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Sample records for affects sexual differentiation

  1. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development.

  2. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  3. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, P R; Christiansen, S; Boberg, J; Nellemann, C; Hass, U

    2010-04-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Consequently, we have initiated a large project where the purpose is to study mixture effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides at low doses. In the initial range-finding mixture studies, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual differentiation of the pups was affected at 25% and higher as anogenital distance was affected in both male and female offspring at birth and the male offspring exhibited malformations of the genital tubercle, increased nipple retention, and decreased prostate and epididymis weights at pup day 13. The results show that doses of endocrine disrupting pesticides, which appear to induce no effects on gestation length, parturition and pup mortality when judged on their own, induced marked adverse effects on these endpoints in concert with other pesticides. In addition, the sexual differentiation of the offspring was affected. This as well as the predictability of the combination effects based on dose-additivity modelling will be studied further in a large dose-response study.

  4. Affect and Sexual Responsivity in Men With and Without a History of Sexual Aggression.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amber N; Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-04-07

    Despite increased attention to understanding risk factors for sexual aggression, knowledge regarding the emotional and sexual arousal patterns of sexually aggressive men remains limited. The current study examined whether sexually aggressive men exhibit unique profiles of affective responsivity, in particular to negatively valenced stimuli, as well as sexual arousal patterns that differentiate them from nonaggressive men. We presented 78 young men (38 sexually aggressive; 40 nonaggressive) with a series of videos designed to induce positive, sad, or anxious affect. Affect and subjective sexual arousal were assessed following each film and erectile responses were measured continuously. Sexually aggressive men reported significantly higher levels of sexual arousal following both the positive and negative conditions as compared to nonaggressive men. Erectile responses of sexually aggressive men were significantly greater than nonaggressive men's following the positive affect induction. Self-reported positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant predictor of subjective sexual arousal for both groups of men. Compared to nonaggressive men, sexually aggressive men showed significantly weaker correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Findings suggest that generalized heightened propensity for sexual arousal may be a risk factor for sexually aggressive behavior.

  5. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  6. [Sexual differentiation of the human brain].

    PubMed

    Kula, K; Słowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2000-01-01

    Normal human development requires the compatibility between genetic sex (sex chromosomes), sex of gonades (tests or ovaries), genitalia (external and internal sex organs), somatic features (body characteristics) and psychic sex. The psychic sex, called frequently gender, consist of gender identity (self-estimation), gender role (objective estimation) and sexual orientation (hetero- or homosexual). It was believed that the psychic gender depends only on socio-environmental influences such as rearing, learning and individual choice. Although, the process of sexual differentiation of human brain is not completely elucidated, it has became recently evident that endogenous hormones more then socio-environmental factors influence gender differences. Experimental studies on animals revealed that transient action of sex steroids during perinatal period of life is crucial for the dymorphism of sexual behavior (male or female) in adulthood. It seems, that also in the human male neonates testosterone produced by testes perinatally takes the main role in the irreversible masculinization of the brain i.e. creation of the differences vs. female brain. The evaluation of patients with disturbances of sexual differentiation of external genitalia (the lack of the testosterone transformation into 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone in peripheral tissues of men or the inborn excess of androgens in women with the congenital adrenal hyperplasia) has served as a useful clinical model for understanding factors, affecting the formation of gender. In these individuals the formal sex established according to genetic sex and somatic sex may be incompatible with gender identity and role. However, it has been found that the female gender identity is most frequently associated with the presence of ovaries or the lack of gonads (gonadal dysgenesis), while the male gender identity appear most frequently in the presence of testicular tissue irrespective of female or hermaphrodite (intersex) phenotype. In

  7. Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones.

  8. A broader perspective of sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fiddler, M.; Pergament, E.

    1997-03-31

    Human sexual differentiation is customarily depicted as a series of embryonic events that lead to male and female gonadal development and differential hormone expression that have behavioral as well as biological outcomes. The salient components of these events are the differential expression of two hormones - testosterone and Muellerian inhibiting substance - and the SRY gene, regulating, in turn, the transcription of other genes and culminating in male differentiation. Sex determination, then, is generally described as initially proceeding down a path toward female development unless the bipotential, indifferent gonad is modified toward male development by genes on the Y chromosome. 28 refs.

  9. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. PMID:22349083

  10. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward.

  11. Neuroendocrinology and Sexual Differentiation in Eusocial Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Goldman, Sharry L.; Seney, Marianne L.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual differentiation of the mammalian nervous system has been studied intensively for over 25 years. Most of what we know, however, comes from work on relatively non-social species in which direct reproduction (i.e., production of offspring) is virtually the only route to reproductive success. In social species, an individual’s inclusive fitness may include contributions to the gene pool that are achieved by supporting the reproductive efforts of close relatives; this feature is most evident in eusocial organisms. Here, we review what is known about neuroendocrine mechanisms, sexual differentiation, and effects of social status on the brain and spinal cord in two eusocial mammals: the naked mole-rat and Damaraland mole-rat. These small rodents exhibit the most rigidly organized reproductive hierarchy among mammals, with reproduction suppressed in a majority of individuals. Our findings suggest that eusociality may be associated with a relative lack of sex differences and a reduced influence of gonadal hormones on some functions to which these hormones are usually tightly linked. We also identify neural changes accompanying a change in social and reproductive status, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the evolution of sex differences and the neuroendocrinology of reproductive suppression. PMID:19416733

  12. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  13. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  14. Primary genetic control of somatic sexual differentiation in a mammal.

    PubMed

    O, W S; Short, R V; Renfree, M B; Shaw, G

    1988-02-25

    The classical view of mammalian sexual differentiation is that a gene on the Y chromosome transforms the indifferent gonad into a testis. The Leydig cells then secrete androgen which stimulates the development of the male reproductive tract, and the Sertoli cells secrete Mullerian inhibitory substance which inhibits the development of the female reproductive tract. In the absence of a testis, the Mullerian duct develops into the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Thus the whole of sexual differentiation is thought to be hormonally mediated as a consequence of this initial genetic determination of gonadal sex. We have found evidence in a marsupial mammal for extensive sexual dimorphisms which precede any morphological differentiation of the gonads. Thus the classical view of mammalian sexual differentiation may have over-emphasized the role of testicular hormones, and overlooked earlier genetic effects.

  15. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  16. Differential Effects of Women's Child Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Revictimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined differential effects of sexual revictimization in community sample of 248 African-American and white women, ages 18 to 36. Findings suggest that unintended pregnancies and abortions were significantly associated with sexual revictimization. Women who reported more than one incident in both childhood and adulthood were also likely to have…

  17. Exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol accelerates sexual differentiation and disrupts expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in developing bullfrogs.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Loretta P; Dyer, Cheryl A; Propper, Catherine R

    2003-04-01

    Sex-specific gonadal steroidogenesis during development is critical to differentiation of the sexually dimorphic phenotype and reproductive function of adult organisms. Environmental contaminants may affect the process of sexual differentiation through disruption of steroid production and/or action. Control of the steroidogenic metabolic pathway is regulated partly by P450 cytochrome hydroxylases, and the expression of many of these enzymes is controlled by the orphan nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). In mammals, SF-1 expression is critical for development of the reproductive axis and adult reproductive function. In the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana, during sequential stages of development encompassing sexual differentiation, SF-1 protein expression becomes elevated in ovaries of sexually differentiating females, whereas expression in testes decreases. We exposed tadpoles to the industrial pollutant octylphenol (OP) for 24 hr before and during the critical stages of sexual differentiation to determine whether this known endocrine disruptor affects sex differentiation and SF-1 expression. We found that both females and males treated with an environmentally relevant low dose (10(-9)M) of OP underwent early gonadal differentiation. Furthermore, OP exposure disrupted the sexually dimorphic expression of SF-1 that occurs during sexual differentiation. Our results suggest that OP exposure may affect developmental processes that could ultimately influence adult reproductive function and that these disruptive effects may be mediated in partly through disturbances in gene regulation by SF-1.

  18. Differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on sexual experiences and partner interactions in couples.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems.

  19. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities.

  20. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.

  1. Affective and physiological sexual response patterns: the effects of instructions on sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    Heiman, J R; Rowland, D L

    1983-01-01

    To more clearly characterize the patterns of cognitive-affective and physiological responses concomitant with male sexual dysfunction, the present study compared 14 sexually dysfunctional and 16 sexually functional men. All individuals listened to two sexually explicit tapes and engaged in a self-generated fantasy, while genital, heart rate and scaled cognitive affective responses were recorded. Two types of instructions, a performance demand set and a non-demand sensate focus set, preceded the erotic tapes in counterbalanced order. As predicted, dysfunctional men showed less genital tumescence to tapes preceded by the demand than the non-demand instructions. Contrary to expectation, functional men showed greater penile tumescence to the tapes preceded by demand instructions. Self-reported sexual arousal did not follow the penile tumescence pattern but instead indicated that the dysfunctional sample was significantly less subjectively aroused to the tapes and fantasy. There were other significant differences between the groups. Dysfunctional men showed greater general psychological distress, as measured by the SCL-90, including elevated somaticism, anxiety and depression scores. During the experimental session, dysfunctional men also evidenced greater awareness of a variety of physiological responses, as well as more negative and fewer positive cognitive-affective states. These data are discussed in terms of the interaction of affective and physiological responses, differences in contextual meanings of instructional sets given the presence of a dysfunction, and theoretical and clinical conceptualizations of male sexual functioning.

  2. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.

  3. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  4. Genes specifically expressed in sexually differentiated female spheroids of Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Aono, Naoki; Inoue, Tan; Shiraishi, Hideaki

    2005-10-01

    Volvox carteri is a multicellular green alga with only two cell types, somatic cells and reproductive cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this organism has evolved from a Chlamydomonas-like unicellular ancestor along with multicellularity, cellular differentiation, and a change in the mode of sexual reproduction from isogamy to oogamy. To examine the mechanism of sexual differentiation and the evolution of oogamy, we isolated 6 different cDNA sequences specifically expressed in sexually differentiated female spheroids. The genes for the cDNAs were designated SEF1 to SEF6. The time course of accumulation of each mRNA was shown to be distinct. The expression of some of these genes was not significantly affected when the sexual inducer was removed after the induction of sexual development. Sequence analysis indicates that SEF5 and SEF6 encode pherophorin-related proteins. Of these, SEF5 has the unique structural feature of a polyproline stretch in the C-terminal domain in addition to the one found in the central region.

  5. Rethinking transgression: disgust, affect, and sexuality in Charlotte Roche's Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hester, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the critical reaction to Charlotte Roche's novel Wetlands, and considers the ways in which this reaction reflects contemporary thinking on sex and transgression. While reviewers position the text as the site of a subversive politics and a specifically sexualized form of affect, much of the affective power of Wetlands lies less in its treatment of sex than in its largely ignored descriptions of the revolting body. Via an analysis of the different forms of affect in operation within Wetlands, this article will explore whether the association of sex with politically charged subversion may now be subsiding.

  6. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  7. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Swaab, D F

    2004-12-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing fetal brain are of major importance for the development of male gender identity and male heterosexual orientation. Solid evidence for the importance of postnatal social factors is lacking. In the human brain, structural diferences have been described that seem to be related to gender identity and sexual orientation.

  8. Sex determining genes and sexual differentiation in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Pask, A; Renfree, M B

    2001-11-01

    The role of genes in the differentiation of the testis and ovary has been extensively studied in the human and the mouse. Despite over a decade of investigations, the precise roles of genes and their interactions in the pathway of sex determination are still unclear. We have chosen to take a comparative look at sex determination and differentiation to gain insights into the evolution and the conserved functions of these genes. To achieve this, we have examined a wide variety of eutherian sex determining genes in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby, to determine which genes have a conserved and fundamental mammalian sex determining role. These investigations have provided many unique insights. Here, we review the recent molecular and endocrine investigations into sexual development in marsupials, and highlight how these studies have shed light on the roles of genes and hormones in mammalian sex determination and differentiation.

  9. Effect of environmentally-relevant concentrations of nonylphenol on sexual differentiation in zebrafish: a multi-generational study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong; Chen, Qi; He, Ning; Diao, Pan-pan; Jia, Li-xing; Duan, Shun-shan

    2017-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a persistent environmental chemical that can disrupt the organism’s endocrine system, and is detected in the surface water and sea. In this study, we investigated whether NP can alter transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation-related genes. Three generations of zebrafish were exposed to 0, 2, 20 and 200 μg·L−1 of NP, and transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation genes were assessed in 10, 20 and 40 dpf in the F1 and F2 generations. Growth of zebrafish exposed to 200 μg·L−1 of NP was inhibited at 125 dpf in the F1 generation. 20 μg·L−1 of NP resulted in 80% females in the F1 generation, but had no effect on the F2 generation. In terms of the sexual differentiation genes, the transcriptional expression of cyp19a1a and esr1 genes were upregulated in 20 μg·L−1 of NP in the F1 generation. But expression of the sexual differentiation genes were not affected in the F2 generation. Overall, NP could affect sexual differentiation and gene transcriptional expression in the F1 generation. The tolerance of contaminant in the offsprings was improved at low concentration. PMID:28230098

  10. Effect of environmentally-relevant concentrations of nonylphenol on sexual differentiation in zebrafish: a multi-generational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dong; Chen, Qi; He, Ning; Diao, Pan-Pan; Jia, Li-Xing; Duan, Shun-Shan

    2017-02-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is a persistent environmental chemical that can disrupt the organism’s endocrine system, and is detected in the surface water and sea. In this study, we investigated whether NP can alter transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation-related genes. Three generations of zebrafish were exposed to 0, 2, 20 and 200 μg·L‑1 of NP, and transcriptional expression of sexual differentiation genes were assessed in 10, 20 and 40 dpf in the F1 and F2 generations. Growth of zebrafish exposed to 200 μg·L‑1 of NP was inhibited at 125 dpf in the F1 generation. 20 μg·L‑1 of NP resulted in 80% females in the F1 generation, but had no effect on the F2 generation. In terms of the sexual differentiation genes, the transcriptional expression of cyp19a1a and esr1 genes were upregulated in 20 μg·L‑1 of NP in the F1 generation. But expression of the sexual differentiation genes were not affected in the F2 generation. Overall, NP could affect sexual differentiation and gene transcriptional expression in the F1 generation. The tolerance of contaminant in the offsprings was improved at low concentration.

  11. Biases for affective versus sexual content in multidimensional scaling analysis: an individual difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Moholy, Maxwell; Staley, Cameron

    2014-04-01

    Visual sexual stimuli can motivate sexual behaviors that can risk or enhance health. How one allocates attention to a sexually motivating stimulus may be important for predicting its effect on sexual feelings, sexual risk behaviors, and sexual problems. A large sample (N = 157) of men and women rated the similarity of all possible pairs of photographs of women, which had been pretested to vary in their sexual and affective content. Multidimensional scaling was used to extract two dimensions of sex and affect, including the extent to which each person relied on each dimension in making their similarity judgments. These individual weights were then used to predict sexual variables of interest. Participants who relied more on the affect information judging photograph similarity were more likely to be female, viewed erotica less frequently, reported fewer sexual partners, reported less sexual desire, and more sexual problems. Those who relied more on the erotic content in making their similarity judgments were more likely to be male, viewed more erotica weekly, experienced higher sexual desire, and were more likely to have taken an HIV test. The "double edge sword" of attention weight to affect in sexual cues is discussed for its potential to both enhance and harm sexual health.

  12. Ca2+/calmodulin system: participation on rat sexual hypothalamic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Medina, M; Canchola, E; Vergara-Onofre, M; Rosado, A

    1993-11-01

    Modifications of male rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation after neonatal administration of drugs that participate on the Ca2+/calmodulin system (haloperidol, trifluoperazine, penfluridol, pimozide, and verapamil) were studied. Pups treated 72 h after birth were behaviorally tested on day 120 of extrauterine life. Five tests for homotypical behavior were conducted. Afterwards animals were castrated and tested twice for heterotypical (female) behavior under replacement hormonal therapy. Fifty percent (80% in the case of pimozide) of all treated males showed lordotic behavior compared with none of the controls. Haloperidol (39%, lordosis quotient) and pimozide (40%, lordosis quotient) were more active than the others. Results obtained with verapamil were not statistically different from the controls. Pimozide was the most active agent influencing the appetitive masculine behavior (mount latency, intromission latency, and postejaculatory interval). Verapamil was more efficient than the rest of the drugs on the consummatory behavior (mount latency, intromission frequency, interintromission interval, and ejaculatory latency). Our results support the participation of the Ca2+/calmodulin system in hypothalamic sexual differentiation and in the differential modulation of the masculine and feminine behavioral patterns.

  13. Transcriptional profile of the male and female rate hypothalamus during sexual differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation, specifically masculinization, of the hypothalamus is proposed to involve a seriesofeventsthat includethearomatization oftestosteronetoestradiol inthebrainattheend ofgestationandtheday ofbirth. Thishormonethenactivatesthetranscription ofestrogen¬responsive ...

  14. Is committed desire intentional? A qualitative exploration of sexual desire and differentiation of self in couples.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana Cunha; Fraenkel, Peter; Narciso, Isabel; Novo, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The question of what heightens or diminishes sexual desire has long been a passionate theme across cultures in literature, arts, media, and medicine. Yet, little research has been conducted to determine what affects level of desire within couples. The degree of differentiation of self has been suggested as an important variable in shaping partners' level of desire. Through a qualitative analysis of dyadic couple interviews, this study provides an account of characteristics, processes, and trajectories of sexual desire and differentiation in 33 heterosexual couples of varying ages and relationship duration. Factors associated with high desire were change and autonomy, whereas conflict and children were reported to be desire-diminishing factors. Innovation, sharing, autonomy, and effort emerged as desire-promoting strategies, while fostering personal interests, investing in a positive connection, and enhancing personal integrity were identified as couples' strategies to promote and preserve differentiation of self. The results also shed light on couples' perceptions of whether and how sexual desire changes over the course of the relationship and challenge common cultural assumptions about desire in committed relationships-namely the myth that the only authentic expression of desire is that which occurs spontaneously and without intention and planning. Implications for couple therapy are discussed.

  15. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  16. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M Maria; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.5], any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95 % CI = 1.0-1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95 % CI = 0.4-0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men's sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women's. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women's sexual identity and women's same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS: LOW DOSES OF VINCLOZOLIN ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In humans and rodents, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of 100 or 200 mg vinclozolin (V) kg-1 day-1 during sexual differentiation in rats induces female-like anogenital...

  18. Disorders of sexual differentiation: II. Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide a review and summary of recent advances in the diagnosis and management of disorder(s) of sexual differentiation (DSD), an area that has developed over recent years with implications for the management of children with DSD; and to assess the refinements in the surgical techniques used for genital reconstruction. Methods Recent publications (in the previous 10 years) were identified using PubMed, as were relevant previous studies, using following keywords; ‘diagnosis and management’, ‘ambiguous genitalia’, ‘intersex’, ‘disorders of sexual differentiation’, ‘genitogram’, ‘endocrine assessment’, ‘gender assignment’, ‘genitoplasty’, and ‘urogenital sinus’. The findings were reviewed. Results Arbitrary criteria have been developed to select patients likely to have DSD. Unnecessary tests, especially those that require anaesthesia or are associated with radiation exposure, should be limited to situations where a specific question needs to be answered. Laparoscopy is an important diagnostic tool in selected patients. The routine use of multidisciplinary diagnostic and expert surgical teams has become standard. Full disclosure of different therapeutic approaches and their timing is recommended. Conclusions Diagnostic tests should be tailored according to the available information. Parents and/or patients should be made aware of the paucity of well-designed studies, as these conditions are rare. Unnecessary irreversible surgery should be postponed until a multidisciplinary experienced team, with the parents’ and or patients’ approval, can make a well-judged decision. PMID:26579241

  19. Disorders of sexual differentiation: I. Genetics and pathology

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide a summary of the recent major advances in the field of molecular genetics and understanding of psychosexual development, as these developments have resulted in changes in terminology and classification of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD)/intersex; and to provide a quick and simplified review of the basic information. Methods Recent publications (over the last 10 years) were identified by a PubMed search, as were relevant previous studies, using the keywords; ‘sex chromosomes’, ‘psychosexual development’, ‘classifications’, ‘disorders of sexual differentiation’, ‘Chicago consensus’, ‘gonadal malignancy’, ‘intersex’ and ‘ambiguous genitalia’. Results The newly proposed terminology and classification has eliminated some confusion for both patient and family, as well as among health professionals. The new advances have facilitated the categorisation of gonadal malignancy in patients with DSD into high-, intermediate- and low-risk groups. Conclusions The major changes in terminology and classification of DSD should be considered as the first steps on a long road of research effort. The current available data remain far from sufficient. More molecular genetics studies will allow a better understanding of the causes of each condition of DSD. PMID:26579240

  20. SRY alone can induce normal male sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, M.; Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.

    1995-01-30

    Most individuals with the rare 46,XX male {open_quotes}syndrome{close_quotes} arise due to an unequal interchange between Xp and Yp termini during paternal meiosis. The pattern of Y-sequences in these patients varies considerably, but very few cases have been reported showing only SRY. The phenotype in these patients is also variable ranging from severe impairment of the external genitalia through hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism to occasional normal male phenotype. We report a Mexican 46,XX male patient without genital ambiguities in whom DNA analysis showed the presence of SRY and the absence of ZFY. We conclude that in this case SRY alone was enough for complete male sexual differentiation. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Sexually differentiated central pattern generators in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Zornik, Erik; Yamaguchi, Ayako

    2008-06-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie the function of central pattern generators (CPGs) presents a formidable challenge requiring sophisticated tools and well-chosen model systems. In this article, we describe recent work on vocalizations of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These behaviors are driven by sexually differentiated CPGs and are exceptionally well suited to this objective. In particular, a simplified mechanism of vocal production (independent of respiratory musculature) allows straightforward interpretations of nerve activity with respect to behavior. Furthermore, the development of a fictively vocalizing isolated brain, together with the finding of rapid androgen-induced masculinization of female vocalizations, provides an invaluable tool for determining how new behaviors arise from existing circuits.

  2. Sexually differentiated central pattern generators in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Zornik, Erik; Yamaguchi, Ayako

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie the function of central pattern generators (CPGs) presents a formidable challenge requiring sophisticated tools and well-chosen model systems. In this article, we describe recent work on vocalizations of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. These behaviors are driven by sexually differentiated CPGs and are exceptionally well suited to this objective. In particular, a simplified mechanism of vocal production (independent of respiratory musculature) allows straightforward interpretations of nerve activity with respect to behavior. Furthermore, the development of a fictively vocalizing isolated brain, together with the finding of rapid androgen-induced masculinization of female vocalizations, provides an invaluable tool for determining how new behaviors arise from existing circuits. PMID:18471902

  3. Does physical intimate partner violence affect sexual health? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L

    2007-04-01

    Forty years of published research (1966-2006) addressing physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual health was reviewed (51 manuscripts) and synthesized to determine (a) those sexual health indicators for which sufficient evidence is available to suggest a causal association and (b) gaps in the literature for which additional careful research is needed to establish causality and explain mechanisms for these associations. Sexual health was defined as a continuum of indicators of gynecology and reproductive health. IPV was consistently associated with sexual risk taking, inconsistent condom use, or partner nonmonogamy (23 of 27 studies), having an unplanned pregnancy or induced abortion (13 of 16 studies), having a sexually transmitted infection (17 of 24 studies), and sexual dysfunction (17 of 18 studies). A conceptual model was presented to guide further needed research addressing direct and indirect mechanisms by which physical, sexual, and psychological IPV affects sexual health.

  4. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  5. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  6. Wired on Steroids: Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Its Role in the Expression of Sexual Partner Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Brenda M.; Skinner, Donal C.; Roselli, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity. PMID:22654808

  7. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  8. The factors affecting sexual assaults committed by strangers and acquaintances.

    PubMed

    Pazzani, Lynn M

    2007-07-01

    Research on the causes of sexual assault typically analyzes rape committed by acquaintances and strangers together, despite the fact that the characteristics of the assault in these two circumstances are very different. Thus, this work examines whether the causes of each type of sexual assault--stranger and acquaintance rape--differ. The results of the analyses reveal that variables that describe a culture of gender equality, prior child abuse, and prior sexual assaults are associated with acquaintance assaults. In contrast, a culture of "hypermasculinity" is associated with stranger rape. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses.

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms in sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence alone argues that the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain depend on epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure. More direct evidence has recently been obtained from two types of studies: those manipulating a particular epigenetic mechanism, and those examining the genome-wide distribution of specific epigenetic marks. The manipulation of histone acetylation or DNA methylation disrupts the development of several neural sex differences in rodents. Taken together, however, the evidence suggests there is unlikely to be a simple formula for masculine or feminine development of the brain and behaviour; instead, underlying epigenetic mechanisms may vary by brain region or even by dependent variable within a region. Whole-genome studies related to sex differences in the brain have only very recently been reported, but suggest that males and females may use different combinations of epigenetic modifications to control gene expression, even in cases where gene expression does not differ between the sexes. Finally, recent findings are discussed that are likely to direct future studies on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour. PMID:26833835

  11. Environmental Influences on Genetic Expression: Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Sexual Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmer, Norman, Ed.; Walcher, Dwain N., Ed.

    A cross-disciplinary approach to the topic of sexual differentiation comprises this volume. Diverse papers are included under a variety of headings: 1) critical Periods in development; 2) embryology; 3) RNA-DNA; 4) chromosomes-growth and development; 5) physiology; 6) primates; 7) cognition; 8) cultural differences in patterns of sexual behavior;…

  12. The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; Erdem, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differences in the female and male brains are observed in many animal species; however, these differences are variable between species. Animal and human (in vivo imaging and postmortem) studies on sex differences in the brain have shown many differences in the local distribution of the cortex, the gray-white matter ratio, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, limbic system and neurotransmitter systems. This review aims to evaluate the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical differences in the female and male brains and to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones on the developing brain. PMID:24592097

  13. Sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system parallels genetic, not gonadal, sex.

    PubMed

    Wade, J; Swender, D A; McElhinny, T L

    1999-10-01

    Mechanisms regulating sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system present an intriguing puzzle. Masculine development of brain regions and behavior can be induced in genetic females by posthatching estradiol treatment. That result is consistent with the hypothesis that estradiol, converted within the brain from testicular androgen via the aromatase enzyme, masculinizes neural structure and function. In contrast, treatment during specific stages of development with the aromatase inhibitor Fadrozole has not prevented masculine development, and the presence of testicular tissue in genetic females did not induce masculine organization of neuroanatomy or singing behavior. Fadrozole treatments in those previous studies were limited, however, and most genetic females had both ovarian and testicular tissue. The present experiments were designed to provide increased aromatase inhibition and to reliably produce genetic females with only testicular tissue. Eggs received a single injection at a later age or with higher doses of Fadrozole than had been used previously. Some embryos were exposed to Fadrozole more frequently by either injecting eggs on 2 days of development or dipping them for 10-12 days in Fadrozole. Finally, in some individuals from Fadrozole-treated eggs, the left gonad was removed, leaving each genetic male and female with a single right testis. None of these treatments significantly affected development of the song system compared to appropriate control groups. These results suggest that sexual differentiation of the zebra finch song system is not regulated by embryonic aromatase activity or by gonadal secretions and instead involves events that need not be mediated by steroid hormones.

  14. Phthalate-induced toxicity: Identifying the vulnerable pathways during sexual differentiation in the male rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to phthalate ester plasticizer compounds are widespread. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that in utero exposure to various phthalates throughout sexual differentiation (GD14-18) results in decreased fetal testicular androgen production, and ultimately leads t...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF NEURAL BIOMARKERS OF ALTERED SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE***

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during late gestation through the early postnatal period. The development of the phenotypical male brain is dependent on the aromatization of circulating testosterone to estradiol. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) duri...

  16. Identification of neural biomarkers of altered sexual differentiation following gestational exposure###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during late gestation through the early postnatal period. The development of the phenotypical male brain is dependent on the aromatization of circulating testosterone to estradiol. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) duri...

  17. Identification of neural biomarkers of altered sexual differentiation following gestational exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during late gestation through the early postnatal period. The development of the phenotypical male brain is dependent on the aromatization of circulating testosterone to estradiol. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during...

  18. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract that are manifested later in adult life. Induction of these malformations is associated with declines in fetal testicular testoste...

  19. Differential Annual Movement Patterns in a Migratory Species: Effects of Experience and Sexual Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Paulo E.; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies. PMID:21799853

  20. Tinbergen’s fourth question, ontogeny: sexual and individual differentiation

    PubMed Central

    CREWS, DAVID; GROOTHUIS, TON

    2006-01-01

    Based on Tinbergen’s view of the study of behavioural development we describe some recent advances and their importance in this field. We argue that the study of behavioural development should combine both proximate and ultimate approaches, and can help to understand how early subtle environmental factors shape consistent individual variation both between and within sexes. This is illustrated by reviewing the profound effects of incubation temperature on the development of brain and social behaviour in the leopard gecko, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, and the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones on social behaviour in rodents and especially birds. Both are maternal effects: incubation temperature can be partly determined by the nest site where the mother deposited her eggs, while in both oviparous and viviparous vertebrates maternal hormones reach and influence the embryo. In the gecko, incubation temperature affects sexual and aggressive behaviour, growth, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as the size, connectivity and metabolic capacity of certain brain areas. In this way not only is the gonad type determined, but so too is the morphological, physiological, neural, and behavioural phenotype established that explains much of within-sex variation. In rodents, maternal hormones affect similar aspects. In avian species, maternal hormones, deposited in the eggs, vary systematically between and within clutches and have both short- and long-lasting effects on competitive behaviour. Evidence suggests that mothers adaptively adjust hormone allocation to the environmental context. In addition, we discuss some effects of postnatal experience on behavioural development in geckos, mice and bird species. Our results also illustrate how the study of animal models other than rodents can help in understanding important developmental processes. PMID:16501662

  1. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  2. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583

  3. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  4. Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Sexual Experience among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effect of unsupportive family relations and low self-esteem on teenage sexual activity and alcohol use. Data from a telephone survey of 301 male and 242 female adolescents in Iowa suggested significant gender differences, with young women in unsupportive contexts seeking compensatory intimacy outside the family. (JB)

  5. Sexual differentiation and the Kiss1 system: hormonal and developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    The nervous system (both central and peripheral) is anatomically and physiologically differentiated between the sexes, ranging from gender-based differences in the cerebral cortex to motoneuron number in the spinal cord. Although genetic factors may play a role in the development of some sexually differentiated traits, most identified sex differences in the brain and behavior are produced under the influence of perinatal sex steroid signaling. In many species, the ability to display an estrogen-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is sexually differentiated, yet the specific neural population(s) that allows females but not males to display such estrogen-mediated "positive feedback" has remained elusive. Recently, the Kiss1/kisspeptin system has been implicated in generating the sexually dimorphic circuitry underlying the LH surge. Specifically, Kiss1 gene expression and kisspeptin protein levels in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus are sexually differentiated, with females displaying higher levels than males, even under identical hormonal conditions as adults. These findings, in conjunction with accumulating evidence implicating kisspeptins as potent secretagogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), suggest that the sex-specific display of the LH surge (positive feedback) reflects sexual differentiation of AVPV Kiss1 neurons. In addition, developmental kisspeptin signaling via its receptor GPR54 appears to be critical in males for the proper sexual differentiation of a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, ranging from complex social behavior to specific forebrain and spinal cord neuronal populations. This review discusses the recent data, and their implications, regarding the bi-directional relationship between the Kiss1 system and the process of sexual differentiation.

  6. Differentiating children with and without a history of repeated problematic sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Curwen, Tracey; Jenkins, Jennifer M; Worling, James R

    2014-01-01

    Many adolescents who sexually offend commenced problematic sexual behaviors as children. There is little evidence to indicate which children may be at risk to continue problematic sexual behaviors and which children will desist once identified. The goal of this study was to determine variables that differentiate children who repeated problematic sexual behaviors following adult reprimand from those who did not. Predictive accuracy of 33 risk variables was investigated using 62 children assessed for problematic sexual behaviors. Eight individual variables were related to group membership, and a total score based on the combination of these variables was predictive of group membership. The results indicate variables that may assist in identifying children requiring intervention versus those likely to discontinue problematic sexual behaviors once they are identified and reprimanded.

  7. Sexual experience affects ethanol intake in Drosophila through Neuropeptide F

    PubMed Central

    Shohat-Ophir, G.; Kaun, K.R.; Azanchi, R.; Mohammed, H; Heberlein, U.

    2014-01-01

    The brain's reward systems evolved to reinforce behaviors required for species survival, including sex, food consumption, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse co-opt these neural pathways, which can lead to addiction. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the relationship between natural and drug rewards. In males, mating increased Neuropeptide F (NPF) levels, whereas sexual deprivation reduced NPF. Activation or inhibition of the NPF system in turn enhanced or reduced ethanol preference. These results thus link sexual experience, NPF system activity, and ethanol consumption. Artificial activation of NPF neurons was in itself rewarding and precluded the ability of ethanol to act as a reward. We propose that activity of the NPF/NPF receptor axis represents the state of the fly reward system and modifies behavior accordingly. PMID:22422983

  8. Sexual dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and its affected domains

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Zabandan, Neda; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia. Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments. PMID:25408703

  9. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  10. The 'too muchness' of excitement: sexuality in light of excess, attachment and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Jessica; Atlas, Galit

    2015-02-01

    This paper brings together contemporary thinking about early attachment and affect regulation with our clinical and theoretical understanding of the problems of adult sexuality. In addition to recent theories of affect regulation and attachment, we incorporate Laplanche's idea of 'excess', which was an important transitional concept integrating real experience with fantasy in sexuality. We elaborate the idea of excess-- 'too-muchness' --to illuminate the early overwhelming of the psyche that affects the formation of sexuality. Linked to recent theoretical developments, this idea helps to grasp the relationship between sexual excitement and early affect regulation, showing how excitement becomes dangerous, thus impeding or distorting desire. The 'too-muchness' of excitement recalls the experience of being a stimulated, overwhelmed, unsoothed child and influences later inability to tolerate sexual arousal and the excitement affect. A clinical case illustrates this connection between attachment trauma, anxiety about sexuality, as well as shameful experiences of gender identity as an area of trauma. We emphasize the importance of working through the terrors and desires of the mother-baby relationship as they emerge in the transference-countertransference in order to develop the ability to hold excitement and stimulation without experiencing the too-much as the intolerable. This includes the working-through of ruptures related to overstimulation as well as the delicate balance of attention to fantasy and intersubjective work in the transference.

  11. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics Resources on infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date Sexually ... Health Answers to women's and men's reproductive concerns Sexual Violence Prevention Sexual violence affects all people, particularly women ...

  12. The potential role of SRY in epigenetic gene regulation during brain sexual differentiation in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sekido, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a sexually dimorphic organ. Little is known about molecular mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. The classical hypothesis of brain sexual differentiation suggests that a perinatal surge of organizational sex hormones secreted from the gonad leads to irreversible changes in morphology of the brain, followed by pubertal hormones that activate neural networks to express sex-specific behavioral phenotypes. However, recent studies propose that sex hormones are not the sole factor to establish sexual dimorphism in the brain. Since mammalian sex strictly relies on sex chromosome complement, i.e., XY for males and XX for females, intrinsic genetic differences between XY and XX cells are strong candidates for the cause of sexual dimorphism. Several genes on the Y chromosome are expressed in the male brain and may act in a dominant manner. Among these Y-linked genes, the testis-determining gene Sry is of particular interest. Although SRY is known to function as a transcriptional activator triggering testicular genetic pathway, several lines of evidence suggest that it also acts as an epigenetic regulator. This chapter provides a basic overview of mammalian sex determination and brain sexual differentiation. It summarizes current evidence of brain-specific epigenetic gene regulations in mammals and other species, and explores the common features between them. Potential roles of Sry during brain sexual development are described and prospects of this research field are discussed.

