to that of 46 demographically comparable control subjects (METH-) with similar level of education and reading ability. All participants were free of HIV and HCV infection. The METH+ group exhibited higher rates of neuropsychological impairment in most areas tested. Among meth users, neuropsychologically normal (n=32) and impaired (n=22) subjects did not differ with respect to self-reported age at first use, total years of use, route of consumption, or length of abstinence. Those with motor impairment had significantly greater meth use in the past year, but impairment in cognitive domains was unrelated to meth exposure. The apparent lack of correspondence between substance use parameters and cognitive impairment suggests the need for further study of individual differences in vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

  18. Neuropsychological assessment of competency to stand trial evaluations: a practical conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Kirkish, P; Sreenivasan, S

    1999-01-01

    Competency for adjudication is a complex concept that, despite judicial efforts to articulate functional criteria, has presented conscientious clinicians with the need to filter through multiple levels of psychological data to adequately evaluate and describe the germane functional capacities and deficits of a given defendant. Practitioners are confronted with preparing evaluations that are either psychologically inclusive and too broad to be judicially useful or too brief (opinions with inadequate descriptions of how a specific defendant's abilities and impediments affect the legal criteria). The trend toward harsh sentencing guidelines has further increased defendants' incentives either to postpone adjudication or to attempt to establish a foundation for an insanity plea. Therefore, accurate identification of malingered deficits has become a more significant problem in evaluating competency to stand trial than it previously was. When neuropsychological factors are introduced, competency assessment becomes complex. This article presents a methodology for managing these complexities. Strategies for preparing concise competency evaluations for defendants presenting neuropsychological symptoms are provided along with examples that help illustrate the evaluation process.

  19. Finding models to detect Alzheimer's disease by fusing structural and neuropsychological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Velasco, Nelson; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects higher brain functions. Initial diagnosis of AD is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The accuracy of the diagnosis is highly dependent on the examiner's skills and on the evolution of a variable clinical frame. This work presents an automatic strategy that learns probabilistic brain models for different stages of the disease, reducing the complexity, parameter adjustment and computational costs. The proposed method starts by setting a probabilistic class description using the information stored in the neuropsychological test, followed by constructing the different structural class models using membership values from the learned probabilistic functions. These models are then used as a reference frame for the classification problem: a new case is assigned to a particular class simply by projecting to the different models. The validation was performed using a leave-one-out cross-validation, two classes were used: Normal Control (NC) subjects and patients diagnosed with mild AD. In this experiment it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 80% and 79% respectively.

  20. Neuropsychological Deficits in Early Treated Phenylketonuric Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Six early treated children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were compared at 9 to 14 years of age on a neuropsychological measure with three groups of children with documented neurological disorders. PKU Ss had overall level of neuropsychological impairment similar to that of brain-damaged groups. PKU Ss did not show consistent pattern of…

  1. Education quality, reading recognition, and racial differences in the neuropsychological outcome from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Noah D; Hanks, Robin A; Tompkins, Season C

    2013-08-01

    Ethnically diverse examinees tend to perform lower on neuropsychological tests. The practice of adjusting normative comparisons for the education level and/or race to prevent overpathologizing low scores is problematic. Education quality, as measured by reading recognition, appears to be a more accurate benchmark for premorbid functioning in certain populations. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that a measure of reading recognition, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), would account for racial differences in neuropsychological performance after TBI. Fifty participants (72% African American, 28% Caucasian) with moderate to severe TBI underwent neuropsychological testing at 1-year post-injury. Reading recognition accounted for all the same variance in neuropsychological performance as race and education (together), as well as considerable additional variance. Estimation of premorbid functioning in African Americans with TBI could be refined by considering reading recognition.

  2. White Matter Correlates of Neuropsychological Dysfunction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Chavez, Robert S.; Flores, Ranee A.; Qualls, Clifford; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Roldan, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20–50%) as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE). We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE), ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female), and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = −2.25+/−1.77, non-NPSLE = −1.22+/−1.03, Controls = −0.10+/−.57; F = 13.2, p<.001). In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree) in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results. PMID:22291880

  3. History of neuropsychology through epilepsy eyes.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W

    2010-06-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions.

  4. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  5. Distinct regions of right temporal cortex are associated with biological and human-agent motion: functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao; Chen, Jing; Chen, Quanjing; He, Yong; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2013-09-25

    In human lateral temporal cortex, some regions show specific sensitivity to human motion. Here we examine whether such effects reflect a general biological-nonbiological organizational principle or a process specific to human-agent processing by comparing processing of human, animal, and tool motion in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with healthy participants and a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) study of patients with brain damage (77 stroke patients). The fMRI experiment revealed that in the lateral temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus shows a preference for human and animal motion, whereas the middle part of the right superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (mSTS/STG) shows a preference for human and functional tool motion. VLSM analyses also revealed that damage to this right mSTS/STG region led to more severe impairment in the recognition of human and functional tool motion relative to animal motion, indicating the causal role of this brain area in human-agent motion processing. The findings for the right mSTS/STG cannot be reduced to a preference for articulated motion or processing of social variables since neither factor is involved in functional tool motion recognition. We conclude that a unidimensional biological-nonbiological distinction cannot fully explain the visual motion effects in lateral temporal cortex. Instead, the results suggest the existence of distinct components in right posterior temporal cortex and mSTS/STG that are associated, respectively, with biological motion and human-agent motion processing.

  6. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    PubMed

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level.

  7. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    PubMed

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level. PMID:26936160

  8. Neuropsychological assessment of the orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Zald, David H; Andreotti, Charissa

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the functions of the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex has proven to be a unique challenge for neuropsychologists. Orbitomedial damage occurs in a range of disorders including traumatic brain injury, ruptured aneurysms, surgical resection, and frontotemporal dementia. We review the effects of orbitomedial damage on a range of neuropsychological tasks, including tasks measuring object alternation and reversal learning, decision-making (gambling), facial emotion recognition, theory of mind, olfactory recognition, autobiographical memory and behavioral rating measures. At present, there is no singular gold standard measure of orbitomedial dysfunction, and assessment requires an integrative approach that reflects the heterogeneity of the region. The heterogeneous neuropsychological deficits arising from orbitomedial damage are difficult to ascribe to a unitary function or process, but appear to reflect a set of processes necessary for monitoring and adapting to changing reinforcement contingencies.

  9. The neuropsychology of attention: revisiting the "Mirsky model".

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Joyce, Arthur W; Wurglitz, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences derived from brain lesion studies. Mirsky and colleagues developed a systematic clinical evaluation of this model by applying a group of neuropsychological tests. Since the introduction of what has been commonly referred to as the "Mirsky model," significant advances have been made in our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. This article applies current neuroscientific principles to "update" our understanding of attention and the "Mirsky model." We also demonstrate how the interpretation of neuropsychological tests can be modified according to principles of large-scale brain systems and patterns of brain network functional connectivity.

  10. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: evidence from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each other both at encoding and at retrieval. We suggest that theories of memory should be revised to account for all of the interdependencies between episodic and semantic memory; they should also incorporate forms of memory that do not fit neatly into either category.

  11. The neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates of slowly progressive visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Aresi, Anna; Reati, Fabiola; Riva, Alice; Gobbo, Clara; Bizzi, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 64-year-old woman affected by slowly progressive visual agnosia is reported aiming to describe specific cognitive-brain relationships. Longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessment, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET) were used. Sequential neuropsychological evaluations performed during a period of 9 years since disease onset showed the appearance of apperceptive and associative visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and prosopoagnosia, but excluded dementia. MRI showed moderate diffuse cortical atrophy, with predominant atrophy in the left posterior cortical areas (temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital cortical gyri). 18FDG-PET showed marked bilateral posterior cortical hypometabolism; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed severe focal N-acetyl-aspartate depletion in the left temporoparietal and lateral occipital cortical areas. In conclusion, selective metabolic alterations and neuronal loss in the left temporoparietooccipital cortex may determine progressive visual agnosia in the absence of dementia.

  12. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients’ overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  13. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  14. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  15. Changing Patterns of Neuropsychological Functioning in Children Living at High Altitude above and below 4000 M: A Report from the Bolivian Children Living at Altitude (BoCLA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Bucks, Romola; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Baya-Botti, Ana; Hogan, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The brain is highly sensitive to environmental hypoxia. Little is known, however, about the neuropsychological effects of high altitude residence in the developing brain. We recently described only minor changes in processing speed in native Bolivian children and adolescents living at approximately 3700 m. However, evidence for loss of cerebral…

  16. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Methods Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Results Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Conclusion Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence. PMID:26824701

  17. Neuropsychological profiles and subsequent diagnoses of children with early life insults: do caregiver reports suggest deficits?

    PubMed

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many types of early life events can cause cerebral dysfunction; however, not all children have medical records or neurologic imaging documenting brain injuries. Rather, many neuropsychologists base their findings on caregiver reports describing possible early brain insults. Neuropsychological studies suggest that brief perinatal cyanosis and/or childhood neglect may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Should the mere suggestion of these events from caregiver reports be enough to suggest deficits? This study examines four groups of children: those with (1) reported nuchal cord compression with brief cyanosis, (2) reported childhood neglect, (3) reported history of both, and (4) reported history of none. It was hypothesized that based on the literature of these populations, children who present at an evaluation with the report of these insults would also present cognitive deficits. Results revealed no significant difference in intellect, memory, or academic abilities. A significant difference was shown between groups during the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, as groups with a history of neglect had lower scores. A history of childhood neglect also suggested an increased risk for subsequent emotional/behavioral diagnoses. These findings suggest that although the profiles range between low-average and average, reports of early life insults can flag potential deficits in a child's neuropsychological profile. PMID:24236945

  18. Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Franke-Sievert, Christiane; Jacoby, Georg E; Markowitsch, Hans J; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2007-11-01

    In addition to the core psychopathology of bulimia nervosa (BN), patients with BN often show impulsive behavior that has been related to decision making deficits in other patient groups, such as individuals with anorexia nervosa and pathological gamblers. However, it remains unclear whether BN patients also show difficulties in decision making. In this study, 14 patients with BN and 14 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, education, body mass index, and intelligence, were examined with the Game of Dice Task (M. Brand, E. Fujiwara, et al., 2005), a gambling task that has fixed winning probabilities and explicit rules for gains and losses, as well as with a neuropsychological test battery and personality questionnaires. On the task, the patients with BN chose the disadvantageous alternatives more frequently than did the comparison subjects. Performance on the Game of Dice Task was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological functions, personality, or disease-specific variables in the BN group. Thus, in patients with BN, decision making abnormalities and executive reductions can be demonstrated and might be neuropsychological correlates of the patients' dysfunctional everyday-life decision making behavior. Neurocognitive functions should be considered in the treatment of BN.

  19. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  20. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  1. Insomnia: Neurophysiological and neuropsychological approaches.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Célyne H

    2011-03-01

    Insomnia is a symptom, a syndrome and a comorbid disorder. Its diagnosis relies on subjective reports from the afflicted individual and is defined as difficulties in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep, waking up too early or non-restorative sleep. However, insomnia and especially, primary insomnia, has received much attention in insomnia research with the use of objective measures. Insomnia, its peculiarities, most frequent subtypes and two most prominent models will first be briefly introduced. Then, insomnia will be reviewed according to results obtained with the use of neurophysiological measures as basic/traditional as polysomnography to more sophisticated ones such as power spectral analysis, neuroimaging, cyclic alternating patterns and event-related potentials. In addition, a review of the discrepancies between subjective and objective reports of cognitive alterations through neuropsychological testing is offered. The need to combine measures is then highlighted in conclusion. PMID:21249453

  2. Lessons from cognitive neuropsychology for cognitive science: a reply to Patterson and Plaut (2009).

    PubMed

    Coltheart, Max

    2010-01-01

    A recent article in this journal (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has told us very little over the past 30 or 40 years about "how the brain accomplishes its cognitive business." This may well be true, but it is not important, because the principal aim of cognitive neuropsychology is not to learn about the brain. Its principal aim is instead to learn about the mind, that is, to elucidate the functional architecture of cognition. I show that this is so (a) via extensive quotations from leading figures in this field and (b) by analysis of the subject matter of articles in the leading journal in the field, Cognitive Neuropsychology. Recent reviews of the past 25 years of work in this field (Coltheart & Caramazza, 2006) have concluded that cognitive neuropsychology has told us much about the functional architecture of cognition in a variety of cognitive domains. Patterson and Plaut (2009) did not consider this aim of cognitive neuropsychology. Therefore, their conclusions that cognitive neuropsychology has not been successful, and that this is because the particular methods it uses are flawed, are not justified.

  3. Compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Complaints of cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and they are often accompanied by deficits on neuropsychological testing. Prior studies of BPD, however, did not evaluate compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing, which could partially account for cognitive deficits observed in patients. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency at which patients with BPD show less than adequate compliance on performance validity testing, and whether patients showing less compliance perform lower on standardized neuropsychological measures. Fifty outpatients with BPD completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, a 2-alternative, forced-choice recognition test as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery for research on cognitive functioning in BPD. As a group, patients with BPD made more errors and had longer response latencies on seemingly difficult items as compared to healthy individuals. Based on established guidelines for interpretation of performances on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, 2% of the sample was classified as probably not compliant, 10% questionably compliant, and 88% compliant. Patients with questionably or probably not compliant performances had lower estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and displayed poorer response control on neuropsychological testing than compliant patients. These findings highlight the value of incorporating performance validity testing in neuropsychological studies of patients with BPD and suggest that prior research on the disorder should be interpreted with caution because the results may not be based on valid performances.