  13. Photons and evolution: quantum mechanical processes modulate sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, George E; Lowell, Walter E

    2009-09-01

    This paper will show that the fractional difference in the human gender ratio (GR) between the GR(at death) for those born in solar cycle peak years (maxima) and the GR(at death) in those born in solar cycle non-peak years (minima), e.g., 0.023, divided by Pi, yields a reasonable approximation of the quantum mechanical constant, alpha, or the fine structure constant (FSC) approximately 0.007297... or approximately 1/137. This finding is based on a sample of approximately 50 million cases using common, readily available demographic data, e.g., state of birth, birth date, death date, and gender. Physicists Nair, Geim et al. had found precisely the same fractional difference, 0.023, in the absorption of white light (sunlight) by a single-atom thick layer of graphene, a carbon skeleton resembling chicken wire fencing. This absorption fraction, when divided by Pi, yielded the FSC and was the first time this constant could "so directly be assessed practically by the naked eye". As the GR is a reflection of sexual differentiation, this paper reveals that a quantum mechanical process, as manifested by the FSC, is playing a role in the primordial process of replication, a necessary requirement of life. Successful replication is the primary engine driving evolution, which at a biochemical level, is a quantum mechanical process dependent upon photonic energy from the Sun. We propose that a quantum-mechanical, photon-driven chemical evolution preceded natural selection in biology and the mechanisms of mitosis and meiosis are manifestations of this chemical evolution in ancient seas over 3 billion years ago. Evolutionary processes became extant first in self-replicating molecules forced to adapt to high energy photons, mostly likely in the ultraviolet spectrum. These events led to evolution by natural selection as complex mixing of genetic material within species creating the variety needed to match changing environments reflecting the same process initiated at the dawn of life

  14. Differential sexual survival of Drosophila melanogaster on copper sulfate.

    PubMed

    Balinski, Michael A; Woodruff, Ronny C

    2017-04-01

    Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO4, even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity. In two of three crosses, CuSO4 caused significantly higher numbers of male offspring compared to female offspring. We hypothesized that these gender-based viability differences to copper exposure are caused by X-chromosome ploidy and X-linked genetic variation affecting metallothionein expression. Observed differential offspring viability responses among crosses to copper exposure also showed that different genetic backgrounds (autosomal and/or X-chromosome) can result in significant differences in heavy metal and metallothionein regulation. These results suggest that the effect of copper on offspring viability depends on both genetic background and gender, as both factors can affect the regulation of metallothionein proteins as well as homeostasis of biologically necessary heavy metals.

  15. Postnatal treatment of rats with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists influences differentiation of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Jarzab, B; Sickmöller, P M; Geerlings, H; Döhler, K D

    1987-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible role of the adrenergic system in development and differentiation of neural centers controlling sexual behavior in adulthood. For this purpose normal and androgenized female rats were treated with the alpha 1-receptor antagonist prazosin, the alpha 2-receptor agonist clonidine, or the alpha 2-receptor antagonist yohimbine-HCl throughout the first week of life. In adulthood all animals were ovariectomized and, after appropriate hormone-priming, they were tested for the capacity to display female and male sexual behavior patterns. Alteration of adrenergic transmission during the critical postnatal period for sexual differentiation of neural centers resulted in significant changes in the capacity to express female lordosis behavior in adulthood. In nonandrogenized animals clonidine significantly reduced the capacity for lordosis behavior. In androgenized animals clonidine had the opposite effect; it attenuated the inhibitory effect of testosterone propionate (TP) on differentiation of lordosis behavior. Prazosin, which was without effect in nonandrogenized animals, also attenuated the inhibitory effect of TP on differentiation of lordosis behavior. Yohimbine was without effect in androgenized and nonandrogenized animals. There was no influence of any of the adrenergic drugs on differentiation of male sexual behavior. In conclusion, differentiation of lordosis behavior seems to be mediated or modulated via adrenergic transmission. The defeminizing effect of testosterone postnatally on the differentiation of lordosis behavior seems to be expressed via alpha 1-adrenergic transmission, and diminished adrenergic activity during the postnatal period seems to protect the developing brain against this effect of testosterone.

  16. Attachment representations and anxiety: differential relationships among mothers of sexually abused and comparison girls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K; Putnam, Frank W

    2011-02-01

    The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47 mothers of comparison girls who were matched with the abused girls on age, socioeconomic status, and family constellation. Results indicate that the mothers' representations of past attachment relationships with their own fathers were differentially related to their current attachment styles, depending on their daughters' childhood sexual abuse status. The representation of past attachment relationships with peers had both main and protective effects on the mothers' trait anxiety symptoms. The relevance of attachment perspectives to adjustment among these mothers and intergenerational process in childhood sexual abuse are discussed, and implications for future research and clinical practices are identified.

  17. Disorders of sexual differentiation: surgical challenges of vaginal reconstruction in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jose A; Swan, Kenneth G

    2010-02-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation have proven difficult to treat not only because of physicians' lack of understanding regarding the determinants of sexual orientation, but also because of the psychological impact associated with sexual dysfunction. Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome not only must undergo gonadectomy after puberty, requiring post-gonadectomy hormonal replacement, but also can suffer from underdeveloped, blind vaginal pouches. As a result, sexual intercourse is compromised. Many attempts have been made throughout medical history to correct the vaginal defect, including surgical and nonsurgical approaches, each with its own technical difficulties and complications. Presently, consensus regarding the optimal time for intervention is when the patient is ready to begin sexual life. However, the optimal surgical approach has not been established. In general, nonsurgical vaginal dilatation, like the Frank and Ingram methods, should be followed by surgical interventions, such as described by McIndoe, Vecchietti, and intestinal transplantation, in case of failure of the more conservative procedures.

  18. FUNCTION OF SEXUAL GLANDS AND MECHANISM OF SEX DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Prior to any investigation of toxicant effects on sexual development it is necessary to have a complete understanding of the relevant physiology of reproductive development. Beginning at conception, development of males and females diverge to form the respective...

  19. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L Lacey

    2013-01-07

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors--isolation, ecological and sexual selection--contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation-differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence-and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta.

  20. Sexual differentiation of the brain requires perinatal kisspeptin-GnRH neuron signaling.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Jenny; Busby, Ellen R; Kirilov, Milen; Schütz, Günther; Sherwood, Nancy M; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-11-12

    Sex differences in brain function underlie robust differences between males and females in both normal and disease states. Although alternative mechanisms exist, sexual differentiation of the male mammalian brain is initiated predominantly by testosterone secreted by the testes during the perinatal period. Despite considerable advances in understanding how testosterone and its metabolite estradiol sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that generates the male-specific perinatal testosterone surge. In mice, we show that a male-specific activation of GnRH neurons occurs 0-2 h following birth and that this correlates with the male-specific surge of testosterone occurring up to 5 h after birth. The necessity of GnRH signaling for the sexually differentiating effects of the perinatal testosterone surge was demonstrated by the persistence of female-like brain characteristics in adult male, GnRH receptor knock-out mice. Kisspeptin neurons have recently been identified to be potent, direct activators of GnRH neurons. We demonstrate that a population of kisspeptin neurons appears in the preoptic area of only the male between E19 and P1. The importance of kisspeptin inputs to GnRH neurons for the process of sexual differentiation was demonstrated by the lack of a normal neonatal testosterone surge, and disordered brain sexual differentiation of male mice in which the kisspeptin receptor was deleted selectively from GnRH neurons. These observations demonstrate the necessity of perinatal GnRH signaling for driving brain sexual differentiation and indicate that kisspeptin inputs to GnRH neurons are essential for this process to occur.

  1. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Jay; McCourty, Althea; Lecanu, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies. Methods Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting. Conclusion We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased during aging. Such sexual dimorphism might explain, at least in part, the sex difference in neural fate we observed in young and old neural stem cells. These results suggest that sex and aging are two factors to be taken

  2. Sexual Differentiation of the Brain in Man and Animals: Of Relevance to Klinefelter Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, MARGARET M.

    2017-01-01

    The developing brain is highly sensitive to the organizing effects of steroids of gonadal origin in a process referred to as sexual differentiation. Early hormone effects prime the brain for adult sensitivity to the appropriate hormonal milieu, maximizing reproductive fitness via coordinated physiology and behavior. Animal models, in particular rodents, have provided insight into general principles and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain differentiation. Cellular endpoints influenced by steroids in the developing brain include neurogenesis, migration, apoptosis, dendritic growth, and synaptic patterning. Important roles for prostaglandins, endocanabinoids, and epigenetics are among the many cellular mediators of hormonal organization. Transference of general principles of brain sexual differentiation to humans relies on observations of individuals with genetic anomalies that either increase or decrease hormone exposure and sensitivity. The physiology and behavior of individuals with XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) has not been considered in the context of sexual differentiation of the brain, most likely due to the delay in diagnoses and highly variable presentation. The behavioral phenotype and impairments in the domains of speech and language that are characteristic of individuals with XXY is consistent with the reduced androgen production associated with the syndrome. Hormone replacement appears effective in restoring some deficits and impact may be further improved by increased understanding of the hormonally mediated sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:23335108

  3. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group.

  4. Influence of hormones and hormone antagonists on sexual differentiation of the brain.

    PubMed

    Döhler, K D

    1998-01-01

    In summary, a number of studies have shown that not only estrogenic and androgenic steroids and their antagonists influence sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain but also drugs which stimulate or inhibit the adrenergic, the serotoninergic, or the cholinergic system in the developing brain. The present knowledge on the possible participation of neurotransmitter systems in sexual differentiation of the brain and their mode of interaction in this process perinatally with gonadal steroids is still rather limited. Sexual differentiation of the central nervous system is a complex integrated process, which relies on proper chronological and quantitative interactions of various endocrine and neuroendocrine mediators. Any disturbance of this delicate endogenous hormonal balance during ontogenetic development, e.g. by means of environmental influences, can result in permanent manifestation of anatomic and functional sexual deviations. A large number of man-made chemicals that have been released into the environment have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of animals and humans. They do so because they mimick the effects of natural hormones or neurotransmitters by recognizing their binding sites, or they antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones or neurotransmitters by blocking their interaction with their physiological binding sites. Interaction of environmental endocrine disruptors with animals or humans during ontogeny may have deleterious effects on the differentiation of reproductive structures and functions, rendering the individuals in question permanently incapable to reproduce and, thus, endangering survival of the species.

  5. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  6. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  7. Travelling and Sticky Affects: Exploring Teens and Sexualized Cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette; Ringrose, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler's (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people's affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and…

  8. Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Stephen E; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2005-11-01

    The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical stages of development accounts for the full range of sexually dimorphic urogenital traits observed at birth. Jost's concept was subsequently expanded to encompass sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Although the central focus of this review involves urogenital development, we assume that the novel mechanisms described in this article have potentially significant implications for sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, a transposition with precedent in the history of this field. Contrary to the "specific" requirements of Jost's formulation, female spotted hyenas and elephants initially develop male-type external genitalia prior to gonadal differentiation. In addition, the administration of anti-androgens to pregnant female spotted hyenas does not prevent the formation of a scrotum, pseudoscrotum, penis or penile clitoris in the offspring of treated females, although it is not yet clear whether the creation of masculine genitalia involves other steroids or whether there is a genetic mechanism bypassing a hormonal mediator. Wallabies, where sexual differentiation occurs in the pouch after birth, provide the most conclusive evidence for direct genetic control of sexual dimorphism, with the scrotum developing only in males and the pouch and mammary glands only in females, before differentiation of the gonads. The development of the pouch and mammary gland in females and the scrotum in males is controlled by genes on the X chromosome. In keeping with the "expanded" version of Jost's formulation, secretion

  9. Automatic and deliberate affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with superficial dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; de Jong, Peter J; Huijding, Jorg; Laan, Ellen; ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2009-08-01

    Current views suggest that in women with superficial dyspareunia the prospect of penile-vaginal intercourse automatically activates fear-related associations. The automatic activation of negative associations is assumed to interfere with the development of sexual arousal. In turn, this may further aggravate the dyspareunia-related complaints. To assess whether automatic negative associations are involved in this sexual pain disorder, women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 35) and a control group (n = 35) completed a modified pictorial Affective Simon Task (AST). Questioning the role of dysfunctional automatic associations in superficial dyspareunia, the AST indicated that symptomatic women displayed relatively positive rather than negative automatic associations with sexual stimuli. At the self-report level, however, affective associations with sex cues were significantly more negative for women with dyspareunia than for controls. This discrepancy between "reflective" and "reflexive" affective associations with sexual stimuli in women with dyspareunia points to the relevance of conscious appraisal and deliberate rather than automatic processes in the onset and maintenance of dyspareunia.

  10. Touching the private parts: how gender and sexuality norms affect medical students' first pelvic examination.

    PubMed

    Sörensdotter, Renita; Siwe, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Gynaecologists are in a position to challenge norms about gender and sexuality in relation to female genitals. Through their work they have the opportunity to educate patients, which is why teaching medical students to perform examinations in a gender sensitive way is significant. Medical students performing their first pelvic examination often experience the examination as uncomfortable because it is a body part that is connected to sex and to something private. This paper uses medical students' interpretations of performing their first pelvic examination as a means to discuss how cultural norms for gender, sexuality and female genitals affect these examinations. Issues raised include how cultural connotations of female genitals affect the pelvic examination, how female and male students relate differently to examining female genitals and the interpretations they make in relation to themselves. Findings show that the female genitals are perceived as a special body part connected to sexuality and intimacy. Students' gender also affects the interpretations they make during pelvic examinations. Norms of gender, sexuality and female genitals need to be challenged in the teaching and performance of pelvic examination in order to demystify this experience.

  11. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Sexual Differentiation in the Mammalian Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Nancy G.; Strahan, J. Alex; Castillo-Ruiz, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists are likely to discover new sex differences in the coming years, spurred by the National Institutes of Health initiative to include both sexes in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in the mammalian nervous system, based primarily on work in rodents. Cellular mechanisms examined include neurogenesis, migration, the differentiation of neurochemical and morphological cell phenotype, and cell death. At the molecular level we discuss evolving roles for epigenetics, sex chromosome complement, the immune system, and newly identified cell signaling pathways. We review recent findings on the role of the environment, as well as genome-wide studies with some surprising results, causing us to rethink often-used models of sexual differentiation. We end by pointing to future directions, including an increased awareness of the important contributions of tissues outside of the nervous system to sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:26790970

  12. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  13. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  14. Material deprivation affects high sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households.

  15. [Do the physical discomforts from breast cancer treatments affect the sexuality of women who underwent mastectomy?].

    PubMed

    Cesnik, Vanessa Monteiro; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this integrative review is to analyze the scientific production addressing the sexuality of women with breast cancer following mastectomy, focused on the effects that the physical discomfort due to cancer treatments have on their sex life. The search included articles published in the period between 2000 and 2009 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and PsycINFO databases, using the following descriptors: mastectomy, breast neoplasms, sexuality, sexual behavior, amputation, psychosexual development, and marital relations. Nine articles were selected, which addressed the effects of the physical discomfort from cancer treatments on the patients' sexuality. The findings revealed that, even when the patient's sex life is intense and fulfilling before the disease, factors such as stress, pain, fatigue, insult to body image, and low self-esteem due to the treatments may alter the sexual functioning of the affected woman. Healthcare professionals must be sensitized in order to welcome and include the topic in policies as well as in preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies.

  16. In the mood for love or vice versa? Exploring the relations among sexual activity, physical affection, affect, and stress in the daily lives of mid-aged women.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Todd, Michael

    2007-06-01

    How do physical affection, sexual activity, mood, and stress influence one another in the daily lives of mid-aged women? Fifty-eight women (M age, 47.6 yrs) recorded physical affection, several different sexual behaviors, stressful events, and mood ratings every morning for 36 weeks. Using multilevel modeling, we determined that physical affection or sexual behavior with a partner on one day significantly predicted lower negative mood and stress and higher positive mood on the following day. The relation did not hold for orgasm without a partner. Additionally, positive mood on one day predicted more physical affection and sexual activity with a partner, but fewer solo orgasms the following day. Negative mood was mostly unrelated to next-day sexual activity or physical affection. Sexual orientation, living with a partner, and duration of relationship moderated some of these effects. Results support a bidirectional causal model in which dyadic sexual interaction and physical affection improve mood and reduce stress, with improved mood and reduced stress in turn increasing the likelihood of future sex and physical affection.

  17. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  18. The sexual erotic market as an analytical framework for understanding erotic-affective exchanges in interracial sexually intimate and affective relationships.

    PubMed

    Vigoya, Mara Viveros

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which erotic-affective exchanges in interracial relationships have been analysed in Latin America. It considers how race, gender and class operate within a market of values such that erotic, affective and economic status are shaped by racial, gender and class hierarchies. In this paper I analyse historical and social arrangements that embody the region's political economy of race and sex. Such a perspective allows me to address the simultaneous co-existence of socio-racial exclusion and inclusion and the repressive and productive effects of power, attraction and anxiety as aspects of lived experiences in relation to sexuality. From there, I outline an analytical framework that references an erotic or pleasure-based market in which capital and other resources are exchanged from a structural perspective stressing relationship alliances. I conclude by identifying the scope and limits of such an approach.

  19. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  20. Amyloid Beta Peptides Differentially Affect Hippocampal Theta Rhythms In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Lerma, Armando I.; Ordaz, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is responsible for the early cognitive dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease. Both cholinergically and glutamatergically induced hippocampal theta rhythms are related to learning and memory, spatial navigation, and spatial memory. However, these two types of theta rhythms are not identical; they are associated with different behaviors and can be differentially modulated by diverse experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not application of soluble Aβ alters the two types of theta frequency oscillatory network activity generated in rat hippocampal slices by application of the cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists carbachol or DHPG, respectively. Due to previous evidence that oscillatory activity can be differentially affected by different Aβ peptides, we also compared Aβ25−35 and Aβ1−42 for their effects on theta rhythms in vitro at similar concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 μM). We found that Aβ25−35 reduces, with less potency than Aβ1−42, carbachol-induced population theta oscillatory activity. In contrast, DHPG-induced oscillatory activity was not affected by a high concentration of Aβ25−35 but was reduced by Aβ1−42. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of exerting a generalized inhibitory effect on neuronal network function. PMID:23878547

  1. TRA-1 ChIP-seq reveals regulators of sexual differentiation and multilevel feedback in nematode sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Berkseth, Matt; Ikegami, Kohta; Arur, Swathi; Lieb, Jason D.; Zarkower, David

    2013-01-01

    How sexual regulators translate global sexual fate into appropriate local sexual differentiation events is perhaps the least understood aspect of sexual development. Here we have used ChIP followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify direct targets of the nematode global sexual regulator Transformer 1 (TRA-1), a transcription factor acting at the interface between organism-wide and cell-specific sexual regulation to control all sex-specific somatic differentiation events. We identified 184 TRA-1–binding sites in Caenorhabditis elegans, many with temporal- and/or tissue-specific TRA-1 association. We also identified 78 TRA-1–binding sites in the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, 19 of which are conserved between the two species. Some DNA segments containing TRA-1–binding sites drive male-specific expression patterns, and RNAi depletion of some genes adjacent to TRA-1–binding sites results in defects in male sexual development. TRA-1 binds to sites adjacent to a number of heterochronic regulatory genes, some of which drive male-specific expression, suggesting that TRA-1 imposes sex specificity on developmental timing. We also found evidence for TRA-1 feedback regulation of the global sex-determination pathway: TRA-1 binds its own locus and those of multiple upstream masculinizing genes, and most of these associations are conserved in C. briggsae. Thus, TRA-1 coordinates sexual development by reinforcing the sex-determination decision and directing downstream sexual differentiation events. PMID:24046365

  2. The RNA Binding Protein Csx1 Promotes Sexual Differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Matia-Gonzalez, Ana M.; Sotelo, Jael; Rodriguez-Gabriel, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual differentiation is a highly regulated process in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and is triggered by nutrient depletion, mainly nitrogen source. One of the key regulatory proteins in fission yeast sexual differentiation is the transcription factor Ste11. Ste11 regulates the transcription of many genes required for the initial steps of conjugation and meiosis, and its deficiency leads to sterility. Ste11 activity is mainly regulated at two levels: phosphorylation and abundance of its mRNA. Csx1 is an RNA binding protein that we have previously described to bind and regulate the turnover rate of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Atf1 in the presence of oxidative stress. We have observed that Csx1-deficient cells have defects in sexual differentiation and are partially sterile. We investigated how Csx1 is regulating this process in S. pombe. Csx1 associates with ste11+ mRNA and cells lacking Csx1 are sterile with a reduced amount of ste11+ mRNA. Overexpression of ste11+ mRNA completely rescues the mating deficiencies of csx1Δ cells. Here, we present a novel mechanism of ste11+ mRNA positive regulation through the activity of Csx1, an RNA binding protein that also have key functions in the response to oxidative stress in fission yeast. This finding opens interesting question about the possible coordination of sexual differentiation and oxidative stress response in eukaryotes and the role of RNA binding proteins in the adaptation to environmental signals. PMID:22253882

  3. The role of absorption in women's sexual response to erotica: a cognitive-affective investigation.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jade; Koukounas, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of absorption on women's emotional and cognitive processing of erotic film. Absorption was experimentally manipulated using 2 different sets of test session instructions. The first, participant-oriented, instruction set directed participants to absorb themselves in the erotic film presentation, imagining that they were active participants in the sexual activities depicted. The second, spectator-oriented, instruction set directed participants to observe and assess the erotic film excerpt as impartial spectators. The participant-oriented instruction set was found to elicit greater subjective absorption in women than the spectator-oriented instruction set, and women reported greater subjective sexual arousal in the former set compared with the latter. Thus, it appears that the degree to which a woman becomes absorbed in an erotic stimulus may affect her subsequent subjective sexual arousal. Also, women reported greater degrees of positive affect when they took a participant-oriented perspective than when they viewed the erotic materials as impartial spectators. Thus, participants who were highly absorbed in the erotic film excerpt were more likely to view the stimulus favorably. By contrast, the degree to which women became absorbed in the stimulus had no effect on their reported negative affect. Future directions for examining female response patterns are suggested.

  4. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  5. Programmed fluctuations in sense/antisense transcript ratios drive sexual differentiation in S. pombe

    PubMed Central

    Bitton, Danny A; Grallert, Agnes; Scutt, Paul J; Yates, Tim; Li, Yaoyong; Bradford, James R; Hey, Yvonne; Pepper, Stuart D; Hagan, Iain M; Miller, Crispin J

    2011-01-01

    Strand-specific RNA sequencing of S. pombe revealed a highly structured programme of ncRNA expression at over 600 loci. Waves of antisense transcription accompanied sexual differentiation. A substantial proportion of ncRNA arose from mechanisms previously considered to be largely artefactual, including improper 3′ termination and bidirectional transcription. Constitutive induction of the entire spk1+, spo4+, dis1+ and spo6+ antisense transcripts from an integrated, ectopic, locus disrupted their respective meiotic functions. This ability of antisense transcripts to disrupt gene function when expressed in trans suggests that cis production at native loci during sexual differentiation may also control gene function. Consistently, insertion of a marker gene adjacent to the dis1+ antisense start site mimicked ectopic antisense expression in reducing the levels of this microtubule regulator and abolishing the microtubule-dependent ‘horsetail' stage of meiosis. Antisense production had no impact at any of these loci when the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery was removed. Thus, far from being simply ‘genome chatter', this extensive ncRNA landscape constitutes a fundamental component in the controls that drive the complex programme of sexual differentiation in S. pombe. PMID:22186733

  6. Paced mating behavior is affected by clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine application in combination with sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Meerts, Sarah H; Strnad, Helen K; Schairer, Rosemary S

    2015-03-01

    The present study tested the effects of lidocaine anesthetic ointment applied to the vaginocervical (Experiment 1) or clitoral-vaginocervical (Experiment 2) areas on the display of paced mating behavior over the course of five weekly tests in ovariectomized, hormone-primed, Long-Evans rats. Experiment 3 tested whether rats that acquired sexual experience without ointment application would exhibit altered paced mating behavior on a fifth test under clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine or vehicle application. Although rats in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 exhibited shorter contact-return latencies after intromission and reduced likelihood of leaving the male compartment following mounts and intromissions after gaining sexual experience, only rats that received clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine exhibited altered paced mating behavior relative to vehicle. Specifically, clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine resulted in shorter contact-return latency to ejaculation and greater percentage of time with the male. Paced mating behavior of sexually experienced rats in Experiment 3 was not disrupted when tested after clitoral-vaginocervical lidocaine treatment. Together, these studies suggest that the sensory input during repeated mating encounters affects the pattern of paced mating behavior that develops with sexual experience.

  7. Introduced Goldfish Affect Amphibians through Inhibition of Sexual Behaviour in Risky Habitats: an Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians. PMID:24312432

  8. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  9. Expression of aromatase in the embryonic brain of the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), and the effect of bisphenol-A in sexually differentiated embryos.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Picos, Patsy; Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Hernández-Cornejo, Rubí; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Brain aromatase participates in several biological processes, such as regulation of the reproductive-endocrine axis, memory, stress, sexual differentiation of the nervous system, male sexual behavior, and brain repair. Here we report the isolation and expression of brain aromatase in olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) embryos incubated at male- and female-promoting temperatures (MPT and FPT, respectively), at the thermosensitive period (TSP) and the sex-differentiated period. Also, aromatase expression was assessed in differentiated embryos exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the TSP. BPA is a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and is considered an endocrine-disrupting compound. Normal aromatase expression was measured in both forebrain and hindbrain, showing higher expression levels in the forebrain of differentiated embryos at both incubation temperatures. Although no significant differences were detected in the hindbrain, expression was slightly higher at MPT. BPA did not affect aromatase expression neither in forebrains or hindbrains from embryos incubated at MPT, whereas at FPT an inverted U-shape curve was observed in forebrains with significant differences at lower concentrations, whereas in hindbrains a non-significant increment was observed at higher concentrations. Our data indicate that both incubation temperature and developmental stage are critical factors affecting aromatase expression in the forebrain. Because of the timing and location of aromatase expression in the brain, we suggest that brain aromatase may participate in the imprinting of sexual trends related to reproduction and sexual behavior at the onset of sex differentiation, and BPA exposure may impair aromatase function in the female forebrain.

  10. Does Atrazine Influence Larval Development and Sexual Differentiation in Xenopus laevis?

    PubMed Central

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Springer, Timothy; Krueger, Henry; Wolf, Jeff; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Debate and controversy exists concerning the potential for the herbicide atrazine to cause gonadal malformations in developing Xenopus laevis. Following review of the existing literature the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required a rigorous investigation conducted under standardized procedures. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to atrazine at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 25, or 100 μg/l from day 8 postfertilization (dpf) until completion of metamorphosis or dpf 83, whichever came first. Nearly identical experiments were performed in two independent laboratories: experiment 1 at Wildlife International, Ltd. and experiment 2 at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB). Both experiments employed optimized animal husbandry procedures and environmental conditions in validated flow-through exposure systems. The two experiments demonstrated consistent survival, growth, and development of X. laevis tadpoles, and all measured parameters were within the expected ranges and were comparable in negative control and atrazine-treated groups. Atrazine, at concentrations up to 100 μg/l, had no effect in either experiment on the percentage of males or the incidence of mixed sex as determined by histological evaluation. In contrast, exposure of larval X. laevis to 0.2 μg 17β-estradiol/l as the positive control resulted in gonadal feminization. Instead of an even distribution of male and female phenotypes, percentages of males:females:mixed sex were 19:75:6 and 22:60:18 in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 μg/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation. PMID:19008211

  11. Rat hippocampal GABAergic molecular markers are differentially affected by ageing.

    PubMed

    Vela, José; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier; Ruano, Diego

    2003-04-01

    We previously reported that the pharmacological properties of the hippocampal GABAA receptor and the expression of several subunits are modified during normal ageing. However, correlation between these post-synaptic modifications and pre-synaptic deficits were not determined. To address this issue, we have analysed the mRNA levels of several GABAergic molecular markers in young and old rat hippocampus, including glutamic acid decarboxylase enzymes, parvalbumin, calretinin, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). There was a differential age-related decrease in these interneuronal mRNAs that was inversely correlated with up-regulation of the alpha1 GABA receptor subunit. Somatostatin and neuropeptide Y mRNAs were most frequently affected (75% of the animals), then calretinin and VIP mRNAs (50% of the animals), and parvalbumin mRNA (25% of the animals) in the aged hippocampus. This selective vulnerability was well correlated at the protein/cellular level as analysed by immunocytochemistry. Somatostatin interneurones, which mostly innervate principal cell distal dendrites, were more vulnerable than calretinin interneurones, which target other interneurones. Parvalbumin interneurones, which mostly innervate perisomatic domains of principal cells, were preserved. This age-dependent differential reduction of specific hippocampal inteneuronal subpopulations might produce functional alterations in the GABAergic tone which might be compensated, at the post-synaptic level, by up-regulation of the expression of the alpha1 GABAA receptor subunit.

  12. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem. PMID:20961376

  13. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  14. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-06

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes.

  15. Effects of methyl testosterone exposure on sexual differentiation in medaka, Oryzias latipes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize effects of a known androgen on sexual differentiation and development of medaka, Oryzias latipes (d-rR strain), at two life stages. Embryos were injected with graded doses of methyl testosterone (MT) prior to epiboly. The occurrence of sex-reversal, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were evaluated in adults. Primary germ cells were counted and gonad volumes calculated for larvae to determine if sex-reversal could be detected at an early life stage. Sex-reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males was observed at both life stages. The GSI for phenotypic females was greater than for phenotypic males, while the GSI in XX males was similar to XY males. MT appeared to reduce the GSI of XX females exposed to MT but not sex-reversed. Our results indicate that embryonic exposure to androgens influences sexual development in medaka. Utilizing the d-rR strain of medaka allows detection of an effect as early as 2 weeks after chemical exposure making this a useful tool to screen chemicals for effects on sexual differentiation. Copyright (C) 2000.

  16. A genetic analysis of intersex, a gene regulating sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, B.A. |; Baker, B.S.

    1995-04-01

    Sex-type in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by a hierarchically acting set of regulatory genes. At the terminus of this hierarchy lie those regulatory genes responsible for implementing sexual differentiation: genes that control the activity of target loci whose products give rise to sexually dimorphic phenotypes. The genetic analysis of the intersex (ix) gene presented here demonstrates that ix is such a terminally positioned regulatory locus. The ix locus has been localized to the cytogenetic interval between 47E3-6 and 47F11-18. A comparison of the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of homozygotes and hemizygotes for three point mutations at ix indicates that the null phenotypes of homozygotes diplo-X animals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. Analysis of X-ray induced, mitotic recombination clones lacking ix{sup +} function in the abdomen of diplo-X individuals indicates that the ix{sup +} product functions in a cell-autonomous manner and that it is required at least until the termination of cell division in this tissue. Taken together with previous analyses, our results indicate that the ix{sup +} product is required to function with the female-specific product of doublesex to implement appropriate female sexual differentiation in diplo-X animals. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  18. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance

  19. Gender identity/role differentiation in adolescents affected by syndromes of abnormal sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2002-02-01

    Adolescents with abnormal sexual differentiation or intersex conditions present a unique challenge to their healthcare providers. While sex refers to the biologic considerations that specify a person as male or female, gender refers to the sex of rearing. For the child with an intersex condition, sex may differ from gender, and as that child grows into adolescence, this may lead to many concerns, questions, and decisions. Although gender is usually fixed by adolescence, there will be those adolescents with intersex conditions wishing a gender reassignment during this period. Often a physician is the best resource for information and counsel to these young adults. Although most infants with ambiguous genitalia will have a karyotype done to determine gender identity, there are occasions when a gender discrepancy is not noticed until an adolescent presents with delayed pubarche. Regardless of the age at diagnosis, at adolescence, the physician must the address the medical consequences of infertility, bone health, and hormone replacement in addition to handling the heightened psychological concerns of gender identity during puberty. It is hoped that adolescents with intersex conditions will have the support and information necessary to allow them to live as normal a life as possible.

  20. Gonadal sex differentiation, development up to sexual maturity and steroidogenesis in the skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis.

    PubMed

    Phuge, Samadhan K; Gramapurohit, Narahari P

    2013-01-15

    Gonadal sex differentiation, development up to sexual maturity and steroidogenesis were studied in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis. In stage 25 tadpoles, gonads contained a few yolk laden germ cells and somatic cells. Ovarian differentiation occurred at stage 27 with the initiation of meiosis. Interestingly, meiosis preceded the formation of a central lumen that was discernible at stage 28. Folliculogenesis in the developing ovary was observed at stage 29. Vitellogenesis was observed in the 3 months old frogs and the females attained sexual maturity around 4 months. Testicular differentiation occurred indirectly through an ovarian phase. In some animals, from stage 37 onwards, oocyte degeneration was observed that was completed around metamorphic climax. Concurrently, large numbers of mesonephric cells were invading the gonads. Around metamorphosis, reorganization of the germ and somatic cells into testicular cords was observed. Following metamorphosis, the formation of seminiferous tubules was observed in the 2 weeks old males. Meiosis in the developing testes was observed in 1.5 months old males. In 3 months old males, the testes contained all stages spermatogenesis including spermatozoa. Steroidogenesis in the developing gonads was studied by immunohistochemical localization of 3β-HSD enzyme. At stage 26, a few immunoreactive cells were seen in the kidneys (interrenal cells). However, during and after differentiation, gonads failed to show positive immunoreaction. In the developing ovary at stage 37, follicular cells surrounding the oocytes were positive for 3β-HSD immunoreactivity. In the ovaries of 3 months old females, follicular cells surrounding the vitellogenic oocytes and stromal cells were positive for 3β-HSD immunoreaction. E. cyanophlyctis exhibits undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation, in which gonadal differentiation precedes steroidogenesis.

  1. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    PubMed

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions.

  2. Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2013-03-01

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a

  3. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  4. Acquired resistance affects male sexual display and female choice in guppies

    PubMed Central

    pez, S. L

    1998-01-01

    Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.

  5. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  6. Hernia uteri inguinalis in a case of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Venkataram, Aniketh; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah; Babu, Rajashekara; Santhosh, Shivashankar

    2013-02-01

    An 18-year-old phenotypic male presented with an irreducible left inguinal mass, gynecomastia, and hypospadias. This mass on exploration was found to be a nonfunctional uterus with ipsilateral ovary and was excised. Further investigation confirmed the presence of a contralateral testis and a genotype of 46, XX. This confirmed the diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (formerly true hermaphroditism) with obstructed hernia uteri inguinalis. The patient was raised as a male. Subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia and neourethra construction with full thickness skin graft for hypospadias were performed. Hernia uteri inguinalis is rarely seen in this condition with only 2 cases being reported worldwide thus far, including our case.

  7. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005) in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005), and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01). In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05), increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001), and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005). Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05). Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  8. Why boys will be boys: two pathways of fetal testicular androgen biosynthesis are needed for male sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Meyer-Böni, Monika; Pandey, Amit V; Kempná, Petra; Miller, Walter L; Schoenle, Eugen J; Biason-Lauber, Anna

    2011-08-12

    Human sexual determination is initiated by a cascade of genes that lead to the development of the fetal gonad. Whereas development of the female external genitalia does not require fetal ovarian hormones, male genital development requires the action of testicular testosterone and its more potent derivative dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The "classic" biosynthetic pathway from cholesterol to testosterone in the testis and the subsequent conversion of testosterone to DHT in genital skin is well established. Recently, an alternative pathway leading to DHT has been described in marsupials, but its potential importance to human development is unclear. AKR1C2 is an enzyme that participates in the alternative but not the classic pathway. Using a candidate gene approach, we identified AKR1C2 mutations with sex-limited recessive inheritance in four 46,XY individuals with disordered sexual development (DSD). Analysis of the inheritance of microsatellite markers excluded other candidate loci. Affected individuals had moderate to severe undervirilization at birth; when recreated by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in bacteria, the mutant AKR1C2 had diminished but not absent catalytic activities. The 46,XY DSD individuals also carry a mutation causing aberrant splicing in AKR1C4, which encodes an enzyme with similar activity. This suggests a mode of inheritance where the severity of the developmental defect depends on the number of mutations in the two genes. An unrelated 46,XY DSD patient carried AKR1C2 mutations on both alleles, confirming the essential role of AKR1C2 and corroborating the hypothesis that both the classic and alternative pathways of testicular androgen biosynthesis are needed for normal human male sexual differentiation.

  9. Clues in the differential diagnosis of primary vs secondary cough, exercise, and sexual headaches.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rocío; Ramón, César; Pascual, Julio

    2014-10-01

    Activity-related headaches can be provoked by Valsalva maneuvers ("cough headache"), prolonged exercise ("exertional headache") and sexual excitation ("sexual headache"). These entities are a challenging diagnostic problem as can be primary or secondary and the etiologies for secondary cases differ depending on the headache type. In this paper we review the clinical clues which help us in the differential diagnosis of patients consulting due to activity-related headaches. Cough headache is the most common in terms of consultation. Primary cough headache should be suspected in patients older than 50 years, if pain does not predominate in the occipital area, if pain lasts seconds, when there are no other symptoms/signs and if indomethacin relieves the headache attacks. Almost half of cough headaches are secondary, usually to a Chiari type I malformation. Secondary cough headache should be suspected in young people, when pain is occipital and lasts longer than one minute, and especially if there are other symptoms/signs and if there is no response to indomethacin. Every patient with cough headache needs cranio-cervical MRI. Primary exercise/sexual headaches are more common than secondary, which should be suspected in women especially with one episode, when there are other symptoms/signs, in people older than 40 and if the headache lasts longer than 24 hours. These patients must have quickly a CT and then brain MRI with MRA or an angioCT to exclude space-occupying lesions or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  10. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  11. How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children's affect.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed.

  13. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations

    PubMed Central

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L.; Parsons, Scott A.; Alford, Ross A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  14. Host-associated differentiation in a highly polyphagous, sexually reproducing insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Josephine B; Sword, Gregory A; Medina, Raul F

    2015-01-01

    Insect herbivores may undergo genetic divergence on their host plants through host-associated differentiation (HAD). Much of what we know about HAD involves insect species with narrow host ranges (i.e., specialists) that spend part or all their life cycle inside their hosts, and/or reproduce asexually (e.g., parthenogenetic insects), all of which are thought to facilitate HAD. However, sexually reproducing polyphagous insects can also exhibit HAD. Few sexually reproducing insects have been tested for HAD, and when they have insects from only a handful of potential host-plant populations have been tested, making it difficult to predict how common HAD is when one considers the entire species’ host range. This question is particularly relevant when considering insect pests, as host-associated populations may differ in traits relevant to their control. Here, we tested for HAD in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) pest, the cotton fleahopper (CFH) (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus), a sexually reproducing, highly polyphagous hemipteran insect. A previous study detected one incidence of HAD among three of its host plants. We used Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess HAD in CFH collected from an expanded array of 13 host-plant species belonging to seven families. Overall, four genetically distinct populations were found. One genetically distinct genotype was exclusively associated with one of the host-plant species while the other three were observed across more than one host-plant species. The relatively low degree of HAD in CFH compared to the pea aphid, another hemipteran insect, stresses the likely importance of sexual recombination as a factor increasing the likelihood of HAD. PMID:26257868

  15. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  16. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Jandegian, Caitlin M; Deem, Sharon L; Bhandari, Ramji K; Holliday, Casey M; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Selcer, Kyle W; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vélez-Rivera, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K

    2015-05-15

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26°C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100μgBPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated "males", but in none of the control males (n=35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low=30%, BPA-medium=33%, BPA-high=39%), this difference was not significant (p=0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  17. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  18. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  19. Dazl is a target RNA suppressed by mammalian NANOS2 in sexually differentiating male germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yuzuru; Katsuki, Takeo; Kokubo, Hiroki; Masuda, Aki; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionally conserved Nanos RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in germ cell development. While a mammalian Nanos family protein, NANOS2, is required for sexual differentiation of male (XY) germ cells in mice, the underlying mechanisms and the identities of its target RNAs in vivo remain elusive. Using comprehensive microarray analysis and a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic system, here we identify Dazl, a germ cell-specific gene encoding an RNA-binding protein implicated in translation, as a crucial target of NANOS2. Importantly, removal of the Dazl 3′-untranslated region in XY germ cells stabilizes the Dazl mRNA, resulting in elevated meiotic gene expression, abnormal resumption of the cell cycle and impaired processing-body formation, reminiscent of Nanos2-knockout phenotypes. Furthermore, our data suggest that NANOS2 acts as an antagonist of the DAZL protein. We propose a dual system of NANOS2-mediated suppression of Dazl expression as a pivotal molecular mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of XY germ cells. PMID:27072294

  20. Do family structure and poverty affect sexual risk behaviors of undergraduate students in Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Odimegwu, Clifford; Adedini, Sunday A

    2013-12-01

    This study examined sexual practices in a Nigerian University community with a view to understanding the role of family structure and poverty on risky sexual behaviours. A representative sample of 1,301 undergraduate students was randomly selected from the various faculties that made up the University. Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from single parent homes showed lower likelihood of having multiple sexual partners. Also poverty was found not to be a critical determinant of risky sexual behaviour. Given the unclear nature of the findings, future study should explore further understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky sexual behaviour among students.

  1. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    PubMed

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits.

  2. Development of a rapid, 96-well alkaline based differential DNA extraction method for sexual assault evidence.

    PubMed

    Hudlow, William R; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    We present a rapid alkaline lysis procedure for the extraction of DNA from sexual assault evidence that generates purified sperm fraction extracts that yield STR typing results similar to those obtained from the traditional organic/dithiothreitol differential extraction. Specifically, a sodium hydroxide based differential extraction method has been developed in a single-tube format and further optimized in a 96-well format. The method yields purified extracts from a small sample set (≈ 2-6 swabs) in approximately 2h and from a larger sample set (up to 96 swabs) in approximately 4h. While conventional differential extraction methods require vigorous sample manipulation to remove the spermatozoa from the substrate, the method described here exploits the propensity of sperm to adhere to a substrate and does not require any manipulation of the substrate after it is sampled. For swabs, sample handling is minimized by employing a process where the tip of the swab, including the shaft, is transferred to the appropriate vessel eliminating the need for potentially hazardous scalpels to separate the swab material from the shaft. The absence of multiple handling steps allows the process to be semi-automated, however the procedure as described here does not require use of a robotic system. This method may provide forensic laboratories a cost-effective tool for the eradication of backlogs of sexual assault evidence, and more timely service to their client agencies. In addition, we have demonstrated that a modification of the procedure can be used to retrieve residual sperm-cell DNA from previously extracted swabs.

  3. Sexual behavior and perceived peer norms: comparing perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-affected youth.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-09-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51% female; ages 9-16) perinatally exposed to HIV (61% HIV+). Using logistic regression, we tested the association between sexual behavior and HIV status, demographic characteristics, and peer influences regarding sexual behavior. PHIV youth were less likely to be sexually active. Among sexually active youth, PHIV youth were more likely to engage in touching behavior than HIV-negative youth and were less likely to engage in penetrative sex. Youths reporting that a greater number of their peers believed that sexually active boys were "cool" or "popular" were more likely to report sexual behavior. The association between sexual behavior and peers believing sexually active girls were "cool" or "popular" varied by age, gender, and HIV status. Furthermore, friends' sexual activity was associated with sexual intercourse. Prevention programs should strengthen messages addressing peer norms regarding sexuality, as well as address specific issues related to adolescent HIV.

  4. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  5. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  6. Sexual competition and N supply interactively affect the dimorphism and competiveness of opposite sexes in Populus cathayana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-07-01

    Several important dioecious species show sexual spatial segregation (SSS) along environmental gradients that have significant ecological effect on terrestrial ecosystem. However, little attention has been paid to understanding of how males and females respond to environmental gradients and sexual competition. We compared eco-physiological parameters of males and females of Populus cathayana under different sexual competition patterns and nitrogen (N) supply levels. We found that males and females interacting with the same or opposite sex showed significant differences in biomass partition, photosynthetic capacity, carbon (C) and N metabolism, and leaf ultrastructure, and that the sexual differences to competition were importantly driven by N supply. The intersexual competition was enhanced under high N, while the intrasexual competition among females was amplified under low N. Under high N, the intersexual competition stimulated the growth of the females and negatively affected the males. In contrast, under low N, the males exposed to intrasexual competition had the highest tolerance, whereas females exposed to intrasexual competition showed the lowest adaptation among all competition patterns. Sexual competition patterns and N supply levels significantly affected the sexual dimorphism and competitiveness, which may play an important role in spatial segregation of P. cathayana populations.

  7. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.

  8. [IMPACT ON DIFFERENTIATED THERAPY OF SOMATIC AND SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS WITH DIFFUSE NONTOXIC GOITER].

    PubMed

    Turchina, S I

    2015-01-01

    Results of complex inspection of 163 girls and 192 boys of 8-17 years with the diffusion not toxic craw (DNG) are presented. At 59.4% of patients revealed disharmonious physical development. Most often defined deficiency of weight of a body (37.5%) and/or low growth (28.0%). The delay of sexual development which practically at all adolescents (83.8%) was accompanied by deficiency of weight of a body and low growth is diagnosed for 32.8% of adolescents boys and 8.3% of girls. The necessity of a differentiated approach to the treatment of adolescents with a poor prognosis of DOP. The use of the. proposed technology improves the efficiency of treatment to 77.4% after 6 months and 86.3% at 12 months, as well as improve overall health outcomes and somatopolovogo development.

  9. Probabilistically determining the cellular source of DNA derived from differential extractions in sexual assault scenarios.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan

    2016-09-01

    Sexual assault cases are the type of case that often produces questions about the cellular source of DNA. In these cases multiple findings of microscopy, DNA profiling and presumptive testing need to be considered when addressing source level propositions. In this work, I consider a line of questioning that has been raised a number of times in the recent past, where in court it was disputed that low levels of sperm seen on a microscope slide were the cellular source of the male DNA profile component generated from the sperm fraction of a differential DNA extraction. I demonstrate how the cell scoring results and DNA profiling results can be considered together, in helping address this source level question through the use of Bayesian Networks.

  10. Factors Affecting Intervention Fidelity of Differentiated Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Elma M.; Walraven, Amber; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings in the first phase of a design-based research project as part of a large-scale intervention study in Dutch kindergartens. The project aims at enhancing differentiated instruction and evaluating its effects on children's development, in particular high-ability children. This study investigates relevant…

  11. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN AND TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON PREGNANCY AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE AND FEMALE SD RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Sufficient levels of androgens during fetal sexual differentiation in the mammal produces the male phenotype, and the absence of androgens or the dysfunction of the androgen receptor can produce the female phenotype. In previous studies in our laboratory, adminis...

  12. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  13. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  14. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  15. Human monocyte differentiation stage affects response to arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Alvarez, Elizabeth; Pelaez, Carlos A; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    AA-induced cell death mechanisms acting on human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), U937 promonocytes and PMA-differentiated U937 cells were studied. Arachidonic acid induced apoptosis and necrosis in monocytes and U937 cells but only apoptosis in MDM and U937D cells. AA increased both types of death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells and increased the percentage of TNFalpha+ cells and reduced IL-10+ cells. Experiments blocking these cytokines indicated that AA-mediated death was TNFalpha- and IL-10-independent. The differences in AA-mediated cell death could be explained by high ROS, calpain and sPLA-2 production and activity in monocytes. Blocking sPLA-2 in monocytes and treatment with antioxidants favored M. tuberculosis control whereas AA enhanced M. tuberculosis growth in MDM. Such evidence suggested that AA-modulated effector mechanisms depend on mononuclear phagocytes' differentiation stage.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  17. Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

  18. Facets of dynamic positive affect: differentiating joy, interest, and activation in the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS).

    PubMed

    Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter; Hock, Michael

    2003-09-01

    This article proposes the differentiation of Joy, Interest, and Activation in the Positive Affect (PA) scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson, L. A. Clark, & A. Tellegen, 1988). Study 1 analyzed the dynamic course of PA before, during, and after an exam and established the differentiation of the three facets. Study 2 used a multistate-multitrait analysis to confirm this structure. Studies 3-5 used success-failure experiences, speaking tasks, and feedback of exam results to further examine PA facets in affect-arousing settings. All studies provide convincing evidence for the benefit of differentiating three facets of PA in the PANAS: Joy, Interest, and Activation do have distinct and sometimes even opposite courses that make their separation meaningful and rewarding.

  19. Retro-1 Analogues Differentially Affect Oligonucleotide Delivery and Toxin Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Ming, Xin; Abdelkafi, Hajer; Pons, Valerie; Michau, Aurelien; Gillet, Daniel; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Barbier, Julien; Juliano, Rudy

    2016-11-21

    Retro-1 is a small molecule that displays two important biological activities: First, it blocks the actions of certain toxins by altering their intracellular trafficking. Second, it enhances the activity of oligonucleotides by releasing them from entrapment in endosomes. This raises the question of whether the two actions involve the same cellular target. Herein we report the effects of several Retro-1 analogues on both toxins and oligonucleotides. We found analogues that affect toxins but not oligonucleotides and vice-versa, while Retro-1 is the only compound that affects both. This indicates that the molecular target(s) involved in the two processes are distinct.

  20. Sexuality and Affection among Elderly German Men and Women in Long-Term Relationships: Results of a Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Britta; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Reis, Olaf; Kropp, Peter; Meyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with sexual activity i.e. sexual satisfaction and the importance of sexuality and affection were analysed using data from the German “Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development” (ILSE). At three measurement points, 1993–1995, 1997–1998, and 2004–2006 i.e. subjects' ages of 63, 67, and 74 years, participants' reports about their affection and sexual activity were collected. The sample of completed records used for this study consisted of 194 urban non-institutionalised participants, 68% male, all living with partners. Median levels of sexual satisfaction were reported, fluctuating between the measurement points of ages 63 to 74. Between baseline, first and second follow-up no differences were found in levels of sexual satisfaction, though at measurement points age 63 and 67 women were more satisfied than men. When measured at age 74, affection was given a higher priority than sexual activity. Although men and women reported similar priorities, sexual activity and affection were more important for men than for women. Satisfaction within the relationship can be predicted by the importance of affection, but not by that of sexual activity. Our results confirm the thesis of the ‘second language of sexuality’: for humans in their later years affection seems to be more important than for younger individuals. PMID:25369193

  1. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  2. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gorski, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period.

  3. College Women and Personal Goals: Cognitive Dimensions that Differentiate Risk-Reduction Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nelwyn B.; Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.

    2006-01-01

    As the twenty-first century begins, a high level of participation in premarital sexual intercourse by college women is well-documented. But, in the research exploring risk-reduction sexual behaviors, the relationship of cognitive abilities to responsible sexual behavior has been under-researched. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 626…

  4. Attachment Representations and Anxiety: Differential Relationships among Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47…

  5. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  6. Sexual Behavior and Perceived Peer Norms: Comparing Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51%…

  7. Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identification of Positive and Negative Facial Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Sex and sexual orientation related differences in processing of happy and sad facial emotions were examined using an experimental facial emotion recognition paradigm with a large sample (N=240). Analysis of covariance (controlling for age and IQ) revealed that women (irrespective of sexual orientation) had faster reaction times than men for…

  8. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  9. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jonathan S; Sauder, Charity L; Ray, Chester A

    2011-02-01

    Melatonin is synthesized and released into the circulation by the pineal gland in a circadian rhythm. Melatonin has been demonstrated to differentially alter blood flow to assorted vascular beds by the activation of different melatonin receptors in animal models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of melatonin on blood flow to various vascular beds in humans. Renal (Doppler ultrasound), forearm (venous occlusion plethysmography), and cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler), arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured in 10 healthy subjects (29±1 yr; 5 men and 5 women) in the supine position for 3 min. The protocol began 45 min after the ingestion of either melatonin (3 mg) or placebo (sucrose). Subjects returned at least 2 days later at the same time of day to repeat the trial after ingesting the other substance. Melatonin did not alter heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Renal blood flow velocity (RBFV) and renal vascular conductance (RVC) were lower during the melatonin trial compared with placebo (RBFV, 40.5±2.9 vs. 45.4±1.5 cm/s; and RVC, 0.47±0.02 vs. 0.54±0.01 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). In contrast, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were greater with melatonin compared with placebo (FBF, 2.4±0.2 vs. 1.9±0.1 ml·100 ml(-1)·min(-1); and FVC, 0.029±0.003 vs. 0.023±0.002 arbitrary units, respectively). Melatonin did not alter cerebral blood flow measurements compared with placebo. Additionally, phentolamine (5-mg bolus) after melatonin reversed the decrease in RVC, suggesting that melatonin increases sympathetic outflow to the kidney to mediate renal vasoconstriction. In summary, exogenous melatonin differentially alters vascular blood flow in humans. These data suggest the complex nature of melatonin on the vasculature in humans.

  10. Regulation and expression of sexual differentiation factors in embryonic and extragonadal tissues of Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The products of cyp19, dax, foxl2, mis, sf1 and sox9 have each been associated with sex-determining processes among vertebrates. We provide evidence for expression of these regulators very early in salmonid development and in tissues outside of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal (HPAG) axis. Although the function of these factors in sexual differentiation have been defined, their roles in early development before sexual fate decisions and in tissues beyond the brain or gonad are essentially unknown. Results Bacterial artificial chromosomes containing salmon dax1 and dax2, foxl2b and mis were isolated and the regulatory regions that control their expression were characterized. Transposon integrations are implicated in the shaping of the dax and foxl2 loci. Splice variants for cyp19b1 and mis in both embryonic and adult tissues were detected and characterized. We found that cyp19b1 transcripts are generated that contain 5'-untranslated regions of different lengths due to cryptic splicing of the 3'-end of intron 1. We also demonstrate that salmon mis transcripts can encode prodomain products that present different C-termini and terminate before translation of the MIS hormone. Regulatory differences in the expression of two distinct aromatases cyp19a and cyp19b1 are exerted, despite transcription of their transactivators (ie; dax1, foxl2, sf1) occurring much earlier during embryonic development. Conclusions We report the embryonic and extragonadal expression of dax, foxl2, mis and other differentiation factors that indicate that they have functions that are more general and not restricted to steroidogenesis and gonadogenesis. Spliced cyp19b1 and mis transcripts are generated that may provide regulatory controls for tissue- or development-specific activities. Selection of cyp19b1 transcripts may be regulated by DAX-1, FOXL2 and SF-1 complexes that bind motifs in intron 1, or by signals within exon 2 that recruit splicing factors, or both. The

  11. Two recombinant depressant scorpion neurotoxins differentially affecting mammalian sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuzhe; Luo, Lan; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Zhu, Shunyi

    2010-07-01

    The scorpion depressant toxins are a group of evolutionarily conserved polypeptides targeting sodium channels, which show preferential ability to induce flaccid paralysis in insects, making them attractive candidates for the construction of transgenic plants or viral vectors to control pests. In this study, two new depressant toxin-like peptides (BmKITc and BmKITc2) differing only at position 52 (Lys for Thr) were produced in Escherichia coli. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that these two recombinant peptides display a typical structural feature similar to native scorpion toxins. They both cause a maintained current component at the last phase of inactivation of the insect sodium channel DmNav1/tipE expressed in Xenopus oocytes and interestingly, they do not produce a beta effect despite of their primary structure as beta-toxins. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect with BmKITc but not with BmKITc2 was observed on TTX-R sodium currents in rat DRG neurons. We hypothesize that such differential potency highlights a crucial role of lysine 52 in channel selectivity. Our results therefore indicate that, in spite of the general idea, not all scorpion depressant toxins interact with mammalian and/or insect sodium channels in the same manner.

  12. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  13. Prior mating success can affect allocation towards future sexual signaling in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Chiswell, Rachel; Girard, Madeline; Fricke, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fitness is often correlated with the expression level of a sexually selected trait. However, sexually selected traits are costly to express such that investment in their expression should be optimised to maximize their overall fitness gains. Social interactions, in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings, may offer males one type of feedback allowing them to gauge how to allocate their resources towards sexual signaling. Here we tested whether adult male black field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) modify the extent of their calling effort (the sexually selected trait) in response to successful and unsuccessful matings with females. To examine the effect that mating interactions with females have on investment into sexual signaling, we monitored male calling effort after maturation and then provided males with a female at two points within their life, manipulating whether or not males were able to successfully mate each time. Our results demonstrate that males alter their investment towards sexual signaling in response to successful matings, but only if the experience occurs early in their life. Males that mated early decreased their calling effort sooner than males that were denied a mating. Our results demonstrate that social feedback in the form of successful and unsuccessful matings has the potential to alter the effort a male places towards sexual signaling. PMID:25392758

  14. Depressive symptomatology differentiates subgroups of patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Terman, Michael; Terman, Jiuan Su

    2002-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may vary in symptoms of their depressed winter mood state, as we showed previously for nondepressed (manic, hypomanic, hyperthymic, euthymic) springtime states [Goel et al., 1999]. Identification of such differences during depression may be useful in predicting differences in treatment efficacy or analyzing the pathogenesis of the disorder. In a cross-sectional analysis, we determined whether 165 patients with Bipolar Disorder (I, II) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), both with seasonal pattern, showed different symptom profiles while depressed. Assessment was by the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD), which includes a set of items for atypical symptoms. We identified subgroup differences in SAD based on categories specified for nonseasonal depression, using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Patients with Bipolar Disorder (I and II) were more depressed (had higher SIGH-SAD scores) and showed more psychomotor agitation and social withdrawal than those with MDD. Bipolar I patients had more psychomotor retardation, late insomnia, and social withdrawal than bipolar II patients. Men showed more obsessions/compulsions and suicidality than women, while women showed more weight gain and early insomnia. Whites showed more guilt and fatigability than blacks, while blacks showed more hypochondriasis and social withdrawal. Darker-eyed patients were significantly more depressed and fatigued than blue-eyed patients. Single and divorced or separated patients showed more hypochondriasis and diurnal variation than married patients. Employed patients showed more atypical symptoms than unemployed patients, although most of the subgroup distinctions lay on the Hamilton Scale. These results comprise a set of biological and sociocultural factors-including race, gender, and marital and employment status-which contribute to depressive

  15. Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Lin, Feng; Aström, Stefan U

    2014-10-28

    Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MATα in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1-MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HMLα) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed -1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MATα genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation.

  16. Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Lin, Feng; Åström, Stefan U.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MATα in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1–MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HMLα) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed −1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MATα genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation. PMID:25313032

  17. Characterization of steroidogenic factor 1 during sexual differentiation in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, D J; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Marshall Graves, J A; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

    2001-10-17

    In eutherian mammals, such as mice and humans, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) plays important roles in the development of the gonad and in its steroidogenic activity. Marsupial and eutherian mammals have been evolving independently for at least 100 million years and so we were interested in comparing SF1 of a marsupial with that of eutherians. To this end, we have cloned SF1 from an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby. Although the amino acid sequence of SF1 is highly conserved among vertebrate species, tammar SF1 appears to have diverged less from the ancestral SF1 than have eutherian SF1 proteins. Tammar SF1 is expressed by both ovaries and testes on the day of birth, just prior to the onset of testicular differentiation, until at least 8 days after birth by which time the ovary also has begun to sexually differentiate. SF1 transcripts are localized predominantly to the pre-granulosa and Sertoli cells of the ovary and testis, respectively. In the testis SF1 transcripts are also present in the interstitial cells, although at a lower level than that which is observed in the Sertoli cells. SF1 is also transcribed in adult testis and ovary. In the adult ovary SF1 is expressed in the interstitial gland, and in the granulosa cells and theca interna of small to medium-sized antral follicles, but is not expressed in large antral follicles. Thus, although the structure of tammar SF1 is divergent from that of eutherians, its expression profile is similar, supporting a conserved role in gonadal development and steroidogenesis.

  18. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  19. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  20. Acute withdrawal but not long-term withdrawal from methamphetamine affects sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Rachel B; Ornelas, Laura C; Romero, Jordan; Memos, Nicoletta; Scheible, Matthew; Avila, Alfred; Schumacher, Abby; Navarro, April; Zimmermann, Karen; Cuenod, Bethany A; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

    2013-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the long-term effects of repeated methamphetamine (MA) exposure on sexual motivation in female rats tested after a period of drug abstinence. In Experiment 1, female subjects received three injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day, every other day) or saline and were tested for paced mating behavior (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from one male rat) 21 days after their last injection. In Experiment 2, female subjects received 12 consecutive injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day) or saline and were tested for mate choice (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from two male rats simultaneously) 6 days after their last injection. Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 2 except that female subjects received no baseline mating test and were tested for mate choice 24h and 6 days after their last injection. Open field tests were conducted in each experiment to measure locomotor activity after repeated exposure to MA. Although repeated MA exposure increased locomotor activity, mating behavior was not facilitated after either a short (6 days) or long (21 days) period of drug abstinence. Nevertheless, sexual behavior was disrupted during the 24h acute withdrawal period. Therefore, although the present study found no evidence of cross-sensitization between female sexual behavior and MA after either a short or a long period of drug abstinence, sexual behavior in sexually naïve female rats is sensitive to the depressive state associated with acute withdrawal from MA. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MA acts differently from other psychomotor stimulants, and that the effects of MA withdrawal on sexual behavior differ between male and female rats.

  1. How HIV diagnosis and disclosure affect sexual behavior and relationships in Ugandan fishing communities.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Moriah; Birdthistle, Isolde; Seeley, Janet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim

    2013-08-01

    In this article we examine how members of fishing communities on the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda respond to HIV diagnosis in terms of disclosure to sexual partners. We then explore the subsequent changes in sexual behavior and relationships. To access this information, we collected life history data from 78 HIV-positive individuals in five fishing communities. We found that the strength of the sexual relationships shaped how and why individuals disclosed to partners, and that these relationships tended to be stronger when partners shared familial responsibility. Those who perceived their current sexual partnership to be weak sought to conceal their status by maintaining prediagnosis patterns of sexual behavior. The majority of the study's participants rarely changed their sexual behavior following HIV diagnosis, regardless of their relationship's strength. These findings elucidate barriers to disclosure and behavior change, and suggest that a life-course approach might enhance individual-level counseling so that counselors can provide tailored support to individuals regarding disclosure decisions and outcomes.

  2. Differential brain processing of audiovisual sexual stimuli in men: comparative positron emission tomography study of the initiation and maintenance of penile erection during sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tohru; Takao, Tetsuya; Takada, Shingo; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Takasawa, Masashi; Oku, Naohiko; Hatazawa, Jun; Kaneko, Shigeo; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2007-07-01

    The human male psychosexual cycle consists of four phases: excitation, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Identification of the specific neural substrates of each phase may provide information regarding the brain's pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction. We previously analyzed regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with H(2)15O-positron emission tomography (PET) during the excitation phase (initiation of penile erection) induced by audiovisual sexual stimuli (AVSS) and identified activation of the cerebellar vermis, the bilateral extrastriate cortex, and right orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting a role of cognition/emotion in the excitement phase. In the present study, we analyzed rCBF of the same six healthy volunteers during the plateau phase (maintenance of penile erection) induced by AVSS and compared the results with those of the excitation phase. Penile rigidity was monitored in real time with RigiScan Plus during PET scanning. Images were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software, and rCBF in the amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate, and insula was measured. During the plateau phase, primary subcortical activation was noted in the right ventral putamen, indicating motivational factors in the sexual response via the limbic reward circuit. A significant increase in rCBF in the left hypothalamus was also observed during the plateau phase. The right anterior cingulate and left insula were specifically activated during the excitation phase but not during the plateau phase. These results indicate a significant role of the ventral putamen and the hypothalamus in the plateau phase and confirm that paralimbic and limbic components of the human brain differentially coordinate the sexual response in a psychosexual phase-dependent manner.

  3. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PHTHALATES DEHP, BBP AND DINP, BUT NOT DEP, DMP OR DOTP ALTERS SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mammals, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of AR antagonists like vinclozolin and procymidone or chemicals like di (2-bis) ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), that inhibit ...

  4. DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
    Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

  5. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  6. Differentiating Youth Who Sexually Abuse: Applying a Multidimensional Framework when Assessing and Treating Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that children with sexual behavior problems and adolescents who offend sexually are diverse populations consisting of several subtypes (Hall, Mathews, & Pearce, 2002; Pithers, Gray, Busconi, & Houchens, 1998; Worling, 2001). This article reviews the descriptive and empirical research related to identifying…

  7. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.

  8. Disgust as a Unique Affective Predictor of Mental Contamination Following Sexual Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Ojserkis, Rachel; McKay, Dean; Feldner, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Mental contamination has been described as an internal experience of dirtiness that can arise and persist in the absence of contact with observable physical contaminants. Recent research has examined mental contamination specifically related to unwanted physical contact and sexual trauma. This study evaluated the degree to which disgust propensity and both self-focused and perpetrator-focused peritraumatic disgust were associated with mental contamination in a sample of women who experienced sexual trauma (n = 72). Results showed that peritraumatic self-focused disgust, but not peritraumatic perpetrator-focused disgust or fear, was significantly associated with mental contamination. Additionally, disgust propensity contributed significantly to the incremental validity of the model. These findings support the nascent literature showing that disgust plays a significant role in mental contamination, particularly following sexual trauma. Future research directions, and clinical/theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25129888

  9. Aqueous leaf extracts display endocrine activities in vitro and disrupt sexual differentiation of male Xenopus laevis tadpoles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hermelink, Björn; Urbatzka, Ralph; Wiegand, Claudia; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner

    2010-09-01

    The occurrence of natural substances acting as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) in the environment is to date poorly understood. Therefore, (anti)androgenic and (anti)estrogenic activities of three different aqueous leaf extracts (beech, reed and oak) were analyzed in vitro using yeast androgen and estrogen screen. The most potent extract was selected for in vivo exposure of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to analyze the potential effects on development and reproductive biology of amphibians. Tadpoles were exposed from stage 48 to stage 66 (end of metamorphosis) to aqueous oak leaf extracts covering natural occurring environmental concentrations of dissolved organic carbon. Gene expression analyses of selected genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad and of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis as well as histological investigation of gonads and thyroid glands were used to evaluate endocrine disrupting effects on the reproductive biology and development. Female tadpoles remained unaffected by the exposure whereas males showed severe significant histological alterations of testes at the two highest oak leaf extract concentrations demonstrated by the occurrence of lacunae and oogonia. In addition, a significant elevation of luteinizing hormone beta mRNA expression with increasing extract concentration in male tadpoles indicates an involvement of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis mainly via antiandrogenic activity. These results suggest that antiandrogenic EDC of oak leaf extract are responsible for inducing the observed effects in male tadpoles. The present study demonstrates for the first time that in surface waters, natural occurring oak leaf compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations display antiandrogenic activities and have considerable effects on the endocrine system of anurans affecting sexual differentiation of male tadpoles.

  10. Asymmetric calmodulin distribution in the hypothalamus: role of sexual differentiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Medina, Marco A; Reyes, Alejandro; Chavarría, María Eugenia; Vergara-Onofre, Marcela; Canchola, Enrique; Rosado, Adolfo

    2002-05-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) system plays important roles both in hypothalamic sexual differentiation and in the progesterone-induced facilitation of lordosis behavior in the adult rat. We recently showed sex-dependent differences in rat hypothalamic CaM levels, both in newborn and in adult animals. Here, we evaluated the presence of left-right hypothalamic asymmetries in CaM concentration in male and female rats, as well as the changes induced on these parameters by neonatal (1 h after birth) subcutaneous administration of tamoxifen (200 microg/rat) or testosterone (30 microg/rat). CaM was measured by RIA in each half of the hypothalamus (at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h and at 90 days after birth) in both control and treated animals. In untreated young rats (2-24 h after birth), CaM concentration was significantly higher in the right half of the hypothalamus of males, whereas in females, it was higher in the hypothalamic left half. Treatment of females with testosterone or tamoxifen to males, consistently reversed these results. In the hypothalamus of treated animals, we found higher CaM levels in the left half of males, as well as in the right half of females. In control adult females, CaM concentration was also higher in the left half of the hypothalamus, as it was in the right half of adult males. However, this asymmetry was lost after neonatal hormone manipulation. These results reinforce the role of CaM in the development of sex-related hypothalamic functions.

  11. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man.

  12. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  13. A Sexual Ornament in Chickens Is Affected by Pleiotropic Alleles at HAO1 and BMP2, Selected during Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Gustafson, Ida; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Sahlqvist, Anna-Stina; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Kerje, Susanne; Ekwall, Olov; Kämpe, Olle; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Domestication is one of the strongest forms of short-term, directional selection. Although selection is typically only exerted on one or a few target traits, domestication can lead to numerous changes in many seemingly unrelated phenotypes. It is unknown whether such correlated responses are due to pleiotropy or linkage between separate genetic architectures. Using three separate intercrosses between wild and domestic chickens, a locus affecting comb mass (a sexual ornament in the chicken) and several fitness traits (primarily medullary bone allocation and fecundity) was identified. This locus contains two tightly-linked genes, BMP2 and HAO1, which together produce the range of pleiotropic effects seen. This study demonstrates the importance of pleiotropy (or extremely close linkage) in domestication. The nature of this pleiotropy also provides insights into how this sexual ornament could be maintained in wild populations. PMID:22956912

  14. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  15. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1–1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors. PMID:26640081

  16. Treatment of Individuals and Families Affected by Child Sexual Abuse: Defining Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of expertise as defined in various professions is applied to psychotherapy and more specifically to the field of childhood sexual abuse. Given the dearth of research in this area, exploration of the issue is accompanied by reviewing the curriculum vitae of a number of recognized experts in the field. The paper concludes…

  17. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  18. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  19. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-12-07

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.

  20. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450 mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blueher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  2. The differential effects of Autism and Down's syndrome on sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Stokes, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Although sexuality plays a major role in the socialization of people, few studies have examined the sexual behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Because of this, we decided to investigate sexuality in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (Ds) and to compare them with typically developing adolescents, by surveying their parents. Specifically, it was hypothesized that young people with ASD would display lower levels over five domains: social behavior, privacy, sex education, sexual behavior, and parental concerns, than peers with Ds and typically developing young people. In addition, we sought to verify developmental trends in five domains with age for each group. Overall, 269 parents participated; 94 parents of typically developing adolescents, 93 parents of adolescents diagnosed with Ds, and 82 parents of adolescents diagnosed with ASD. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Behavior Scale developed by Stokes and Kaur [] that assesses parents' reports of their child's: social behavior, privacy awareness, sex education, sexual behavior and parental concerns about the child's behaviors. It was found that three groups were significantly different on all five domains, adolescents with ASD reportedly displaying lower levels than other groups. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in knowledge of privacy and parental concerns with age for adolescents with ASD and a decline in sex education for adolescents with Ds. The results obtained emphasize the need to train adolescents with developmental disability, and especially for adolescents with ASD through sex education programs.

  3. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  4. Pleasure, Affection, and Love Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) versus MSM of Other Races: Countering Dehumanizing Stereotypes via Cross-Race Comparisons of Reported Sexual Experience at Last Sexual Event

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Schick, Vanessa R.; Novak, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U. S. men ages 18–87 (MAge = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010–2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72–87 % orgasmed, 57–82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70–91 % kissed, 47–90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three. PMID:25604209

  5. The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17β-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

  6. A review of sexually transmitted bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis affecting cattle reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Michi, Aubrey N; Favetto, Pedro H; Kastelic, John; Cobo, Eduardo R

    2016-03-15

    The objective is to discuss sexually transmitted diseases caused by Tritrichomonas foetus (T foetus) and Campylobacter fetus (C fetus) subsp. venerealis, with a focus on prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in cows and bulls. Diagnosis and control are problematic because these diseases cause severe reproductive losses in cows, but in bulls are clinically asymptomatic, which allows the disease to flourish, especially in the absence of legislated control programs. We review research regarding prophylactic systemic immunization of bulls and cows with antigens of T foetus and C fetus venerealis and their efficacy in preventing or clearing preexisting infections in the genital tract. Current diagnostic methods of C fetus venerealis and T foetus (microbial culture and PCR) should be improved. Review of the latest advances in bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis should promote knowledge and provide an impetus to pursue further efforts to control bovine sexually transmitted diseases.