  4. Telomerase deficiency affects normal brain functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Jo, Yong Sang; Sung, Young Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Hyuk; Kim, Song-Yi; Yi, Sun Shin; Choi, June-Seek; Sun, Woong; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Han-Woong

    2010-02-01

    Telomerase maintains telomere structures and chromosome stability, and it is essential for preserving the characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. In the brain, the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs are continuously supplied with neural stem and progenitor cells that are required for adult neurogenesis throughout the life. Therefore, we examined whether telomerase plays important roles in maintaining normal brain functions in vivo. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression was observed in the hippocampus, the olfactory bulbs, and the cerebellum, but the telomerase RNA component (TERC) was not detected in hippocampus and olfactory bulbs. Interestingly, TERT-deficient mice exhibited significantly altered anxiety-like behaviors and abnormal olfaction measuring the functions of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs, respectively. However, the cerebellum-dependent behavior was not changed in these mutant mice. These results suggest that TERT is constitutively expressed in the hippocampus and the olfactory bulbs, and that it is important for regulating normal brain functions. PMID:19685288

  5. [The rapid development of child neuropsychology].

    PubMed

    Billard, C; Jambaqué, I

    2008-05-01

    The past few years have seen important progress and new developments in the field of child neuropsychology. Children can exhibit acquired or learning disorders, but in all cases such deficits take place in a developmental trajectory that requires taking into account cerebral maturation and plasticity processes. Child neuropsychology finds its specificity in the perspective of developmental neuropsychology and has close connections with health and education. This article focuses on two pathologies - childhood epilepsies and developmental dyslexia - that highlight the recent progress in this specialty and its perspectives.

  6. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  7. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  8. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  9. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  10. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:26413738

  11. Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401).

  12. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience.

  13. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  14. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    PubMed

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences. PMID:26485784

  15. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    PubMed

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences.

  16. Neuropsychological profile of patients with primary systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U; Ardila, A

    2001-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that chronic hypertension may eventually result in small subcortical infarcts associated with some cognitive impairments. One hundred fourteen patients with primary systemic hypertension (PSH) and 114 matched subjects were selected. PSH patients were further divided in four groups depending upon the hypertension severity. In addition to the medical and laboratory exams, a neuropsychological evaluation was administered. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was used. An association between level of hypertension and cognitive impairment was observed. Most significant differences were observed in the following domains: Reading, executive functioning, constructional, and memory-recall. No differences were observed in orientation, memory-recognition, and language. Some neuropsychological functions appeared impaired even in the PSH group with the least risk factors. Cognitive evaluation may be important in cases of PSH not only to determine early subtle cognitive changes, but also for follow-up purposes, and to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic procedures. PMID:11912866

  17. Neuropsychological endophenotypes in ADHD with and without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, William S; Vasserman, Marsha; Vekaria, Pooja; Miles-Mason, Eavan; Hochsztein, Natanya; Bender, Heidi A

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent comorbidity in children with epilepsy. Despite similarities in behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological endophenotypes of children with developmental ADHD differ from those with ADHD in the context of epilepsy. The present study compared groups of clinically referred children with both ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C) to children with ADHD-I and ADHD-C and epilepsy on neuropsychological measures of intellectual functioning, auditory attention, working memory, and sustained attention and response inhibition. Those with ADHD and epilepsy performed more poorly on measures of intellectual function (e.g., Full-Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ) as well as auditory attention and working memory. Differences across the groups were also seen on a continuous performance test. Follow-up correlational analyses showed that variables such as seizure frequency and number of antiepilepsy medications predicted cognitive dysfunction in the epilepsy groups. Overall results suggest that the neuropsychological endophenotypes in developmental ADHD versus ADHD in epilepsy differ with seizure-related variables predicting cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions.

  19. Neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Deleo, Francesco; Ragona, Francesca; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Pelliccia, Sarah; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) is the second most frequent type of localization-related epilepsy, and it may impact neurocognitive functioning with high variability. The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in affected children remains poorly defined. This report outlines the neuropsychological profiles and outcomes in children with new onset FLE, and the impact of epilepsy-related factors, such as seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug (AED) load, on the neurocognitive development. Twenty-three consecutive children (15 males and 8 females) with newly diagnosed cryptogenic FLE were enrolled; median age at epilepsy onset was 7 years (6-9.6 years). They underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation and neuropsychological assessment before starting AED treatment (time 0) and after one year of treatment (time 1). Twenty age-matched patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (10 male and 10 females) and eighteen age-matched healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) were enrolled as controls and underwent the same assessment. All patients with FLE showed a significant difference in almost all assessed cognitive domains compared with controls, mainly in frontal functions and memory. At time 1, patients were divided into two groups according to epilepsy-related factors: group 1 (9 patients) with persisting seizures despite AED polytherapy, and group 2 (14 patients) with good seizure control in monotherapy. A significant difference was highlighted in almost all subtests in group 1 compared with group 2, both at time 0 and at time 1. In children with FLE showing a broad range of neurocognitive impairments, the epilepsy-related factors mostly related to a worse neurocognitive outcome are poor seizure control and the use of AED polytherapy, suggesting that epileptic discharges may have a negative impact on the functioning of the involved cerebral regions. PMID:26773674

  20. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity.

  1. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  2. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  3. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

  4. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  5. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adams, B M; Coates, Miranda N; Jackson, S RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S; Davis, Tara L

    2015-07-15

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing.

  6. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  7. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  8. Does prolonged cycling of moderate intensity affect immune cell function?

    PubMed Central

    Scharhag, J; Meyer, T; Gabriel, H; Schlick, B; Faude, O; Kindermann, W; Shephard, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prolonged exercise may induce temporary immunosuppression with a presumed increased susceptibility for infection. However, there are only few data on immune cell function after prolonged cycling at moderate intensities typical for road cycling training sessions. Methods: The present study examined the influence on immune cell function of 4 h of cycling at a constant intensity of 70% of the individual anaerobic threshold. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte and lymphocyte populations, activities of natural killer (NK), neutrophils, and monocytes were examined before and after exercise, and also on a control day without exercise. Results: Cycling for 4 h induced a moderate acute phase response with increases in IL-6 from 1.0 (SD 0.5) before to 9.6 (5.6) pg/ml 1 h after exercise and CRP from 0.5 (SD 0.4) before to 1.8 (1.3) mg/l 1 day after exercise. Although absolute numbers of circulating NK cells, monocytes, and neutrophils increased during exercise, on a per cell basis NK cell activity, neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis, and monocyte oxidative burst did not significantly change after exercise. However, a minor effect over time for neutrophil oxidative burst was noted, tending to decrease after exercise. Conclusions: Prolonged cycling at moderate intensities does not seem to seriously alter the function of cells of the first line of defence. Therefore, the influence of a single typical road cycling training session on the immune system is only moderate and appears to be safe from an immunological point of view. PMID:15728699

  9. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea.

  10. Repeated Traumatic Brain Injury Affects Composite Cognitive Function in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Smith, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cumulative effects of repetitive mild head injury in the pediatric population are unknown. We have developed a cognitive composite dysfunction score that correlates white matter injury severity in neonatal piglets with neurobehavioral assessments of executive function, memory, learning, and problem solving. Anesthetized 3- to 5-day-old piglets were subjected to single (n = 7), double one day apart (n = 7), and double one week apart (n = 7) moderate (190 rad/s) rapid non-impact axial rotations of the head and compared to instrumented shams (n = 7). Animals experiencing two head rotations one day apart had a significantly higher mortality rate (43%) compared to the other groups and had higher failures rates in visual-based problem solving compared to instrumented shams. White matter injury, assessed by β-APP staining, was significantly higher in the double one week apart group compared to that with single injury and sham. Worsening performance on cognitive composite score correlated well with increasing severity of white matter axonal injury. In our immature large animal model of TBI, two head rotations produced poorer outcome as assessed by neuropathology and neurobehavioral functional outcomes compared to that with single rotations. More importantly, we have observed an increase in injury severity and mortality when the head rotations occur 24 h apart compared to 7 days apart. These observations have important clinical translation to infants subjected to repeated inflicted head trauma. PMID:19275468

  11. Adaptive Immunity in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mosley, R Lee

    2015-12-01

    Neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders are becoming a greater proportion of the global disease burden; however the pathogenic mechanisms by which these disorders originate and contribute to disease progression are not well-described. Increasing evidence supports neuroinflammation as a common underlying component associated with the neuropathological processes that effect disease progression. This collection of articles explores the role of adaptive immunity in autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, neurotrauma, and psychological disorders. The section emphasizes the interactions of T cells with innate cellular responses within the CNS and the effects on neurological functions. One recurrent theme is that modified and aggregated self-proteins upregulate innate-mediated inflammation and provide a permissive environment for polarization of T cells to proinflammatory effector cells. Moreover, infiltration and reactivation of those T effector cells exacerbate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress to greater neurotoxic levels. Another recurrent theme in these disorders promotes diminished regulatory functions that reduce control over activated T effector cells and microglia, and ultimately augment proinflammatory conditions. Augmentation of regulatory control is discussed as therapeutic strategies to attenuate neuroinflammation, mitigate neurodegeneration or neuronal dysfunction, and lessen disease progression.

  12. A comparison of neuropsychological and situational assessment for predicting employability after closed head injury.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, J M; Hayden, M E; Paulman, R G

    2000-08-01

    The relationships among neuropsychological assessment, situational assessment, and judgments of future employability in 127 survivors of moderate to severe closed head injury were evaluated. Participants received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and a situational vocational evaluation. Two groups were created, based on employment recommendation from the situational evaluation. A seven-factor model was found to account for the preponderance of variance within the neuropsychological battery used, and one factor was predictive of group assignment from situational assessment. However, the present data reinforce the predominance of findings in the literature that indicate that, in general, no individual neuropsychological test can be used to predict vocational performance in more environmentally relevant environments. Exceptions to this "rule" may occur when comparisons between results of formal neuropsychological tests and situational evaluation are limited to very simple, very circumscribed, and/or very well-defined functions. Thus, situational assessment is seen as a critical adjunct to neuropsychological assessment in making "real-world" predictions. The particular situational assessment used in this study was internally valid, an important finding given the importance of situational assessment in ecologically valid predictions.

  13. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  14. Neuropsychological assessment of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bernhard W; Gimbel, Karla; Keller-Pliessnig, Anett; Sartory, Gudrun; Gastpar, Markus; Davids, Eugen

    2007-03-01

    Adults with persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may show cognitive deficits as compared to healthy control subjects. The aim of this study was to compare a sample of adult outpatients with ADHD on medication to healthy controls on a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery. Thirty adults with ADHD under stable psychopharmacological treatment and 27 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and IQ were assessed with ten tests measuring performance with regard to attention, memory, executive function, and fine motor control. Lower performance in patients as compared to controls was found in tests of verbal and visual memory, speed of visuo-motor search, set shifting, and divided attention. Indicators of response inhibition and simple response speed were less affected. Adults with ADHD show indicators of lowered cognitive performance under medication. These are related more to memory and attention under high mental load than to response inhibition or simple attention or motor performance.

  15. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  16. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  17. Endocannabinoids affect the reproductive functions in teleosts and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Cottone, E; Guastalla, A; Mackie, K; Franzoni, M F

    2008-04-16

    Following the discovery in the brain of the bonyfish Fugu rubripes of two genes encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1A and CB1B), investigations on the phylogeny of these receptors have indicated that the cannabinergic system is highly conserved. Among the multiple functions modulated by cannabinoids/endocannabinoids through the CB1 receptors one of the more investigated is the mammalian reproduction. Therefore, since studies performed in animal models other than mammals might provide further insight into the biology of these signalling molecules, the major aim of the present paper was to review the comparative data pointing toward the endocannabinoid involvement in the reproductive control of non-mammalian vertebrates, namely bonyfish and amphibians. The expression and distribution of CB1 receptors were investigated in the CNS and gonads of two teleosts, Pelvicachromis pulcher and Carassius auratus as well as in the anuran amphibians Xenopus laevis and Rana esculenta. In general the large diffusion of neurons targeted by cannabinoids in both fish and amphibian forebrain indicate endocannabinoids as pivotal local messengers in several neural circuits involved in either sensory integrative activities, like the olfactory processes (in amphibians) and food response (in bonyfish), or neuroendocrine machinery (in both). By using immunohistochemistry for CB1 and GnRH-I, the codistribution of the two signalling molecules was found in the fish basal telencephalon and preoptic area, which are key centers for gonadotropic regulation in all vertebrates. A similar topographical codistribution was observed also in the septum of the telencephalon in Rana esculenta and Xenopus laevis. Interestingly, the double standard immunofluorescence on the same brain section, aided with a laser confocal microscope, showed that in anurans a subset of GnRH-I neurons exhibited also the CB1 immunostaining. The fact that CB1-LI-IR was found indeed in the FSH gonadotrophs of the Xenopus

  18. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  19. Cognitive neuropsychology and its vicissitudes: The fate of Caramazza's axioms.