  7. GABAA RECEPTORS AS BROADCASTERS OF SEXUALLY DIFFERENTIATING SIGNALS IN THE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2006-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are more common in males than in females. One of the areas that have recently been implicated in the higher susceptibility of males to seizures is the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR). Several studies support the existence of phenotypic differences between male and female infantile SNR neurons and particularly in several aspects of the GABAergic system, including its ability to control seizures. We have recently found that at postnatal day 14-17 (PN14-17) rats, which are equivalent to infants, activation of GABAA receptors has different physiological effects in male and female SNR neurons. This is likely due to the differences in the expression of the neuronal-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2, which regulates the intracellular chloride concentration. In male PN14-17 SNR neurons, GABAA receptor activation with muscimol causes depolarization and increments in intracellular calcium concentration and the expression of calcium regulated genes, such as KCC2. Blockade of L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels (L-VSCC) by nifedipine decreases KCC2 mRNA expression. In PN14-17 females, however, muscimol hyperpolarizes the SNR neurons, does not increase intracellular calcium and decreases KCC2 mRNA expression. In PN15 females, nifedipine has no effect on KCC2 mRNA expression in the SNR. This sexually dimorphic function of GABAA receptors also creates divergent patterns of estradiol signaling. In male PN15 rats, estradiol decreases KCC2 mRNA expression in SNR neurons. Pretreatment with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline or with nifedipine, prevents the appearance of estradiol-mediated downregulation of KCC2 mRNA expression. In contrast, in PN15 females, estradiol does not influence KCC2 expression. These show that, in infantile rats, drugs or conditions that modulate the activity of GABAA receptors or L-VSCCs have different effects on the differentiation of the SNR. As a result, they have the potency of causing long-term changes in

  8. To each its own? Gender differences in affective, autonomic, and behavioral responses to same-sex and opposite-sex visual sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Michela; Buodo, Giulia

    2017-03-15

    A large body of research on gender differences in response to erotic stimuli has focused on genital and/or subjective sexual arousal. On the other hand, studies assessing gender differences in emotional psychophysiological responding to sexual stimuli have only employed erotic pictures of male-female couples or female/male nudes. The present study aimed at investigating differences between gynephilic men and androphilic women in emotional responding to visual sexual stimuli depicting female-male, female-female and male-male couples. Affective responses were explored in multiple response systems, including autonomic indices of emotional activation, i.e., heart rate and skin conductance, along with standardized measures of valence and arousal. Blood pressure was measured as an index of autonomic activation associated with sexual arousal, and free viewing times as an index of interest/avoidance. Overall, men showed gender-specific activation characterized by clearly appetitive reactions to the target of their sexual attraction (i.e., women), with physiological arousal discriminating female-female stimuli as the most effective sexual cues. In contrast, women's emotional activation to sexual stimuli was clearly non-specific in most of the considered variables, with the notable exception of the self-report measures. Overall, affective responses replicate patterns of gender-specific and gender-nonspecific sexual responses in gynephilic men and androphilic women.

  9. Factors affecting effective communication about sexual and reproductive health issues between parents and adolescents in zandspruit informal settlement, Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Motsomi, Kegaugetswe; Makanjee, Chandra; Basera, Tariro; Nyasulu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Communication between parents and adolescents regarding sexuality is an important reproductive health topic. Due to complexities associated with adolescent's physiological development, sexuality should be dealt with holistically. This study aimed to investigate factors affecting effective communication between parents and adolescents concerning sexual and reproductive health issues. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using the focus group discussions method was done to explore amongst other things; social, cultural and religious barriers to communication. Thematic content analysis was done. Results Factors identified included: embarrassment when discussing sexual topics; adolescent misperceptions that guardians want to engage in sexual activities with them; strong belief amongst guardians that reproductive health discussions with adolescents encourages sexual experimentation; belief that adolescents were too young to understand; non-conducive environment for open discussions of sexual and reproductive health matters; cultural and religious beliefs. Conclusion In view of these findings, there are still barriers in terms of parent-adolescent engagement on issues related to risks associated with sexual behaviours and erroneous reproductive health choices among adolescents. Therefore, there is a need to encourage engagement by creating neutral platforms facilitated by community healthcare providers and/ or social workers. This will help create awareness and bridge the communication and interaction gap by emphasising the importance of effective engagement among adolescents and their parents on matters related to risks associated with sexual behaviours and erroneous reproductive health choices. Post implantation intervention studies are needed to inform on the outcomes of the intervention. PMID:28292083

  10. Crush: Mapping Historical, Material and Affective Force Relations in Young Children's Hetero-Sexual Playground Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huuki, Tuija; Renold, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic multi-modal data of the gendered and sexual dynamics of pre-school play (age 6) in a rapidly declining fishing and farming community in North Finland, this paper offers a glimpse into our sense-making of a short video-recorded episode in which three boys repeatedly pile up on and demand a kiss from one of their girl…

  11. Minireview: Hormones and human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.

  12. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined. PMID:21693676

  13. The environmental contaminant DDE fails to influence the outcome of sexual differentiation in the marine turtle Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed Central

    Podreka, S; Georges, A; Maher, B; Limpus, C J

    1998-01-01

    In many turtles, the temperature experienced during the middle of egg incubation determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex determination opens the possibility that endocrine-disrupting contaminants may also influence the outcome of sexual differentiation. In this study we investigate the potential effects of DDE (a common DDT metabolite) on sexual differentiation of Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle). Four clutches of eggs collected from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, were treated with DDE at the beginning of the thermosensitive period for sexual determination. An incubation temperature of 28 degrees C or less produces male hatchlings in this species, whereas 30 degrees C or more produces female hatchlings. Dosed eggs were consequently incubated at two temperatures (27.6 degrees C and 30.4 degrees C) on the upper and lower boundaries of the sex determination threshold for this species. DDE, ranging from 3.3 to 66.5 microg, was dissolved in 5, 10, and 25 microl ethanol and applied to eggshells above the embryo. Less than 2.5 ng/g DDE was present in eggs prior to dosing. Approximately 34% of the applied DDE was absorbed in the eggs, but only approximately 8% of applied DDE was found in embryos. Thus, treated eggs, corrected for background DDE, had up to 543 ng/g DDE. The sex ratio at these doses did not differ from what would be expected on consideration of temperature alone. Incubation time, hatching success, incidence of body deformities, hatching size, and weight were also within the limits of healthy developed hatchlings. This indicates that the eggs of C. mydas in the wild with concentrations of DDE less than 543 ng/g should produce hatchlings with relatively high hatching success, survival rate, and normally differentiated gonads. Images Figure 1 PMID:9485482

  14. Sexual differentiation of the copulatory neuromuscular system in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): normal ontogeny and manipulation of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli

    2005-09-05

    The copulatory neuromuscular system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differentiates during embryonic development, although details of the process were unknown. In Experiment 1, we determined the time course of normal ontogeny. Both male and female embryos possessed bilateral copulatory organs (hemipenes) and associated muscles until incubation day 13; the structures completely regressed in female embryos by incubation day 19 (total incubation 34 days). In Experiment 2, we treated eggs with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or vehicle on both incubation days 10 and 13 to determine whether these steroid hormones mediate sexual differentiation. These time points fall between gonadal differentiation, which was determined in Experiment 1 to complete before day 10, and regression of the peripheral copulatory system in females. Tissue was collected on the day of hatching. Gonads were classified as testes or ovaries; presence versus absence of hemipenes and muscles, and the number and size of copulatory motoneurons were determined. Copulatory system morphology of vehicle-treated animals matched their gonadal sex. Hemipenes and muscles were absent in estradiol-treated animals, and androgens rescued the hemipenes and muscles in most females. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment also caused hypertrophy of the hemipenes, which were everted in animals treated with these steroids. Copulatory motoneurons, assessed on the day of hatching in both experiments, were not dimorphic in size or number. Steroid treatment significantly increased motoneuron size and number overall, but no significant differences were detected in pairwise comparisons. These data demonstrate that differentiation of peripheral copulatory neuromuscular structures occurs during embryonic development and is influenced by gonadal steroids (regression by estradiol and enhancement by androgens), but associated motoneurons do not differentiate until later in life.

  15. Sexually Dimorphic Differentiation of a C. elegans Hub Neuron Is Cell Autonomously Controlled by a Conserved Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Oren-Suissa, Meital; Bayer, Emily A; Hobert, Oliver

    2017-01-23

    Functional and anatomical sexual dimorphisms in the brain are either the result of cells that are generated only in one sex or a manifestation of sex-specific differentiation of neurons present in both sexes. The PHC neuron pair of the nematode C. elegans differentiates in a strikingly sex-specific manner. In hermaphrodites the PHC neurons display a canonical pattern of synaptic connectivity similar to that of other sensory neurons, but in males PHC differentiates into a densely connected hub sensory neuron/interneuron, integrating a large number of male-specific synaptic inputs and conveying them to both male-specific and sex-shared circuitry. We show that the differentiation into such a hub neuron involves the sex-specific scaling of several components of the synaptic vesicle machinery, including the vesicular glutamate transporter eat-4/VGLUT, induction of neuropeptide expression, changes in axonal projection morphology, and a switch in neuronal function. We demonstrate that these molecular and anatomical remodeling events are controlled cell autonomously by the phylogenetically conserved Doublesex homolog dmd-3, which is both required and sufficient for sex-specific PHC differentiation. Cellular specificity of dmd-3 action is ensured by its collaboration with non-sex-specific terminal selector-type transcription factors, whereas the sex specificity of dmd-3 action is ensured by the hermaphrodite-specific transcriptional master regulator of hermaphroditic cell identity tra-1, which represses the transcription of dmd-3 in hermaphrodite PHC. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into how neurons are specified in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  16. Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully-victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully-victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111-122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blüher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPARγ2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 μM) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 μM) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  18. Differential Effects of Question Formats in Math Assessment on Metacognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Brown, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of item format on metacognitive and affective processes of children in a large-scale mathematics assessment program were studied. Results from 1032 eighth graders indicate that open-ended and multiple choice items have differential effects, although these did not vary substantially as a function of gender and ethnicity. (SLD)

  19. Differentiation of mixed biological traces in sexual assaults using DNA fragment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Apostolov, Аleksandar

    2014-01-01

    During the investigation of sexual abuse, it is not rare that mixed genetic material from two or more persons is detected. In such cases, successful profiling can be achieved using DNA fragment analysis, resulting in individual genetic profiles of offenders and their victims. This has led to an increase in the percentage of identified perpetrators of sexual offenses. The classic and modified genetic models used, allowed us to refine and implement appropriate extraction, polymerase chain reaction and electrophoretic procedures with individual assessment and approach to conducting research. Testing mixed biological traces using DNA fragment analysis appears to be the only opportunity for identifying perpetrators in gang rapes. PMID:26019514

  20. A Sexually Dimorphic Corolla Appendage Affects Pollen Removal and Floral Longevity in Gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Chang-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection. PMID:25603479

  1. The Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Berger, Blair O; Grosso, Ashley; Adams, Darrin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sithole, Bhekie; Mabuza, Xolile S; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo J; Baral, Stefan

    2016-02-12

    Female sex workers (FSW) have a heightened vulnerability to violence and negative sexual/reproductive health outcomes. Limited research has examined how experiencing physical and sexual violence (PSV) mediates risk for poor health outcomes among FSW in Swaziland. The present analyses aim to contribute to literature linking violence with poor health outcomes, high-risk behaviors, and reduced health service-seeking among FSW. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study conducted in Swaziland between July and September 2011 with 325 adult women who reported exchanging sex for money, goods, or favors in the last 12 months, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between PSV and ancillary violence/abuse exposures, risk behaviors, and sexual/reproductive and mental health outcomes. PSV was conceptualized as either ever having been beaten up as a result of selling sex or ever being forced to have sex since the age of 18, or both. Prevalence of PSV in this sample was 59.0% in crude estimation, and 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]:[39.2,57.6]) with RDS weighting. Separate RDS-weighted estimates of being beaten up as a result of sex work and ever being forced to have sex were 32.4% (95%CI=[24.4,40.4]) and 33.1% (95%CI =[25.0,41.2%]), respectively. Experiencing PSV was associated with being blackmailed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 1.93, 95%CI= [1.07,3.52]), non-injection drug use in the last 12 months (aOR= 1.84, 95%CI= [1.02,3.33]), and feeling afraid to seek health services as a result of selling sex (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI= [1.01,2.99]). Given these findings, violence prevention strategies should be prioritized in programs that address Swazi FSW health, empowerment, and safety.

  2. Factors affecting college students' perceptions of sexual relationships between high school students and teachers.

    PubMed

    Fromuth, M E; Holt, A; Parker, A L

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the effects of respondent gender, gender combination (male teacher/female student versus female teacher/male student), and teacher age (24 versus 39-years-old) on the perception of a sexual relationship between a teacher and a 16-year-old student. Participants were 80 male and 80 female undergraduates. A MANOVA yielded significant main effects for respondent gender and gender combination. Subsequent ANOVAs indicated that men generally viewed the experience more positively and that the male teacher/female student combination was viewed more negatively than the female teacher/male student pairing.

  3. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  4. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    PubMed

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic.

  5. Genetics of a Pheromonal Difference Affecting Sexual Isolation between Drosophila Mauritiana and D. Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, J. A.; Charlesworth, B.

    1997-01-01

    Females of the sibling species Drosophila sechellia and D. mauritiana differ in their cuticular hydrocarbons: the predominant compound in D. sechellia is 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), while that in D. mauritiana is 7-tricosene (7-T). We investigate the genetic basis of this difference and its involvement in reproductive isolation between the species. Behavioral studies involving hydrocarbon transfer suggest that these compounds play a large role in the sexual isolation between D. mauritiana males and D. sechellia females, while sexual isolation in the reciprocal hybridization results more from differences in female behavior than hydrocarbons. This interspecific difference in hydrocarbon profile is due to evolutionary change at a minimum of six loci, all on the third chromosome. The localization of evolutionary change to the third chromosome has been seen in every other genetic analysis of female hydrocarbon differences in the D. melanogaster group. We suggest that the high 7,11-HD phenotype seen in two species evolved twice independently from ancestors having the high 7-T phenotype, and that the recurrent third-chromosome effects are evolutionary convergences that may be due to a concentration of ``hydrocarbon genes'' on that chromosome. PMID:9093854

  6. Does recent physical and sexual victimization affect further substance use for adult drug-involved offenders?

    PubMed

    Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation (MADCE) were included in analyses. The study included 23 drug court and 6 comparison sites. Study participants completed three interviews: at baseline enrollment and then at 6 and 18 months after baseline. Multilevel path modeling showed that physical and sexual victimization experiences during the year before the baseline interview were associated with further substance use at 18 months and that this relationship was mediated by depression. All relationships held for both men and women, and beyond the contribution of several control variables, including drug court program participation. Public health and criminal justice personnel working with substance-using offenders should screen individuals for victimization-related trauma and, if identified, provide assistance to evaluate and improve such individuals' mental health and, subsequently, decrease their likelihood of using substances.

  7. Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

  8. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  9. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5–2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects.

  10. Ste50 adaptor protein governs sexual differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans via the pheromone response MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Seo-Young; Okagaki, Laura H.; Nielsen, Kirsten; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways control diverse cellular functions in pathogenic fungi, including sexual differentiation, stress-response, and maintenance of cell wall integrity. Here we characterized a C. neoformans gene, which is homologous to the yeast Ste50 that is known to play an important role in mating pheromone response and stress response as an adaptor protein to the Ste11 MAPK kinase kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The C. neoformans Ste50 was not involved in any of the stress responses or virulence factor production (capsule and melanin) that are controlled by the HOG and Ras/cAMP signaling pathways. However, Ste50 was required for mating in both serotype A and serotype D C. neoformans strains. The ste50Δ mutant was completely defective in cell-cell fusion and mating pheromone production. Double mutation of the STE50 gene blocked increased production of pheromone and the hyper-filamentation phenotype of cells deleted of the CRG1 gene, which encodes the RGS protein that negatively regulates pheromone responsive G-protein signaling via the MAPK pathway. Regardless of the presence of the basidiomycota-specific SH3 domains of Ste50 that are known to be required for full virulence of Ustilago maydis, Ste50 was dispensable for virulence of C. neoformans in a murine model of cryptococcosis. In conclusion, the Ste50 adaptor protein controls sexual differentiation of C. neoformans via the pheromone-responsive MAPK pathway but is not required for virulence. PMID:20971202

  11. Elastic modulus affects the growth and differentiation of neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xian-feng; Yang, Kai; Yang, Xiao-qing; Liu, Ying-fu; Cheng, Yuan-chi; Chen, Xu-yi; Tu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    It remains poorly understood if carrier hardness, elastic modulus, and contact area affect neural stem cell growth and differentiation. Tensile tests show that the elastic moduli of Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes are lower than that of an ordinary dish, while the elastic modulus of SMI silicone membrane is lower than that of Tiansu silicone membrane. Neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex of embryonic day 16 Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto ordinary dishes as well as Tiansu silicone membrane and SMI silicone membrane. Light microscopy showed that neural stem cells on all three carriers show improved adherence. After 7 days of differentiation, neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence. Moreover, flow cytometry revealed a higher rate of neural stem cell differentiation into astrocytes on Tiansu and SMI silicone membranes than on the ordinary dish, which was also higher on the SMI than the Tiansu silicone membrane. These findings confirm that all three cell carrier types have good biocompatibility, while SMI and Tiansu silicone membranes exhibit good mechanical homogenization. Thus, elastic modulus affects neural stem cell differentiation into various nerve cells. Within a certain range, a smaller elastic modulus results in a more obvious trend of cell differentiation into astrocytes. PMID:26604916

  12. Folic acid supplementation affects apoptosis and differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Jia, De-yong; Liu, Hui-juan; Wang, Fu-wu; Liu, Shang-ming; Ling, Eng-Ang; Liu, Kai; Hao, Ai-jun

    2008-07-25

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation has been shown to be extremely effective in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs), one of the most common birth defects associated with diabetic pregnancy. However, the antiteratogenic mechanism of FA in diabetes-induced NTDs is unclear. This study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of FA in neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to high glucose in vitro. The undifferentiated or differentiated NSCs were cultured in normal D-glucose concentration (NG) or high D-glucose concentration (HG) with or without FA. FA supplementation significantly decreased apoptosis induced by HG and lowered the expression of p53 in the nucleus of undifferentiated NSCs exposed to HG. Administration of FA in differentiated NSCs did not alter their precocious differentiation induced by HG. The increased mRNA expression levels of the basic helix-loop-helix factors including Neurog1, Neurog2, NeuroD2, Mash1, Id1, Id2, and Hes5 in the presence of HG were not significantly affected by FA. The present results provided a cellular mechanism by which FA supplementation may have a potential role in prevention of NTDs in diabetic pregnancies. On the other hand, FA increased the mRNA expression levels of the above transcription factors and accelerated the differentiation of NSCs in the NG medium, suggesting that it may adversely affect the normal differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, the timing and dose of FA would be critical factors in considering FA supplementation in normal maternal pregnancy.

  13. Gluten affects epithelial differentiation-associated genes in small intestinal mucosa of coeliac patients.

    PubMed

    Juuti-Uusitalo, K; Mäki, M; Kainulainen, H; Isola, J; Kaukinen, K

    2007-11-01

    In coeliac disease gluten induces an immunological reaction in genetically susceptible patients, and influences on epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in the small-bowel mucosa. Our aim was to find novel genes which operate similarly in epithelial proliferation and differentiation in an epithelial cell differentiation model and in coeliac disease patient small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples. The combination of cDNA microarray data originating from a three-dimensional T84 epithelial cell differentiation model and small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples from untreated and treated coeliac disease patients and healthy controls resulted in 30 genes whose mRNA expression was similarly affected. Nine of 30 were located directly or indirectly in the receptor tyrosine kinase pathway starting from the epithelial growth factor receptor. Removal of gluten from the diet resulted in a reversion in the expression of 29 of the 30 genes in the small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples. Further characterization by blotting and labelling revealed increased epidermal growth factor receptor and beta-catenin protein expression in the small-bowel mucosal epithelium in untreated coeliac disease patients compared to healthy controls and treated coeliac patients. We found 30 genes whose mRNA expression was affected similarly in the epithelial cell differentiation model and in the coeliac disease patient small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples. In particular, those genes involved in the epithelial growth factor-mediated signalling pathways may be involved in epithelial cell differentiation and coeliac disease pathogenesis. The epithelial cell differentiation model is a useful tool for studying gene expression changes in the crypt-villus axis.

  14. Shame, Catastrophizing, and Negative Partner Responses Are Associated With Lower Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and More Negative Affect in Men With Peyronie's Disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, Seth; Ferrar, Saskia; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak; Carrier, Serge

    2017-04-03

    Peyronie's disease (PD) has a negative impact on men's sexual functioning and quality of life, but little is known about why some men cope better than others and what the effects of PD are on their relationships. The aims of the present study were to describe negative affect, pain, and relationship and sexual satisfaction in men with PD, and to explore their psychosocial correlates. Participants were 110 men diagnosed with PD. All men completed questionnaires. The main outcome measures were as follows: Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Negative Affect Scale. The predictor variables were the following: Experience of Shame Scale, Body Esteem Scale, Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale, Index of Male Genital Image, a modified Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and a modified Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Although men with PD had mean sexual/relationship satisfaction and negative affect scores indicating mild impairment, there was a wide range of variation, with 42% to 52% scoring in the clinical range. Catastrophizing was significantly associated with reduced sexual satisfaction and increased negative affect and pain. Shame was also associated with increased negative affect. The significant associations of relationship satisfaction were partner responses and shame. Given the lack of curative treatment in PD, understanding why some men cope better than others may guide therapy. Shame, catastrophizing, and partner responses may be important therapeutic targets.

  15. Judges', lay judges', and police officers' beliefs about factors affecting children's testimony about sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Leander, Lina; Christianson, Sven A; Svedin, Carl Göran; Granhag, Pär Anders

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined Swedish judges', lay judges', and police officers' beliefs about factors that may complicate or facilitate children's reports of sexual abuse. Participants (N = 562) rated potential complicating and facilitating factors and freely reported which criteria they considered important when assessing the reliability of child witnesses. The groups had similar opinions regarding which factors are complicating and facilitating. Furthermore, the groups tended to regard emotional factors as more complicating than cognitive factors. When freely reporting criteria that are important when assessing reliability, judges and police officers reported criteria pertaining mainly to the child, whereas lay judges reported mainly criteria pertaining mainly to the police interview. Results indicate that participants believe that children have the capacity to remember and report about abuse but are hindered in doing so by emotional factors. Results also suggest that police officers may underestimate their own influence on the reliability of children's reports.

  16. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M.; McDonnell, Lisa P.; Nourse, Jamison L.; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation. PMID:25686615

  17. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M.; McDonnell, Lisa P.; Nourse, Jamison L.; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2015-02-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation.

  18. Differentiation state affects morphine induced cell regulation in neuroblastoma cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Giovina; Ghelardini, Carla; Bruni, Giancarlo; Guarna, Massimo; Bianchi, Enrica

    2013-10-25

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and the most common cancer in infancy. Our purpose was to investigate in vitro how cancer cell survival occurs in presence of morphine in undifferentiated and differentiated SHSY-5Y human neuroblastoma cultured cell line. Exposure of differentiated cells to morphine dose-dependently induced apoptosis in these cells through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/caspase pathway. Otherwise, morphine induced activation for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, caused positive regulation of cell survival in undifferentiated cells. Therefore, cell differentiation state bimodally affects the cellular regulation activity triggered by morphine in isolated cultured neuroblastoma cells raising concerns about the application of morphine to this type of cancer patients.

  19. Differentiating LGBT individuals in substance abuse treatment: analyses based on sexuality and drug preference.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Santa, Annesa Flentje

    2007-01-01

    In a prior study (Cochran & Cauce, 2006), LGBT individuals seeking treatment demonstrated greater substance use severity, more psychosocial stressors, and increased use of psychiatric services when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. That study, and similar to others in the field of LGBT research, collapsed LGBT individuals into a single category and did not examine individual differences within this category. The present study utilizes the same sample of LGBT clients (N = 610); however, an exploratory cluster analysis was conducted, based on drug preference, to determine which subcategories exist within this unique sample. In a subsequent set of analyses, the sample was divided based on sexuality to determine if there were differences between these groups on psychosocial functioning variables. Results indicated three distinct clusters, which differed in both demographic characteristics and severity of substance use problems. Groups based on sexuality differed in terms of primary problem substance, as well as psychosocial variables. Implications for treatment of these subgroups are discussed.

  20. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  1. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Quinn, Diane M.; Marsh, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed. PMID:26594085

  2. Heparin affects human bone marrow stromal cell fate: Promoting osteogenic and reducing adipogenic differentiation and conversion.

    PubMed

    Simann, Meike; Schneider, Verena; Le Blanc, Solange; Dotterweich, Julia; Zehe, Viola; Krug, Melanie; Jakob, Franz; Schilling, Tatjana; Schütze, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Heparins are broadly used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis and embolism. Yet, osteoporosis is considered to be a severe side effect in up to one third of all patients on long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying this clinical problem are only partially understood. To investigate if heparin affects differentiation of skeletal precursors, we examined the effects of heparin on the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Due to the known inverse relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis and the capacity of pre-differentiated cells to convert into the respective other lineage, we also determined heparin effects on osteogenic conversion and adipogenic differentiation/conversion. Interestingly, heparin did not only significantly increase mRNA expression and enzyme activity of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but it also promoted mineralization during osteogenic differentiation and conversion. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of the osteogenic marker bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) was enhanced. In addition, heparin administration partly prevented adipogenic differentiation and conversion demonstrated by reduced lipid droplet formation along with a decreased expression of adipogenic markers. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays, inhibitor experiments and gene expression analyses revealed that heparin had putative permissive effects on osteogenic signaling via the BMP pathway and reduced the mRNA expression of the Wnt pathway inhibitors dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and sclerostin (SOST). Taken together, our data show a rather supportive than inhibitory effect of heparin on osteogenic hBMSC differentiation and conversion in vitro. Further studies will have to investigate the net effects of heparin administration on bone formation versus bone resorption in vivo to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heparin-associated osteoporosis and reconcile

  3. Time flies: time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Susan N.; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males. PMID:25143030

  4. Time flies: Time of day and social environment affect cuticular hydrocarbon sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Susan N; Toumishey, Ethan; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-10-07

    Recent work on Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) challenges a historical assumption that CHCs in flies are largely invariant. Here, we examine the effect of time of day and social environment on a suite of sexually selected CHCs in Drosophila serrata. We demonstrate that males become more attractive to females during the time of day that flies are most active and when most matings occur, but females become less attractive to males during the same time of day. These opposing temporal changes may reflect differences in selection among the sexes. To evaluate the effect of social environment on male CHC attractiveness, we manipulated male opportunity for mating: male flies were housed either alone, with five females, with five males or with five males and five females. We found that males had the most attractive CHCs when with females, and less attractive CHCs when with competitor males. Social environment mediated how male CHC attractiveness cycled: males housed with females and/or other males showed temporal changes in CHC attractiveness, whereas males housed alone did not. In total, our results demonstrate temporal patterning of male CHCs that is dependent on social environment, and suggest that such changes may be beneficial to males.

  5. Motivation and Affective Judgments Differentially Recruit Neurons in the Primate Dorsolateral Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Amemori, Ken-ichi; Amemori, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions, but it still is unclear whether neurons in these regions are related to affective judgment or to motivation. To address this issue, we recorded simultaneously the neuronal spike activities of single units in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys as they performed approach–avoidance (Ap–Av) and approach–approach (Ap–Ap) decision-making tasks that can behaviorally dissociate affective judgment and motivation. Notably, neurons having activity correlated with motivational condition could be distinguished from neurons having activity related to affective judgment, especially in the Ap–Av task. Although many neurons in both regions exhibited similar, selective patterns of task-related activity, we found a larger proportion of neurons activated in low motivational conditions in the dlPFC than in the ACC, and the onset of this activity was significantly earlier in the dlPFC than in the ACC. Furthermore, the temporal onsets of affective judgment represented by neuronal activities were significantly slower in the low motivational conditions than in the other conditions. These findings suggest that motivation and affective judgment both recruit dlPFC and ACC neurons but with differential degrees of involvement and timing. PMID:25653353

  6. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  7. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  8. Sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in the zebra finch: critical periods for effects of early estrogen treatment.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, E; Mansukhani, V; Seiwert, C; Thompson, R

    1994-07-01

    In order to determine the critical period(s) during which estrogen alters sexually dimorphic behavior and neuroanatomy in zebra finches (Poephila guttata), nestlings were injected daily with 20 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) during posthatching week 1, week 2, week 3, or weeks 1, 2, and 3. At 7 months of age, birds were implanted with testosterone propionate and tested with female partners for singing, dancing, and copulatory mounting. Brains were subsequently processed for morphometry, and the volumes of the song system nuclei HVC, area X, and RA and the soma sizes and densities of neurons in RA were determined. Males given EB during week 1 failed to mount. Females given EB during week 1 were fully masculinized with respect to dancing and RA neuron soma size and density, and were partially masculinized with respect to song nuclei volumes and singing. Treatment beginning after week 1 was ineffective or less effective for all measures. Only for RA neuron measures was treatment for all three weeks more effective than week 1 treatment. Thus the first post-hatching week is the most influential period of those tested for effects of exogenous estrogen on sexual differentiation in this species, and is a period during which both masculinization of females and demasculinization of males is possible.

  9. Influence of prenatal exposure to cimetidine and alcohol on selected morphological parameters of sexual differentiation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats were administered ethanol, cimetidine or a combination of both drugs from day 14 of gestation until parturition. Ano-genital (AG) distance measured at birth was significantly reduced in males exposed to cimetidine, but not in males or females exposed to alcohol. AG distance in males exposed to both ethanol and cimetidine also was not reduced, indicating a possible protective influence of ethanol against this effect of cimetidine. Birthweights in both sexes were reduced by prenatal ethanol exposure, both alone and with cimetidine exposure. Prenatal cimetidine exposure, both alone and in combination with ethanol significantly reduced seminal vesicle weights of adult males. However, no long-term effects of ethanol or cimetidine were observed on adrenal, testicular or ovarian weights. These results indicate that when fetal alcohol exposure is restricted to the critical prenatal period for hormonal actions on sexual differentiation, testosterone levels are maintained at an adequate level for normal morphological development of the genitalia.

  10. Expression profiles of LHbeta, FSHbeta and their gonadal receptor mRNAs during sexual differentiation of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Lorenz, C; Lutz, I; Kloas, W

    2010-09-01

    The gonadotropins, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), are important hormones regulating reproductive biology in vertebrates, especially the processes of steroidogenesis and gamete maturation. Despite the role of gonadotropins during the reproductive cycle in amphibians is well established, much less is known about the functional maturation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis during larval development. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the expression profiles of hypophyseal LHbeta and FSHbeta mRNA and of their corresponding gonadal receptors (LH-R, FSH-R) in Xenopus laevis tadpoles during their ontogeny and sexual differentiation. The first significant elevation of LHbeta and FSHbeta mRNA was observed at late premetamorphosis. A clear raise of LHbeta mRNA was present during prometamorphic stages especially in males, while the LH-R only slowly increased during ontogeny with highest levels during metamorphic climax. In contrast, FSHbeta mRNA expression only slightly increased during ontogeny, however in both sexes the FSH-R mRNA was considerably elevated at prometamorphosis and further at metamorphic climax. Our results suggest that LHbeta and LH-R mRNA expression might be involved in initial maturation events of gametes, at least in males, while the gradually increase of FSH-R mRNA coincided with the advancing process of gamete maturation in both sexes. The present study provides for the first time evidence based on expression of gonadotropins and their corresponding gonadal receptors that the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis evolves already at early stages of ontogeny and sexual differentiation in amphibians.

  11. Differential effects of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on carotenoid deposition in an avian sexually selected signal

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Cor; Tagliavini, James; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-based traits are under the control of testosterone (T) by up-regulation of carotenoid carriers (lipoproteins) and/or tissue-specific uptake of carotenoids. T can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2), and variation in conversion rate may partly explain some contradictory findings in the literature. Moreover, most studies on the effect of T on sexual signals have focused on the male sex only, while in many species females show the same signal, albeit to a lesser extent. We studied the effects of T, DHT, and E2 treatment in male and female diamond doves Geopelia cuneata in which both sexes have an enlarged red eye ring, which is more pronounced in males. We first showed that this periorbital ring contains very high concentration of carotenoids, of which most are lutein esters. Both T and DHT were effective in enhancing hue, UV-chroma and size in both sexes, while E2 was ineffective. However, E2 dramatically increased the concentration of circulating lipoproteins. We conclude that in both sexes both color and size of the secondary sexual trait are androgen dependent. The action of androgens is independent of lipoproteins regulation. Potential mechanisms and their consequences for trade-off are discussed. PMID:20824278

  12. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  13. Developmental GnRH signaling is not required for sexual differentiation of kisspeptin neurons but is needed for maximal Kiss1 gene expression in adult females.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joshua; Tolson, Kristen P; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S

    2013-09-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction. In rodents, one Kiss1 population resides in the hypothalamic anterior ventral periventricular nucleus and neighboring rostral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN). AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic (greater in females), yet the mechanisms regulating their development and sexual differentiation remain poorly understood. Neonatal estradiol (E₂) normally defeminizes AVPV/PeN kisspeptin neurons, but emerging evidence suggests that developmental E₂ may also influence feminization of kisspeptin, although exactly when in development this process occurs is unknown. In addition, the obligatory role of GnRH signaling in governing sexual differentiation of Kiss1 or other sexually dimorphic traits remains untested. Here, we assessed whether AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression is permanently impaired in adult hpg (no GnRH or E₂) or C57BL6 mice under different E₂ removal or replacement paradigms. We determined that 1) despite lacking GnRH signaling in development, marked sexual differentiation of Kiss1 still occurs in hpg mice; 2) adult hpg females, who lack lifetime GnRH and E₂ exposure, have reduced AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression compared to wild-type females, even after chronic adulthood E₂ treatment; 3) E₂ exposure to hpg females during the pubertal period does not rescue their submaximal adult Kiss1 levels; and 4) in C57BL6 females, removal of ovarian E2 before the pubertal or juvenile periods does not impair feminization and maximal adult AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression nor the ability to generate LH surges, indicating that puberty is not a critical period for Kiss1 development. Thus, sexual differentiation still occurs without GnRH, but GnRH or downstream E₂ signaling is needed sometime before juvenile development for complete feminization and maximal Kiss1 expression in adult females.

  14. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ ALTERS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION IN THE DAM AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz alters the onset of Parturition in
    the Dam and Sexual Differentiation in Male Rat Offspring.
    N. Noriega1; E. Gray1; J. Ostby1; C. Lambright1; V. Wilson1
    1. RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA;

    Prochloraz...

  15. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  16. THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE ALTERS SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN THE MALE RAT BY ACTING AS AN ANDROGEN-RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fungicide procymidone alters sexual differentiation in the male rat by acting as an androgen-receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro.

    Ostby J, Kelce WR, Lambright C, Wolf CJ, Mann P, Gray LE Jr.

    Endocrinology Branch, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  17. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  18. The alpha-fetoprotein knock-out mouse model suggests that parental behavior is sexually differentiated under the influence of prenatal estradiol.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthieu; Pawluski, Jodi L; Brock, Olivier; Douhard, Quentin; Bakker, Julie

    2010-04-01

    In rodent species, sexual differentiation of the brain for many reproductive processes depends largely on estradiol. This was recently confirmed again by using the alpha-fetoprotein knockout (AFP-KO) mouse model, which lacks the protective actions of alpha-fetoprotein against maternal estradiol and as a result represents a good model to determine the contribution of prenatal estradiol to the sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Female AFP-KO mice were defeminized and masculinized with regard to their neuroendocrine responses as well as sexual behavior. Since parental behavior is also strongly sexually differentiated in mice, we used the AFP-KO mouse model here to ask whether parental responses are differentiated prenatally under the influence of estradiol. It was found that AFP-KO females showed longer latencies to retrieve pups to the nest and also exhibited lower levels of crouching over the pups in the nest in comparison to WT females. In fact, they resembled males (WT and AFP-KO). Other measures of maternal behavior, for example the incidence of infanticide, tended to be higher in AFP-KO females than in WT females but this increase failed to reach statistical significance. The deficits observed in parental behavior of AFP-KO females could not be explained by any changes in olfactory function, novelty recognition or anxiety. Thus our results suggest that prenatal estradiol defeminizes the parental brain in mice.

  19. Sexual pain.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  20. Habitat fragmentation differentially affects trophic levels and alters behavior in a multi-trophic marine system.

    PubMed

    Rielly-Carroll, Elizabeth; Freestone, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    Seagrass, an important subtidal marine ecosystem, is being lost at a rate of 110 km(2) year(-1), leading to fragmented seagrass seascapes. Habitat fragmentation is predicted to affect trophic levels differently, with higher trophic levels being more sensitive, stressing the importance of a multi-trophic perspective. Utilizing the trophic relationship between the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), where adult blue crabs prey on juvenile blue crabs, and juvenile blue crabs prey on small hard clams, we examined whether predation rates, abundance, and behavior of predators and prey differed between continuous and fragmented seagrass in a multi-trophic context at two sites in Barnegat Bay, NJ. We tested the hypothesis that fragmented habitats would differentially affect trophic levels within a tri-trophic system, and our results supported this hypothesis. Densities of adult blue crabs were higher in fragmented than continuous habitats. Densities of juvenile blue crabs, the primary predator of hard clams, were lower in fragmented habitats than continuous, potentially due to increased predation by adult blue crabs. Clams experienced lower predation and burrowed to a shallower depth in fragmented habitats than in continuous habitat, likely due in part to the low densities of juvenile blue crabs, their primary predator. Our results suggest that while trophic levels are differentially affected, the impact of habitat fragmentation may be stronger on intermediate rather than top trophic levels in some marine systems.

  1. Ageing and muscular dystrophy differentially affect murine pharyngeal muscles in a region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E; Luo, Qingwei; Ho, Justin; Vest, Katherine E; Sokoloff, Alan J; Pavlath, Grace K

    2014-01-01

    The inability to swallow, or dysphagia, is a debilitating and life-threatening condition that arises with ageing or disease. Dysphagia results from neurological or muscular impairment of one or more pharyngeal muscles, which function together to ensure proper swallowing and prevent the aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs. Little is known about the effects of age or disease on pharyngeal muscles as a group. Here we show ageing affected pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy in wild-type mice depending on the particular muscle analysed. Furthermore, wild-type mice also developed dysphagia with ageing. Additionally, we studied pharyngeal muscles in a mouse model for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, a dysphagic disease caused by a polyalanine expansion in the RNA binding protein, PABPN1. We examined pharyngeal muscles of mice overexpressing either wild-type A10 or mutant A17 PABPN1. Overexpression of mutant A17 PABPN1 differentially affected growth of the palatopharyngeus muscle dependent on its location within the pharynx. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type A10 PABPN1 was protective against age-related muscle atrophy in the laryngopharynx and prevented the development of age-related dysphagia. These results demonstrate that pharyngeal muscles are differentially affected by both ageing and muscular dystrophy in a region-dependent manner. These studies lay important groundwork for understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate pharyngeal muscle growth and atrophy, which may lead to novel therapies for individuals with dysphagia. PMID:25326455

  2. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 Differentially Affect Monocyte Survival and Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gouwy, Mieke; Ruytinx, Pieter; Radice, Egle; Claudi, Federico; Van Raemdonck, Katrien; Bonecchi, Raffaella; Locati, Massimo; Struyf, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Upon inflammation, circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into the tissues, where they differentiate after exposure to various growth factors, cytokines or infectious agents. The best defined macrophage polarization types are M1 and M2. However, the platelet-derived CXC chemokine CXCL4 induces the polarization of macrophages into a unique phenotype. In this study, we compared the effect of CXCL4 and its variant CXCL4L1 on the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDC). Differently to M-CSF and CXCL4, CXCL4L1 is not a survival factor for monocytes. Moreover, the expression of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 was significantly higher on CXCL4L1-treated monocytes compared to M-CSF- and CXCL4-stimulated monocytes. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) expression was upregulated by CXCL4 and downregulated by CXCL4L1, respectively, whereas both chemokines reduced the expression of the mannose receptor (MRC). Furthermore, through activation of CXCR3, CXCL4L1-stimulated monocytes released significantly higher amounts of CCL2 and CXCL8 compared to CXCL4-treated monocytes, indicating more pronounced inflammatory traits for CXCL4L1. In contrast, in CXCL4L1-treated monocytes, the production of CCL22 was lower. Compared to iMDDC generated in the presence of CXCL4L1, CXCL4-treated iMDDC showed an enhanced phagocytic capacity and downregulation of expression of certain surface markers (e.g. CD1a) and specific enzymes (e.g. MMP-9 and MMP-12). CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 did not affect the chemokine receptor expression on iMDDC and cytokine production (CCL2, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL8, IL-10) by CXCL4- or CXCL4L1-differentiated iMDDC was similar. We can conclude that both CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 exert a direct effect on monocytes and iMDDC. However, the resulting phenotypes are different, which suggests a unique role for the two CXCL4 variants in physiology and/or pathology. PMID:27828999

  3. Sexual differentiation of oestradiol-LH positive feedback in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Rudd, C D; Short, R V; McFarlane, J R; Renfree, M B

    1999-03-01

    The surge of LH that induces ovulation in mammals showing spontaneous ovulation is precipitated by the positive feedback of increasing oestrogens from the developing follicles in the ovary. In eutherians, exogenous oestrogens can mimic this effect by eliciting an LH surge in females, but not usually in males. The absence of a positive LH response to eutherian males is either due to an acute suppression by the secretory products of the testes during adulthood or the permanent disabling of the system by testosterone during early development. This phenomenon is examined in tammar wallabies, Macropus eugenii. The results show that the oestradiol-LH positive feedback response is sexually dimorphic in this marsupial. A surge in plasma LH occurred between 15 and 28 h after injection of 2.5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 in 13 of 16 intact females and 4 of 4 ovariectomized females, but in none of 11 intact males. Five females each implanted with a 100 mg testosterone pellet 3 months earlier failed to produce an LH surge. Four males castrated in adulthood and three adult males castrated before puberty also failed to show an LH surge. However, three males castrated 24-26 days after birth showed an unambiguous LH surge when challenged with oestradiol benzoate during adulthood. Thus, in tammar wallabies, the ability to generate an LH surge to oestradiol is a sexually dimorphic response that is suppressed in the male by the organizational effects of the testes in early life and presumably supplemented by an inhibitory effect of circulating testosterone in adulthood.

  4. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.

  5. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.

  6. Sexual competition affects biomass partitioning, carbon-nutrient balance, Cd allocation and ultrastructure of Populus cathayana females and males exposed to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Duan, Baoli; Xu, Gang; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-11-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to plant adaptation to soil heavy metal contamination, competition and neighbor effects have been largely overlooked, especially in dioecious plants. In this study, we investigated growth as well as biochemical and ultrastructural responses of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males to cadmium (Cd) stress under different sexual competition patterns. The results showed that competition significantly affects biomass partitioning, photosynthetic capacity, leaf and root ultrastructure, Cd accumulation, the contents of polyphenols, and structural and nonstructural carbohydrates. Compared with single-sex cultivation, plants of opposite sexes exposed to sexual competition accumulated more Cd in tissues and their growth was more strongly inhibited, indicating enhanced Cd toxicity under sexual competition. Under intrasexual competition, females showed greater Cd accumulation, more serious damage at the ultrastructural level and greater reduction in physiological activity than under intersexual competition, while males performed better under intrasexual competition than under intersexual competition. Males improved the female microenvironment by greater Cd uptake and lower resource consumption under intersexual competition. These results demonstrate that the sex of neighbor plants and competition affect sexual differences in growth and in key physiological processes under Cd stress. The asymmetry of sexual competition highlighted here might regulate population structure, and spatial segregation and phytoremediation potential of both sexes in P. cathayana growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  7. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Borgquist, Amanda; Rivas, Virginia Mela; Kachani, Malika; Sinchak, Kevin; Wagner, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 μM) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle- treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 μg) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, nearly one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903

  8. Problems in Differentiating Sexually from Nonsexually Abused Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients by Self-Reported Anxiety, Depression, Internalization, and Externalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Geetha; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Several measures of psychopathology were administered to 111 psychiatric inpatients (ages 13 to 17) including 46 patients who reported sexually abusive experiences. None of the scales was correlated with sexual abuse in either sex, and a history of physical abuse was the only characteristic that significantly correlated with sexual abuse for both…

  9. Sex-Biased Transcriptome of Schistosoma mansoni: Host-Parasite Interaction, Genetic Determinants and Epigenetic Regulators Are Associated with Sexual Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Marion A. L.; Boissier, Jérôme; Roquis, David; Grunau, Christoph; Allienne, Jean-François; Duval, David; Toulza, Eve; Arancibia, Nathalie; Caffrey, Conor R.; Long, Thavy; Nidelet, Sabine; Rohmer, Marine; Cosseau, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Background Among more than 20,000 species of hermaphroditic trematodes, Schistosomatidae are unusual since they have evolved gonochorism. In schistosomes, sex is determined by a female heterogametic system, but phenotypic sexual dimorphism appears only after infection of the vertebrate definitive host. The completion of gonad maturation occurs even later, after pairing. To date, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the sexual differentiation in these species remain unknown, and in vivo studies on the developing schistosomulum stages are lacking. To study the molecular basis of sex determination and sexual differentiation in schistosomes, we investigated the whole transcriptome of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni in a stage- and sex-comparative manner. Methodology/ Principal Findings We performed a RNA-seq on males and females for five developmental stages: cercariae larvae, three in vivo schistosomulum stages and adults. We detected 7,168 genes differentially expressed between sexes in at least one of the developmental stages, and 4,065 of them were functionally annotated. Transcriptome data were completed with H3K27me3 histone modification analysis using ChIP-Seq before (in cercariae) and after (in adults) the phenotypic sexual dimorphism appearance. In this paper we present (i) candidate determinants of the sexual differentiation, (ii) sex-biased players of the interaction with the vertebrate host, and (iii) different dynamic of the H3K27me3 histone mark between sexes as an illustration of sex-biased epigenetic landscapes. Conclusions/ Significance Our work presents evidence that sexual differentiation in S. mansoni is accompanied by distinct male and female transcriptional landscapes of known players of the host-parasite crosstalk, genetic determinants and epigenetic regulators. Our results suggest that such combination could lead to the optimized sexual dimorphism of this parasitic species. As S. mansoni is pathogenic for humans, this study represents a

  10. Neonatal exposure to estradiol decreases hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentrations and alters agonistic and sexual but not affective behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Berretti, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Sogliano, C; Calza, A; Choleris, E; Porcu, P; Concas, A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure of developing female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period induced long-lasting dysregulation of gonadal axis and decreased cerebrocortical and plasma concentrations of allopregnanolone. We have now examined the effects of neonatal estradiol administration in female rats on hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentrations and on exploratory, affective, agonistic and sexual behaviors as well as social learning. A single administration of β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB, 10μg) on the day of birth resulted in a delay of vaginal opening, acyclicity and ovarian failure. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the concentrations of allopregnanolone in the hypothalamus at 21 and 60days, but not at 7days, after birth. Neonatal administration of EB also increased agonistic behaviors in adult rats, such as dominant behaviors and following of an ovariectomized intruder, while living attacks unaffected. EB-treated rats showed also an increase in anogenital investigation, associated with a drastic reduction in spontaneous and induced female sexual behaviors (receptivity and proceptivity). In contrast, neonatal administration of EB did not affect locomotor activity, anxiety- and mood-related behaviors, the social transmission of flavor preferences, and seizures sensitivity. These effects of estradiol suggest that it plays a major role in regulation of both the abundance of allopregnanolone and the expression of agonistic and sexual behaviors, while failing to influence affective behaviors and social learning. Thus, the pronounced and persistent decrease in hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentration may be related to the manifestation of agonistic and sexual behaviors.

  11. Multidimensional Sexual Perfectionism and Female Sexual Function: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N

    2016-11-01

    Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual

  12. NLRP7 affects trophoblast lineage differentiation, binds to overexpressed YY1 and alters CpG methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal-effect mutations in NLRP7 cause rare biparentally inherited hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA methylation patterns affecting maternally methylated germline differentially methy...

  13. Weaned pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella display sexually dimorphic innate immune responses without affecting pathogen colonization patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexually dimorphic innate immune responses have been observed in several species, but have not been studied in response to a live pathogen challenge in pigs. This study aimed to elucidate sexually dimorphic innate immune responses along with Salmonella translocation patterns in newly weaned pigs ora...

  14. Birth of neural progenitors during the embryonic period of sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail brain

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Mouriec, Karen; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Several brain areas in the diencephalon are involved in the activation and expression of sexual behavior, including in quail, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). However, the ontogeny of these diencephalic brain nuclei has not to this date been examined in detail. We investigated the ontogeny of POM and other steroid-sensitive brain regions by injecting quail eggs with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at various stages between E3 and E16 and killing animals at postnatal (PN) days 3 or 56. In the POM, large numbers of BrdU-positive cells were observed in subjects injected from E3 to E10, the numbers of these cells was intermediate in birds injected on E12, and most cells were post-mitotic in both sexes on E14-E16. Injections on E3-E4 labeled large numbers of Hu positive cells in POM. In contrast, injections performed at a later stage labeled cells that do not express aromatase nor neuronal markers such as Hu or NeuN in the POM and other steroid-sensitive nuclei and thus do not have a neuronal phenotype in these locations contrary to what is observed in the telencephalon and cerebellum. No evidence could also be collected to demonstrate that these cells have a glial nature. Converging data, including the facts that these cells divide in the brain mantle and express PCNA, a cell cycling marker, indicate that cells labeled by BrdU during the second half of embryonic life are slow cycling progenitors born and residing in the brain mantle. Future research should now identify their functional significance. PMID:22628012

  15. TESTOSTERONE METABOLITES DIFFERENTIALLY MAINTAIN ADULT MORPHOLOGY IN A SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Verhovshek, Tom; Buckley, Katherine E.; Sergent, Melissa A.; Sengelaub, Dale R.

    2010-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord of rats contains the sexually dimorphic, steroid-sensitive spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). Androgens are necessary for the development of the SNB neuromuscular system, and in adulthood, continue to influence the morphology and function of the motoneurons and their target musculature. However, estrogens are also involved in the development of the SNB system, and are capable of maintaining function in adulthood. In this experiment we assessed the ability of testosterone metabolites, estrogens and non-aromatizable androgens, to maintain neuromuscular morphology in adulthood. Motoneuron and muscle morphology was assessed in adult normal males, sham-castrated males, castrated males treated with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or left untreated, and gonadally intact males treated with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride or the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. After 6 weeks of treatment, SNB motoneurons were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin-HRP and reconstructed in three dimensions. Castration resulted in reductions in SNB target muscle size, soma size, and dendritic morphology. Testosterone treatment after castration maintained SNB soma size, dendritic morphology, and elevated target muscle size; dihydrotestosterone treatment also maintained SNB dendritic length, but was less effective than testosterone in maintaining both SNB soma size and target muscle weight. Treatment of intact males with finasteride or fadrozole did not alter the morphology of SNB motoneurons or their target muscles. In contrast, estradiol treatment was completely ineffective in preventing castration-induced atrophy of the SNB neuromuscular system. Together, these results suggest that the maintenance of adult motoneuron or muscle morphology is strictly mediated by androgens. PMID:20024940

  16. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  17. Membrane transporters and protein traffic networks differentially affecting metal tolerance: a genomic phenotyping study in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ruotolo, Roberta; Marchini, Gessica; Ottonello, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background The cellular mechanisms that underlie metal toxicity and detoxification are rather variegated and incompletely understood. Genomic phenotyping was used to assess the roles played by all nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins in modulating cell viability after exposure to cadmium, nickel, and other metals. Results A number of novel genes and pathways that affect multimetal as well as metal-specific tolerance were discovered. Although the vacuole emerged as a major hot spot for metal detoxification, we also identified a number of pathways that play a more general, less direct role in promoting cell survival under stress conditions (for example, mRNA decay, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and iron acquisition) as well as proteins that are more proximally related to metal damage prevention or repair. Most prominent among the latter are various nutrient transporters previously not associated with metal toxicity. A strikingly differential effect was observed for a large set of deletions, the majority of which centered on the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) and retromer complexes, which - by affecting transporter downregulation and intracellular protein traffic - cause cadmium sensitivity but nickel resistance. Conclusion The data show that a previously underestimated variety of pathways are involved in cadmium and nickel tolerance in eukaryotic cells. As revealed by comparison with five additional metals, there is a good correlation between the chemical properties and the cellular toxicity signatures of various metals. However, many conserved pathways centered on membrane transporters and protein traffic affect cell viability with a surprisingly high degree of metal specificity. PMID:18394190

  18. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-08

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways.

  19. Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

  20. Pathways to adult sexual revictimization: direct and indirect behavioral risk factors across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Jamison D

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual victimization as well as other background and lifestyle characteristics. Structural equation modeling indicates that the relationship between child and adolescent sexual victimization is indirect, mediated by adolescent risk-taking behavior. The relationship between adolescent and adult sexual victimization is also indirect, mediated by risky sexual behavior. The residual effects of early childhood family environment and childhood physical abuse also indirectly predict sexual revictimization. Results provide empirical support for the general supposition that the relationship between child and adult sexual victimization is complex and that many intermediary factors differentially affect risk for a heightened vulnerability to sexual revictimization.

  1. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (<35 years) as compared to older donors (>45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  2. Gossypol with methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol male does not affect rat spermatogonial stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cui, G; Zheng, W; Sun, Y; Zhang, Q; Deng, X; Chen, X

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of the regimen of gossypol at 12 mg/kg/day combined with methyltestosterone at 20 mg/kg/day and ethinylestradiol at 100 microg/kg/day for a long term of twenty-four weeks could affect the existence and differentiation of rat spermatogonial stem cell. This was assessed by conducting TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling detection, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and fertility recovery evaluation. Our results showed that spontaneous apoptosis was observed in normal rats' testes from the control group with an apoptotic index (AI) average of 10.24+/-1.52. In the regimen-treated group, the predominant apoptotic cells were spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonia were not apoptotic (AI averaged 113.42+/-13.24). Two to three months after transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells isolated from regimen-treated rats into recipient nude mice, elongated rat spermatids were identified in the seminiferous tubules of recipient nude mice. Six weeks after withdrawal of the administration, fertility of the regimen-treated rats was recovered compared with that of the control group. The number of litters produced by females mated with regimen-treated males averaged 9.88+/-0.166 matched 10.30+/-0.171 of control group and the litters of the first generation appeared to be normal. These results indicated that the administration of this regimen did not affect the existence and differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells of the regimen-treated rats.

  3. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  4. Development of an Appropriate Method for Applying the Semantic Differential to the Measurement of Affective Outcomes of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard W.

    A method for statistical analysis of semantic differential data in educational evaluation is discussed. Estimated scores for unobserved affective variables are obtained using the canonical factor regression method. This method overcomes previous prolems of bias and inefficiency in computing composite affective indices. In an application of the…

  5. Defective nuclear accumulation of androgen receptors in disorders of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Gyorki, S; Warne, G L; Khalid, B A; Funder, J W

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear transfer of androgen receptors (AR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) was determined in cultured genital skin fibroblasts from 10 normal controls and eight patients with abnormalities of the external genitalia. In whole cell studies, cultures were incubated for 20 min at 37 degrees C with [3H]methyltrienolone (3H-R1881) or tritiated dexamethasone, and specific binding was determined in whole cell, cytoplasmic, and crude nuclear fractions. Between normal and affected fibroblasts no difference was seen in cellular levels of GR, or in cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution of GR. In normal fibroblasts, cytoplasmic binding of 3H-R1881 represented 56%, and crude nuclear binding 44%, of total binding; in fibroblasts from five of the eight patients similar values (cytoplasmic 55% and nuclear 44%) were seen for 3H-R1881 binding. In fibroblasts from the other three patients no decrease in total cellular levels of AR were seen; nuclear compartmentalization, however, was much lower (approximately 20%) than in other cultures. In vitro reconstitution studies, combining 3H-R1881-loaded cytosol with naive nuclei, lead us to suggest that the defect in nuclear compartmentalization lies at the level of the nuclear acceptor site rather than the cytoplasmic binder in affected cells. We interpret the data to suggest that defective nuclear binding of AR complexes may be involved in a proportion of cases of abnormal development of the external genitalia. PMID:6684127

  6. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light–dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5′-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5′-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5′-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation. PMID:26554015

  7. Mutations in arrestin-3 differentially affect binding to neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Luis E; Babilon, Stefanie; Wanka, Lizzy; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2014-07-01

    Based on the identification of residues that determine receptor selectivity in arrestins and the phylogenetic analysis of the arrestin (arr) family, we introduced fifteen mutations of receptor-discriminator residues in arr-3, which were identified previously using mutagenesis, in vitro binding, and BRET-based recruitment assay in intact cells. The effects of these mutations were tested using neuropeptide Y receptors Y1R and Y2R. NPY-elicited arr-3 recruitment to Y1R was not affected by these mutations, or even alanine substitution of all ten residues (arr-3-NCA), which prevented arr-3 binding to other receptors tested so far. However, NCA and two other mutations prevented agonist-independent arr-3 pre-docking to Y1R. In contrast, eight out of 15 mutations significantly reduced agonist-dependent arr-3 recruitment to Y2R. NCA eliminated arr-3 binding to active Y2R, whereas Tyr239Thr reduced it ~7-fold. Thus, manipulation of key residues on the receptor-binding surface generates arr-3 with high preference for Y1R over Y2R. Several mutations differentially affect arr-3 pre-docking and agonist-induced recruitment. Thus, arr-3 recruitment to the receptor involves several mechanistically distinct steps. Targeted mutagenesis can fine-tune arrestins directing them to specific receptors and particular activation states of the same receptor.

  8. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-11-24

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light-dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5'-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5'-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5'-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5'-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation.

  9. Mutations in arrestin-3 differentially affect binding to neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Luis E.; Babilon, Stefanie; Wanka, Lizzy; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the identification of residues that determine receptor selectivity in arrestins and the phylogenetic analysis of the arrestin (arr) family, we introduced fifteen mutations of receptor-discriminator residues in arr-3, which were identified previously using mutagenesis, in vitro binding, and BRET-based recruitment assay in intact cells. The effects of these mutations were tested using neuropeptide Y receptors Y1R and Y2R. NPY-elicited arr-3 recruitment to Y1R was not affected by these mutations, or even alanine substitution of all ten residues (arr-3-NCA), which prevented arr-3 binding to other receptors tested so far. However, NCA and two other mutations prevented agonist-independent arr-3 pre-docking to Y1R. In contrast, eight out of 15 mutations significantly reduced agonist-dependent arr-3 recruitment to Y2R. NCA eliminated arr-3 binding to active Y2R, whereas Tyr239Thr reduced it ~7-fold. Thus, manipulation of key residues on the receptor-binding surface generates arr-3 with high preference for Y1R over Y2R. Several mutations differentially affect arr-3 pre-docking and agonist-induced recruitment. Thus, arr-3 recruitment to the receptor involves several mechanistically distinct steps. Targeted mutagenesis can fine-tune arrestins directing them to specific receptors and particular activation states of the same receptor. PMID:24686081

  10. Differential phenolic production in leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho affected with esca disease.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Cunha, Ana; Chicau, Gisela; Ferreres, Federico; Dias, Alberto C P

    2017-03-01

    Esca is a destructive disease of complex etiology affecting grapevines worldwide. A major constraint to the study and control of esca is that the disease is not diagnosed until external leaf and/or fruit symptoms are visible; however external symptoms usually appear several years after infection onset. We studied the phenolic content of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS)/LC-MS. Leaves from affected cordons with and without visible symptoms (diseased and apparently healthy leaves, respectively) and leaves from asymptomatic cordons (healthy leaves) were analyzed. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) to HPLC data showed a clear separation between diseased, apparently healthy, and healthy leaves, with the apparently healthy leaves clustered in a medial position. Several compounds were highly correlated with diseased leaves indicating a differential phenolic production due to esca disease in V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves. Total phenolic production was shown to significantly increase in diseased leaves, compared to healthy leaves, with apparently healthy leaves containing a medial amount. Trans-caffeoyltartaric acid, trans-coumaroyl-tartaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside and myricetin were identified among the compounds associated with disease and their content shown to change similarly to total phenolic production. This study shows that it is possible to discriminate between diseased, healthy and apparently healthy leaves by applying PCA to HPLC data.

  11. SOX9 has both conserved and novel roles in marsupial sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pask, Andrew J; Harry, Jenny L; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; O'Neill, Rachel J Waugh; Layfield, Sharon L; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2002-07-01

    In addition to an essential role in chondrogenesis, SOX9 is a highly conserved and integral part of the testis determining pathway in human and mouse. To determine whether SOX9 is involved in sex determination in noneutherian mammals we cloned a marsupial orthologue and studied its expression. The tammar wallaby SOX9 gene proved to be highly conserved, and maps to a region of the tammar genome syntenic to human chromosome 17. Marsupial SOX9 transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in the developing limb buds and both the developing ovary and testis from the first sign of gonadal development through to adulthood. Northern blot, in situ hybridisation, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that SOX9 reaches high levels of expression in the developing testis, where it is confined to the Sertoli cell nuclei, and the brain. This is similar to the expression pattern seen in human and mouse embryos and is consistent with a conserved role for SOX9 in vertebrate brain, skeletal, and gonadal development. In addition, SOX9 was expressed in the developing scrotum and mammary gland primordium regions of the tammar up to the time of birth. SOX9 protein was also detected in the developing Wolffian duct epithelium in the male mesonephros. These previously undescribed locations of SOX9 expression suggest that SOX9 may play additional roles in the differentiation of the marsupial reproductive system.

  12. Sexual Behavior Increases Cell Proliferation in the Rostral Migratory Stream and Promotes the Differentiation of the New Cells into Neurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Rebeca; Retana-Márquez, Socorro; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated, that 15 days after female rats pace the sexual interaction, there is an increase in the number of new cells that reach the granular cell layer (GrL) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate, if the first sexual experience in the female rat increases cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also tested if this behavior promotes the survival of the new cells that integrate into the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and AOB 45 days after the behavioral test. Sexually, naive female rats were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on the day of the behavioral test. They were randomly divided into the following groups: Female rats placed alone in the mating cage (1); Females exposed to amyl acetate odor [banana scent, (2)]; Females that could see, hear, and smell the male but physical contact was not possible [exposed to male, (3)]; Female rats that could pace the sexual interaction (4); and females that mated without the possibility of pacing the sexual interaction (5). Animals were sacrificed 2 days after the behavioral test (proliferation) or 45 days later (survival). Our results show that 2 days after females were exposed to banana scent or to the male, they had a higher number of cells in the SVZ. Females, that mated in pace and no-paced conditions had more new cells in the RMS. At 45 days, no significant differences were found in the number of new cells that survived in the MOB or in the AOB. However, mating increased the percentage of new cells, that differentiated into neurons in the GrL of the AOB. These new cells expressed c-Fos after a second sexual encounter just before the females were sacrificed. No significant differences in plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were observed between groups. Our results indicate that the first sexual experience increases cell proliferation in the RMS and mating

  13. Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (∼50 000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

  14. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARγ Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARγ2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARγ, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARγ activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARγ activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARγ expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARγ activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARγ expression and activity. PMID:18274630

  15. Inhibition of Protein Farnesylation Arrests Adipogenesis and Affects PPARgamma Expression and Activation in Differentiating Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Daniel; Akter, Rahima; Duque, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Protein farnesylation is required for the activation of multiple proteins involved in cell differentiation and function. In white adipose tissue protein, farnesylation has shown to be essential for the successful differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. We hypothesize that protein farnesylation is required for PPARgamma2 expression and activation, and therefore for the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes. MSCs were plated and induced to differentiate into adipocytes for three weeks. Differentiating cells were treated with either an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) or vehicle alone. The effect of inhibition of farnesylation in differentiating adipocytes was determined by oil red O staining. Cell survival was quantified using MTS Formazan. Additionally, nuclear extracts were obtained and prelamin A, chaperon protein HDJ-2, PPARgamma, and SREBP-1 were determined by western blot. Finally, DNA binding PPARgamma activity was determined using an ELISA-based PPARgamma activation quantification method. Treatment with an inhibitor of farnesylation (FTI-277) arrests adipogenesis without affecting cell survival. This effect was concomitant with lower levels of PPARgamma expression and activity. Finally, accumulation of prelamin A induced an increased proportion of mature SREBP-1 which is known to affect PPARgamma activity. In summary, inhibition of protein farnesylation arrests the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and affects PPARgamma expression and activity.

  16. Collapsin response mediator protein 4 affects the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the sexually dimorphic nucleus in female mice.

    PubMed

    Iwakura, Takashi; Sakoh, Miyuki; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Yamashita, Naoya; Ohtani, Akiko; Tsuda, Mumeko C; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nishihara, Masugi; Shiga, Takashi; Goshima, Yoshio; Kato, Tomohiro; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2013-07-01

    In the sexually dimorphic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus, females have a greater number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (kisspeptin-ir) neurons than males. In this study, we used proteomics analysis and gene-deficient mice to identify proteins that regulate the number of TH-ir and kisspeptin-ir neurons in the AVPV. Analysis of protein expressions in the rat AVPV on postnatal day 1 (PD1; the early phase of sex differentiation) using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-MS identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) as a protein exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression. Interestingly, this sexually differential expressions of CRMP4 protein and mRNA in the AVPV was not detected on PD6. Prenatal testosterone exposure canceled the sexual difference in the expression of Crmp4 mRNA in the rat AVPV. Next, we used CRMP4-knockout (CRMP4-KO) mice to determine the in vivo function of CRMP4 in the AVPV. Crmp4 knockout did not change the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons in the adult AVPV in either sex. However, the number of TH-ir neurons was increased in the AVPV of adult female CRMP4-KO mice as compared with the adult female wild-type mice. During development, no significant difference in the number of TH-ir neurons was detected between sexes or genotypes on embryonic day 15, but a female-specific increase in TH-ir neurons was observed in CRMP4-KO mice on PD1, when the sex difference was not yet apparent in wild-type mice. These results indicate that CRMP4 regulates the number of TH-ir cell number in the female AVPV.

  17. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  18. Low-energy laser irradiation affects satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dov, N; Shefer, G; Irintchev, A; Wernig, A; Oron, U; Halevy, O; Irinitchev, A

    1999-01-11

    Low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation was found to promote skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. In this study, its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in vitro was evaluated. Primary rat satellite cells were irradiated for various time periods immediately after preparation, and thymidine incorporation was determined after 2 days in culture. Laser irradiation affected thymidine incorporation in a bell-shaped manner, with a peak at 3 s of irradiation. Three seconds of irradiation caused an induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A in an established line of mouse satellite cells, pmi28, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in primary rat satellite cells. The induction of cyclins by laser irradiation was compatible with their induction by serum refeeding of the cells. Laser irradiation effect on cell proliferation was dependent on the rat's age. At 3 weeks of age, thymidine incorporation in the irradiated cells was more than twofold higher than that in the controls, while at 6 weeks of age this difference had almost disappeared. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein levels were twofold lower in the irradiated than in the control cells, whereas the proliferation of the irradiated cells was twofold higher. Fusion percentage was lower in the irradiated compared to non-irradiated cells. In light of these data, the promoting effect of laser irradiation on skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo may be due to its effect on the activation of early cell-cycle regulatory genes in satellite cells, leading to increased proliferation and to a delay in cell differentiation.

  19. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  20. The Differential Effects of Abuse Characteristics and Attachment in the Prediction of Long-Term Effects of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.

    1993-01-01

    Female incest survivors (n=112) completed several inventories and checklists to measure sexual abuse severity and adult attachment. Analyses indicated that sexual abuse characteristics predicted depression, intrusive thoughts, and memory avoidance. Adult attachment, particularly a lack of secure attachment, predicted memory avoidance, and also…

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  2. Hydrogen sulfide differentially affects the hepatic vasculature in response to phenylephrine and endothelin 1 during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Eric J; Larion, Sebastian; Culberson, Catherine R; Clemens, Mark G

    2013-02-01

    Despite being protective in many disease states, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) contributes to organ injury in sepsis. Like the other gasotransmitters, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, H(2)S is a modulator of the microcirculation. Because microcirculatory dysfunction is a main cause of organ injury during sepsis, the present study was designed to test the effect of H(2)S on microvascular dysfunction in isolated perfused livers. In most microcirculatory beds, endotoxin activates the endothelium, resulting in hyporesponsiveness to catecholamines and a derangement in blood flow distribution. We demonstrate that H(2)S treatment attenuates the increase in portal pressure during infusion of the α1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE) (P < 0.01). Hydrogen sulfide almost completely negated the increase in portal pressure in livers isolated from endotoxemic rats. Treatment with an inhibitor of endogenous H(2)S, DL-propargylglycine (PAG), reversed lipopolysaccharide-induced hyporesponsiveness to PE. Because hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction is associated with excessive sinusoidal vasoconstriction and not dilation, we investigated whether H(2)S affects endothelin 1 (ET-1)-induced vasoconstriction in isolated livers. Contrary to PE treatment, H(2)S did not affect the increase in portal pressure during infusion of ET-1, nor did it attenuate the hypersensitization of the liver to ET-1 during endotoxemia. Hepatic resistance in control rats was increased by PAG treatment during ET-1 infusion, but this increase was not exacerbated during endotoxemia. We monitored hepatic O(2) consumption to assess the effect of vascular changes on oxygen consumption following ET-1 treatment. Low-dose ET-1 infusion caused an increase in hepatic O(2)consumption, whereas low-dose ET-1 infusion decreased O(2) consumption in endotoxemic livers. Interestingly, whereas we observed no effect of PAG on the vascular response to ET-1 infusion during endotoxemia, PAG treatment did maintain O(2), suggesting a

  3. Transcriptome Analysis and Differential Gene Expression on the Testis of Orange Mud Crab, Scylla olivacea, during Sexual Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Waiho, Khor; Fazhan, Hanafiah; Shahreza, Md Sheriff; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Noorbaiduri, Shaibani; Wong, Li Lian; Sinnasamy, Saranya

    2017-01-01

    Adequate genetic information is essential for sustainable crustacean fisheries and aquaculture management. The commercially important orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is prevalent in Southeast Asia region and is highly sought after. Although it is a suitable aquaculture candidate, full domestication of this species is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the sexual maturation process and the molecular mechanisms behind it, especially in males. To date, data on its whole genome is yet to be reported for S. olivacea. The available transcriptome data published previously on this species focus primarily on females and the role of central nervous system in reproductive development. De novo transcriptome sequencing for the testes of S. olivacea from immature, maturing and mature stages were performed. A total of approximately 144 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 160,569 transcripts with a total length of 142.2 Mb. Approximately 15–23% of the total assembled transcripts were annotated when compared to public protein sequence databases (i.e. UniProt database, Interpro database, Pfam database and Drosophila melanogaster protein database), and GO-categorised with GO Ontology terms. A total of 156,181 high-quality Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were mined from the transcriptome data of present study. Transcriptome comparison among the testes of different maturation stages revealed one gene (beta crystallin like gene) with the most significant differential expression—up-regulated in immature stage and down-regulated in maturing and mature stages. This was further validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, a comprehensive transcriptome of the testis of orange mud crabs from different maturation stages were obtained. This report provides an invaluable resource for enhancing our understanding of this species’ genome structure and biology, as expressed and controlled by their gonads. PMID:28135340

  4. Plasma sex steroids and tissue aromatization in hatchling zebra finches: implications for the sexual differentiation of singing behavior.

    PubMed

    Schlinger, B A; Arnold, A P

    1992-01-01

    One of the best examples for sex hormone regulation of brain development is found in songbirds. In zebra finches, only males sing because of striking sex differences in the neural circuitry that controls songs. Because developing females treated with estradiol (E2) develop a masculine song system, E2 is considered the normal masculinizing hormone. However, questions about the role of E2 in male development persist, because E2 treatments that masculinize song can demasculinize other sexual behaviors, and there exists contradictory evidence for high levels of circulating E2 in developing males. We remeasured plasma steriods in zebra finches during the first 13 days after hatching. E2 circulated at low levels, and there were no sex differences in circulating E2, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, or dihydrotestosterone. We also measured aromatase activity [( 3H]androstenedione conversion to [3H]estrone and [3H]E2) in gonad, adrenal, brain, and other tissues of hatchlings. Aromatase was abundant in ovary, but was not definitively detected in testes, adrenals, or other nonneural tissues of males. Aromatase was also found in diencephalon and in high amounts in telencephalon, but sex differences were not detected in whole brain or cellular subfractions of telencephalon. Because ovarian steroidogenesis is high, it may be involved in differentiation of the female zebra finch, as in nonpasserine birds. By contrast, the functional estrogen necessary for masculinization of song is most likely derived from brain, supplied with substrate from the adrenals. The puzzle remains why the song system is not masculinized in females, who possess high levels of aromatizable androgens and telencephalic aromatase.

  5. Subacute oral exposure to benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) increases aggressiveness and affects consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Desor, Frédéric; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-09-30

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect.