    PubMed

    Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology is characterized as the discipline in which one draws conclusions about the organization of the normal cognitive systems from the behaviour of brain-damaged individuals. In a series of papers, Caramazza, later in collaboration with McCloskey, put forward four assumptions as the bridge principles for making such inferences. Four potential pitfalls, one for each axiom, are discussed with respect to the use of single-case methods. Two of the pitfalls also apply to case series and group study procedures, and the other two are held to be indirectly testable or avoidable. Moreover, four other pitfalls are held to apply to case series or group study methods. It is held that inferences from single-case procedures may profitably be supported or rejected using case series/group study methods, but also that analogous support needs to be given in the other direction for functionally based case series or group studies. It is argued that at least six types of neuropsychological method are valuable for extrapolation to theories of the normal cognitive system but that the single- or multiple-case study remains a critical part of cognitive neuropsychology's methods.

  20. Neuropsychological findings in a patient with Kernohan's notch.

    PubMed

    Clement, V L; Sherer, M

    1996-05-01

    This case report describes the use of neuropsychological testing to Iocalize and diagnose lesions The testing was instrumental in disentangling contradictory symptoms to reveal a Kernohan's notch (later confirmed by MRI), thus ruling out incorrect diagnoses We describe the case of a 36-year-old right-handed man who developed a left epidural hematoma after suffering head trauma from a blunt instrument Sequelae 2 months post-injury included left hemiparesis (ipsilateral to the lesion), dysphonic speech, severe naming/word-finding deficits, and severe memory impairment This patient's symptom pattern presented somewhat of a mystery as his cognitive deficits appeared consistent with left hemisphere damage, while his left motor symptoms suggested right hemisphere damage Medical records were inconsistent Deficits on neuropsychological testing at 3 months post-injury included impairment in verbal and visual memory, confrontation naming, and left-sided motor function Attention, visual-spatial skills, nonverbal problem solving, and right motor speed and coordination were intact A herniation syndrome, Kernohan's notch, was considered to be the most likely explanation This phenomenon occurs when a mass occupying lesion causes significant midline shift of the midbrain, pressing the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorium This pressure produces an ischemic infact in the region of the corticospinal (motor) pathways Subsequent MRI confirmed a lesion in the right cerebral crus The pattern of neuropsychological finding in this patient is discussed.

  1. Cognitive neuropsychology and its vicissitudes: The fate of Caramazza's axioms.

    PubMed

    Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology is characterized as the discipline in which one draws conclusions about the organization of the normal cognitive systems from the behaviour of brain-damaged individuals. In a series of papers, Caramazza, later in collaboration with McCloskey, put forward four assumptions as the bridge principles for making such inferences. Four potential pitfalls, one for each axiom, are discussed with respect to the use of single-case methods. Two of the pitfalls also apply to case series and group study procedures, and the other two are held to be indirectly testable or avoidable. Moreover, four other pitfalls are held to apply to case series or group study methods. It is held that inferences from single-case procedures may profitably be supported or rejected using case series/group study methods, but also that analogous support needs to be given in the other direction for functionally based case series or group studies. It is argued that at least six types of neuropsychological method are valuable for extrapolation to theories of the normal cognitive system but that the single- or multiple-case study remains a critical part of cognitive neuropsychology's methods. PMID:27355606

  2. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis affects functional diversity of rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Frey-Klett, Pascale; Chavatte, Michaël; Clausse, Marie-Lise; Courrier, Sébastien; Le Roux, Christine; Raaijmakers, Jos; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Garbaye, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Here we characterized the effect of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on the genotypic and functional diversity of soil Pseudomonas fluorescens populations and analysed its possible consequences in terms of plant nutrition, development and health. Sixty strains of P. fluorescens were isolated from the bulk soil of a forest nursery, the ectomycorrhizosphere and the ectomycorrhizas of the Douglas fir (Pseudostuga menziesii) seedlings-Laccaria bicolor S238N. They were characterized in vitro with the following criteria: ARDRA, phosphate solubilization, siderophore, HCN and AIA production, genes of N2-fixation and antibiotic synthesis, in vitro confrontation with a range of phytopathogenic and ectomycorrhizal fungi, effect on the Douglas fir-L. bicolor symbiosis. For most of these criteria, we demonstrated that the ectomycorrhizosphere significantly structures the P. fluorescens populations and selects strains potentially beneficial to the symbiosis and to the plant. This prompts us to propose the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis as a true microbial complex where multitrophic interactions take place. Moreover it underlines the fact that this symbiosis has an indirect positive effect on plant growth, via its selective pressure on bacterial communities, in addition to its known direct positive effect. PMID:15720643

  4. Aluminum fluoride affects the structure and functions of cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Norris, B; Villena, F; Cuevas, F; Sotomayor, P; Zatta, P

    2004-06-01

    No useful biological function for aluminum has been found. To the contrary, it might play an important role in several pathologies, which could be related to its interactions with cell membranes. On the other hand, fluoride is a normal component of body fluids, soft tissues, bones and teeth. Its sodium salt is frequently added to drinking water to prevent dental caries. However, large doses cause severe pathological alterations. In view of the toxicity of Al(3+) and F(-) ions, it was thought of interest to explore the damaging effects that AlF(3) might induce in cell membranes. With this aim, it was incubated with human erythrocytes, which were examined by phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy, and molecular models of biomembranes. The latter consisted of large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and bilayers of DMPC and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) which were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. In order to understand the effects of AlF(3) on ion transport (principally sodium and chloride) we used the isolated toad skin to which electrophysiological measurements were applied. It was found that AlF(3) altered the shape of erythrocytes inducing the formation of echinocytes. This effect was explained by X-ray diffraction which revealed that AlF(3) perturbed the structure of DMPC, class of lipids located in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane. This result was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy on DMPC LUV. The biphasic (stimulatory followed by inhibitory) effects on the isolated skin suggested changes in apical Cl(-) secretion and moderate ATPase inactivation. PMID:15110101

  5. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  6. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  7. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  8. The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed.

  9. [Working memory: neuropsychological and neurobiological issues].

    PubMed

    Borkowska, Alina; Wiłkość, Monika; Tomaszewska, Marta; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Working memory denotes an ability to remember information for a short-time and to manipulate it. The memory allows including correct information depending on the situation, to keep the information on present activities for a while and enables changing the reaction according to new criteria. The relation between working memory and efficiency of complex cognitive processes and also with the control of emotional processes, plasticity of behaviour and consciousness was demonstrated. Working memory is connected with the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain. Recently, it has been shown, that working memory disturbances play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of psychiatric disturbances such as schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Working memory disturbances are also shown in a proportion of healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. Working memory disturbances are presently regarded as a cognitive endophenotypic marker of vulnerability to these illnesses. In recent years, an association between working memory abilities and activity of different neurotransmitters, especially with the dopaminergic system in the brain, has been shown. Molecular genetic studies show an association between working memory abilities and polymorphism of the dopaminergic system genes in schizophrenia and polymorphism of BDNF gene in bipolar affective disorders. So far not much data about the genetics of working memory in healthy subjects has been gathered. Currently in Poland such research is carried on in the Clinical Neuropsychology Unit Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz in cooperation with the Department of Adult Psychiatry and Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics University of Medical Sciences in Poznań.

  10. Neuropsychological performance in cancer patients: the role of oral opioids, pain and performance status.

    PubMed

    Sjøgren, P; Olsen, A K; Thomsen, A B; Dalberg, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible influence of oral opioids, pain and performance status on some aspects of psychomotor function and cognition in cancer patients. One hundred and thirty cancer patients between 40 and 76 years of age were consecutively included in the study. In order to separate the impact of performance status, pain and oral opioids on neuropsychological functioning the patients were allocated in a cross-sectional design to five different groups. Group 1 (N=40), which was considered the control group, was characterized by being in Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) A ('Able to carry on normal activity and work. No special care is needed'), had no pain and received no oral opioid medication. Group 2 (N=19) was characterized by being in KPS B ('Unable to work. Able to live at home and care for most personal needs. A varying degree of assistance is needed'), had no pain and received no oral opioid medication. Group 3 (N=19) was characterized by being in KPS B, had pain, but received no oral opioid medication. Group 4a (N=31) was characterized by being in KPS B, had pain and received stable doses of oral opioids. Group 4b (N=21) was characterized by being in KPS B, had no pain and received stable doses of opioids. Assessments comprised pain intensity, sedation, opioid doses, time from ingestion of last opioid dose to testing and opioid side effects. The neuropsychological tests used were continuous reaction time (CRT), finger tapping test (FTT) and paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT). Regarding the neuropsychological tests group 1 was compared with each of the other groups and respecting the hierarchy of increasing numbers of stigmatizing factors group 1 was compared with group 2, group 2 with group 3 and so forth. Concerning CRT, group 1 performed statistically significantly faster than groups 2, 4a and 4b. Concerning FTT, group 1 performed statistically significantly faster than groups 3 and 4a. Concerning PASAT

  11. Predicting competency in automated machine use in an acquired brain injury population using neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Simon F; Mahony, Kate; Jackson, Martin

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore whether performance on standardised neuropsychological measures could predict functional ability with automated machines and services among people with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Participants were 45 individuals who met the criteria for mild, moderate or severe ABI and 15 control participants matched on demographic variables including age- and education. Each participant was required to complete a battery of neuropsychological tests, as well as performing three automated service delivery tasks: a transport automated ticketing machine, an automated teller machine (ATM) and an automated telephone service. The results showed consistently high relationship between the neuropsychological measures, both as single predictors and in combination, and level of competency with the automated machines. Automated machines are part of a relatively new phenomena in service delivery and offer an ecologically valid functional measure of performance that represents a true indication of functional disability. PMID:15271411

  12. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways.

  13. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways. PMID:26336867

  14. Neuropsychology of the Deficit Syndrome: New Data and Meta-analysis of Findings To Date

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Saperstein, Alice M.; Gold, James M.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The deficit syndrome is thought to characterize a pathophysiologically distinct subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. Supporting this notion, prior research examining the neuropsychological correlates of the deficit syndrome has suggested the presence of a differential impairment in frontal and parietal functions. This article reports findings from 2 studies attempting to replicate and extend previous reports of a differential neuropsychological impairment in deficit schizophrenia. In the first study, we administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to 20 deficit and 25 nondeficit patients with schizophrenia and 25 normal healthy controls. In the second study, a meta-analysis was conducted of 13 separate studies examining the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. There was little evidence from either of the present studies that the deficit syndrome is associated with a selective impairment in frontal and parietal lobe functions. The first study failed to find significant differences in frontal or parietal abilities for deficit vs nondeficit patients. The meta-analytic findings revealed that deficit patients were globally more neuropsychologically impaired than nondeficit patients (effect size [ES] = 0.41). Relative to nondeficit patients, deficit patients performed poorest on tests of olfaction (ES = 1.11), social cognition (ES = 0.56), global cognition (ES = 0.52), and language (ES = 0.51). The neuropsychological impairments associated with the deficit form of schizophrenia do not follow an obvious anatomically defined pattern of impairment. The question of whether deficit patients exhibit a unique cognitive impairment profile will require a more sophisticated and rigorous examination of the neuropsychology of the deficit syndrome. PMID:17159230

  15. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  16. Reward-related decision making in eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from neuropsychological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mudan; Brockmeyer, Timo; Hartmann, Mechthild; Skunde, Mandy; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) are serious public health concerns that share common neuropsychological features and patterns of disturbed eating. Reward-related decision making as a basic neurocognitive function may trans-diagnostically underlie both pathological overeating and restricted eating. The present meta-analysis synthesizes the evidence from N=82 neuropsychological studies for altered reward-related decision making in all ED subtypes, OW and OB. The overall effect sizes for the differences between currently-ill ED patients and OW/OB people and controls were Hedge's g=-0.49 [CI: -0.63; -0.35], and Hedge's g=-0.39 [CI: -0.53; -0.25], respectively. Decision making was found to be altered to similar degrees in all ED subtypes and OB. Effect sizes, however, diverged for the different measures of decision making. Adolescents appear to be less affected than adults. When foods were used as rewarding stimuli, decision making was found to be intact in OB. The findings support that altered general reward-related decision making is a salient neuropsychological factor across eating and weight disorders in adulthood.

  17. Neuropsychological impairment after hemorrhagic stroke in basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lin, Yueh-Hsieh; Guo, Nai-Wen

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to determine the severity and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage within the first 6 months after stroke and to identify its clinical correlates. The study samples consisted of 30 patients with BG hemorrhage and 37 healthy controls. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, memory, language, visuospatial function, and executive function was administered to all participants. Relative to healthy controls, BG patients performed significantly worse across different cognitive domains after controlling for age, sex, and education. 96.7% of patients displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis showed that visuospatial function and memory were the best predictors of group membership (patient/control), with an overall classification rate of 95.5%. Only side of stroke and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score correlated significantly with some of the cognitive domains. The widespread pattern of cognitive deficits seen in BG patients provides evidence for the substantial involvement of the BG in many neuronal pathways connecting cortical and subcortical brain areas responsible for various cognitive functions. PMID:17336034

  18. Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine).

    PubMed

    Trefz, F; de Sonneville, L; Matthis, P; Benninger, C; Lanz-Englert, B; Bickel, H

    1994-04-01

    Aspartame, a high intensity sweetener, is used extensively worldwide in over 5,000 products. Upon ingestion, aspartame is completely metabolized to two amino acids and methanol (approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid, and 10% methanol). The effects of aspartame on cognitive function, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 48 adult (21 men, 27 women) heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKUH), PKUH subjects whose carrier status had been proven by DNA analysis ingested aspartame (either 15 or 45 mg/kg/day) and placebo for 12 weeks on each treatment using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was administered at baseline weeks -2 and -1, and during treatment at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. Samples for plasma amino acids and urinary organic acids were also collected during these visits. EEGs were evaluated by conventional and spectral analysis at baseline week -1 and treatment weeks 12 and 24. The results of the neuropsychological tests demonstrated that aspartame had no effect on cognitive function. Plasma phenylalanine significantly increased, within the normal range for PKUH, at 1 and 3 h following the morning dose of aspartame in the group receiving the 45 mg/kg per day dose only. There were no significant differences in the conventional or spectral EEG analyses, urinary organic acid concentrations, and adverse experiences when aspartame was compared with placebo. This study reaffirms the safety of aspartame in PKUH and refutes the speculation that aspartame affects cognitive performance, EEGs, and urinary organic acids.