  6. Hypericum perforatum differentially affects corticosteroid receptor-mRNA expression in human monocytic U-937 cells.

    PubMed

    Enning, F; Murck, H; Krieg, J-C; Vedder, H

    2011-09-01

    A dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis represents a prominent finding in major depression, possibly related to a dysfunction of the corticosteroid receptor system. Antidepressants are involved in the restoration of the altered feed-back mechanism of the HPA-axis, probably via normalization of corticosteroid receptor functions. Since Hypericum perforatum has antidepressive properties, we here examined its putative actions on glucocorticosteroid receptor mRNA levels in human blood cells as a peripheral model for neuroendocrine effects in human brain cells. Our data show that Hypericum (LI 160) affects the cellular mRNA levels of both, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-α and its inhibitory counterpart, the GR-β, at clinically-relevant concentrations. Under these conditions, a bimodal effect was observed. Dose-response studies suggest a rather small effective concentration range and time-effect data show a primary and transient up-regulation of GR-α mRNA levels and a down-regulation of GR-β mRNA levels after 16 h of treatment. The sodium channel blocker benzamil neutralized the effects of Hypericum, pointing to an at least partial mechanism of action via this pathway. In conclusion, Hypericum treatment differentially affects GR-mRNA levels in the human system. Our data suggest a bimodal effect on GR, resulting in a time-and dose-related modification of GR-mediated cellular effects. Such a mechanism has been alleged as an important way of action for a number of antidepressants. It is the first time that a specific effect on both receptors, especially on the subtype of GR-β, is shown under antidepressive treatment in a human system under in vitro conditions.

  7. Olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect glucose uptake and energy metabolism in human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Britta; Kotsiari, Alexandra; Scherr, Michaela; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Kahl, Kai G

    2017-05-01

    The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake. Further measurements comprised mRNA expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, GLUT1 protein expression, DNA methylation of GLUT1 promoter region, and proteins involved in downstream glucometabolic processes. We observed a 2-fold increase in glucose uptake after stimulation with aripiprazole. In contrast, olanzapine stimulation decreased glucose uptake by 40%, accompanied by downregulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). GLUT1 protein expression increased, GLUT1 mRNA expression decreased, and GLUT1 promoter was hypermethylated with both antipsychotics. Pyruvat-dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity decreased with olanzapine only. Our findings suggest that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and aripiprazole differentially affect energy metabolism in PBMC. The observed decrease in glucose uptake in olanzapine stimulated PBMC, accompanied by decreased PDH point to a worsening in cellular energy metabolism not compensated by AMKP upregulation. In contrast, aripiprazole stimulation lead to increased glucose uptake, while not affecting PDH complex expression. The observed differences may be involved in the different metabolic profiles observed in aripiprazole and olanzapine treated patients.

  8. Loss of Gnas imprinting differentially affects REM/NREM sleep and cognition in mice.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Glenda; Ball, Simon T; Maggi, Silvia; Colonna, Giovanni; Nieus, Thierry; Cero, Cheryl; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Peters, Jo; Tucci, Valter

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM-linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM-dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes.

  9. HB-EGF affects astrocyte morphology, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Till B; Zandén, Carl; Lebkuechner, Isabell; Philippot, Camille; de Pablo, Yolanda; Liu, Johan; Pekny, Milos

    2014-03-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), a vascular-derived trophic factor, belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of neuroprotective, hypoxia-inducible proteins released by astrocytes in CNS injuries. It was suggested that HB-EGF can replace fetal calf serum (FCS) in astrocyte cultures. We previously demonstrated that in contrast to standard 2D cell culture systems, Bioactive3D culture system, when used with FCS, minimizes the baseline activation of astrocytes and preserves their complex morphology. Here, we show that HB-EGF induced EGF receptor (EGFR) activation by Y1068 phosphorylation, Mapk/Erk pathway activation, and led to an increase in cell proliferation, more prominent in Bioactive3D than in 2D cultures. HB-EGF changed morphology of 2D and Bioactive3D cultured astrocytes toward a radial glia-like phenotype and induced the expression of intermediate filament and progenitor cell marker protein nestin. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin protein expression was unaffected. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that HB-EGF affected the expression of Notch signaling pathway genes, implying a role for the Notch signaling in HB-EGF-mediated astrocyte response. HB-EGF can be used as a FCS replacement for astrocyte expansion and in vitro experimentation both in 2D and Bioactive3D culture systems; however, caution should be exercised since it appears to induce partial de-differentiation of astrocytes.

  10. Loss of Gnas Imprinting Differentially Affects REM/NREM Sleep and Cognition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Glenda; Ball, Simon T.; Maggi, Silvia; Colonna, Giovanni; Nieus, Thierry; Cero, Cheryl; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Peters, Jo; Tucci, Valter

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM–linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM–dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes. PMID:22589743

  11. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant.

  12. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  13. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  15. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits.

  16. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  17. Differential patterns of amygdala and ventral striatum activation predict gender-specific changes in sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Sansosti, Alexandra A; Bowman, Hilary C; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-10

    Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior.

  18. In the face of war: examining sexual vulnerabilities of Acholi adolescent girls living in displacement camps in conflict-affected Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls are an overlooked group within conflict-affected populations and their sexual health needs are often neglected. Girls are disproportionately at risk of HIV and other STIs in times of conflict, however the lack of recognition of their unique sexual health needs has resulted in a dearth of distinctive HIV protection and prevention responses. Departing from the recognition of a paucity of literature on the distinct vulnerabilities of girls in time of conflict, this study sought to deepen the knowledge base on this issue by qualitatively exploring the sexual vulnerabilities of adolescent girls surviving abduction and displacement in Northern Uganda. Methods Over a ten-month period between 2004–2005, at the height of the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in Northern Uganda, 116 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were held with adolescent girls and adult women living in three displacement camps in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. The data was transcribed and key themes and common issues were identified. Once all data was coded the ethnographic software programme ATLAS was used to compare and contrast themes and categories generated in the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Our results demonstrated the erosion of traditional Acholi mentoring and belief systems that had previously served to protect adolescent girls’ sexuality. This disintegration combined with: the collapse of livelihoods; being left in camps unsupervised and idle during the day; commuting within camp perimeters at night away from the family hut to sleep in more central locations due to privacy and insecurity issues, and; inadequate access to appropriate sexual health information and services, all contribute to adolescent girls’ heightened sexual vulnerability and subsequent enhanced risk for HIV/AIDS in times of conflict. Conclusions Conflict prevention planners, resettlement programme developers, and policy-makers need to recognize

  19. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  20. Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice

    2008-05-01

    Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.

  1. Inhibition of Rho-kinase differentially affects axon regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Abhijeet R; Bobylev, Ilja; Zhang, Gang; Sheikh, Kazim A; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its down-stream effector Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important effector molecules of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Modulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been shown to promote axonal regeneration, however in vitro and animal studies are inconsistent regarding the extent of axonal outgrowth induced by pharmacological inhibition of ROCK. We hypothesized that injury to sensory and motor nerves result in diverse activation levels of RhoA, which may impact the response of those nerve fiber modalities to ROCK inhibition. We therefore examined the effects of Y-27632, a chemical ROCK inhibitor, on the axonal outgrowth of peripheral sensory and motor neurons grown in the presence of growth-inhibiting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). In addition we examined the effects of three different doses of Y-27632 on nerve regeneration of motor and sensory nerves in animal models of peripheral nerve crush. In vitro, sensory neurons were less responsive to Y-27632 compared to motor neurons in a non-growth permissive environment. These differences were associated with altered expression and activation of RhoA in sensory and motor axons. In vivo, systemic treatment with high doses of Y-27632 significantly enhanced the regeneration of motor axons over short distances, while the regeneration of sensory fibers remained largely unchanged. Our results support the concept that in a growth non-permissive environment, the regenerative capacity of sensory and motor axons is differentially affected by the RhoA/ROCK pathway, with motor neurons being more responsive compared to sensory. Future treatments, that are aimed to modulate RhoA activity, should consider this functional diversity.

  2. Detecting differential transmissibilities that affect the size of self-limited outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Seth; Funk, Sebastian; Pulliam, Juliet R C

    2014-10-01

    Our ability to respond appropriately to infectious diseases is enhanced by identifying differences in the potential for transmitting infection between individuals. Here, we identify epidemiological traits of self-limited infections (i.e. infections with an effective reproduction number satisfying [0 < R eff < 1) that correlate with transmissibility. Our analysis is based on a branching process model that permits statistical comparison of both the strength and heterogeneity of transmission for two distinct types of cases. Our approach provides insight into a variety of scenarios, including the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Arabian peninsula, measles in North America, pre-eradication smallpox in Europe, and human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. When applied to chain size data for MERS-CoV transmission before 2014, our method indicates that despite an apparent trend towards improved control, there is not enough statistical evidence to indicate that R eff has declined with time. Meanwhile, chain size data for measles in the United States and Canada reveal statistically significant geographic variation in R eff, suggesting that the timing and coverage of national vaccination programs, as well as contact tracing procedures, may shape the size distribution of observed infection clusters. Infection source data for smallpox suggests that primary cases transmitted more than secondary cases, and provides a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of control interventions. Human monkeypox, on the other hand, does not show evidence of differential transmission between animals in contact with humans, primary cases, or secondary cases, which assuages the concern that social mixing can amplify transmission by secondary cases. Lastly, we evaluate surveillance requirements for detecting a change in the human-to-human transmission of monkeypox since the cessation of cross-protective smallpox vaccination. Our

  3. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  4. Ontogeny of sexual development in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and its interrelationships with growth and age.

    PubMed

    Paull, G C; Lange, A; Henshaw, A C; Tyler, C R

    2008-07-01

    The roach (Rutilus rutilus) has become a sentinel species for the study of sexual disruption in wild fish populations as a consequence of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Little is known, however, about the normal ontogeny of sexual development in this species. Here, we analyzed the ontogeny of sexual development in captive-bred roach and assessed how growth rate and fish size affected the timing of both sexual differentiation and sexual development over a 2-year period. Ovarian differentiation was first recorded at 68 days post-fertilization (dpf) and this preceded testicular differentiation (first recorded at 98 dpf). In contrast, sexual maturation occurred at an earlier age in males (300 dpf) compared with females (728 dpf). No differences in body size (length or weight) were recorded between male and female roach until the fish were 415 dpf. Studies on three populations of roach which grew at different rates showed that the timing of sexual differentiation was highly variable and more related to fish size than to fish age. Time to sexual maturation was also variable among populations but, subsequent to their first year of life, gonadal status was less well associated with fish size. Interestingly, the sex ratio of the population was biased towards females in populations that grew more rapidly during early life. The findings presented here provide a valuable foundation of work to support both field- and laboratory-based assessments on the effects of EDCs, and other stressors, on sexual differentiation and development in the roach.

  5. How populations differentiate despite gene flow: sexual and natural selection drive phenotypic divergence within a land fish, the Pacific leaping blenny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations. PMID:24884492

  6. Novel concepts about normal sexual differentiation of reproductive neuroendocrine function and the developmental origins of female reproductive dysfunction: the sheep model.

    PubMed

    Foster, D L; Jackson, L M; Padmanabhan, V

    2007-01-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion plays a central role in timing gamete release in both sexes. This regulation is more complex in the female because the discontinuous release of ova is more complex than the continuous release of spermatozoa. This review provides an evolving understanding of the sex differences in reproductive neuroendocrine controls and how these differences arise. The rules for sexual differentiation of steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion conceptually parallel the well-established principles that underlie the sexual differentiation of the internal and external genitalia. In the context of the neuroendocrine regulation of the ovarian cycle, and using the sheep as a model, four steroid feedback controls for GnRH secretion are inherent (default). They require no ovarian developmental input to function appropriately during adulthood. Two steroid feedback controls regulate the preovulatory surge mode of GnRH secretion, and two regulate the pulsatile mode. If the individual is a male, three steroid feedback controls of GnRH secretion become unnecessary or irrelevant, and these are abolished or become functionally inoperative through programmed reductions in hypothalamic sensitivity. This central programming occurs through exposure of presynaptic GnRH neurons in the developing male brain to the androgenic and estrogenic actions of testicular steroids. In precocial species such as ruminants, this programming begins well before birth. Understanding how GnRH secretion normally becomes sexually differentiated is of practical importance to determining how inappropriate hormonal environments during development can variously malprogram the neuroendocrine system to produce a variety of reproductive dysfunctions relating to patterning of gonadotropin secretion.

  7. Demographic and situational factors affecting injury, resistance, completion, and charges brought in sexual assault cases: what is best for arrest?

    PubMed

    Scott, Hannah S; Beaman, Rebecca

    2004-08-01

    This study examines demographic and situational factors in an effort to predict whether or not a complainant was injured, used resistance, experienced a completed assault, and whether charges were brought against the offender. If the accused had consumed alcohol or drugs, he was almost seven times more likely to be arrested. The complainant was six times more likely to report rape completion if she had consumed alcohol or drugs and if the complainant fell unconscious at any time during the attack she was significantly less likely to use a resistance strategy. The complainant's use of a compliance strategy at any time during the assault positively predicted not using a physical resistance strategy and sexual assault completion. The reporting of injury positively predicted use a physical resistance strategy and sexual assault completion. If the assault was completed, it was less likely that charges were pressed. Implications of these findings are discussed, and directions for future research are offered.

  8. Sexual experience and temperament affect the response of Merino ewes to the ram effect during the anoestrous season.

    PubMed

    Chanvallon, A; Blache, D; Chadwick, A; Esmaili, T; Hawken, P A R; Martin, G B; Viñoles, C; Fabre-Nys, C

    2010-06-01

    In seasonally anoestrous ewes of many breeds, the introduction of rams triggers an increase in gonadotrophin secretion that induces ovulation, a phenomenon known as the 'ram effect'. The ram effect is a practical method for mating ewes outside the natural breeding season, and also can provide synchronised lambing, but the variability of the response, especially in young animals, reduces its potential for widespread application. The aim of our study was to assess two factors that are thought to contribute to the variability in young ewes: temperament and sexual experience. We used anovulatory ewes from a flock that had been genetically selected for 'calm' or 'nervous' temperament and compared the endocrine and ovarian responses to the ram effect in four groups (each n=15): 'calm' and parous (3-6 years old); 'calm' and nulliparous (2 years old); 'nervous' and parous; and 'nervous' and nulliparous. Parous ewes, independently of their temperament, exhibited a faster endocrine response and a higher proportion of females cycling after ram introduction than nulliparous ewes. 'Nervous' ewes exhibited a higher proportion of females cycling after ram introduction than calm ewes, but only in the nulliparous group. We conclude that temperament exerts little influence on the response to the ram effect in sexually experienced ewes, and that females of 'nervous' temperament appear to respond better when sexually 'naive'. Both sexual experience and temperament need to be taken into consideration when flock management involves the ram effect. Finally, some ewes were cyclic at ram introduction, yet exhibited an increase in LH secretion even in the presence of high concentrations of progesterone. The mechanism by which the inhibitory effect of progesterone on LH secretion was bypassed needs to be clarified.

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life. PMID:21248971

  10. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.

  11. Sexual Misconduct and Enactment

    PubMed Central

    Plakun, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  12. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  13. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older. By Mayo Clinic Staff As you age, sex isn't the same as it was in ... work for you and your partner. At any age, emotional issues can affect your sexuality. Many older couples report greater satisfaction with their sex life because they have fewer distractions, more time ...

  14. Protein v. carbohydrate intake differentially affects liking- and wanting-related brain signalling.

    PubMed

    Born, Jurriaan M; Martens, Mieke J I; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Goebel, Rainer; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-28

    Extreme macronutrient intakes possibly lead to different brain signalling. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ingesting high-protein v. high-carbohydrate food on liking and wanting task-related brain signalling (TRS) and subsequent macronutrient intake. A total of thirty female subjects (21.6 (SD 2.2) years, BMI 25.0 (SD 3.7) kg/m²) completed four functional MRI scans: two fasted and two satiated on two different days. During the scans, subjects rated all food items for liking and wanting, thereby choosing the subsequent meal. The results show that high-protein (PROT) v. high-carbohydrate (CARB) conditions were generated using protein or carbohydrate drinks at the first meal. Energy intake and hunger were recorded. PROT (protein: 53.7 (SD 2.1) percentage of energy (En%); carbohydrate: 6.4 (SD 1.3) En%) and CARB conditions (protein: 11.8 (SD 0.6) En%; carbohydrate: 70.0 (SD 2.4) En%) were achieved during the first meal, while the second meals were not different between the conditions. Hunger, energy intake, and behavioural liking and wanting ratings were decreased after the first meal (P< 0.001). Comparing the first with the second meal, the macronutrient content changed: carbohydrate -26.9 En% in the CARB condition, protein -37.8 En% in the PROT condition. After the first meal in the CARB condition, wanting TRS was increased in the hypothalamus. After the first meal in the PROT condition, liking TRS was decreased in the putamen (P< 0.05). The change in energy intake from the first to the second meal was inversely related to the change in liking TRS in the striatum and hypothalamus in the CARB condition and positively related in the PROT condition (P< 0.05). In conclusion, wanting and liking TRS were affected differentially with a change in carbohydrate or protein intake, underscoring subsequent energy intake and shift in macronutrient composition.

  15. Substance Use and Sexual Behavior among Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Effects of Parent-Adolescent Differential Acculturation and Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094

  16. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    PubMed

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies.

  17. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  19. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  20. Differential selection on pollen and pistil traits in relation to pollen competition in the context of a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Åsa; Strandh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sexual conflict and its evolutionary consequences are understudied in plants, but the theory of sexual conflict may help explain how selection generates and maintains variability. Here, we investigated selection on pollen and pistil traits when pollen arrives sequentially to partially receptive pistils in relation to pollen competition and a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in the mixed-mating annual Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). In this species the conflict is generated by early fertilizing pollen that reduces seed production, which is counteracted by delaying receptivity in the recipient. We performed sequential two-donor pollinations at early floral developmental stages involving two pollen deposition schedules (with or without a time lag of 1 day), using only outcross or self and outcross pollen. We investigated pollen and pistil traits in relation to siring success (male fitness) and seed production (female fitness). In contrast to previous findings in receptive pistils in C. heterophylla and in other species, last arriving pollen donors showed highest siring success in partially receptive pistils. The last male advantage was weaker when self pollen was the first arriving donor. Two measures of germination rate (early and late) and pollen tube growth rate of first arriving donors were important for siring success in crosses with a time lag, while only late germination rate had an effect in contemporary crosses. Curiously, late stigma receptivity was negatively related to seed production in our contemporary crosses, which was opposite to expectation. Our results in combination with previous studies suggest that pollen and pistil traits in C. heterophylla are differentially advantageous depending on stage of floral development and varying pollen deposition schedules. Variation in success of these traits over floral development time may result from sexually antagonistic selection. PMID:27562796

  1. SOX2 overexpression affects neural differentiation of human pluripotent NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Klajn, A; Drakulic, D; Tosic, M; Pavkovic, Z; Schwirtlich, M; Stevanovic, M

    2014-11-01

    SOX2 is one of the key transcription factors involved in maintenance of neural progenitor identity. However, its function during the process of neural differentiation, including phases of lineage-specification and terminal differentiation, is still poorly understood. Considering growing evidence indicating that SOX2 expression level must be tightly controlled for proper neural development, the aim of this research was to analyze the effects of constitutive SOX2 overexpression on outcome of retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation of pluripotent NT2/D1 cells. We demonstrated that in spite of constitutive SOX2 overexpression, NT2/D1 cells were able to reach final phases of neural differentiation yielding both neuronal and glial cells. However, SOX2 overexpression reduced the number of mature MAP2-positive neurons while no difference in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes was detected. In-depth analysis at single-cell level showed that SOX2 downregulation was in correlation with both neuronal and glial phenotype acquisitions. Interestingly, while in mature neurons SOX2 was completely downregulated, astrocytes with low level of SOX2 expression were detected. Nevertheless, cells with high level of SOX2 expression were incapable of entering in either of two differentiation pathways, neurogenesis or gliogenesis. Accordingly, our results indicate that fine balance between undifferentiated state and neural differentiation depends on SOX2 expression level. Unlike neurons, astrocytes could maintain low level of SOX2 expression after they acquired glial fate. Further studies are needed to determine whether differences in the level of SOX2 expression in GFAP-positive astrocytes are in correlation with their self-renewal capacity, differentiation status, and/or their phenotypic characteristics.

  2. Piloting community-based medical care for survivors of sexual assault in conflict-affected Karen State of eastern Burma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the challenges to ensuring facility-based care in conflict settings, the Women’s Refugee Commission and partners have been pursuing a community-based approach to providing medical care to survivors of sexual assault in Karen State, eastern Burma. This new model translates the 2004 World Health Organization’s Clinical Management of Rape Survivors facility-based protocol to the community level through empowering community health workers to provide post-rape care. The aim of this innovative study is to examine the safety and feasibility of community-based medical care for survivors of sexual assault to contribute to building an evidence base on alternative models of care in humanitarian settings. Methods A process evaluation was implemented from July-October 2011 to gather qualitative feedback from trained community health workers, traditional birth attendants, and community members. Two focus group discussions were conducted among the highest cadre health care workers from the pilot and non-pilot sites. In Karen State, eight focus group discussions were convened among traditional birth attendants and 10 among women and men of reproductive age. Results Qualitative feedback contributed to an understanding of the model’s feasibility. Pilot site community health workers showed interest in providing community-based care for survivors of sexual assault. Traditional birth attendants attested to the importance of making this care available. Community health workers were deeply aware of the need to maintain confidentiality and offer compassionate care. They did not raise safety as an excess concern in the provision of treatment. Conclusions Data speak to the promising “feasibility” of community-based post-rape care. More time, awareness-raising, and a larger catchment population are necessary to answer the safety perspective. The pilot is an attempt to translate facility-based protocol to the community level to offer solutions for settings where

  3. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Oh, Jae-Don; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Tae Sub; Shin, Sangsu; Jiao Jiao, Zhang; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight). Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2), and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2). Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP), as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87) in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1) shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis) indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production. PMID:26418419

  4. Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone Is Required for Chicken Embryonic Urogenital System Growth but Not Sexual Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Ayers, Katie; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Sinclair, Andrew H; Smith, Craig A

    2015-12-01

    In mammals, the primary role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.

  6. Functional and differential proteomic analyses to identify platelet derived factors affecting ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multilineage differentiation, immunomodulation and secretion of trophic factors render mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) highly attractive for clinical application. Human platelet derivatives such as pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) have been introduced as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS) to achieve GMP-compliance. However, whereas both pHPL and tPRP support similar proliferation kinetics of lipoaspirate-derived MSC (LA-MSC), only pHPL significantly accelerates bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) expansion. To identify functionally bioactive factors affecting ex vivo MSC expansion, a differential proteomic approach was performed and identified candidate proteins were evaluated within a bioassay. Results Two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), MALDI-TOF analyses and complementary Western blotting revealed 20 differential protein species. 14 candidate proteins occured at higher concentrations in pHPL compared to tPRP and 6 at higher concentrations in tPRP. The candidate proteins fibrinogen and apolipoprotein A1 differentially affected LA- and BM-MSC proliferation. In a second set of experiments, reference cytokines known to foster proliferation in FBS were tested for their effects in the human supplements. Interestingly although these cytokines promoted proliferation in FBS, they failed to do so when added to the humanized system. Conclusions The differential proteomic approach identified novel platelet derived factors differentially acting on human MSC proliferation. Complementary testing of reference cytokines revealed a lack of stimulation in the human supplements compared to FBS. The data describe a new coherent approach to combine proteomic technologies with functional testing to develop novel, humanized, GMP-compliant conditions for MSC expansion. PMID:24168020

  7. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    PubMed Central

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  8. Sexual dimorphism of liver metastasis by murine pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is affected by expression of complement C5.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Tanupriya; Kobayashi, Shinta; da Silva, Edaise; Clausen, Richard; Chan, Chang; Vosburgh, Evan; Tang, Laura H; Levine, Arnold J; Harris, Chris R

    2016-05-24

    In a mouse model for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (PanNETs), liver metastasis occurred at a higher frequency in males. Male mice also had higher serum and intratumoral levels of the innate immunity protein complement C5. In mice that lost the ability to express complement C5, there was a lower frequency of metastasis, and males no longer had a higher frequency of metastasis than females. Treatment with PMX53, a small molecule antagonist of C5aR1/CD88, the receptor for complement C5a, also reduced metastasis. Mice lacking a functional gene for complement C5 had smaller primary tumors, which were less invasive and lacked the CD68+ macrophages that have previously been associated with metastasis in this type of tumor. This is the first report of a gene that causes sexual dimorphism of metastasis in a mouse model. In the human disease, which also shows sexual dimorphism for metastasis, clinically advanced tumors expressed more complement C5 than less advanced tumors.

  9. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Influence of Core Affect in the Differential Efficacy of a Personality Disorder Intervention Program.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan M; Sendra, Juan M; Sánchez, Aintzane; Mena, Ana

    2017-02-06

    The usual emotional experience of the person (affective style) is an influential factor in therapeutic assimilation. Based on a dynamic model of affect shaped dimensionally by the valence and arousal axes (core affect) that fluctuate over time according to the specific context of the individual, its relationship with different variables was investigated and the changes after a 6-month intervention in a specialized hospital unit (N = 103) were observed. The orthogonal structure of core-affect was confirmed. Emotional valence appeared to be positively related to social skills (r = .375; p < .01) and self-esteem (r = .491; p < .01) and negatively to depressive symptoms (r = -.631; p < .01), general disturbance (r = -.395; p < .01) and suicidality (r = -.490; p < .01). Emotional arousal is associated with impulsivity (r = .345; p < .01). The group of patients with an affective style characterized by negative valence and low arousal core-affect gained less therapeutic benefit compared to those with positive valence core-affect (p < .05). Throughout the treatment, valence became more positive (d = .26; IC 95%: 1.9 - 7.2; p = .001), arousal increased (d = .23; IC 95%: 0.2 - 1.7; p = .015) and variability decreased (d = -.44; IC 95%: (-2.9) - (-1.1); p = .001). Changes in the core-affect are related to therapeutic improvement. Adjusting expectations of change can reduce therapeutic frustration, which is as common as it is harmful in the treatment of severe personality disorders.

  11. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  12. Temperature affect on caste differentiation and protein composition in Coptotermes formosanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caste systems, and the division of labor they make possible, are common underlying features of all social insects. In termites, multiple extrinsic factors have been shown to impact caste differentiation; for example, temperature has been shown to increase soldier production. The objective of this in...

  13. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  14. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders.

  15. Temperature, but Not Available Energy, Affects the Expression of a Sexually Selected Ultraviolet (UV) Colour Trait in Male European Green Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Background Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. Methodology/Principal Findings In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality. PMID:22479611

  16. Identification of sexually dimorphic gene expression in brain tissue of the fish Leporinus macrocephalus through mRNA differential display and real time PCR analyses.

    PubMed

    Alves-Costa, Fernanda A; Wasko, A P

    2010-03-01

    Differentially expressed genes in males and females of vertebrate species generally have been investigated in gonads and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues. Therefore, we attempted to identify sexually dimorphic gene expression in the brains of adult males and females of Leporinus macrocephalus, a gonochoristic fish species that presents a ZZ/ZW sex determination system, throughout a comparative analysis using differential display reverse transcriptase-PCR and real-time PCR. Four cDNA fragments were characterized, representing candidate genes with differential expression between the samples. Two of these fragments presented no significant identity with previously reported gene sequences. The other two fragments, isolated from male specimens, were associated to the gene that codes for the protein APBA2 (amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2) and to the Rab 37 gene, a member of the Ras oncogene family. The overexpression of these genes has been associated to a greater production of the beta-amyloid protein which, in turns, is the major factor that leads to Alzheimer's disease, and to the development of brain-tumors, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a higher Apba2 gene expression in males, thus validating the previous data on differential display. L. macrocephalus may represent an interesting animal model to the understanding of the function of several vertebrate genes, including those involved in neurodegenerative and cancer diseases.

  17. Sexuality for the Man with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Sexuality for the Man With Cancer Cancer, sex, and sexuality When you first learned you had ... affect your sexual function. What is a normal sex life? People vary a great deal in their ...

  18. Sex Differences in Phenotypic Plasticity Affect Variation in Sexual Size Dimorphism in Insects: From Physiology to Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Teder, Tiit; Davidowitz, Goggy; Fox, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Males and females of nearly all animals differ in their body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The degree and direction of SSD vary considerably among taxa, including among populations within species. A considerable amount of this variation is due to sex differences in body size plasticity. We examine how variation in these sex differences is generated by exploring sex differences in plasticity in growth rate and development time and the physiological regulation of these differences (e.g., sex differences in regulation by the endocrine system). We explore adaptive hypotheses proposed to explain sex differences in plasticity, including those that predict that plasticity will be lowest for traits under strong selection (adaptive canalization) or greatest for traits under strong directional selection (condition dependence), but few studies have tested these hypotheses. Studies that combine proximate and ultimate mechanisms offer great promise for understanding variation in SSD and sex differences in body size plasticity in insects. PMID:19728836

  19. Phenotypic differentiation does not affect tumorigenicity of primary human colon cancer initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Dubash, Taronish D; Hoffmann, Christopher M; Oppel, Felix; Giessler, Klara M; Weber, Sarah; Dieter, Sebastian M; Hüllein, Jennifer; Zenz, Thorsten; Herbst, Friederike; Scholl, Claudia; Weichert, Wilko; Werft, Wiebke; Benner, Axel; Schmidt, Manfred; Schneider, Martin; Glimm, Hanno; Ball, Claudia R

    2016-02-28

    Within primary colorectal cancer (CRC) a subfraction of all tumor-initiating cells (TIC) drives long-term progression in serial xenotransplantation. It has been postulated that efficient maintenance of TIC activity in vitro requires serum-free spheroid culture conditions that support a stem-like state of CRC cells. To address whether tumorigenicity is indeed tightly linked to such a stem-like state in spheroids, we transferred TIC-enriched spheroid cultures to serum-containing adherent conditions that should favor their differentiation. Under these conditions, primary CRC cells did no longer grow as spheroids but formed an adherent cell layer, up-regulated colon epithelial differentiation markers, and down-regulated TIC-associated markers. Strikingly, upon xenotransplantation cells cultured under either condition equally efficient formed serially transplantable tumors. Clonal analyses of individual lentivirally marked TIC clones cultured under either culture condition revealed no systematic differences in contributing clone numbers, indicating that phenotypic differentiation does not select for few individual clones adapted to unfavorable culture conditions. Our results reveal that CRC TIC can be propagated under conditions previously thought to induce their elimination. This phenotypic plasticity allows addressing primary human CRC TIC properties in experimental settings based on adherent cell growth.

  20. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  1. Natural Genetic Variation Differentially Affects the Proteome and Transcriptome in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kamkina, Polina; Snoek, L Basten; Grossmann, Jonas; Volkers, Rita J M; Sterken, Mark G; Daube, Michael; Roschitzki, Bernd; Fortes, Claudia; Schlapbach, Ralph; Roth, Alexander; von Mering, Christian; Hengartner, Michael O; Schrimpf, Sabine P; Kammenga, Jan E

    2016-05-01

    Natural genetic variation is the raw material of evolution and influences disease development and progression. An important question is how this genetic variation translates into variation in protein abundance. To analyze the effects of the genetic background on gene and protein expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we quantitatively compared the two genetically highly divergent wild-type strains N2 and CB4856. Gene expression was analyzed by microarray assays, and proteins were quantified using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. Among all transcribed genes, we found 1,532 genes to be differentially transcribed between the two wild types. Of the total 3,238 quantified proteins, 129 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between N2 and CB4856. The differentially expressed proteins were enriched for genes that function in insulin-signaling and stress-response pathways, underlining strong divergence of these pathways in nematodes. The protein abundance of the two wild-type strains correlates more strongly than protein abundance versus transcript abundance within each wild type. Our findings indicate that in C. elegans only a fraction of the changes in protein abundance can be explained by the changes in mRNA abundance. These findings corroborate with the observations made across species.

  2. Transforming Growth Factor β1/Smad4 Signaling Affects Osteoclast Differentiation via Regulation of miR-155 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongying; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Haiyu; Liu, Jianwen; Jin, Mengran; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad4 signaling plays a pivotal role in maintenance of the dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption. The microRNA miR-155 has been reported to exert a significant role in the differentiation of macrophage and dendritic cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether miR-155 regulates osteoclast differentiation through TGFβ1/Smad4 signaling. Here, we present that TGFβ1 elevated miR-155 levels during osteoclast differentiation through the stimulation of M-CSF and RANKL. Additionally, we found that silencing Smad4 attenuated the upregulation of miR-155 induced by TGFβ1. The results of luciferase reporter experiments and ChIP assays demonstrated that TGFβ1 promoted the binding of Smad4 to the miR-155 promoter at a site located in 454 bp from the transcription start site in vivo, further verifying that miR-155 is a transcriptional target of the TGFβ1/Smad4 pathway. Subsequently, TRAP staining and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that silencing Smad4 impaired the TGFβ1-mediated inhibition on osteoclast differentiation. Finally, we found that miR-155 may target SOCS1 and MITF to suppress osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that TGFβ1/Smad4 signaling affects osteoclast differentiation by regulation of miR-155 expression and the use of miR-155 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoclast-related diseases shows great promise. PMID:28359146

  3. Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Toddlers: Differential Relations to Affective Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Christine K.; Dribin, Amy E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study applies a non-invasive and multi-system measurement approach (using salivary analytes) to examine associations between the psychobiology of the stress response and affective behavior in toddlers. Eighty-seven two-year-olds (48 females) participated in laboratory tasks designed to elicit emotions and behavior ranging from pleasure/approach to fear/withdrawal. Saliva samples were collected pre-task and immediately post-task, and assayed for markers of sympathetic nervous system (alpha-amylase or sAA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) activity. Individual differences in sAA were positively associated with approach behavior and positive affect; whereas, cortisol was positively associated with negative affect and withdrawal behavior. The findings suggest that individual differences in sAA may covary specifically with positive affect and approach behaviors or the predominant emotional state across a series of tasks. The results are discussed with respect to advancing biosocial models of the concomitants and correlates of young children’s affective behaviors. PMID:18688807

  4. Research in Human Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Joan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding…

  5. Innate and adaptive immune traits are differentially affected by genetic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Massimo; Roederer, Mario; Beddall, Margaret H.; Nestle, Frank O.; Spector, Tim D.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and activity of leukocytes is controlled by genetic and environmental influences to maintain balanced immune responses. However, the relative contribution of environmental compared with genetic factors that affect variations in immune traits is unknown. Here we analyse 23,394 immune phenotypes in 497 adult female twins. 76% of these traits show a predominantly heritable influence, whereas 24% are mostly influenced by environment. These data highlight the importance of shared childhood environmental influences such as diet, infections or microbes in shaping immune homeostasis for monocytes, B1 cells, γδ T cells and NKT cells, whereas dendritic cells, B2 cells, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells are more influenced by genetics. Although leukocyte subsets are influenced by genetics and environment, adaptive immune traits are more affected by genetics, whereas innate immune traits are more affected by environment. PMID:28054551

  6. Sex Role Socialization Via Teachers' Behavior and Sexually Stereotyped Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Sara E.; And Others

    Research has shown that children's differentiation of gender-appropriate behavior is not directly affected by their teacher's gender. However, the teacher's behavior in relation to the material being taught may convey the sex-appropriateness or -inappropriateness to the child. To examine the effects of student gender and sexual stereotype of the…

  7. Diet and Cell Size Both Affect Queen-Worker Differentiation through DNA Methylation in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhi Jiang; Wang, Zi Long; Wu, Xiao Bo; Yan, Wei Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background Young larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are totipotent; they can become either queens (reproductives) or workers (largely sterile helpers). DNA methylation has been shown to play an important role in this differentiation. In this study, we examine the contributions of diet and cell size to caste differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the activity and gene expression of one key enzyme involved in methylation, Dnmt3; the rates of methylation in the gene dynactin p62; as well as morphological characteristics of adult bees developed either from larvae fed with worker jelly or royal jelly; and larvae raised in either queen or worker cells. We show that both diet type and cell size contributed to the queen-worker differentiation, and that the two factors affected different methylation sites inside the same gene dynactin p62. Conclusions/Significance We confirm previous findings that Dnmt3 plays a critical role in honey bee caste differentiation. Further, we show for the first time that cell size also plays a role in influencing larval development when diet is kept the same. PMID:21541319

  8. Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+ influx

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Aline O.; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Barbeau, Benoit; Lafond, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of crude methanol and n-hexane extracts of Hypericum connatum (H. connatum) and Hypericum caprifoliatum on trophoblast-like cells. Methods BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast-like cells were submitted to different extract concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL) and evaluated in relation to cell viability and in vitro trophoblast differentiation and function. Cell viability was evaluated using WST-1 reagent. Differentiation was measured by luciferase production, hCG production/release, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation. The function of the trophoblast-like cells was measured by 45Ca2+ influx evaluation. Results The results showed a decrease in cell viability/proliferation. Both plants and different extracts induced a significant decrease in hCG production/release and luciferase production. H. connatum did not cause mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway disturbance; however, Hypericum caprifoliatum n-hexane extract at 15 µg/mL inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. The significant increase in Ca2+ influx by JEG-3 cells was seen after short and long incubation times with H. connatum methanolic extract at 15 µg/mL. Conclusions The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+ influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants. PMID:25182721

  9. Visual Cues of Object Properties Differentially Affect Anticipatory Planning of Digit Forces and Placement

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Miller, Trevor; Marneweck, Michelle; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory planning of object manipulation showed initial task failure (i.e., object roll) when visual object shape cues are incongruent with other visual cues, such as weight distribution/density (e.g., symmetrically shaped object with an asymmetrical density). This suggests that shape cues override density cues. However, these studies typically only measured forces, with digit placement constrained. Recent evidence suggests that when digit placement is unconstrained, subjects modulate digit forces and placement. Thus, unconstrained digit placement might be modulated on initial trials (since it is an explicit process), but not forces (since it is an implicit process). We tested whether shape and density cues would differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit placement and forces during initial trials of a two-digit object manipulation task. Furthermore, we tested whether shape cues would override density cues when cues are incongruent. Subjects grasped and lifted an object with the aim of preventing roll. In Experiment 1, the object was symmetrically shaped, but with asymmetrical density (incongruent cues). In Experiment 2, the object was asymmetrical in shape and density (congruent cues). In Experiment 3, the object was asymmetrically shaped, but with symmetrical density (incongruent cues). Results showed differential modulation of digit placement and forces (modulation of load force but not placement), but only when shape and density cues were congruent. When shape and density cues were incongruent, we found collinear digit placement and symmetrical force sharing. This suggests that congruent and incongruent shape and density cues differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit forces and placement. Furthermore, shape cues do not always override density cues. A continuum of visual cues, such as those alluding to shape and density, need to be integrated. PMID:27100830

  10. Visual Cues of Object Properties Differentially Affect Anticipatory Planning of Digit Forces and Placement.

    PubMed

    Lee-Miller, Trevor; Marneweck, Michelle; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory planning of object manipulation showed initial task failure (i.e., object roll) when visual object shape cues are incongruent with other visual cues, such as weight distribution/density (e.g., symmetrically shaped object with an asymmetrical density). This suggests that shape cues override density cues. However, these studies typically only measured forces, with digit placement constrained. Recent evidence suggests that when digit placement is unconstrained, subjects modulate digit forces and placement. Thus, unconstrained digit placement might be modulated on initial trials (since it is an explicit process), but not forces (since it is an implicit process). We tested whether shape and density cues would differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit placement and forces during initial trials of a two-digit object manipulation task. Furthermore, we tested whether shape cues would override density cues when cues are incongruent. Subjects grasped and lifted an object with the aim of preventing roll. In Experiment 1, the object was symmetrically shaped, but with asymmetrical density (incongruent cues). In Experiment 2, the object was asymmetrical in shape and density (congruent cues). In Experiment 3, the object was asymmetrically shaped, but with symmetrical density (incongruent cues). Results showed differential modulation of digit placement and forces (modulation of load force but not placement), but only when shape and density cues were congruent. When shape and density cues were incongruent, we found collinear digit placement and symmetrical force sharing. This suggests that congruent and incongruent shape and density cues differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit forces and placement. Furthermore, shape cues do not always override density cues. A continuum of visual cues, such as those alluding to shape and density, need to be integrated.