  19. [Neuropsychological development in children with focal brain injury].

    PubMed

    Masi, G; Marcheschi, M; Brovedani, P; Pfanner, P

    1993-06-01

    The study of children with focal brain injury has important implications from a clinical and theoretical perspective. Clinical data on children with congenital or early acquired lesions indicates that the cognitive sequelae are different from those resulting from similar damage sustained in adulthood. These differences depend in part on the differential effect that damage has on ongoing developmental process and in part on the different recovery capacity of the Central Nervous System of the child. From a theoretical perspective, focal lesion data is important for analyzing the issues of early neuropsychological functioning (especially in terms of early hemispheric specialization) and of plasticity and recovery of function of the CNS. This review analyzes the possible causes of this heterogeneity, that seems in part dependent on the interindividual variability of early neuropsychological organization and in part related to methodological factors such subject inclusion criteria and nature of neuropsychological measures. The review also discusses the role during development of the principal inter and intrahemispheric recovery mechanisms (special attention is given to intrahemispheric mechanisms which have been considered in the past as less determinant with respect to interhemispheric mechanisms). Furthermore, the role of lesion side as a prognostic parameter is discussed, specifically in terms of the evidence of a differential recovery capacity of left hemisphere with respect to the right. Various hypotheses have been put forward as possible interpretations of these data (maturational gradient, different neuropsychological organization of the two hemispheres), yet evidence is still controversial. If one considers the prognostic parameter--age of lesion onset--recent evidence does not confirm the hypothesis that the earlier the lesion, the greatest the recovery of function. Rather, it seems that relating age of lesion onset to other parameters, such as lesion side or

  20. Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescents/Young Adults with Childhood ADHD: Profiles of Persisters, Remitters and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Trampush, Joey W.; Miller, Carlin J.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined neuropsychological functioning in a longitudinal sample of adolescents/young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls as a function of the persistence of ADHD. We hypothesized that measures of executive processes would parallel adolescent clinical status, with ADHD-persisters, but not…

  1. Relationship of Temporal Lobe Volumes to Neuropsychological Test Performance in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain volumes and neurobehavioral function in healthy…

  2. Acute Neuropsychological Effects of Methylphenidate in Stimulant Drug-Naive Boys with ADHD II--Broader Executive and Non-Executive Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Coghill, David R.; Matthews, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence supports methylphenidate-induced enhancement of neuropsychological functioning in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was designed to investigate the acute effects of the psychostimulant drug, methylphenidate (MPH), on neuropsychological performance in stimulant naive boys with ADHD.…

  3. Training of affect recognition (TAR) in schizophrenia--impact on functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Sachs, G; Winklbaur, B; Jagsch, R; Lasser, I; Kryspin-Exner, I; Frommann, N; Wölwer, W

    2012-07-01

    Deficits in facial affect recognition as one aspect of social cognitive deficits are treatment targets to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia. According to preliminary results antipsychotics alone show little effects on affect recognition. A few randomized intervention studies have evaluated special psychosocial treatment programs on social cognition. In this study, the effects of a computer-based training of affect recognition were investigated as well as its impact on facial affect recognition and functional outcome, particularly on patients' quality of life. Forty clinically stabilized schizophrenic patients were randomized to a six-week training on affect recognition (TAR) or treatment as usual including occupational therapy (TAU) and completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of emotion recognition, cognition, quality of life and clinical symptoms. Between pre- and post treatment, the TAR group achieved significant improvements in facial affect recognition, in particular in recognizing sad faces and, in addition, in the quality of life domain social relationship. These changes were not found in the TAU group. Furthermore, the TAR training contributes to enhancing some aspects of cognitive functioning and negative symptoms. These improvements in facial affect recognition and quality of life were independent of changes in clinical symptoms and general cognitive functions. The findings support the efficacy of an affect recognition training for patients with schizophrenia and the generalization to social relationship. Further development is needed in the impact of a psychosocial intervention in other aspects of social cognition and functional outcome.

  4. Neuropsychology, Autobiographical Memory, and Hippocampal Volume in “Younger” and “Older” Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Christina Josefa; Lässer, Marc Montgomery; Schmid, Lena Anna; Seidl, Ulrich; Kong, Li; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wide range of studies on neuropsychology in schizophrenia, autobiographical memory (AM) has been scarcely investigated in these patients. Hence, less is known about AM in older patients and hippocampal contribution to autobiographical memories of varying remoteness. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal volume and AM along with important neuropsychological domains in patients with chronic schizophrenia and the respective relationships between these parameters. We compared 25 older patients with chronic schizophrenia to 23 younger patients and an older healthy control group (N = 21) with respect to AM, additional neuropsychological parameters, and hippocampal volume. Personal episodic and semantic memory was investigated using a semi-structured interview. Additional neuropsychological parameters were assessed by using a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed with an automated region-of-interest procedure. While hippocampal volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment were more pronounced in the older than in the younger patients, both groups showed equivalent reduced AM performance for recent personal episodes. In the patient group, significant correlations between left hippocampal volume and recent autobiographical episodes as well as personal semantic memories arose. Verbal memory and working memory were significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume; executive functions, however, were associated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. These findings underline the complexity of AM and its impairments in the course of schizophrenia in comparison to rather progressive neuropsychological deficits and address the importance of hippocampal contribution. PMID:25954208

  5. Time to get rid of the 'Modular' in neuropsychology: a unified theory of anosognosia as aberrant predictive coding.

    PubMed

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, being more inclusive and ambitious in scope than cognitive neuropsychology, seems to have taken the place of the latter within the modern neurosciences. Nevertheless, recent advances in the neurosciences afford neuropsychology with epistemic possibilities that simply did not exist even 15 years ago. Human lesion studies still have an important role to play in shaping such possibilities, particularly when combined with other methods of enquiry. I first outline theoretical and methodological advances within the neurosciences that can inform and shape the rebirth of a dynamic, non-modular neuropsychology. I then use an influential computational theory of brain function, the free energy principle, to suggest an unified account of anosognosia for hemiplegia as a research example of the potential for transition from a modular, cognitive neuropsychology to a dynamic, computational and even restorative neuropsychology. These and many other adjectives that can flexibly, take the place of 'cognitive' next to 'neuropsychology' will hopefully designate the much needed rebirth and demarcation of a field, neuropsychology itself, that has somehow lost its place within the modern neurosciences and yet seems to have a unique and important role to play in the future understanding of the brain.

  6. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  7. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females.

  8. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females. PMID:23036371

  9. Lifting the veil: how to use clinical neuropsychology to assess dementia.

    PubMed

    Burrell, James R; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Neurologists often struggle to interpret the results of neuropsychological testing, even though cognitive assessments are an integral component of the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. This article reviews the principles underlying clinical neuropsychology, background on common neuropsychological tests, and tips on how to interpret the results when assessing patients with dementia. General cognitive screening tools, appropriate for use by general neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as specific cognitive tests examining the main cognitive domains (attention and orientation, memory, visuospatial function, language and executive function) in patients with dementia are considered. Finally, the pattern of deficits, helpful in defining clinical dementia phenotypes and sometimes in predicting the underlying molecular pathology, are outlined. Such clinicopathological associations will become invaluable as disease-modifying treatments for dementia are developed and implemented.

  10. Acute and chronic neuropsychological consequences of mercury vapor poisoning in two early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeates, K O; Mortensen, M E

    1994-04-01

    Mercury is an extremely toxic heavy metal that can devastate the central nervous system. The neuropsychological consequences of mercury vapor intoxication have been studied primarily in adults. We present two adolescent half-siblings, ages 13 and 15, who were unintentionally exposed to concentrated mercury vapor for 3 months. Both children participated in neuropsychological evaluations shortly after being diagnosed with mercury toxicity, and again 1 year later. Results from the initial assessments documented functional deficits consistent with diffuse encephalopathy. Upon follow-up, neuropsychological functioning had improved, but deficits remained in visuoperceptual and constructional skills, nonverbal memory, and conceptual abstraction. The deficits persisted despite removal from exposure, return of urinary and blood mercury to acceptable levels, and resolution of neuropsychiatric symptoms. The deficits were similar to, but more severe than, those found in adults suffering from mercury vapor intoxication. The results suggest that the developing brain may be especially vulnerable to mercury vapor toxicity. PMID:8021308

  11. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation.

  12. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation. PMID:26218326

  13. Empirical Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Case Definition for Neuropsychological Impairment in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Miriam H; Brooks, Brian L; Barrowman, Nick; Aglipay, Mary; Keightley, Michelle; Anderson, Peter; Yeates, Keith O; Osmond, Martin H; Zemek, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Neuropsychological assessment aims to identify individual performance profiles in multiple domains of cognitive functioning; however, substantial variation exists in how deficits are defined and what cutoffs are used, and there is no universally accepted definition of neuropsychological impairment. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a clinical case definition rule to identify neuropsychological impairment in children and adolescents. An existing normative pediatric sample was used to calculate base rates of abnormal functioning on eight measures covering six domains of neuropsychological functioning. The dataset was analyzed by varying the range of cutoff levels [1, 1.5, and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean] and number of indicators of impairment. The derived rule was evaluated by bootstrap, internal and external clinical validation (orthopedic and traumatic brain injury). Our neuropsychological impairment (NPI) rule was defined as "two or more test scores that fall 1.5 SDs below the mean." The rule identifies 5.1% of the total sample as impaired in the assessment battery and consistently targets between 3 and 7% of the population as impaired even when age, domains, and number of tests are varied. The NPI rate increases in groups known to exhibit cognitive deficits. The NPI rule provides a psychometrically derived method for interpreting performance across multiple tests and may be used in children 6-18 years. The rule may be useful to clinicians and scientists who wish to establish whether specific individuals or clinical populations present within expected norms versus impaired function across a battery of neuropsychological tests.

  14. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody but atypical lexical prosody production. Method: Sixteen children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers…

  15. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  16. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  17. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  18. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain.

  19. Comparison of neuropsychological performance between students from public and private Brazilian schools.

    PubMed

    Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations. PMID:23156904

  20. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (M(age) = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed.

  1. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (M(age) = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed. PMID:25671391

  2. Neuropsychological deficits in young adults born small-for-gestational age (SGA) at term.

    PubMed

    Østgård, Heidi Furre; Skranes, Jon; Martinussen, Marit; Jacobsen, Geir W; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Vik, Torstein; Pripp, Are H; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2014-03-01

    Reduced IQ, learning difficulties and poor school performance have been reported in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) subjects. However, few studies include a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Our aim was to study neuropsychological functioning in young adults born SGA at term. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 58 SGA subjects (birth weight <10th centile) born at term, and 81 term non-SGA controls (birth weight ≥10th centile). The SGA group obtained significantly (p < .01) lower scores on the attention, executive and memory domains compared to non-SGA controls and showed higher risk of obtaining scores below -1.5 SD on the memory domain (odds ratio = 13.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 112.47). At a subtest level, the SGA group obtained lower scores on most neuropsychological tests, with significant differences on 6 of 46 measures: the Trail Making Test 3 (letter sequencing), the Wechsler Memory Scale mental control and the auditory immediate memory scale, the Design Fluency, the Stroop 3 (inhibition) and the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) motor coordination subtest. Young adults born SGA score more poorly on neuropsychological tests compared with non-SGA controls. Differences were modest, with more significant differences in the memory domain. PMID:24559531

  3. Beyond localization: the role of traditional neuropsychological tests in an age of imaging.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Thompson, Pamela

    2010-11-01

    Rapid advances in structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present two significant challenges to the rationale and role of the traditional neuropsychological assessment in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates today. The first is a direct challenge to the model of material-specific memory that has underpinned much clinical practice over the last 50 years. The second, more fundamental, challenge goes to the very heart of the lateralizing/localizing approach that has been the cornerstone of clinical neuropsychology practice in epilepsy surgery centers to date. This review examines these challenges and suggests some ways in which the profession might respond and adapt. We conclude that noninvasive neuropsychological assessment remains a critical investigation in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy surgery patients. Its value stretches beyond the localization of a surgically remediable seizure focus. Once a vital test, other investigations are now superior in this respect in many cases. However, new technologies have enhanced the role of the traditional neuropsychological assessment, which is now able to provide unparalleled insights and predictions into the way in which the underlying pathology, seizures, and proposed surgery shape an individual's profile of cognitive abilities. Detailed neuropsychological feedback enables the patient to make an informed decision, and forms the basis of the tailor made preemptive rehabilitation programs that can be implemented preoperatively, minimizing the most significant morbidity associated with epilepsy surgery today.

  4. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  5. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  6. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  7. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  8. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  9. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  10. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  11. Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Neuropsychologic Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychologic performance of 27 children (about 6 to 13 years old) with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated and correlated with their serum phenylalanine concentrations at several ages. (Author/SEW) Journal Availability: The Journal of Pediatrics; The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  12. Perception of affective prosody in major depression: a link to executive functions?

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Abdel-Hamid, Mona; Lehmkämper, Caroline; Vollmoeller, Wolfgang; Daum, Irene

    2008-07-01

    Major depression is associated with impairments of executive functions and affect perception deficits, both being linked to dysfunction of fronto-subcortical networks. So far, little is known about the relationship between cognitive and affective deficits in major depression. In the present investigation, affect perception and executive functions were assessed in 29 patients with a diagnosis of major depression (Dep) and 29 healthy controls (HC). Both groups were comparable on IQ, age, and gender distribution. Depressed patients showed deficits of perception of affective prosody, which were significantly related to inhibition, set shifting, and working memory. Our findings suggest a significant association between cognitive deficits and affect perception impairments in major depression, which may be of considerable clinical relevance and might be addressed in treatment approaches. Future studies are desirable to investigate the nature of the association in more detail.

  13. Negative affect predicts social functioning across schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Findings from an integrated data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grove, Tyler B; Tso, Ivy F; Chun, Jinsoo; Mueller, Savanna A; Taylor, Stephan F; Ellingrod, Vicki L; McInnis, Melvin G; Deldin, Patricia J

    2016-09-30

    Most people with a serious mental illness experience significant functional impairment despite ongoing pharmacological treatment. Thus, in order to improve outcomes, a better understanding of functional predictors is needed. This study examined negative affect, a construct comprised of negative emotional experience, as a predictor of social functioning across serious mental illnesses. One hundred twenty-seven participants with schizophrenia, 113 with schizoaffective disorder, 22 with psychosis not otherwise specified, 58 with bipolar disorder, and 84 healthy controls (N=404) completed self-report negative affect measures. Elevated levels of negative affect were observed in clinical participants compared with healthy controls. For both clinical and healthy control participants, negative affect measures were significantly correlated with social functioning, and consistently explained significant amounts of variance in functioning. For clinical participants, this relationship persisted even after accounting for cognition and positive/negative symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affect is a strong predictor of outcome across these populations and treatment of serious mental illnesses should target elevated negative affect in addition to cognition and positive/negative symptoms.

  14. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  15. Determining place and process: functional traits of ectomycorrhizal fungi that affect both community structure and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Koide, Roger T; Fernandez, Christopher; Malcolm, Glenna

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest amongst community ecologists in functional traits. Response traits determine membership in communities. Effect traits influence ecosystem function. One goal of community ecology is to predict the effect of environmental change on ecosystem function. Environmental change can directly and indirectly affect ecosystem function. Indirect effects are mediated through shifts in community structure. It is difficult to predict how environmental change will affect ecosystem function via the indirect route when the change in effect trait distribution is not predictable from the change in response trait distribution. When response traits function as effect traits, however, it becomes possible to predict the indirect effect of environmental change on ecosystem function. Here we illustrate four examples in which key attributes of ectomycorrhizal fungi function as both response and effect traits. While plant ecologists have discussed response and effect traits in the context of community structuring and ecosystem function, this approach has not been applied to ectomycorrhizal fungi. This is unfortunate because of the large effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on ecosystem function. We hope to stimulate further research in this area in the hope of better predicting the ecosystem- and landscape-level effects of the fungi as influenced by changing environmental conditions.

  16. Total dream loss: a distinct neuropsychological dysfunction after bilateral PCA stroke.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Matthias; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2004-10-01

    The term Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome (CWS) denotes dream loss following focal brain damage. We report the first case of CWS, in whom neuropsychological functions, extension of the underlying lesion, and sleep architecture changes were assessed. A 73-year-old woman reported a total dream loss after acute, bilateral occipital artery infarction (including the right inferior lingual gyrus), which lasted for over 3 months. In the absence of sleep-wake complaints and (other) neuropsychological deficits, polysomnography demonstrated an essentially normal sleep architecture with preservation of REM sleep. Dreaming was denied also after repeated awakenings from REM sleep. This observation suggests that CWS (1) can represent a distinct and isolated neuropsychological manifestation of deep occipital lobe damage, and (2) may occur in the absence of detectable REM sleep abnormalities.

  17. Neuropsychological evaluation for detecting alterations in the central nervous system after chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolla, K I

    1996-08-01

    Individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) report decreased attention/concentration, memory loss, disorientation, confusion, fatigue, depression, irritability, decreased libido, sleep disturbances, headaches, and weakness. These neurobehavioral symptoms represent possible alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The evaluation of neurobehavioral functioning using neuropsychological techniques provides an indirect method for determining the integrity of the CNS. However, caution must be used in interpreting neuropsychological test results, since this technique is extremely sensitive but is not specific. Clinically significant aberrant test performance may be noted after chemical exposure as well as with other diseases of the CNS. In addition, neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression are often manifested as cognitive difficulties that are similar in pattern to the cognitive dysfunction caused by toxic chemicals. Herein, limitations and cautions in the interpretations of neuropsychological test results are discussed. PMID:8921555

  18. Cross-Cultural Considerations in Pediatric Neuropsychology: A Review and Call to Attention.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    In the search to understand the basis of performance discrepancies, many clinicians are recognizing that, often, factors with no direct relationship to brain functioning influence performance on neuropsychological measures of cognition among children and adolescents. The emergent research on cross-cultural neuropsychology indicates that while the test performance discrepancies do indeed exist, they can be explained by a number of other factors, some of which are known and others that have yet to be operationalized or even identified. While a review of all such factors is beyond the scope of this article, an examination of those that have received the most attention is presented: factors associated with the examinee, factors associated with the neuropsychological measures, cultural competency of the examiner, and factors at the organizational/political level. PMID:25117200

  19. Forensic neuropsychology: the art of practicing a science that does not yet exist.

    PubMed

    Faust, D

    1991-09-01

    Despite its future promise, neuropsychological evidence generally lacks scientifically demonstrated value for resolving legal issues, and thus, if admitted into court, should be accorded little or no weight. In support of this contention, examples of problems and limits in forensic neuropsychology are described. These include contrasts between the clinical and forensic context; the base-rate problem; lack of standardized practices; problems assessing credibility or malingering; difficulties determining prior functioning, limits in the capacity to integrate complex data; and the lack of relation between judgmental accuracy and education, experience, or credentials. Some possible counterarguments are also addressed.

  20. The neuropsychological profile of children, adolescents, and young adults with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stedal, Kristin; Rose, Mark; Frampton, Ian; Landrø, Nils Inge; Lask, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    The neuropsychological profile of a sample of 155 patients with a clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa was assessed using a test battery specifically developed for such patients. The current findings suggest that the patients display a common neuropsychological profile including both strengths and weaknesses when compared with published norms. The patients displayed good verbal fluency skills, but performed poorly on tests of visuospatial memory, associated with relatively weak central coherence. They were within the average range on the assessment of executive functioning except for one measure of set-shifting. This study provides a valuable point of reference for clinicians when considering treatment options.

  1. Neuropsychological and dimensional behavioral trait profiles in Costa Rican ADHD sib pairs: Potential intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J; Chavira, Denise A; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70-90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25832558

  2. Neuropsychological and dimensional behavioral trait profiles in Costa Rican ADHD sib pairs: Potential intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J; Chavira, Denise A; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70-90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity.

  3. Objective Neuropsychological Deficits in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: What Remains Beyond Symptom Similarity?

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Hélène; Marchand, André; Guay, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study intends to characterize the neuropsychological profile in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective measures of cognitive performance. A neuropsychological battery of tests for attention, memory and executive functions was administered to four groups: PTSD (n = 25), mTBI (n = 19), subjects with two formal diagnoses: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI/PTSD) (n = 6) and controls (n = 25). Confounding variables, such as medical, developmental or neurological antecedents, were controlled and measures of co-morbid conditions, such as depression and anxiety, were considered. The PTSD and mTBI/PTSD groups reported more anxiety and depressive symptoms. They also presented more cognitive deficits than the mTBI group. Since the two PTSD groups differ in severity of PTSD symptoms but not in severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, the PTSD condition could not be considered as the unique factor affecting the results. The findings underline the importance of controlling for confounding medical and psychological co-morbidities in the evaluation and treatment of PTSD populations, especially when a concomitant mTBI is also suspected. PMID:25469837

  4. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Elsheikh, Sherin; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Loukusa, Soile; Omar, Manal; Riad, Geylan; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ) on these abilities. Design Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1) and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6). Results Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001), Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01), Narrative Memory (p<0.001) and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05) and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01). Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent. PMID:26829278

  5. Insights from neuropsychology: pinpointing the role of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic and working memory

    PubMed Central

    Berryhill, Marian E.

    2012-01-01

    The role of posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in various forms of memory is a current topic of interest in the broader field of cognitive neuroscience. This large cortical region has been linked with a wide range of mnemonic functions affecting each stage of memory processing: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Yet, the precise role of the PPC in memory remains mysterious and controversial. Progress in understanding PPC function will require researchers to incorporate findings in a convergent manner from multiple experimental techniques rather than emphasizing a particular type of data. To facilitate this process, here, we review findings from the human neuropsychological research and examine the consequences to memory following PPC damage. Recent patient-based research findings have investigated two typically disconnected fields: working memory (WM) and episodic memory. The findings from patient participants with unilateral and bilateral PPC lesions performing diverse experimental paradigms are summarized. These findings are then related to findings from other techniques including neurostimulation (TMS and tDCS) and the influential and more abundant functional neuroimaging literature. We then review the strengths and weaknesses of hypotheses proposed to account for PPC function in these forms of memory. Finally, we address what missing evidence is needed to clarify the role(s) of the PPC in memory. PMID:22701406

  6. Relationship of beta 2 microglobulin and CD4 counts to neuropsychological performance in HIV-1-infected intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Boccellari, A A; Chambers, D B; Dilley, J W; Shore, M D; Tauber, M A; Moss, A R; Osmond, D H

    1994-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of immune dysfunction to the neuropsychological performance of i.v. drug users (IVDUs) infected with HIV-1. Ninety-seven HIV-positive and 45 HIV-negative former IVDUs on methadone maintenance were evaluated using neuropsychological measures, physical examinations, and measures of immune function, including absolute CD4 counts and beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2-M). There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects on any single neuropsychological domain. There was, however, a significant group difference on a composite indicator of neuropsychological impairment, with 32% of HIV-positive subjects demonstrating some degree of overall impairment compared with only 13% of HIV-negative subjects. HIV-positive subjects were then stratified according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) symptom groupings: group II, asymptomatic, n = 29; group III, lymphadenopathy, n = 30; and group IV A or C-2, symptomatic, non-AIDS, n = 38. There were no significant neuropsychological differences among the three CDC groups. The HIV-positive subjects were also stratified on absolute CD4 counts (< or = 200, 201-400, and > 400) and beta 2-M (> or = 5, 3-5, and < 3). Individuals with greater immune compromise (CD4, < 200, beta 2-M, > or = 5) were more impaired on measures of motor functioning. beta 2-M was found to be a better predictor than CD4 count of impaired neuropsychological performance. Furthermore, individuals with beta 2-M values > or = 5 have more than a threefold increase in the incidence of neuropsychological impairment than those with beta 2-M values < 3.0. These results suggest that beta 2-M may serve as a useful clinical marker for the development of neuropsychological impairment and that the risk of such impairment increases as the immune system weakens.

  7. Neuropsychological outcomes of pediatric burn patients who sustained hypoxic episodes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Marta; Robertson, Carrie; Murphy, Kevin D; Rosenberg, Laura; Mlcak, Ronald; Robert, Rhonda S; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2005-11-01

    The neuropsychological outcomes of children who suffered hypoxic episodes following their burns are not completely understood and vary depending on the nature and severity of the episode. A retrospective review of youth that were admitted to this acute burn care facility over the past 20 years was conducted to identify the extent of cognitive and affective difficulties. Thirty-nine children who sustained hypoxic injuries related to their burns were compared with 21 controls that were matched for age, TBSA, and time of injury. Approximately a third of the children who survived from the hypoxia group continued to have long-term cognitive and emotional difficulties. For those who recovered reasonably well, no differences were found from the matched burned controls. These results probably underestimate the true extent of neuropsychological difficulties experienced by these youth given that detailed cognitive testing was not routinely performed. Prospective studies are needed to further characterize the full nature of difficulties and outcomes associated with burn related hypoxic injuries.

  8. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  9. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  10. Neuropsychological assessment of a case of early right hemiplegia: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Brizzolara, D; Chilosi, A M; de Nobili, G L; Ferretti, G

    1984-12-01

    Evidence for normal development of linguistic but poor visuo-perceptual skills has been obtained with the neuropsychological assessment of a case of early left-brain injury. Data suggest the transfer of linguistic functions from the left to the right hemisphere at the expense of visuo-perceptual capacities for which the right hemisphere is potentially specialized. PMID:6522185

  11. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  12. Cognitive planning in humans: neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Owen, A M

    1997-11-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the cognitive and neuroanatomical basis of high-level planning behaviour through a combination of neuropsychological, neuropharmacological and functional neuroimaging approaches. In this article, early evidence suggesting a relationship between planning impairments and damage to the frontal lobe is reviewed and several contemporary studies of planning behaviour in patients with circumscribed frontal lobe excisions are described in detail. These neuropsychological investigations, together with recent functional neuroimaging studies of normal control subjects, have identified a specific area within the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex of humans which appears to be critically involved in the cognitive processes that mediate efficient planning. The functions of this region, both in cognitive planning and in related functions such as working memory, are then discussed in the context of a general theoretical framework for understanding the functional organization of "executive" processes within the human lateral frontal cortex. In the final sections, the relationship between the planning deficits observed after intrinsic frontal lobe damage and those exhibited by patients with neuropathology of primarily sub-cortical origin, such as Parkinson's disease, is discussed. A central model for much of this work has been the concept of cortico-striatal circuitry which emphasizes the relationship between the neocortex and the striatum. The combined evidence from comparative studies in patients and from functional neuroimaging studies on Parkinson's disease suggests that altered cortico-striatal interactions may disrupt normal planning function at a number of levels, possibly consequent upon intrinsic striatal pathology on the one hand and the partial loss of (frontal) cortical input to the basal ganglia on the other.