  11. Differential replication dynamics for large and small Vibrio chromosomes affect gene dosage, expression and location

    PubMed Central

    Dryselius, Rikard; Izutsu, Kaori; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Background Replication of bacterial chromosomes increases copy numbers of genes located near origins of replication relative to genes located near termini. Such differential gene dosage depends on replication rate, doubling time and chromosome size. Although little explored, differential gene dosage may influence both gene expression and location. For vibrios, a diverse family of fast growing gammaproteobacteria, gene dosage may be particularly important as they harbor two chromosomes of different size. Results Here we examined replication dynamics and gene dosage effects for the separate chromosomes of three Vibrio species. We also investigated locations for specific gene types within the genome. The results showed consistently larger gene dosage differences for the large chromosome which also initiated replication long before the small. Accordingly, large chromosome gene expression levels were generally higher and showed an influence from gene dosage. This was reflected by a higher abundance of growth essential and growth contributing genes of which many locate near the origin of replication. In contrast, small chromosome gene expression levels were low and appeared independent of gene dosage. Also, species specific genes are highly abundant and an over-representation of genes involved in transcription could explain its gene dosage independent expression. Conclusion Here we establish a link between replication dynamics and differential gene dosage on one hand and gene expression levels and the location of specific gene types on the other. For vibrios, this relationship appears connected to a polarisation of genetic content between its chromosomes, which may both contribute to and be enhanced by an improved adaptive capacity. PMID:19032792

  12. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Katherine A; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H; Patisaul, Heather B

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000μg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, non-invasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat.

  13. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, noninvasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50 mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat. PMID:23500335

  14. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...

  15. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm.

  16. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  17. How interpersonal power affects empathic accuracy: differential roles of mentalizing vs. mirroring?

    PubMed Central

    Bombari, Dario; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Empathic accuracy (EA)—the correct assessment of the affective states and thoughts of a social partner—affects social behavior and the outcome of interpersonal interactions. Growing evidence has shown that interpersonal power of a perceiver affects EA when assessing a target. This picture, however, is not obvious; there is evidence supporting both the idea that power can improve EA or impair it. Moreover, the mechanisms through which high power individuals are more (or less) accurate at reading others' minds are unknown. The present article provides a new perspective on the power-EA link by investigating how two core abilities involved in EA, mentalizing and mirroring, can explain when and how power is related to EA. The inclusion of findings from neuroimaging studies on mentalizing and mirroring adds a cognitive neuroscience perspective to the power-EA research that has traditionally been conducted in a social psychological framework. The extent to which a given EA-test requires mentalizing or mirroring and the way power affects both of them could explain the contrasting findings. In addition, the analysis of the neural substrates of mentalizing and mirroring may provide new insight into the relationship between power and EA. PMID:23882206

  18. Pattern of gonadal differentiation and development up to sexual maturity in the frogs, Microhyla ornata and Hylarana malabarica: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mali, Prajakta Vijay; Gramapurohit, Narahari Prabhakar

    2015-11-01

    Gonadogenesis was studied in Microhyla ornata (Family: Microhylidae) and Hylarana malabarica (Family: Ranidae) up to sexual maturity. Indifferent gonads of M. ornata directly differentiated into either testes or ovaries while those of H. malabarica differentiated into ovaries in all the individuals followed by testicular differentiation in males through an ovarian phase. In some tadpoles of M. ornata, formation of a central cavity at Gosner stage 27 marked ovary differentiation while meiosis was initiated at stage 29. Folliculogenesis was evident at stage 39. Vitellogenesis was initiated in females 9 months post-metamorphosis that attained maturity around 11 months after the completion of metamorphosis. Gonads of males with uniformly distributed germ and somatic cells remained undifferentiated until stage 41. Germ and somatic cells reorganized into seminiferous cords at stage 42. One month after completing metamorphosis, testes contained seminiferous tubules while those of 3 months old males exhibited all spermatogenic stages. In H. malabarica, germ cells entry into meiosis marked ovary differentiation at stage 29 while, ovarian cavity was discernable around stage 35. Post-metamorphosis, ovaries of 1-6 month old females contained pre-diplotene oocytes. Females were immature even 1 year after the completion of metamorphosis. In all the tadpoles, ovaries with central cavity and meiocytes were present up to the completion of metamorphosis. Gonads of prospective males displayed an obliterating ovarian cavity along with degenerating oocytes at the end of metamorphosis. Germ and somatic cells reorganized into seminiferous cords in males 3 months after the completion of metamorphosis. Testes of 4 months old males exhibited distinct seminiferous tubules while those of 6 months old exhibited meiosis. All spermatogenic stages were observed in testes of 9 months old males indicating maturity.

  19. Diazinon oxon affects the differentiation of mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, Erasmia; Sachana, Magdalini; Flaskos, John; Harris, Wayne; Hargreaves, Alan J; Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurotoxicity of diazinon oxon (DZO), a major in vivo metabolite of the phosphorothionate insecticide diazinon (DZ), on differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. When used at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 microM, DZO did not cause cell death but it impaired the outgrowth of axon-like processes after 24 h. Densitometric scanning of Western blots of lysates of N2a cells revealed that exposure to 5 or 10 microM DZO for 24 h increased the expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) compared to controls, while there was no significant change in total NFH. By contrast, treatment of N2a cells with 1-10 microM DZO resulted in marked reductions in the expression of the axon growth-associated protein GAP-43. DZO-treated cells also showed an increased expression of the heat shock protein HSP-70 compared to controls. The above biochemical changes were not temporally related to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). These data suggest that biologically relevant, subcytotoxic levels of DZO may exert neurotoxic effects on differentiating cells and that the mechanisms involved are different from those attributed to its parent compound.

  20. mTORC1 inhibitors rapamycin and metformin affect cardiovascular markers differentially in ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Ravi; Raja, Ahmad; Pulakat, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian target for rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common target for the action of immunosuppressant macrolide rapamycin and glucose-lowering metformin. Inhibition of mTORC1 can exert both beneficial and detrimental effects in different pathologies. Here, we investigated the differential effects of rapamycin (1.2 mg/kg per day delivered subcutaneously for 6 weeks) and metformin (300 mg/kg per day delivered orally for 11 weeks) treatments on male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats that mimic the cardiorenal pathology of type 2 diabetic patients and progress to insulin insufficiency. Rapamycin and metformin improved proteinuria, and rapamycin also reduced urinary gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) indicating improvement of tubular health. Metformin reduced food and water intake, and urinary sodium and potassium, whereas rapamycin increased urinary sodium. Metformin reduced plasma alkaline phosphatase, but induced transaminitis as evidenced by significant increases in plasma AST and ALT. Metformin also induced hyperinsulinemia, but did not suppress fasting plasma glucose after ZDF rats reached 17 weeks of age, and worsened lipid profile. Rapamycin also induced mild transaminitis. Additionally, both rapamycin and metformin increased plasma uric acid and creatinine, biomarkers for cardiovascular and renal disease. These observations define how rapamycin and metformin differentially modulate metabolic profiles that regulate cardiorenal pathology in conditions of severe type 2 diabetes.

  1. Antagonic activities of Trypanosoma cruzi metacaspases affect the balance between cell proliferation, death and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Laverrière, M; Cazzulo, J J; Alvarez, V E

    2012-08-01

    Metacaspases are distant relatives of animal caspases present in plants, fungi and protozoa. At variance with caspases, metacaspases exhibit stringent specificity for basic amino-acid residues and are absolutely dependent on millimolar concentrations of calcium. In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, metacaspases have been suggested to be involved in an apoptosis-like phenomenon upon exposure of the parasite to fresh human serum (FHS). Nuclear relocalization of metacaspases was observed after FHS treatment and overexpression of metacaspase-5 led to enhanced sensitivity to this stimulus. Here we report some biochemical properties of T. cruzi metacaspases. Performing fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of epimastigotes inducibly overexpressing metacaspase-3, we demonstrate a role for this metacaspase in cell cycle progression, protection of epimastigotes from naturally occurring cell death and differentiation to infective metacyclic trypomastigotes. We also show that regulation of metacaspase-3 activity is important for cell cycle completion inside the mammalian host. On the other hand, inducible overexpression of metacaspase-5 lacking its C-terminal domain caused an apoptotic-like response. These results suggest that the two T. cruzi metacaspases could play an important role in the life cycle and bring to light the close relationship between cell division, death and differentiation in this ancient unicellular eukaryote.

  2. Epidermal cellular proliferation and differentiation in sexually mature male Salmo salar with androgen levels depressed by oil.

    PubMed

    Burton, D; Burton, M P; Truscott, B; Idler, D R

    1985-07-22

    Sexually mature male Salmo salar exhibit epidermal thickening and an increase in goblet cell concentration during the spawning season. The ventral skin, which is likely to experience most abrasive contact during the spawning period, has the thickest epidermis and the greatest goblet cell concentration. Following exposure to crude oil there is inhibition of cellular proliferation and elongation associated with epidermal thickening, and also inhibition of mucigenesis. Data on the androgen levels in these fish, and data from earlier studies involving treatment with hormones, indicate that oil-related epidermal effects during the spawning period are most likely systemic in origin, probably arising from reduced plasmatic androgen levels.

  3. An improved, non-isotopic method of screening cells from patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation for Y chromosomal DNA content.

    PubMed Central

    Witt, M; Michalczak, K; Latos-Bielenska, A; Jaruzelska, J; Kuczora, I; Lopez, M

    1993-01-01

    The detection of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation is of crucial diagnostic importance. Here we present application of a PCR based method of detection of alphoid repeats of Y chromosomal origin. The method detects 0.01% of male DNA on a female DNA background. Out of 28 patients studied, in all cases where the Y chromosome or a part of it containing centromeric sequences was present, a positive amplification signal of Y chromosomal alphoid repeats was detected. In five cases the Y origin of marker chromosomes was diagnosed. The pattern of amplification signal distribution of the SRY gene was identical to that of Y specific alphoid primers, which confirms applicability of this method in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. The other diagnostic advantage is the ability to use dried blood specimens as an easy to handle and efficient source of DNA. Images PMID:8487276

  4. An improved, non-isotopic method of screening cells from patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation for Y chromosomal DNA content.

    PubMed

    Witt, M; Michalczak, K; Latos-Bielenska, A; Jaruzelska, J; Kuczora, I; Lopez, M

    1993-04-01

    The detection of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in patients with abnormalities of sexual differentiation is of crucial diagnostic importance. Here we present application of a PCR based method of detection of alphoid repeats of Y chromosomal origin. The method detects 0.01% of male DNA on a female DNA background. Out of 28 patients studied, in all cases where the Y chromosome or a part of it containing centromeric sequences was present, a positive amplification signal of Y chromosomal alphoid repeats was detected. In five cases the Y origin of marker chromosomes was diagnosed. The pattern of amplification signal distribution of the SRY gene was identical to that of Y specific alphoid primers, which confirms applicability of this method in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. The other diagnostic advantage is the ability to use dried blood specimens as an easy to handle and efficient source of DNA.

  5. Influence of the brain sexual differentiation process on despair and antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the rat forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M L; Martínez-Mota, L; Estrada-Camarena, E; Fernández-Guasti, A

    2014-03-07

    Sex differences exist in the depressive disorder prevalence and response to treatment. Several studies suggest that females respond better than males to the action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), suggesting that gonadal hormones modulate mood and the response to these drugs. Sexual steroid hormones exert organizational actions (perennial and on early development) and activational effects (transient and on differentiated tissues). The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the forced swim test (FST) in animals without treatment and after fluoxetine (FLX, 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Initially, we compared male and female adult rats under control conditions or after altering their sexual differentiation process (at day 5 postnatally, PN, 60μg of testosterone propionate to females and male castration to induce or preclude masculinization, respectively). To further analyze if the sex differences depend on organizational or activational steroid hormone action we tested the same animals before and after adult gonadectomy. To prevent variations depending upon the estrous cycle, control and masculinized females were tested in estrus. Control females showed lower immobility and required lower doses of FLX (5mg/kg), to show an antidepressant-like effect, than males (10mg/kg), even after adult gonadectomy. In control males adult orchidectomy prevented FLX's action. Neonatally masculinized females exhibited analogous levels of immobility than control ones; before ovariectomy they responded to FLX similar to controls, but after the surgery they did not respond to fluoxetine. Neonatally orchidectomized males exhibited similar immobility values and response to FLX than control females. The findings suggest that the sex difference in despair depends on the hormones organizational effects and, in males, the response to FLX relies on organizational and activational actions.

  6. Differentially expressed microRNAs and affected signaling pathways in placentae of transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Jun; Jin, Li-Jun; Ma, Xue-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Zhai, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Yang, Xue-Yi

    2014-07-15

    Placental deficiencies are related to the developmental abnormalities of transgenic cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer, but the concrete molecular mechanism is not very clear. Studies have shown that placental development can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal pregnancy. Thus, this study screened differentially expressed miRNAs by the next-generation sequencing technology to reveal the relationship between miRNAs expression and aberrant development of placentae produced by the transgenic-clone technology. Expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs in different placentae were compared, the placentae derived from one natural pregnancy counterpart (PNC), one natural pregnancy of a cloned offspring as a mother (PCM), and two transgenic (human beta-defensin-3) cloned pregnancy: one offspring was alive after birth (POL) and the other offspring was dead in 2 days after birth (POD). Further, signaling pathway analysis was conducted. The results indicated that 694 miRNAs were differentially expressed in four placental samples, such as miR-210, miR-155, miR-21, miR-128, miR-183, and miR-145. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that compared with PNC, significantly upregulated pathways in POL, POD, and PCM mainly included focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, pathways in cancer, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endosytosis, and adherens junction, and significantly downregulated pathways mainly included malaria, nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study confirmed alterations of the expression profile of miRNAs and signaling pathways in placentae from transgenic (hBD-3) cloned cattle (PTCC), which could lead to the morphologic and histologic deficiencies of PTCC. This information would be useful for the relative research in future.

  7. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  8. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  9. Mutations within the LINC-HELLP non-coding RNA differentially bind ribosomal and RNA splicing complexes and negatively affect trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marie; Visser, Allerdien; Buabeng, Kwadwo M L; Poutsma, Ankie; van der Schors, Roel C; Oudejans, Cees B M

    2015-10-01

    LINC-HELLP, showing chromosomal linkage with the pregnancy-specific HELLP syndrome in Dutch families, reduces differentiation from a proliferative to an invasive phenotype of first-trimester extravillous trophoblasts. Here we show that mutations in LINC-HELLP identified in HELLP families negatively affect this trophoblast differentiation either by inducing proliferation rate or by causing cell cycle exit as shown by a decrease in both proliferation and invasion. As LincRNAs predominantly function through interactions with proteins, we identified the directly interacting proteins using chromatin isolation by RNA purification followed by protein mass spectrometry. We found 22 proteins predominantly clustering in two functional networks, i.e. RNA splicing and the ribosome. YBX1, PCBP1, PCBP2, RPS6 and RPL7 were validated, and binding to these proteins was influenced by the HELLP mutations carried. Finally, we show that the LINC-HELLP transcript levels are significantly upregulated in plasma of women in their first trimester of pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women, whereas this upregulation seems absent in a pilot set of patients later developing pregnancy complications, indicative of its functional significance in vivo.

  10. [Sexuality among infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2007-01-01

    A monographic type, bibliographic and hemerographic study on the sexuality in couples with fertility problems is presented. The study is based on the Rubio Aurioles' model of human sexuality, and the four holones (reproductivity, eroticism, affective bonds, gender) in couples with fertility problems are described. A review of clinical studies on the prevailing sexuality in this kind of couples and some theoretical reflections are also presented.

  11. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.

  13. Sexual dimorphic expression of genes in gonads during early differentiation of a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Shigeho; Kaneko, Hiroyo; Kobayashi, Tohru; Wang, De-Shou; Sakai, Fumie; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Nakamura, Masaru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-02-01

    The Nile tilapia, a gonochoristic teleost fish with an XX/XY sex-determining system, provides an excellent model for studying gonadal sex differentiation because genetic all-females and all-males are available. In this study, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to determine the precise timing of the gonadal expression of 17 genes thought to be associated with gonadal sex differentiation in vertebrates. Gonads were isolated from all-female and all-male tilapia before (5-15 days after hatching [dah]) and after (25-70 dah) morphological sex differentiation. The transcript of aromatase (cyp19a1a), an enzyme responsible for producing estradiol-17beta, was expressed only in XX gonads at 5 dah, with a marked elevation in expression thereafter. In contrast, mRNA expression of steroid 11beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b2), an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, a potent androgen in fish), was found in XY gonads from 35 dah only. These results, combined with the presence of transcripts for other steroidogenic enzymes and estrogen receptors in XX gonads at 5-7 dah, are consistent with our earlier suggestion that estradiol-17beta plays a critical role in ovarian differentiation in tilapia, whereas a role for 11-KT in testicular differentiation is questionable. A close relationship between the expression of foxl2, but not nr5a1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), and that of cyp19a1a in XX gonads suggests an important role for Foxl2 in the transcriptional regulation of cyp19a1a. Dmrt1 exhibited a male-specific expression in XY gonads from 6 dah onward, suggesting an important role for Dmrt1 in testicular differentiation. Sox9 and amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) showed a testis-specific expression, being evident only in the later stages of testicular differentiation. It is concluded that the sex-specific expression of foxl2 and cyp19a1a in XX gonads and dmrt1 in XY gonads during early gonadal differentiation (5-6 dah) is critical for undifferentiated gonads to differentiate into

  14. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type.

  15. Platinum-Based Drugs Differentially Affect the Ultrastructure of Breast Cancer Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adawi, Kawther; Al-Nabhani, Abdurahman; Al-Kindi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although platinum-based drugs (PBDs) are effective anticancer agents, responsive patients eventually become resistant. While resistance of some cancers to PBDs has been explored, the cellular responses of BC cells are not studied yet. Therefore, we aim to assess the differential effects of PBDs on BC ultrastructure. Three representative cells were treated with different concentrations and timing of Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin. Changes on cell surface and ultrastructure were detected by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In SEM, control cells were semiflattened containing microvilli with extending lamellipodia while treated ones were round with irregular surface and several pores, indicating drug entry. Prolonged treatment resembled distinct apoptotic features such as shrinkage, membrane blebs, and narrowing of lamellipodia with blunt microvilli. TEM detected PBDs' deposits that scattered among cellular organelles inducing structural distortion, lumen swelling, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Deposits were attracted to fat droplets, explained by drug hydrophobic properties, while later they were located close to cell membrane, suggesting drug efflux. Phagosomes with destructed organelles and deposits were detected as defending mechanism. Understanding BC cells response to PBDs might provide new insight for an effective treatment. PMID:28377926

  16. Future climate change scenarios differentially affect three abundant algal species in southwestern Australia.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Charlie M; Boyce, Mary C; Huggett, Megan J

    2017-02-21

    Three species of macroalgae (Ecklonia radiata, Sargassum linearifolium, and Laurencia brongniartii) were subjected to future climate change conditions, tested directly for changes in their physiology and chemical ecology, and used in feeding assays with local herbivores to identify the indirect effects of climatic stressors on subsequent levels of herbivory. Each alga had distinct physical and chemical responses to the changes in environmental conditions. In high temperature conditions, S. linearifolium exhibited high levels of bleaching and low maximum quantum yield. For E. radiata, the alga became more palatable to herbivores and the C:N ratios were either higher or lower, dependent on the treatment. Laurencia brongniartii was effected in all manipulations when compared to controls, with increases in bleaching, blade density, and C:N ratios and decreases in growth, maximum quantum yield, blade toughness, total phenolics and consumption by mesograzers. The differential responses we observed in each species have important implications for benthic communities in projected climate change conditions and we suggest that future studies target multi-species assemblage responses.

  17. Environmental phosphate differentially affects virulence phenotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates causative of prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Grillo-Puertas, M; Martínez-Zamora, MG; Rintoul, MR; Soto, SM; Rapisarda, VA

    2015-01-01

    K-12 Escherichia coli cells grown in static media containing a critical phosphate (Pi) concentration ≥25 mM maintained a high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase, impairing biofilm formation, a phenomenon that is triggered by polyP degradation. Pi concentration in human urine fluctuates according to health state. Here, the influence of environmental Pi concentration on the occurrence of virulence traits in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from acute prostatitis patients was evaluated. After a first screening, 3 isolates were selected according to differential biofilm formation profiles depending on media Pi concentration. For each isolate, biofilm positive and negative conditions were established. Regardless of the isolate, biofilm formation capacity was accompanied with curli and cellulose production and expression of some key virulence factors associated with adhesion. When the selected isolates were grown in their non-biofilm-forming condition, low concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin induced biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar to laboratory strains, polyP degradation induced biofilm formation in the selected isolates. Data demonstrated the complexity of UPEC responses to environmental Pi and the importance of polyP metabolism in the virulence of clinical isolates. PMID:26083279

  18. Early-age heat exposure affects skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Krispin, A; Leshem, Y; McMurtry, J P; Yahav, S

    2001-07-01

    Exposure of young chicks to thermal conditioning (TC; i.e., 37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in significantly improved body and muscle growth at a later age. We hypothesized that TC causes an increase in satellite cell proliferation, necessary for further muscle hypertrophy. An immediate increase was observed in satellite cell DNA synthesis in culture and in vivo in response to TC of 3-day-old chicks to levels that were significantly higher than those of control chicks. This was accompanied by a marked induction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IFG-I), but not hepatocyte growth factor in the breast muscle. No significant difference between treatments in plasma IGF-I levels was observed. A marked elevation in muscle regulatory factors on day 5, followed by a decline in cell proliferation on day 6 together with continuous high levels of IGF-I in the TC chick muscle may indicate accelerated cell differentiation. These data suggest a central role for IGF-I in the immediate stimulation of satellite cell myogenic processes in response to heat exposure.

  19. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  20. The thiol compounds glutathione and homoglutathione differentially affect cell development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Taras; Asard, Han; Potters, Geert; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important scavenger of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), precursor of metal chelating phytochelatins, xenobiotic defence compound and regulator of cell proliferation. Homoglutathione (hGSH) is a GSH homologue that is present in several taxa in the family of Fabaceae. It is thought that hGSH performs many of the stress-defence roles typically ascribed to GSH, yet little is known about the potential involvement of hGSH in controlling cell proliferation. Here we show that hGSH/GSH ratios vary across organs and cells and that these changes in hGSH/GSH ratio occur during dedifferentiation and/or cell cycle activation events. The use of a GSH/hGSH biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in impaired cytokinesis in isolated protoplasts, showing the critical importance of these thiol-compounds for cell division. However, exposure of isolated protoplasts to exogenous GSH accelerated cytokinesis, while exogenous hGSH was found to inhibit the same process. We conclude that GSH and hGSH have distinct functional roles in cell cycle regulation in Medicago sativa L. GSH is associated with meristemic cells, and promotes cell cycle activation and induction of somatic embryogenesis, while hGSH is associated with differentiated cells and embryo proliferation.

  1. Anxiety response and restraint-induced stress differentially affect ethanol intake in female adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2016-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response.

  2. Breakfasts with different fiber and macronutrient contents do not differentially affect timing, size or microstructure of the subsequent lunch.

    PubMed

    Silberbauer, C; Frey-Rindova, P; Langhans, W

    1996-12-01

    The effects of four equienergetic breakfasts with varying fiber and macronutrient contents on hunger and satiety ratings, on subsequent lunch intake, and on postprandial carbohydrate and fat metabolism were investigated in normal weight male subjects in two experiments, in which lunch was offered at a predetermined time (Experiment 1) or in which the subjects were free to choose when to eat lunch (Experiment 2). Consumption of either a commercially available high fiber cereal (HFC, 10% fiber), a medium fiber cereal (MFC, 7% fiber), a low fiber cereal (LFC, 3% fiber), or a standard continental breakfast (0% fiber) on nonconsecutive days did not differentially affect hunger and satiety ratings, the size or microstructure of the subsequent lunch, and the breakfast to lunch intermeal interval (in Experiment 2). Plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and insulin increased more after the LFC breakfast than after the other breakfast varieties. A reactive postprandial hypoglycaemia occurred after the LFC breakfast, shortly before lunch. The plasma concentrations of fat metabolites (triglycerides, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate) and of glucagon were not differentially affected by the breakfast varieties. The results are consistent with the assumption that energy content of a meal is the major determinant of subsequent energy intake in man and the fiber content and macronutrient composition have only a modulating effect.

  3. The effects of differential prenatal and postnatal social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Terman, C R

    1975-05-01

    We compared the influence of different social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice. Between 12 and 48 hr after parturition, one-half of a litter from a population was exchanged with one-half of a litter from a bisexual pair. In each situation the remaining half-litter served as controls for the exchange procedure. The testes and vesicular weights of population-reared males were significantly larger than those of males reared by bisexual pairs, irrespective of prenatal enviroment. Generally, population-reared females also had larger reproductive organs than those reared by bisexual pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the adrenal weights of males or females, but females reared by bisexual pairs had larger absolute and relative adrenals than females reared in populations.

  4. Sexual differentiation of oxytocin stress responsiveness: effect of neonatal androgenization, castration and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist.

    PubMed

    Carter, D A; Saridaki, E; Lightman, S L

    1988-04-01

    The plasma OT increment following stress in rats is sexually dimorphic, females exhibiting greater responses than males. We have investigated the role of neonatal androgen secretion in determining the sex-typical level of response. Castration of male pups either surgically or functionally (GnRH antagonist treatment) within either 2 h or 5 days of birth did not elevate the OT responses of adult males. In contrast, androgenization of female pups (testosterone, 1.25 mg/pup) within 5 days of birth markedly reduced the OT stress responses of adults to a level insignificantly different to males. The results show that neonatal androgens can exert organizational effects on OT regulatory mechanisms. Since neonatal castration was ineffective it would appear that a prenatal defeminization or masculinization event determines OT stress responsiveness in males.

  5. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Anouar, Y.; Duval, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through (35S)sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle.

  6. Daytime and nighttime wind differentially affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-05-01

    This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response.

  7. An invader differentially affects leaf physiology of two natives across a gradient in diversity.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, Pamela; Maron, John; Marler, Marilyn

    2008-05-01

    Little is known about how exotics influence the ecophysiology of co-occurring native plants or how invader impact on plant physiology may be mediated by community diversity or resource levels. We measured the effect of the widespread invasive forb spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on leaf traits (leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen percentage, leaf C:N ratios, and delta13C as a proxy for water use efficiency) of two co-occurring native perennial grassland species, Monarda fistulosa (bee balm) and Koeleria macrantha (Junegrass). The impact of spotted knapweed was assessed across plots that varied in functional diversity and that either experienced ambient rainfall or received supplemental water. Impact was determined by comparing leaf traits between identical knapweed-invaded and noninvaded assemblages. Virtually all M. fistulosa leaf traits were affected by spotted knapweed. Knapweed impact, however, did not scale with its abundance; the impact of knapweed on M. fistulosa was similar across heavily invaded low-diversity assemblages and lightly invaded high-diversity assemblages. In uninvaded assemblages, M. fistulosa delta13C, leaf nitrogen, and C:N ratios were unaffected by native functional group richness, whereas leaf dry matter content significantly increased and specific leaf area significantly decreased across the diversity gradient. The effects of spotted knapweed on K. macrantha were weak; instead native functional group richness strongly affected K. macrantha leaf C:N ratio, delta13C, and specific leaf area, but not leaf dry matter content. Leaf traits for both species changed in response to spotted knapweed or functional richness, and in a manner that may promote slower biomass accumulation and efficient conservation of resources. Taken together, our results show that an invader can alter native plant physiology, but that these effects are not a simple function of how many invaders exist in the community.

  8. In vivo treatments with fulvestrant and anastrozole differentially affect gene expression in the rat efferent ductules.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gisele Renata Oliveira; Yasuhara, Fabiana; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Fernandes, Sheilla Alessandra Ferreira; Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Lazari, Maria Fatima Magalhaes; Porto, Catarina Segreti

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen plays a key role in maintaining the morphology and function of the efferent ductules. We previously demonstrated that the antiestrogen fulvestrant markedly affected gene expression in the rat efferent ductules. The mechanism of fulvestrant action to modulate gene expression may involve not only the blockade of ESR1 and ESR2 estrogen receptors, but also the activation of ESR1 and ESR2 when the receptors are tethered to AP-1 or SP1 transcription factors, or the activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. We therefore compared the effects of two strategies to interfere with estrogen action in the rat efferent ductules: treatment with fulvestrant or with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. Whereas fulvestrant markedly increased Mmp7 and Spp1, and reduced Nptx1 mRNA levels, no changes were observed with anastrozole. Fulvestrant caused changes in epithelial morphology that were not seen with anastrozole. Fulvestrant shifted MMP7 immunolocalization in the epithelial cells from the supranuclear to the apical region; this effect was less pronounced with anastrozole. In vitro studies of (35)S-methionine incorporation showed that protein release was increased, whereas tissue protein content in the efferent ductules of fulvestrant-treated rats was decreased. Although fulvestrant markedly affected gene expression, no changes were observed on AP-1 and SP1 DNA-binding activity. The blockade of ESRs seems to be the major reason explaining the differences between both treatments. At least some of the effects of fulvestrant appear to result from compensatory mechanisms activated by the dramatic changes caused by ESR1 blockade.

  9. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds.

  10. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  11. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Apolzan, John W; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Iglay, Heidi B; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-07-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macronutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a "comfortable level of fullness." Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.

  12. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  13. Consumption of different soymilk formulations differentially affects the gut microbiomes of overweight and obese men

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Raudales, Dina; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L.; Bringe, Neal A.; Cox, Stephen B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Miller, Michael J.; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome in overweight and obese men. In a randomized double-blind study, participants (64 men, BMI > 25, 20–45 y old), organized in three groups, consumed 500 mL of LGS, S or M daily for 3 mo. Three fecal samples were collected before (baseline) and after 3 mo of consumption. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were monitored monthly and remained constant throughout the study (p > 0.05). Microbial composition was analyzed with qPCR and bTEFAP. Within groups, qPCR analysis showed that the total bacteria increased in all treatments over time (p < 0.001). Bacteroides-Prevotella (p = 0.001) and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) increased in LGS and M, respectively. Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in LGS (p = 0.003) and S (p < 0.001). Bacterial diversity decreased for LGS, S and M (p = 0.004, 0.005, 0.001; respectively). Unweighted UniFrac analysis revealed that the microbial communities were more similar within than between individuals. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased in both LGS and S groups and remained relatively unchanged in the M group (Time p = 0.012; Interaction p = 0.059). Indicator analysis revealed several genera that were indicative of each treatment including Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Consumption of the three beverages differentially altered the microbiota in overweight and obese men including a potentially beneficial alteration of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both soymilk groups. PMID:22895080

  14. ORM Expression Alters Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Differentially Affects Ceramide Synthase Activity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, Athen N.; Chen, Ming; Dunn, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipid synthesis is tightly regulated in eukaryotes. This regulation in plants ensures sufficient sphingolipids to support growth while limiting the accumulation of sphingolipid metabolites that induce programmed cell death. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is considered the primary sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory point. In this report, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative SPT regulatory proteins, orosomucoid-like proteins AtORM1 and AtORM2, were found to interact physically with Arabidopsis SPT and to suppress SPT activity when coexpressed with Arabidopsis SPT subunits long-chain base1 (LCB1) and LCB2 and the small subunit of SPT in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SPT-deficient mutant. Consistent with a role in SPT suppression, AtORM1 and AtORM2 overexpression lines displayed increased resistance to the programmed cell death-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1, with an accompanying reduced accumulation of LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) suppression lines of AtORM1 and AtORM2 displayed increased sensitivity to fumonisin B1 and an accompanying strong increase in LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Overexpression lines also were found to have reduced activity of the class I ceramide synthase that uses C16 fatty acid acyl-coenzyme A and dihydroxy LCB substrates but increased activity of class II ceramide synthases that use very-long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A and trihydroxy LCB substrates. RNAi suppression lines, in contrast, displayed increased class I ceramide synthase activity but reduced class II ceramide synthase activity. These findings indicate that ORM mediation of SPT activity differentially regulates functionally distinct ceramide synthase activities as part of a broader sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory network. PMID:27506241

  15. Central command differentially affects aortic and carotid sinus baroreflexes at the onset of spontaneous motor activity.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Ishida, Tomoko; Endo, Kana; Liang, Nan

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that central command provides selective inhibition of the cardiomotor component of aortic (AOR) baroreflex during exercise, preserving carotid sinus (CS) baroreflex. To further explore the differential effects of central command on the arterial baroreflexes, we surgically separated the AOR and CS baroreflex systems, to identify the input-output relationship of each baroreflex system using brief occlusion of the abdominal aorta in decerebrate cats. Baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate (HR) was estimated from the baroreflex ratio between the pressor and bradycardia responses during aortic occlusion and from the slope of the baroreflex curve between the changes in mean arterial blood pressure (ΔMAP) and ΔHR. Spontaneous motor activity accompanied the abrupt increases in HR and MAP. When aortic occlusion was given at the onset of spontaneous motor activity, the baroreflex ratio was blunted to 11-25% of the preexercise value in either intact or AOR baroreflex. The slope of the ΔMAP-ΔHR curve was similarly attenuated at the onset of spontaneous motor activity to 11-18% of the slope during the preexercise period. In contrast, in the CS baroreflex, the baroreflex ratio and curve slope were not significantly (P>0.05) altered by spontaneous motor activity. An upward shift of the baroreflex curve appeared at the onset of spontaneous motor activity, irrespective of the intact, AOR, and CS baroreflex conditions. Taken together, it is concluded that central command provides selective inhibition for the cardiomotor limb of the aortic baroreflex at the onset of exercise, which in turn contributes to an instantaneous increase in HR.

  16. Physical activity interventions differentially affect exercise task and barrier self-efficacy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Torrance J.; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Winner, Larry; Janelle, Christopher M.; Middleton, Kathryn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have yet to establish how interventions to increase physical activity influence specific self-efficacy beliefs. The current study sought to quantify the effect of interventions to increase physical activity among healthy adults on exercise task (EXSE) and barrier self-efficacy (BSE) via meta-analysis. Intervention characteristics associated with self-efficacy and physical activity changes were also identified. Methods A systematic database search and manual searches through reference lists of related publications were conducted for articles on randomized, controlled physical activity interventions. Published intervention studies reporting changes in physical activity behavior and either EXSE or BSE in healthy adults were eligible for inclusion. Results Of the 1,080 studies identified, 20 were included in the meta-analyses. Interventions had a significant effect of g = 0.208, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.027, 0.388], p < .05, on EXSE; g = 0.128, 95% CI [0.05, 0.20], p < .05 on BSE; and g = 0.335 95% CI [0.196, 0.475], p < .001, on physical activity. Moderator analyses indicated shorter interventions that did not include structured exercise sessions effectively increased EXSE and physical activity, whereas long interventions improved BSE. Interventions that did not provide support increased BSE and physical activity levels. Further, interventions that did not require the use of daily exercise logs improved EXSE and physical activity behavior. Conclusion Interventions designed to increase physical activity differentially influenced EXSE and BSE. EXSE appeared to play a more significant role during exercise adoption, whereas BSE was involved in the maintenance of exercise behavior. Recommendations are offered for the design of future interventions. PMID:23957904

  17. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine differentially affects hemostatic parameters in diverse conditions in rats: an investigation via thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Cam, Betul; Sagdilek, Engin; Yildirim, Nalan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-04-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has several physiological and pharmacological effects on various bodily functions, including hemostasis. This study determined the impact of CDP-choline on hemostasis in a trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) model in rats or under in vitro conditions or after chronic treatment via thromboelastography. Trauma-hemorrhage resuscitation was induced, and either saline (1 mL/kg) or CDP-choline (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously just prior to resuscitation in the T-H group and at the same time point in the sham-control group. The effects of CDP-choline on thromboelastogram parameters, coagulation markers, and platelet aggregation were investigated under in vitro conditions (1.5 mM, 30- or 3-min incubation in blood or plasma) and after chronic use (50 mg/kg, i.p., 10 days). Acute CDP-choline treatment was shown to decrease the initial and maximum clot formation time, accelerate clotting rapidity, reduce the lysis percentage, and increase the coagulation index in the T-H resuscitation group, whereas the same treatment in the sham-control rats did not alter any of the thromboelastogram parameters. However, the incubation of whole blood with CDP-choline prolonged the initial and maximum clot formation time, and CDP-choline treatment significantly decreased the slopes of the disaggregation and aggregation curves when platelets were stimulated with ADP and collagen, respectively. Interestingly, the chronic use of this drug did not influence any of these hemostatic parameters. These data implicate that acute but not chronic CDP-choline administration may differentially alter the hemostatic parameters under diverse conditions. The drug may produce a hypercoagulable state in activated situations but cause opposite effects under normal in vitro conditions.

  18. Short- and long-term treatment with modafinil differentially affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, M D; Ellwardt, E; Storch, A

    2014-10-10

    The generation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult brain has been demonstrated in many species including humans and is suggested to have functional relevance for learning and memory. The wake promoting drug modafinil has popularly been categorized as a so-called neuroenhancer due to its positive effects on cognition. We here show that short- and long-term treatment with modafinil differentially effects hippocampal neurogenesis. We used different thymidine analogs (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), chlorodeoxyuridine (CldU), iododeoxyuridine (IdU)) and labeling protocols to investigate distinct regulative events during hippocampal neurogenesis, namely cell proliferation and survival. Eight-week-old mice that were treated with modafinil (64mg/kg, i.p.) every 24h for 4days show increased proliferation in the dentate gyrus indicated by BrdU-labeling and more newborn granule cells 3weeks after treatment. Short-term treatment for 4days also enhanced the number of postmitotic calretinin-expressing progenitor cells that were labeled with BrdU 1week prior to treatment indicating an increased survival of new born immature granule cells. Interestingly, long-term treatment for 14days resulted in an increased number of newborn Prox1(+) granule cells, but we could not detect an additive effect of the prolonged treatment on proliferation and survival of newborn cells. Moreover, daily administration for 14days did not influence the number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus. Together, modafinil has an acute impact on precursor cell proliferation as well as survival but loses this ability during longer treatment durations.

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Does Not Affect MicroRNA Expression When Suppressing Human Th17 Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Liang, Zibin; Kuang, Ying; Jia, Fujie; Yang, Yaqi; Kang, Miaomiao; Xie, Muke; Li, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is an import regulator of T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation, but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. In the present study, we aimed to detect the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) during human Th17 differentiation and evaluate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the bioactive form of vitamin D, on Th17 differentiation and miRNA expression. Material/Methods We cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro and activated them with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in the presence of Th17-promoting cytokines interleukin (IL)-23, IL-1β, TGF-β1, and IL-6 for 72 hours. 1,25(OH)2D3 was added to the medium at a final concentration of 100 nM on day 0. The production of IL-17A in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of miRNAs during Th17 differentiation were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Six miRNAs were found to be dysregulated during human Th17 differentiation. Of these miRNAs, hsa-miR-155 was significantly up-regulated (median fold change: 3.61, P<0.05), whereas hsa-miR-20b, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-210, and hsa-miR-301a were significantly down-regulated (median fold change: 0.44, 0.37, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.26, respectively, P<0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly decreased IL-17A production (median [interquartile range], 745.7 [473.5] pg/mL vs. 2535.4 [2153.3] pg/mL, P<0.05). However, expression of these miRNAs was not changed after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Conclusions 1,25(OH)2D3 suppressed human Th17 differentiation without affecting miRNA expression. PMID:28133358

  20. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  1. Hyperglycemia Differentially Affects Maternal and Fetal DNA Integrity and DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Jusciele B.; Santos, Janine H.; Lorenzon-Ojea, Aline Rodrigues; Corrêa-Silva, Simone; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Rocha, Clarissa Ribeiro; Rudge, Marilza V.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Bevilacqua, Estela; Calderon, Iracema M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the DNA damage and its cellular response in blood samples from both mother and the umbilical cord of pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia. Methods: A total of 144 subjects were divided into 4 groups: normoglycemia (ND; 46 cases), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH; 30 cases), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; 45 cases) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2; 23 cases). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) isolation and/or leukocytes from whole maternal and umbilical cord blood were obtained from all groups at delivery. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage were measured by gene-specific quantitative PCR, and the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway were assessed by real-time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Apoptosis was measured in vitro experiments by caspase 3/7 activity and ATP levels. Results: GDM and DM2 groups were characterized by an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, an increase in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and decreased expression of mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1) involved in BER. The levels of hyperglycemia were associated with the in vitro apoptosis pathway. Blood levels of DNA damage in umbilical cord were similar among the groups. Newborns of diabetic mothers had increased expression of BER mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1, POLβ and FEN1). A diabetes-like environment was unable to induce apoptosis in the umbilical cord blood cells. Conclusions: Our data show relevant asymmetry between maternal and fetal blood cell susceptibility to DNA damage and apoptosis induction. Maternal cells seem to be more predisposed to changes in an adverse glucose environment. This may be due to differential ability in upregulating multiple genes involved in the activation of DNA repair response, especially the BER mechanism. However if this study shows a more effective adaptive response by the fetal organism, it also calls for

  2. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 neurodegeneration differentially affects error-based and strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Díaz, Rosalinda; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Medrano-Montero, Jacqeline; Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimé; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2013-12-01

    There are different types of visuomotor learning. Among the most studied is motor error-based learning where the sign and magnitude of the error are used to update motor commands. However, there are other instances where individuals show visuomotor learning even if the sign or magnitude of the error is precluded. Studies with patients suggest that the former learning is impaired after cerebellar lesions, while basal ganglia lesions disrupt the latter. Nevertheless, the cerebellar role is not restricted only to error-based learning, but it also contributes to several cognitive processes. Therefore, here, we tested if cerebellar ataxia patients are affected in two tasks, one that depends on error-based learning and the other that prevents the use of error-based learning. Our results showed that cerebellar patients have deficits in both visuomotor tasks; however, while error-based learning tasks deficits correlated with the motor impairments, the motor error-dependent task did not correlate with any motor measure.

  3. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  4. Paliperidone and aripiprazole differentially affect the strength of calcium-secretion coupling in female pituitary lactotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Kucka, Marek; Tomić, Melanija; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Budimirovic, Dejan B.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse in vivo effect of antipsychotic medications that are used in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, paliperidone and aripiprazole, on cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release in female rat pituitary lactotrophs in vitro. Dopamine inhibited spontaneous cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release. In the presence of dopamine, paliperidone rescued cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas aripiprazole was only partially effective. In the absence of dopamine, paliperidone stimulated cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release, whereas aripiprazole inhibited signaling and secretion more potently but less effectively than dopamine. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP production was facilitated by paliperidone and inhibited by aripiprazole, although the latter was not as effective as dopamine. None of the compounds affected prolactin transcript activity, intracellular prolactin accumulation, or growth hormone secretion. These data indicate that paliperidone has dual hyperprolactinemic actions in lactotrophs i) by preserving the coupling of spontaneous electrical activity and prolactin secretion in the presence of dopamine and ii) by inhibiting intrinsic dopamine receptor activity in the absence of dopamine, leading to enhanced calcium signaling and secretion. In contrast, aripiprazole acts on prolactin secretion by attenuating, but not abolishing, calcium-secretion coupling. PMID:25754735

  5. Brivaracetam Differentially Affects Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents Without Impairing Sustained Repetitive Firing in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziany, Isabelle; André, Véronique Marie; Leclère, Nathalie; Hanon, Etienne; Ghisdal, Philippe; Wolff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Brivaracetam (BRV) is an antiepileptic drug in Phase III clinical development. BRV binds to synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein and is also suggested to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). To evaluate whether the effect of BRV on VGSCs represents a relevant mechanism participating in its antiepileptic properties, we explored the pharmacology of BRV on VGSCs in different cell systems and tested its efficacy at reducing the sustained repetitive firing (SRF). Methods Brivaracetam investigations on the voltage-gated sodium current (INa) were performed in N1E-155 neuroblastoma cells, cultured rat cortical neurons, and adult mouse CA1 neurons. SRF was measured in cultured cortical neurons and in CA1 neurons. All BRV (100–300 μM) experiments were performed in comparison with 100 μM carbamazepine (CBZ). Results Brivaracetam and CBZ reduced INa in N1E-115 cells (30% and 40%, respectively) and primary cortical neurons (21% and 47%, respectively) by modulating the fast-inactivated state of VGSCs. BRV, in contrast to CBZ, did not affect INa in CA1 neurons and SRF in cortical and CA1 neurons. CBZ consistently inhibited neuronal SRF by 75–93%. Conclusions The lack of effect of BRV on SRF in neurons suggests that the reported inhibition of BRV on VGSC currents does not contribute to its antiepileptic properties. PMID:25444522

  6. Hyperosmotic and isosmotic shrinkage differentially affect protein phosphorylation and ion transport.

    PubMed

    Koltsova, Svetlana V; Akimova, Olga A; Kotelevtsev, Sergei V; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Orlov, Sergei N

    2012-02-01

    In the present work, we compared the outcome of hyperosmotic and isosmotic shrinkage on ion transport and protein phosphorylation in C11-MDCK cells resembling intercalated cells from collecting ducts and in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the rat aorta. Hyperosmotic shrinkage was triggered by cell exposure to hypertonic medium, whereas isosmotic shrinkage was evoked by cell transfer from an hypoosmotic to an isosmotic environment. Despite a similar cell volume decrease of 40%-50%, the consequences of hyperosmotic and isosmotic shrinkage on cellular functions were sharply different. In C11-MDCK and VSMC, hyperosmotic shrinkage completely inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Na(+),P(i) cotransport. In contrast, in both types of cells isosmotic shrinkage slightly increased rather than suppressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and did not change Na(+),P(i) cotransport. In C11-MDCK cells, phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases was augmented in hyperosmotically shrunken cells by ∼7- and 2-fold, respectively, but was not affected in cells subjected to isosmotic shrinkage. These results demonstrate that the data obtained in cells subjected to hyperosmotic shrinkage cannot be considered as sufficient proof implicating cell volume perturbations in the regulation of cellular functions under isosmotic conditions.

  7. Vanillin differentially affects azoxymethane-injected rat colon carcinogenesis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable.

  9. The diageotropica gene differentially affects auxin and cytokinin responses throughout development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Coenen, C; Lomax, T L

    1998-05-01

    The interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin throughout plant development are complex, and genetic investigations of the interdependency of auxin and cytokinin signaling have been limited. We have characterized the cytokinin sensitivity of the auxin-resistant diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a range of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated responses. Intact, etiolated dgt seedlings showed cross-resistance to cytokinin with respect to root elongation, but cytokinin effects on hypocotyl growth and ethylene synthesis in these seedlings were not impaired by the dgt mutation. Seven-week-old, green wild-type and dgt plants were also equally sensitive to cytokinin with respect to shoot growth and hypocotyl and internode elongation. The effects of cytokinin and the dgt mutation on these processes appeared additive. In tissue culture organ regeneration from dgt hypocotyl explants showed reduced sensitivity to auxin but normal sensitivity to cytokinin, and the effects of cytokinin and the mutation were again additive. However, although callus induction from dgt hypocotyl explants required auxin and cytokinin, dgt calli did not show the typical concentration-dependent stimulation of growth by either auxin or cytokinin observed in wild-type cells. Cross-resistance of the dgt mutant to cytokinin thus was found to be limited to a small subset of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated growth processes affected by the dgt mutation, indicating that auxin and cytokinin regulate plant growth through both shared and separate signaling pathways.

  10. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  11. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory.

  12. Paliperidone and aripiprazole differentially affect the strength of calcium-secretion coupling in female pituitary lactotrophs.

    PubMed

    Kucka, Marek; Tomić, Melanija; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S; Budimirovic, Dejan B

    2015-03-10

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse in vivo effect of antipsychotic medications that are used in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, paliperidone and aripiprazole, on cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release in female rat pituitary lactotrophs in vitro. Dopamine inhibited spontaneous cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release. In the presence of dopamine, paliperidone rescued cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas aripiprazole was only partially effective. In the absence of dopamine, paliperidone stimulated cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release, whereas aripiprazole inhibited signaling and secretion more potently but less effectively than dopamine. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP production was facilitated by paliperidone and inhibited by aripiprazole, although the latter was not as effective as dopamine. None of the compounds affected prolactin transcript activity, intracellular prolactin accumulation, or growth hormone secretion. These data indicate that paliperidone has dual hyperprolactinemic actions in lactotrophs i) by preserving the coupling of spontaneous electrical activity and prolactin secretion in the presence of dopamine and ii) by inhibiting intrinsic dopamine receptor activity in the absence of dopamine, leading to enhanced calcium signaling and secretion. In contrast, aripiprazole acts on prolactin secretion by attenuating, but not abolishing, calcium-secretion coupling.

  13. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  14. Endometriosis Located Proximal to or Remote From the Uterus Differentially Affects Uterine Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Hanyia; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Krikun, Graciela; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms that lead to the altered uterine gene expression in women with endometriosis are poorly understood. Are these changes in gene expression mediated by proximity to endometriotic lesions or is endometriosis a systemic disease where the effect is independent of proximity to the uterus? To answer this question, we created endometriosis in a murine model either in the peritoneal cavity (proximal) or at a subcutaneous remote site (distal). The expression of several genes that are involved in endometrial receptivity (homeobox A10 [Hoxa10], homeobox A11 [Hoxa11], insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 [Igfbp1], Kruppel-like factor 9 [Klf9], and progesterone receptor [Pgr]) was measured in the eutopic endometrium of mice transplanted with either proximal or distal endometriosis lesions. Decreased expression of Hoxa10, Igfbp1, Klf9, and total Pgr genes was observed in the eutopic endometrium of mice with peritoneal endometriosis. In the mice with distal lesions, overall expression of these genes was not as severely affected, however, Igfbp1 expression was similarly decreased and the effect on Pgr was more pronounced. Endometriosis does have a systemic effect that varies with distance to the end organ. However, even remote disease selectively and profoundly alters the expression of genes such as Pgr. This is the first controlled experiment demonstrating that endometriosis is not simply a local peritoneal disease. Selective alteration of genes critical for endometrial receptivity and endometriosis propagation may be systemic. Similarly, systemic effects of endometriosis on other organs may also be responsible for the widespread manifestations of the disease.

  15. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    PubMed

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

  16. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  17. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    hippocampal subregions that may contribute to the altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, which may underlie enhanced negative affective symptoms and perpetuation of the addiction cycle. PMID:25463524

  18. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans.

  19. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  20. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    PubMed

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat.

  1. Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties.

    PubMed

    Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Thompson, William R; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2013-05-31

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury.

  2. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Galinato, M H; Orio, L; Mandyam, C D

    2015-02-12

    allostatic changes in hippocampal subregions that may contribute to the altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, which may underlie enhanced negative affective symptoms and perpetuation of the addiction cycle.

  3. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Flores Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Kornhauser-Araujo, Carlos; Mendoza-Garrido, M. Eugenia; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Sabanero-López, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:25477771

  4. Postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional gist and detail in naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Sex differences in emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, to date, no work has explored how a postlearning stressor might modulate the influence of sex hormone status on memory for gist and peripheral detail in an emotional versus neutral context. Here, we tested 3 predictions. First, compared with naturally cycling (NC) women in the luteal phase, women on hormonal contraception (HC) would have significantly blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to physical stress. Second, postlearning stress would enhance detail and gist memory from an emotional story in NC women, and finally, postlearning stress would not affect emotional memory for details or gist in HC women. Healthy NC and HC women viewed a brief, narrated story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. Immediately after, cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure was administered. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. NC women exhibited significantly greater cortisol increases to CPS compared with HC women. NC women who viewed the emotional story and were administered CPS recalled the most peripheral details overall and more gist from the emotional compared with the neutral story. In HC women, however, the postlearning cortisol release did not affect memory for gist or peripheral details from the emotional or neutral story in any way. Additionally, NC and HC women performed similarly on measures of attention and arousal. These findings suggest that in women, postlearning stress differentially affects memory for emotional information depending on their hormonal contraceptive status.

  5. Sexual conflict and speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G A; Partridge, L

    1998-01-01

    We review the significance of two forms of sexual conflict (different evolutionary interests of the two sexes) for genetic differentiation of populations and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Conflicting selection on the alleles at a single locus can occur in males and females if the sexes have different optima for a trait, and there are pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes for it. There will then be selection for sex limitation and hence sexual dimorphism. This sex limitation could break down in hybrids and reduce their fitness. Pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes could also affect the likelihood of mating in interpopulation encounters. Conflict can also occur between (sex-limited) loci that determine behaviour in males and those that determine behaviour in females. Reproductive isolation may occur by rapid coevolution of male trait and female mating preference. This would tend to generate assortative mating on secondary contact, hence promoting speciation. Sexual conflict resulting from sensory exploitation, polyspermy and the cost of mating could result in high levels of interpopulation mating. If females evolve resistance to make pre- and postmating manipulation, males from one population could be more successful with females from the other, because females would have evolved resistance to their own (but not to the allopatric) males. Between-locus sexual conflict could also occur as a result of conflict between males and females of different populations over the production of unfit hybrids. We develop models which show that females are in general selected to resist such matings and males to persist, and this could have a bearing on both the initial level of interpopulation matings and the likelihood that reinforcement will occur. In effect, selection on males usually acts to promote gene flow and to restrict premating isolation, whereas selection on females usually acts in the reverse direction. We review theoretical models

  6. Prenatal Influence of an Androgen Agonist and Antagonist on the Differentiation of the Ovine Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus in Male and Female Lamb Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Radhika C.; Estill, Charles T.; Scheldrup, Melissa; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Montilla, Hernán J.

    2014-01-01

    The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) is 2 times larger in rams than in ewes. Sexual differentiation of the oSDN is produced by testosterone exposure during the critical period occurring between gestational day (GD)60 and GD90 (term, 147 d). We tested the hypothesis that testosterone acts through the androgen receptor to control development of the male-typical oSDN. In experiment 1, pregnant ewes received injections of vehicle, androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, or nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) propionate during the critical period. Fetuses were delivered at GD135. Both antagonist and agonist treatments significantly reduced mean oSDN volume in males but had no effects in females. Experiment 2, we analyzed the effect of treatments on the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to determine whether compensatory changes in hormone secretion occurred that could explain the effect of DHT. Pregnant ewes were injected with vehicle, flutamide, or DHT propionate from GD60 to GD84, and fetuses were delivered on GD85. Flutamide significantly increased LH and testosterone in males, whereas DHT significantly decreased both hormones. In females, LH was unaffected by flutamide but significantly reduced by DHT exposure. DHT significantly decreased pituitary gonadotropin and hypothalamic kisspeptin mRNA expression in males and females. These results suggest that androgen receptor mediates the effect of testosterone on oSDN masculinization, because this process was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in eugonadal males. In contrast, the reduction of oSDN volume observed after DHT exposure appears to be mediated by a negative feedback mechanism exerted on the hypothalamus to reduce LH and testosterone secretion. The reduced androgen exposure most likely accounted for the decreased oSDN volume. We conclude that, during the critical period, the male reproductive axis in long gestation species, such as sheep, is sufficiently developed

  7. Mass media influences on sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jane D

    2002-02-01

    The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media portrayals reinforce a relatively consistent set of sexual and relationship norms, and the media rarely depict sexually responsible models. More longitudinal research, especially with early adolescents is needed to learn more about how media content is attended to, interpreted, and incorporated into developing sexual lives.

  8. Linking the response of endocrine regulated genes to adverse effects on sex differentiation improves comprehension of aromatase inhibition in a Fish Sexual Development Test.

    PubMed

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Westphal-Settele, Kathi; Brückner, Jasmin; Konradi, Sabine; Schiller, Viktoria; Schäfers, Christoph; Teigeler, Matthias; Fenske, Martina

    2016-07-01

    , this study demonstrated that the existing Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for aromatase inhibition in fish can be translated to the life-stage of sexual differentiation. We were further able to identify MoA-specific marker gene expression which can be instrumental in defining new measurable key events (KE) of existing or new AOPs related to endocrine disruption.

  9. Factors Associated with the Sexual Experiences of Underprivileged Mexican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Franco, Raquel; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents.…

  10. Becoming Irreplaceable: How Comparisons to the Partner’s Alternatives Differentially Affect Low and High Self-Esteem People

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Sandra L.; Leder, Sadie; McClellan, Jennifer C. D.; Holmes, John G.; Pinkus, Rebecca T.; Harris, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    It is proposed that people are motivated to feel hard to replace in romantic relationships because feeling irreplaceable fosters trust in a partner’s continued responsiveness. By contrast, feeling replaceable motivates compensatory behavior aimed at strengthening the partner’s commitment to the relationship. A correlational study of dating couples and 2 experiments examined how satiating/thwarting the goal of feeling irreplaceable differentially affects relationship perception and behavior for low and high self-esteem people. The results revealed that satiating the goal of feeling irreplaceable increases trust for people low in self-esteem. In contrast, thwarting the goal of feeling irreplaceable increases compensatory behaviors meant to prove one’s indispensability for people high in self-esteem. PMID:20161401

  11. Glutamine synthetase I-deficiency in Mesorhizobium loti differentially affects nodule development and activity in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Thapanapongworakul, Pilunthana; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Van Dao, Tan; Asahi, Toshimasa; Tada, Kuninao; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Mika

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the effect of glutamine synthetase (GSI) activity in Mesorhizobium loti on the symbiosis between the host plant, Lotus japonicus, and the bacteroids. We used a signature-tagged mutant of M. loti (STM30) with a transposon inserted into the GSI (mll0343) gene. The L. japonicus plants inoculated with STM30 had significantly more nodules, and the occurrence of senesced nodules was much higher than in plants inoculated with the wild-type. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per nodule inoculated with STM30 was lowered compared to the control. Also, the concentration of chlorophyll, glutamine, and asparagine in leaves of STM30-infected plants was found to be reduced. Taken together, these data demonstrate that a GSI deficiency in M. loti differentially affects legume-rhizobia symbiosis by modifying nodule development and metabolic processes.

  12. IL-10 conditioning of human skin affects the distribution of migratory dendritic cell subsets and functional T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lindenberg, Jelle J; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Sombroek, Claudia C; Lougheed, Sinéad M; Hooijberg, Erik; Stam, Anita G M; Santegoets, Saskia J A M; Tijssen, Henk J; Buter, Jan; Pinedo, Herbert M; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Scheper, Rik J; Koenen, Hans J P M; van de Ven, Rieneke; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2013-01-01

    In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC) and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14(+)CD141(+)DC-SIGN(+) DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a(+) subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8(+) T cells, migration of immature CD14(+) DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance.

  13. Plant-mediated interactions between two herbivores differentially affect a subsequently arriving third herbivore in populations of wild cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kroes, A; Stam, J M; David, A; Boland, W; van Loon, J J A; Dicke, M; Poelman, E H

    2016-11-01

    Plants are part of biodiverse communities and frequently suffer from attack by multiple herbivorous insects. Plant responses to these herbivores are specific for insect feeding guilds: aphids and caterpillars induce different plant phenotypes. Moreover, plants respond differentially to single or dual herbivory, which may cascade into a chain of interactions in terms of resistance to other community members. Whether differential responses to single or dual herbivory have consequences for plant resistance to yet a third herbivore is unknown. We assessed the effects of single or dual herbivory by Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and/or Plutella xylostella caterpillars on resistance of plants from three natural populations of wild cabbage to feeding by caterpillars of Mamestra brassicae. We measured plant gene expression and phytohormone concentrations to illustrate mechanisms involved in induced responses. Performance of both B. brassicae and P. xylostella was reduced when feeding simultaneously with the other herbivore, compared to feeding alone. Gene expression and phytohormone concentrations in plants exposed to dual herbivory were different from those found in plants exposed to herbivory by either insect alone. Plants previously induced by both P. xylostella and B. brassicae negatively affected growth of the subsequently arriving M. brassicae. Furthermore, induced responses varied between wild cabbage populations. Feeding by multiple herbivores differentially activates plant defences, which has plant-mediated negative consequences for a subsequently arriving herbivore. Plant population-specific responses suggest that plant populations adapt to the specific communities of insect herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of plant defence plasticity in response to multiple insect attacks.

  14. Age-related BMAL1 change affects mouse bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteo-differentiation potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yijia; Xu, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Cui; Chen, Yangxi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aging people's bone regeneration potential is always impaired. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) contain progenitors of osteoblasts. Donor age may affect MSCs’ proliferation and differentiation potential, but the genomic base is still unknown. Due to recent research's indication that a core circadian component, brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 protein (BMAL1), has a role in premature aging, we investigated the normal aging mechanism in mice with their MSCs and Bmal1 gene/protein level. Material and methods 1, 6 and 16 month old C57BL/6 mice were used and the bone marrow stromal cells were gained and cultured at early passage. Bmal1 gene and protein level were detected in these cells. Marrow stromal cells were also induced to differentiate to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Three groups of mice MSCs were compared on proliferation by flow cytometry, on cell senescence by SA-β-gal expression and after osteo-induction on osteogenic potential by the expression of osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Results Bmal1 gene and protein level as well as S-phase fraction of the cell cycle decreased in MSCs along with the aging process. At the same time, SA-β-gal+ levels increased, especially in the aged mice MSCs. When induced to be osteogenic, Osx gene expression and ALP activity declined in the mid-age and aged mice MSCs, while OCN protein secretion deteriorated in the aged mice MSCs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that mouse MSCs changed with their proliferation and osteo-differentiation abilities at different aging stages, and that Bmal1 is related to the normal aging process in MSCs. PMID:22457671

  15. Differentially expressed proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affected by amoebic gill disease.

    PubMed

    Valdenegro-Vega, Victoria A; Crosbie, Phil; Bridle, Andrew; Leef, Melanie; Wilson, Richard; Nowak, Barbara F

    2014-09-01

    The external surfaces of fish, such as gill and skin, are covered by mucus, which forms a thin interface between the organism and water. Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is a parasitic condition caused by Neoparamoeba perurans that affects salmonids worldwide. This disease induces excessive mucus production in the gills. The host immune response to AGD is not fully understood, and research tools such as genomics and proteomics could be useful in providing further insight. Gill and skin mucus samples were obtained from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which were infected with N. perurans on four successive occasions. NanoLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to identify proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon affected by AGD. A total of 186 and 322 non-redundant proteins were identified in gill and skin mucus respectively, based on stringent filtration criteria, and statistics demonstrated that 52 gill and 42 skin mucus proteins were differentially expressed in mucus samples from AGD-affected fish. By generating protein-protein interaction networks, some of these proteins formed part of cell to cell signalling and inflammation pathways, such as C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein 1, granulin, cathepsin, angiogenin-1. In addition to proteins that were entirely novel in the context in the host response to N. perurans, our results have confirmed the presence of protein markers in mucus that have been previously predicted on the basis of modified mRNA expression, such as anterior gradient-2 protein, annexin A-1 and complement C3 factor. This first proteomic analysis of AGD-affected salmon provides new information on the effect of AGD on protein composition of gill and skin mucus. Future research should focus on better understanding of the role these components play in the response against infection with N. perurans.

  16. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  17. Melatonin-receptor-1-deficiency affects neurogenic differentiation factor immunoreaction in pancreatic islets and enteroendocrine cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Shalabi, Andree; Fischer, Claudia; Korf, Horst-Werner; von Gall, Charlotte

    2013-09-01

    Neurogenic differentiation factor (NeuroD) is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of neurons and in the control of energy balance and metabolism. It plays a key role in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Melatonin is an important rhythmic endocrine signal within the circadian system of mammals and modulates insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. In the mouse pars tuberalis, NeuroD mRNA levels show day/night variation, which is independent of the molecular clock gene mPER1 but depends on the functional melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). So far, little is known about the effect of melatonin on NeuroD synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, NeuroD protein levels and cellular localization were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in pancreatic islets and duodenal enteroendocrine cells of MT1- and mPER1-deficienct mice. In addition, the localization of NeuroD-positive cells was analyzed by double-immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy. In duodenal enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic islets of WT and PER1-deficient mice, NeuroD immunoreaction showed a peak during the early subjective night. In contrast, this peak was absent in MT1-deficent mice. These data suggest that melatonin, by acting on MT1 receptors, affects NeuroD expression in the gastrointestinal tract and thus might contribute to circadian regulation in metabolic functions.

  18. Special AT-rich Binding Protein-2 (SATB2) Differentially Affects Disease-causing p63 Mutant Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jacky; Grant, R. Ian; Kaplan, David R.; Irwin, Meredith S.

    2011-01-01

    p63, a p53 family member, is critical for proper skin and limb development and directly regulates gene expression in the ectoderm. Mice lacking p63 exhibit skin and craniofacial defects including cleft palate. In humans p63 mutations are associated with several distinct developmental syndromes. p63 sterile-α-motif domain, AEC (ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting)-associated mutations are associated with a high prevalence of orofacial clefting disorders, which are less common in EEC (ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting) patients with DNA binding domain p63 mutations. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations differentially influence p63 function remain unclear, and interactions with other proteins implicated in craniofacial development have not been identified. Here, we show that AEC p63 mutations affect the ability of the p63 protein to interact with special AT-rich binding protein-2 (SATB2), which has recently also been implicated in the development of cleft palate. p63 and SATB2 are co-expressed early in development in the ectoderm of the first and second branchial arches, two essential sites where signaling is required for craniofacial patterning. SATB2 attenuates p63-mediated gene expression of perp (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a critical downstream target gene during development, and specifically decreases p63 perp promoter binding. Interestingly, AEC but not EEC p63 mutations affect the ability of p63 to interact with SATB2 and the inhibitory effects of SATB2 on p63 transactivation of perp are most pronounced for AEC-associated p63 mutations. Our findings reveal a novel gain-of-function property of AEC-causing p63 mutations and identify SATB2 as the first p63 binding partner that differentially influences AEC and EEC p63 mutant proteins. PMID:21965674

  19. Genomic organization and splicing evolution of the doublesex gene, a Drosophila regulator of sexual differentiation, in the dengue and yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, doublesex (dsx) is the double-switch gene at the bottom of the somatic sex determination cascade that determines the differentiation of sexually dimorphic traits. Homologues of dsx are functionally conserved in various dipteran species, including the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. They show a striking conservation of sex-specific regulation, based on alternative splicing, and of the encoded sex-specific proteins, which are transcriptional regulators of downstream terminal genes that influence sexual differentiation of cells, tissues and organs. Results In this work, we report on the molecular characterization of the dsx homologue in the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Aeadsx). Aeadsx produces sex-specific transcripts by alternative splicing, which encode isoforms with a high degree of identity to Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster homologues. Interestingly, Aeadsx produces an additional novel female-specific splicing variant. Genomic comparative analyses between the Aedes and Anopheles dsx genes revealed a partial conservation of the exon organization and extensive divergence in the intron lengths. An expression analysis showed that Aeadsx transcripts were present from early stages of development and that sex-specific regulation starts at least from late larval stages. The analysis of the female-specific untranslated region (UTR) led to the identification of putative regulatory cis-elements potentially involved in the sex-specific splicing regulation. The Aedes dsx sex-specific splicing regulation seems to be more complex with the respect of other dipteran species, suggesting slightly novel evolutionary trajectories for its regulation and hence for the recruitment of upstream splicing regulators. Conclusions This study led to uncover the molecular evolution of Aedes aegypti dsx splicing regulation with the respect of the more closely related Culicidae Anopheles gambiae orthologue

  20. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reproductive System Gynecomastia Help! Is This My Body? Male Reproductive System When Will I Start Developing? Why Are My ... Erection When Waking Up? Is My Penis Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ...

  1. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Irregular. What's Going On? Pap Smears Pelvic Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... My Monthly Cycle Go Back to Normal With PCOS Treatment? For Guys Can I Stop Myself From ...

  2. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a healthy life Mental health for men Sexual health for men Male infertility Prostate health Sexual problems ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Men's Health > Sexual health for men Men's Health This information in Spanish ( ...

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age. Sex and aging Can older adults remain sexually active? ... from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into ...

  4. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs?

    PubMed

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-10-01

    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  5. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... how past experiences may be affecting your current sexuality. Glossary Depression: Feeling of sadness for periods of at least 2 weeks. Dyspareunia: Pain with intercourse. Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries. Hormones: Substances produced ...

  6. The implications of sexual narcissism for sexual and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura

    2013-08-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.

  7. The Implications of Sexual Narcissism for Sexual and Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145

  8. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  9. The synthetic gestagen Levonorgestrel disrupts sexual development in Xenopus laevis by affecting gene expression of pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Claudia; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Trubiroha, Achim; Krüger, Angela; Viehmann, Viola; Wiegand, Claudia; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, Xenopus laevis tadpoles were chronically exposed to four concentrations of the synthetic gestagen Levonorgestrel (LNG; 10(-11), 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M) starting at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 48 until completion of metamorphosis. At NF 58 and 66, brain-pituitary and gonad samples were taken for gene expression analyses of gonadotropins and gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. Exposure to 10(-9) and 10(-8)M LNG until NF 58 repressed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) β in both genders. This decrease was persistent after further treatment until NF 66 in the 10(-8)M LNG treatment. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β was affected sex-specifically. No effect was present in NF 58 females, whereas LNG at 10(-9) and 10(-8)M significantly increased FSHβ mRNA levels in males. In NF 66 females, 10(-9)M LNG treatment increased FSHβ gene expression, whereas a decrease was observed in NF 66 males exposed to 10(-8)M LNG. In gonads, expression of steroid-5-alpha-reductase was affected sex-specifically with increased mRNA levels in females but repressed levels in males. Gene expression of further gonadal