  13. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  14. Predicting neuropsychological test performance on the basis of temporal orientation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Bartels, Jared M; Bergner, CariAnn M; Paolo, Anthony M

    2009-05-01

    Temporal orientation is often disrupted in the context of psychiatric or neurological disease; tests assessing this function are included in most mental status examinations. The present study examined the relationship between scores on the Temporal Orientation Scale (TOS) and performance on a battery of tests that assess memory, language, and cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with Alzheimer's disease (N = 55). Pearson-product moment correlations showed that, in all but two instances, the TOS was significantly correlated with each neuropsychological measure, p values < or = .05. Also, severely disoriented (i.e., TOS score < or = -8) patients were consistently 'impaired' on memory tests but not on tests of language and general cognitive functioning.

  15. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  16. Sexual function and affect in parkinsonian men treated with L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Brown, E; Brown, G M; Kofman, O; Quarrington, B

    1978-12-01

    Using psychiatric interviews, sexual and affect rating scales, hormonal studies, and neurologic assessment, the authors assessed the effect of L-dopa treatment on men with Parkinson's disease. Patients demonstrated variable affect changes. Approximately one-half of the patients reported an increased sexual interest that was not related to improvement in locomotor function. Hormonal factors appeared to be involved. The findings suggest that male parkinsonian patients who possess an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis experience increased sexual function related to L-dopa treatment.

  17. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits.

  18. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits. PMID:17676531

  19. Neuropsychological analysis of an idiot savant: A case study.

    PubMed

    Puente, Antonio E; Heller, Stephanie; Sekely, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Although biological etiologies and diffuse anatomical changes have been provided as plausible explanations for the unusual behaviors observed in idiot savants, no neuropsychological case studies or explanations for these behaviors are found in the literature. We present a case in which the "diagnosis" of idiot savant was based on historical, clinical, and test data. To assess his calendar abilities, this individual was subsequently tested over a period of six months on his ability to determine the day of the week across approximately 1,000 years. For a period of approximately 100 years he was 100% accurate. The neuropsychological tests revealed marked deficits in all areas with performance generally in the lower 1-5th percentile of the population (e.g., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient [FSIQ] = 54). Tests of attention yielded the best scores although still deficient. General learning, coding, and executive function tests proved to be challenging. In contrast, tests of visuo-motor abilities were only of moderate difficulty for the individual. These findings are considered within the theoretical framework of Rimland (autism) and Squyres (memory).

  20. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis. PMID:26507010

  1. Clinical Applicability and Cutoff Values for an Unstructured Neuropsychological Assessment Protocol for Older Adults with Low Formal Education

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. Methods and Results A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Conclusion The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education. PMID:24066031

  2. Neuropsychological performance of a patient suspected of dementia taking lorazepam and retested 1 year later following titration.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bonnie M; Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of medication on neuropsychological performance have yet to be fully investigated, particularly in older patients. As such, the present case study was undertaken to examine the specific impact of benzodiazepine use on neuropsychological performance by providing a comparison of the test-retest data of an 81-year-old patient taking lorazepam. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation was conducted: (a) during the initial referral, while the patient had been taking high doses of lorazepam for approximately 3 years; and (b) 6 months after complete titration, which was 1 year after the initial evaluation. Normative scores derived from the 2 trials were compared via calculation of Reliable Change Indexes. Neuropsychological performance during both evaluations was indicative of dementia, including similar degrees of impairment in delayed memory, verbal fluency, and olfaction. However, scores obtained during the second evaluation were somewhat higher, with significant improvements observed in immediate memory, visuospatial/construction abilities, language function, abstract concept formation, and set shifting. Results of the current case study suggest that several neuropsychological domains may be particularly sensitive to chronic benzodiazepine use. Although the overall diagnostic picture in the present study remained unaltered, clinicians should be cognizant of such medication effects and the potential for these neuropsychological alterations to obscure differential diagnosis.

  3. Cognitive disturbances and neuropsychological changes after surgical treatment in a cohort of 185 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Solana, Elisabeth; Sahuquillo, Juan; Junqué, Carme; Quintana, Manuel; Poca, Maria A

    2012-05-01

    Although idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is considered a treatable dementia, there is still some controversy regarding the cognitive improvement in these patients. The main aims of this study were to analyze baseline cognitive status and to study the neuropsychological changes after surgical treatment in a sample of 185 consecutive iNPH patients. An additional aim was to identify the variables that influenced the cognitive outcome. Specific tests assessing memory, attention, visual scanning, executive functions (EFs), and motor speed were used before and 6 months after shunting. The cognitive domains most affected at baseline were memory, EFs, attention, and psychomotor speed. After shunting, significant differences in the group as a whole were found in all tests except Digits Forward and Trail Making Part B. However, less than 50% of patients showed a significant improvement when analyzed individually. Previous global cognitive status assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination baseline scores was the best predictor for the cognitive outcome.

  4. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition.

  5. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  6. Neuropsychological prediction of dementia in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahieux, F.; Fenelon, G.; Flahault, A.; Manifacier, M.; Michelet, D.; Boller, F.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify neuropsychological characteristics predictive of later dementia in Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to a cohort of 89 initially non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease consecutively enrolled at a specialised Parkinson's disease clinic. They were reassessed after a mean of 3.5 years for the diagnosis of dementia. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify baseline characteristics predictive of dementia.
RESULTS—Only four of the baseline clinical characteristics of Parkinson's disease and neuropsychological variables remained independently linked to subsequent development of dementia: the age of onset of Parkinson's disease (>60 years; relative risk (RR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8-24.0, p<0.03), the picture completion subtest of the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (score<10; RR 4.9, 95% CI 1.0-24.1, p<0.02), the interference section of the Stroop test (score<21; RR 3.8, p=0.08), and a verbal fluency task (score<9; RR 2.7, 95% CI 0.8-9.1, p=0.09). Depressive symptoms and the severity of motor impairment were not predictive of dementia.
CONCLUSION—These features are different from the neuropsychological characteristics predictive of Alzheimer's dementia in healthy elderly people (mainly memory and language performance). They are in keeping with the well known specificity of the impairments in Parkinson's disease for visuospatial abilities and difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. It is postulated that the composite nature of the picture completion subtest, involving several cognitive abilities impaired in Parkinson's disease, explains its sensitivity.

 PMID:9489527

  7. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  8. Early neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Salmon, E

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle modification offers a promising way of preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, nutritional interventions can contribute to decrease the risk of dementia. The efficacy of such interventions should be assessed in individuals thought to be prone to AD. It is therefore necessary to identify markers that may help detecting AD as early as possible. This review will focus on subtle neuropsychological changes that may already exist in the predementia phase, and that could point to individuals at risk of dementia. Episodic memory decline appears consistently as the earliest sign of incipient typical AD. An episodic memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall appears as a useful tool to detect patients at an early stage of AD. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to decline early and to predict progression to AD. Moreover, in line with current diagnosis criteria for prodromal AD, combining neuropsychological scores and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination of future AD patients than neuroimaging or neuropsychological data alone. Altogether, the detection of cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable AD already in the predementia stage points to at risk people who are the best target for therapeutic interventions, such as nutrition or physical exercise counseling or dietary interventions. PMID:25182019

  9. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  10. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  11. A prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, J D; Dowell, R E; Copeland, D R; Fletcher, J M; Francis, D J; van Eys, J

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions. PMID:3343496

  12. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  13. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  14. Neuropsychology in rehabilitation: its role in evaluation and intervention.

    PubMed

    Caplan, B

    1982-08-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cerebral function, breakdown, and recovery can provide a rational basis for designing rehabilitation programs for brain-injured patients. Specialists in clinical neuropsychology, those who assess the cognitive and behavioral effects of brain damage, thus have useful diagnostic and therapeutic expertise to offer rehabilitation units. Concepts pertaining to functional recovery after brain damage, for example, reorganization, substitution, compensation, and amelioration, are discussed. Several reports are reviewed that illustrate the increasingly widespread application of a neurophysiologic perspective to the analysis and remediation of deficits in memory, expressive language, perception, and reading. Intervention strategies encompassing the use of visual imagery, patient self-instruction, reeducation and drill, and computer-based techniques are described. The role of the neurophysiologist in assessment, treatment planning, retraining, and discharge planning is outlined.

  15. Psychosocial, neuropsychological and neurological status in a sample of heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Thormann, T; Strenge, H; Biernath, E; Foerst, U; Stauch, C; Torp, U; Bernhard, A; Speidel, H

    1992-04-01

    The sample for this psychosocial follow-up study was formed using the 71 surviving patients from a total of 100 who underwent heart transplantation up until March 1990 at Kiel University Hospital. Forty of these could be investigated comprehensively. The neurological investigation comprised EEG and auditory and visually evoked potentials. The psychological investigation started with several neuropsychological tests; additionally all patients were interviewed and they completed questionnaires concerning anxiety, depression, ways of coping, personality characteristics and life satisfaction. Within the entire sample, there were few indications for specific psychological impairment. The psychosocial status of the patients was not significantly related to the time which had elapsed since they underwent transplantation. There were few associations between neuropsychological and psychosocial data, and several indicators of early postoperative complications which are described in the literature (e.g., length of stay in the intensive care unit). Clinically relevant subgroups (formed on the basis of neuropsychological test results, anxiety and depression) did not differ in terms of these indicators. Nevertheless, a considerable proportion of the patients (25%) were characterized by having a higher level of affective and neuropsychological impairment. Although based upon retrospective investigations, the results of this follow-up generally correlate with those gained from Anglo-American countries. In interpreting the results one needs to consider the possible influence of premorbid personality characteristics as well as denial which may be typical for patients undergoing heart transplantation. PMID:1301119

  16. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  17. Dissociation between recency and span: neuropsychological and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Trivelli, C; Cubelli, R; Marchetti, C

    1998-10-01

    This article reports dissociations between verbal span and the recency portion of the serial position curve in immediate free recall, in 2 neuropsychological case studies and in 3 experiments with normal participants. Patient A. N. presented with an impaired serial verbal span while showing an intact recency effect. The opposite pattern was observed in patient G. C., who despite a poor recency showed normal span in verbal serial recall tasks. Experiments 1 and 2 showed a recency effect with visually and auditory presented lists and written recall was resistant to the effects of articulatory suppression and of irrelevant speech, but was disrupted by the suffix effect. Experiment 3 showed that in contrast with recency, memory span was affected by articulatory suppression and irrelevant speech during presentation but not by a suffix. These findings are not consistent with the idea that span and recency measure aspects of the same memory system. Moreover, in clinical practice, they should not be used as equivalent alternatives.

  18. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function—which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry—could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology. PMID:24685311

  19. Neuropsychological status in older adults influences susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Geraci, Lisa D; Roediger, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the influence of frontal lobe function on older adults' susceptibility to false memory in a categorized list paradigm. Using a neuropsychological battery of tests developed by Glisky, Polster, and Routhieaux (1995), we designated older adults as having high- or low-frontal function. Young and older adults studied and were tested on categorized lists using free report cued recall and forced report cued recall instructions, with the latter requiring participants to produce responses even if they had to guess. Under free report cued recall instructions, frontal lobe function was a strong predictor of false memories in older adults: Older adults who scored low on tests of frontal functioning demonstrated much higher levels of false recall than younger adults, whereas levels of false recall in high-frontal older adults were more similar to those of young adults. However, after forced report cued recall, high- and low-frontal older adults performed similarly to each other, and both demonstrated higher levels of false recall than young adults. On a final recognition test, high-frontal older adults in both the free report cued recall and forced report cued recall conditions were more successful than low-frontal older adults in using source information to reduce memory errors. The results indicate that older adults show higher levels of false recall than younger adults, but type of test (free report or forced report) and neuropsychological status of older adults mediate these effects. Low-frontal older adults are particularly susceptible to producing false memories on free report tests that entail source monitoring. PMID:23350303

  20. [Hypofrontality and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: synthesis of anatomic and neuropsychological knowledge and ecological perspectives].

    PubMed

    Semkovska, M; Bédard, M A; Stip, E

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been observed with neuropsychological tests of executive function, traditionally considered sensitive to frontal lobe damage. These impairments affect planning abilities, as well as the aptitude to initiate and regulate a goal-directed behaviour. On the other hand, negative symptoms of schizophrenia are widely suspected to reflect a frontal lobe dysfunction. Based on a review of a hundred papers, the present article analyses the anatomical and neuropsychological evidence of disturbed frontal lobe functioning in patients with negative schizophrenic symptoms. The phenomenological similarity of some schizophrenic symptoms to the clinical features of patients with prefrontal injury inspired the hypothesis of damaged frontal lobe in the former disorder. The morphological findings of neuroimaging studies brought inconsistent conclusions, with some researchers noting no differences between patients and control subjects while others observing reduced prefrontal volumes in schizophrenia. The functional neuroimaging demonstrated a reduced frontal blood flow relative to the general cerebral perfusion in patients with schizophrenia. Even though the overall neuroimaging literature provides reliable evidence of frontal impairment in schizophrenia, the average magnitude of the difference between patients and healthy controls is insufficient to defend the hypothesis of frontal lobe dysfunction, as far as brain volume, resting metabolism or blood flow are concerned. The only measure, which clearly distinguishes between the patients' and controls' distributions, is the functional neuroimaging of the frontal lobe while subjects are performing an experimentally controlled task. Schizophrenic patients fail to activate their frontal cortex when the task requires it. Analysing executive abilities in relation to symptom expression leads to recognising the fact that frontal dysfunction is a characteristic of only a sub-syndrome of schizophrenia. The

  1. Factors affecting longitudinal functional decline and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hazuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Akira; Aiba, Ikuko; Abe, Koji; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Oda, Masaya; Kano, Osamu; Okamoto, Koichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Imai, Takashi; Aoki, Masashi; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakano, Imaharu; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to elucidate the clinical factors affecting functional decline and survival in Japanese amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We constructed a multicenter prospective ALS cohort that included 451 sporadic ALS patients in the analysis. We longitudinally utilized the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) as the functional scale, and determined the timing of introduction of a tracheostomy for positive-pressure ventilation and death. A joint modelling approach was employed to identify prognostic factors for functional decline and survival. Age at onset was a common prognostic factor for both functional decline and survival (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Female gender (p = 0.019) and initial symptoms, including upper limb weakness (p = 0.010), lower limb weakness (p = 0.008) or bulbar symptoms (p = 0.005), were related to early functional decline, whereas neck weakness as an initial symptom (p = 0.018), non-use of riluzole (p = 0.030) and proximal dominant muscle weakness in the upper extremities (p = 0.01) were related to a shorter survival time. A decline in the ALSFRS-R score was correlated with a shortened survival time (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the factors affecting functional decline and survival in ALS were common in part but different to some extent. This difference has not been previously well recognized but is informative in clinical practice and for conducting trials.

  2. Neuropsychological Characteristics of Italian Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Alfredo S.; Coriale, Giovanna; Fiorentino, Daniela; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Gossage, J. Phillip; Ceccanti, Mauro; Mitchell, Elisha R.; May, Philip A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed to better define the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe diagnosis within FASD and compares them with controls. It was expected that intellectual functioning, language comprehension, academic skills, and inattention/hyperactivity would discriminate children with FASD from randomly-selected peers without FASD. Methods This paper presents data from a second cohort of children examined in 2005 as part of an in-school epidemiological study of FASD in Italy. Eighty children, 23 diagnosed with a FASD, and 57 randomly-selected control children from the same 1st grade classes, participated. After screening for FASD via growth and dysmorphology, the children were administered a test of general intelligence (WISC-R) as well as tests of nonverbal reasoning (Raven Colored Progressive Matrices), language comprehension (Rustioni), academic achievement (IPDA), and problem behavior (Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale). Results Children diagnosed with a FASD achieved lower scores than control children on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ. Profile analysis of the WISC-R indicates overall differences between the groups. However, some intact functioning within the FASD group was found, as the Similarities and Vocabulary subtests were similar to the controls. After an alpha adjustment to .004, the Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes subtests were significantly different from controls. On tests of nonverbal reasoning, language comprehension, and academic achievement, the children with a FASD scored significantly lower. Moreover, teachers rated children with a severe diagnosis within FASD as showing more inattentive symptoms than controls, while hyperactive

  3. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  4. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  5. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  6. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  7. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  8. Neuropsychology 3.0: evidence-based science and practice.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift toward evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of Web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress toward these goals.

  9. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    PubMed Central

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  10. Neuropsychological correlates of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, frontal variant of frontotemporal, subcortical vascular, and lewy body dementias: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological correlates of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in patients affected by various forms of dementia, namely Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontal-variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD). 21 fvFTD, 21 LBD, 22 AD, and 22 SIVD patients matched for dementia severity received a battery of neuropsychological tests and the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI). The possible association between performance on neuropsychological tests and severity of BPSD was assessed by correlational analysis and multivariate regression. BPSD were present in 99% of patients. Most behavioral symptoms were not related to a particular dementia group or to a specific cognitive deficit. Euphoria and disinhibition were predicted by fvFTD diagnosis. Hallucinations correlated with the severity of visuospatial deficits in the whole sample of patients and were predicted by LBD diagnosis. Apathy, which was found in all dementia groups, correlated with executive functions and was predicted by both reduced set-shifting aptitude and fvFTD diagnosis. The results confirm the high prevalence of BPSD in the mild to moderate stages of dementia and show that most BPSD are equally distributed across dementia groups. Most of the cognitive and behavioral symptoms are independent dimensions of the dementia syndromes. Nevertheless, hallucinations in LBD and euphoria and disinhibition in fvFTD are related to the structural brain alterations that are responsible for cognitive decline in these dementia groups. Finally, apathy arises from damage in the frontal cortical areas that are also involved in executive functions. PMID:24254701

  11. The extended fronto-striatal model of obsessive compulsive disorder: convergence from event-related potentials, neuropsychology and neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Margherita; Urbistondo, Claudia; Sedeño, Lucas; Gelormini, Carlos; Kichic, Rafael; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored convergent evidence supporting the fronto-striatal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (FSMOCD) and the contribution of event-related potential (ERP) studies to this model. First, we considered minor modifications to the FSMOCD model based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological data. We noted the brain areas most affected in this disorder -anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basal ganglia (BG), and orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) and their related cognitive functions, such as monitoring and inhibition. Then, we assessed the ERPs that are directly related to the FSMOCD, including the error-related negativity (ERN), N200, and P600. Several OCD studies present enhanced ERN and N2 responses during conflict tasks as well as an enhanced P600 during working memory (WM) tasks. Evidence from ERP studies (especially regarding ERN and N200 amplitude enhancement), neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings suggests abnormal activity in the OFC, ACC, and BG in OCD patients. Moreover, additional findings from these analyses suggest dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortex involvement, which might be related to executive function (EF) deficits. Thus, these convergent results suggest the existence of a self-monitoring imbalance involving inhibitory deficits and executive dysfunctions. OCD patients present an impaired ability to monitor, control, and inhibit intrusive thoughts, urges, feelings, and behaviors. In the current model, this imbalance is triggered by an excitatory role of the BG (associated with cognitive or motor actions without volitional control) and inhibitory activity of the OFC as well as excessive monitoring of the ACC to block excitatory impulses. This imbalance would interact with the reduced activation of the parietal-DLPC network, leading to executive dysfunction. ERP research may provide further insight regarding the temporal dynamics of action monitoring and executive functioning in OCD. PMID:23015786

  12. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  13. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  14. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  15. [Neuropsychological approach to visual attention].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Visual experience depends critically on visual attention, which selects a particular aspect of a visual display. Recent clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies revealed that visual attention was divided into active and passive or top-down and bottom-up attention. Although these dichotomies are clear-cut in definition, visual attention could be modulated by many factors. Detailed observation of brain-injured patients provides with evidence for dynamic and fine control of visual attention. We observed patients with dorsal simultanagnosia and that with callosal disconnection syndrome. Patients with dorsal simultanagnosia demonstrated that extent of visual attention was dynamically changed depending on the level of visual processing. Despite the ability to read a kanji character and to describe its components correctly, a patient could not notice a component that he had just written and could not assemble individual components to make up a correct kanji character. He could point to an overlapping area of two figures. But once he started to color the overlapping area, he missed the margin of the area and colored much larger area. Another patient with dorsal simultanagnosia missed borderlines between columns of a newspaper and read letters continuously across columns. In contrast, he could point to lines between figures or meaningless patterns easily. These findings indicated that visual attention was directed automatically to meaningful characters. A patients with callosal disconnection syndrome demonstrated left unilateral spatial neglect only when he used his right hand to draw figures. Right hand movement, controlled by the left hemisphere, elicited visual attention to the right hemispace, resulting in the left unilateral spatial neglect. Thus visual attention is not simply top-down or bottom up, but is implicitly affected by the visual recognition as well as motor component of the task. PMID:17354375

  16. [Neuropsychological approach to visual attention].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2007-01-01

    Visual experience depends critically on visual attention, which selects a particular aspect of a visual display. Recent clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies revealed that visual attention was divided into active and passive or top-down and bottom-up attention. Although these dichotomies are clear-cut in definition, visual attention could be modulated by many factors. Detailed observation of brain-injured patients provides with evidence for dynamic and fine control of visual attention. We observed patients with dorsal simultanagnosia and that with callosal disconnection syndrome. Patients with dorsal simultanagnosia demonstrated that extent of visual attention was dynamically changed depending on the level of visual processing. Despite the ability to read a kanji character and to describe its components correctly, a patient could not notice a component that he had just written and could not assemble individual components to make up a correct kanji character. He could point to an overlapping area of two figures. But once he started to color the overlapping area, he missed the margin of the area and colored much larger area. Another patient with dorsal simultanagnosia missed borderlines between columns of a newspaper and read letters continuously across columns. In contrast, he could point to lines between figures or meaningless patterns easily. These findings indicated that visual attention was directed automatically to meaningful characters. A patients with callosal disconnection syndrome demonstrated left unilateral spatial neglect only when he used his right hand to draw figures. Right hand movement, controlled by the left hemisphere, elicited visual attention to the right hemispace, resulting in the left unilateral spatial neglect. Thus visual attention is not simply top-down or bottom up, but is implicitly affected by the visual recognition as well as motor component of the task. PMID:17228775

  17. Social-adaptive and psychological functioning of patients affected by Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J

    2010-12-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P < 0.01), anxiety (P = 0.05), depression and anxiety (P = 0.03), antisocial personality (P < 0.001), attention-deficit/hyperactivity (AD/H; P < 0.01), hyperactivity-impulsivity (P < 0.01), and aggressive behavior (P = 0.03) were associated with poorer adaptive functioning. Decreased social-adaptive functioning in this study was not statistically significantly associated to disease severity, pain, or level of vitality. This study shows for the first time that FD patients, particularly women, are affected by decreased social-adaptive functioning. Comprehensive treatment plans for FD should consider assessments and interventions to evaluate and improve social, occupational, and psychological functioning. Attention to the behavioral aspects of FD could lead to improved treatment outcome and improved quality of life. Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety

  18. Cognitive neuropsychology. Resolving enigmas about Wernicke's aphasia and other higher cortical disorders.

    PubMed

    Margolin, D I

    1991-07-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology is a young branch of neuroscience whose ancestral influences include a rich pool of experimental (eg, cognitive, psychology), theoretical (eg, epistemology), and clinical (eg, neurology, neuropsychology) disciplines. An essential principle of cognitive neuropsychology is that disorders of higher cortical functions can be understood in terms of breakdowns of one or more information-processing modules. Each module is the most basic element of intelligence that can be defined based on current knowledge. This approach is a refinement of-not a fundamental departure from-the 19th-century "localizationist" view of language disorders. Wernicke's aphasia, for example, classical attributed to a single cognitive deficit (loss of word sounds), is shown in this review to require damage to multiple distinct information-processing modules. Cognitive neuropsychology provides the tools for the type of fine-grained analyses of behavior that are needed to capitalize on recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, including the development of more sophisticated models of brain-behavior relationships.

  19. Unawareness of illness in chronic schizophrenia and its relationship to structural brain measures and neuropsychological tests.

    PubMed

    Larøi, F; Fannemel, M; Rønneberg, U; Flekkøy, K; Opjordsmoen, S; Dullerud, R; Haakonsen, M

    2000-11-20

    The present study seeks to elucidate the relationship between unawareness of illness in schizophrenia and frontal lobe dysfunction, in addition to investigating the relationship between lack of insight and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Twenty-one medicated schizophrenic patients, recruited from in- and out-patient wards at Ullevâl Hospital, underwent the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), neuropsychological testing, psychiatric symptom ratings and neuroimaging procedures (CT). Also, 21 matched normal controls were neuropsychologically tested. CT data were assessed blindly by two experienced neuroradiologists, according to the degree of ventricular enlargement and/or sulcal widening, and an assessment of localisation of atrophy was made. Unawareness of illness was correlated with neuropsychological measures related to executive functioning, but not with other neuropsychological measures. Five patients showed slight frontal atrophy, while two showed moderate frontal atrophy. The remaining 13 patients did not show signs of frontal lobe atrophy. Frontal lobe atrophy documented by structural brain measures was associated with poor insight in schizophrenia. Furthermore, Anergia (BPRS), GAF score and 'undifferentiated' sub-diagnosis correlated with SUMD scores. Unawareness of illness in schizophrenia may be related to frontal lobe deficit. Also, awareness of illness may not be related to general psychopathology, but rather to specific aspects.

  20. Hippocampal Atrophy Varies by Neuropsychologically-Defined MCI among Men in Their 50s

    PubMed Central

    Jak, Amy J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Spoon, Kelly M.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Thompson, Wesley, K.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Xian, Hong; Eyler, Lisa T.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J.; Neale, Michael C.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In an effort to address earliest detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), we examined hippocampal volumes and atrophy in middle-aged males to explore neuroanatomical support for different neuropsychological definitions of MCI. Methods 460 men ages 51-60 underwent neuropsychological testing and an MRI. MCI was defined according to five criteria sets. MRI-derived hippocampal volume and hippocampal occupancy (HOC) were obtained via FreeSurfer. Statistical analyses were performed using linear mixed models. Results Differences in HOC between normal cognitive functioning, amnestic, and non-amnestic MCI were observed using MCI criteria that required one impaired (>1.5 SD) cognitive measure in a given cognitive domain or a cognitive composite score method with a cut-point 2 SD below the mean. Differences in standard hippocampal volume were only found between normal and amnestic presentations and only when using the composite score method. Conclusions Results provide empirical support for detection of pre-MCI in younger cohorts. Convergence of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical data, particularly HOC (as opposed to standard cross-sectional volume), supports early identification of MCI as defined by some neuropsychological criteria. PMID:25306196

  1. Sex differences and the interaction of age and sleep issues in neuropsychological testing performance across the lifespan in an ADD/ADHD sample from the years 1989 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Barbara C; Garges, Danielle M; Yoon, Sun Young Rosalia; Maguire, Katie; Zipay, Danielle; Gambino, Maria; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-04-01

    Chart review of population (9 to 80 years) neuropsychological test battery for ADHD diagnosis, questionnaires with multiple responders were evaluated in outpatient setting from 1989-2009. The focus was gender differences across age, diagnostic group (ADHD-Inattentive/ADHD plus), neuropsychological test performance, and reported sleep symptoms over the lifespan. Individuals were assigned to ADHD-I group or ADHD plus group (based upon secondary diagnosis of sleep, behavioral, emotional disturbance); ADHD not primary was excluded (brain insult, psychosis). Among these were 1,828 children (ages 9 to 14), adolescents (ages 15 to 17), and adults (ages 18 and above); 446 children (312 diagnosed ADHD-I), 218 adolescents (163 diagnosed ADHD-I), and 1,163 adults (877 ADHD-I). Sleep was problematic regardless of age, ADHD subtype, and gender. The type and number of sleep problems and fatigue were age dependent. ADHD subtype, gender, fatigue, age, and sleep (sleep onset, unrefreshing sleep, sleep maintenance) were significant variables affecting neuropsychological test performance (sequencing, cognitive flexibility, slow- and fast-paced input, divided attention, whole brain functioning). Findings suggest that ADHD involves numerous factors and symptoms beyond attention, such as sleep which interacts differently dependent upon age.

  2. Neuropsychological profiles in schizophrenia: paranoid versus undifferentiated distinctions.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, J; Conrad, C; Cassens, G

    1997-02-01

    Research on schizophrenia has searched for subtype-specific cognitive dysfunction to elucidate the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of the disorder. The neuropsychological distinctions between 21 paranoid and 15 undifferentiated schizophrenics were studied. The paranoid group had significantly better Verbal IQ, executive functioning on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and memory for spoken language on the Sentence Repetition Test compared to undifferentiated schizophrenics. While the paranoid subtype showed trends toward better performance on a wide variety of tasks, both subtypes showed impairments on tasks requiring continuous auditory attention and fine motor speed and coordination. Despite the paranoid subjects' more intact verbal skills, both groups showed significant deficits in verbal learning on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. This suggests that temporal-hippocampal system dysfunction may be a common denominator in both schizophrenic subtypes. These findings were not accounted for by subtype differences in the level of education, depression or severity of illness.

  3. The Marin Lab at the Dawn of Cognitive Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay discusses the intellectual developments in psychology, linguistics, and behavioral neurology that shaped Oscar Marin’s approach to disorders of high cortical function. As Chief of Neurology at Baltimore City Hospitals in the 1970s, Dr Marin teamed with biopsychologist Eleanor Saffran and the author in seminal studies of acquired language disorders (aphasia) centering on core processes of syntax and semantics, and rejecting premature reductionism. The philosophical and methodological principles that motivated these studies are traced through the author’s personal recollections and the published writings of the Marin lab. These principles came to be associated with the cognitive neuropsychology school of research and have important linkages to contemporary work in the neuroscience of aphasia and related cognitive disorders. PMID:26413736

  4. Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

    2013-10-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

  5. The Marin Lab at the Dawn of Cognitive Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Myrna F

    2015-09-01

    This essay discusses the intellectual developments in psychology, linguistics, and behavioral neurology that shaped Oscar Marin's approach to disorders of high cortical function. As Chief of Neurology at Baltimore City Hospitals in the 1970s, Dr Marin teamed with biopsychologist Eleanor Saffran and the author in seminal studies of acquired language disorders (aphasia) centering on core processes of syntax and semantics, and rejecting premature reductionism. The philosophical and methodological principles that motivated these studies are traced through the author's personal recollections and the published writings of the Marin lab. These principles came to be associated with the cognitive neuropsychology school of research and have important linkages to contemporary work in the neuroscience of aphasia and related cognitive disorders.

  6. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Nicole; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases. PMID:27399781

  7. Functional topography of serotonergic systems supports the Deakin/Graeff hypothesis of anxiety and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Paul, Evan D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Over 20 years ago, Deakin and Graeff hypothesized about the role of different serotonergic pathways in controlling the behavioral and physiologic responses to aversive stimuli, and how compromise of these pathways could lead to specific symptoms of anxiety and affective disorders. A growing body of evidence suggests these serotonergic pathways arise from topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons located in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. We argue that serotonergic neurons in the dorsal/caudal parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus project to forebrain limbic regions involved in stress/conflict anxiety-related processes, which may be relevant for anxiety and affective disorders. Serotonergic neurons in the "lateral wings" of the dorsal raphe nucleus provide inhibitory control over structures controlling fight-or-flight responses. Dysfunction of this pathway could be relevant for panic disorder. Finally, serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus, and the developmentally and functionally-related interfascicular part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, give rise to forebrain limbic projections that are involved in tolerance and coping with aversive stimuli, which could be important for affective disorders like depression. Elucidating the mechanisms through which stress activates these topographically and functionally distinct serotonergic pathways, and how dysfunction of these pathways leads to symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, may lead to the development of novel approaches to both the prevention and treatment of anxiety and affective disorders.

  8. Reduplicative paramnesia: possible anatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, N; Turner, A; King, C

    1988-01-01

    A patient is reported who presented with reduplicative paramnesia following a vascular lesion in the right frontal region. Neuropsychological examination revealed significant memory impairment, perservation on a problem solving task and marked left-sided inattention. Recovery from the paramnesic episode was accompanied by selective resolution of the original cognitive deficits. It is suggested that focal right frontal pathology may represent a sufficient condition for the occurrence of reduplicative paramnesia, and that the underlying mechanisms may be dependent on a particular combination and severity of memory, visuospatial and conceptual deficits. Images PMID:3379434

  9. Reduplicative paramnesia: possible anatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kapur, N; Turner, A; King, C

    1988-04-01

    A patient is reported who presented with reduplicative paramnesia following a vascular lesion in the right frontal region. Neuropsychological examination revealed significant memory impairment, perservation on a problem solving task and marked left-sided inattention. Recovery from the paramnesic episode was accompanied by selective resolution of the original cognitive deficits. It is suggested that focal right frontal pathology may represent a sufficient condition for the occurrence of reduplicative paramnesia, and that the underlying mechanisms may be dependent on a particular combination and severity of memory, visuospatial and conceptual deficits.

  10. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L.; Olsson, Craig A.; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K.; Patton, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology. PMID:25678548

  11. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L; Olsson, Craig A; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-09-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology.

  12. Revealing how species loss affects ecosystem function: the trait-based Price Equation partition.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harpole, W Stanley

    2008-01-01

    Species loss can alter ecosystem function. Recent work proposes a general theoretical framework, the "Price Equation partition," for understanding how species loss affects ecosystem functions that comprise the summed contributions of individual species (e.g., primary production). The Price Equation partition shows how the difference in function between a pre-species-loss site and a post-loss site can be partitioned into effects of random loss of species richness (species-richness effect; SRE), nonrandom loss of high- or low-functioning species (species-composition effect; SCE), and post-loss changes in the functional contributions of the remaining species (context-dependence effect; CDE). However, the Price Equation partition is silent on the underlying determinants of species' functional contributions. Here we extend the Price Equation partition by using multiple regression to describe how species' functional contributions depend on species' traits. This allows us to reexpress the SCE and CDE in terms of nonrandom loss of species with particular traits (trait-based SCE), and post-loss changes in species' traits and in the relationship between species' traits and species' functional contributions (trait-based CDE). We apply this new trait-based Price Equation partition to studies of species loss from grassland plant communities and protist microcosm food webs. In both studies, post-loss changes in the relationship between species' traits and their functional contributions alter ecosystem function more than nonrandom loss of species with particular traits. The protist microcosm data also illustrate how the trait-based Price Equation partition can be applied when species' functional contributions depend in part on the traits of other species. To do this, we define "synecological" traits that quantify how unique species are (e.g., in diet) compared to other species. Context dependence in the protist microcosm experiment arises in part because species loss alters the

  13. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.

  14. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  15. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Overdorp, Eduard J; Kessels, Roy P C; Claassen, Jurgen A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test performance concurrently in relation to IADL in this population. As a result, it remains largely unknown whether these factors independently predict functional outcome. The current systematic review intended to address this lack of information by reviewing the literature on older adults, incorporating studies that examined e.g., normal aging, but also stroke or dementia patients. A comprehensive search of databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and reference lists was performed, focusing on papers in the English language that examined the combined effect of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical factors on IADL in samples of adults with an average age above 50. In total, 58 potential articles were identified; 20 were included in the review. The results show that especially neuropsychological variables (primarily memory and executive functions) independently predict IADL. Although some unique predictive value of brain morphological changes, such as hippocampal atrophy, was found, support for the importance of white matter changes was limited. However, the results of the studies reviewed are diverse, and appear to be at least partially determined by the variables included. For example, studies were less likely to find an independent effect of cognition if they solely employed a cognitive screening instrument. This indicates that a structured examination of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of IADL in different patient populations is warranted.

  16. A Comparison of Brain Structural Variables, Neuropsychological Factors, and Treatment Outcome in Early Versus Late Onset Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Disabato, Brianne M.; Morris, Carrie; Hranilovich, Jennifer; D’Angelo, Gina; Zhou, Gongfu; Wu, Ningying; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare differences in grey matter volumes, white matter and subcortical gray matter hyperintensities, neuropsychological factors, and treatment outcome between early and late onset late life depressed (LLD) subjects. Design Two-site, prospective, nonrandomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinics at Washington University and Duke University. Participants 126 subjects aged 60 years or older, met DSM-IV criteria for major depression, scored 20 or more on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), received neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging, excluded for cognitive impairment or severe medical disorders. Intervention Twelve weeks of sertraline treatment. Main Outcome Measure Subjects’ MADRS scores over time, neuropsychological factors. Results Left anterior cingulate thickness was significantly smaller in the late onset depressed group than early onset LLD subjects. The late onset group also had more hyperintensities than the early onset LLD subjects. There was no difference in neuropsychological factor scores or treatment outcome between early onset and late onset LLD subjects. Conclusions Age of onset of depressive symptoms in the late life depressed are associated with differences in cortical thickness, and white matter and subcortical gray matter hyperintensities, but age of onset did not affect neuropsychological factors or treatment outcome. PMID:23768683

  17. Clinical, neuropsychological, neurophysiologic, and genetic features of a new Italian pedigree with familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suppa, Antonio; Berardelli, Alfredo; Brancati, Francesco; Marianetti, Massimo; Barrano, Giuseppe; Mina, Concetta; Pizzuti, Antonio; Sideri, Giulio

    2009-05-01

    We studied the clinical, neuropsychological, neurophysiologic, and genetic features of an Italian family with familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy (FCMTE). Clinically affected members of the family had limb and voice tremor, seizures, and myoclonus involving the eyelids during blinking. Neuropsychological testing disclosed visuospatial impairment, possibly due to temporal lobe dysfunction. Neurophysiologic findings suggested increased primary motor cortex excitability with normal sensorimotor integration. Linkage analysis excluded the 8q24 locus, where patients shared a common haplotype spanning 14.5 Mb in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2. PMID:19222544

  18. Neuropsychological phenotype and psychopathology in seven adult patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome: implications for treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Egger, J I M; Zwanenburg, R J; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C M A; Kleefstra, T; Verhoeven, W M A

    2016-04-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is characterized by a variable degree of intellectual disability, impaired speech and language as well as social communicative skills and mild dysmorphic features. The SHANK3 gene is thought to be a major contributor to the phenotype. Apart from the syndrome-associated autistic features, symptoms from the bipolar spectrum can be discerned, in particular behavior instability and fluctuating mood culminating in a (hypo)manic state. In case of coincident major somatic events, a deteriorating course may occur. This study comprises seven adult patients (four females and three males; aged 21-44 years) with genetically proven PMS. Data from medical records were collected and extensive assessment of neuropsychological variables was performed to identify cognitive characteristics and their relation with psychopathology and treatment. All patients showed profound communication deficits and their developmental functioning ranged from 1.0 to 6.3 years. In addition, they had slow speed of information processing, impairment of attentional and executive functions and cognitive alexithymia. As to psychopathology, features from the affective and anxiety domains were prominent findings in these seven patients suggesting the presence of a bipolar spectrum disorder that could be effectively moderated with mood-stabilizing agents. Results are discussed in terms of the putative involvement of structural brain abnormalities, in particular cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and corpus callosum thinning and their cognitive and emotional sequelae. It is concluded that the treatment of 22q13.3-associated psychopathology should include prescription of mood-stabilizing agents in combination with individually tailored contextual neuropsychological measures. PMID:26824576

  19. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed. PMID:24848863

  20. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed.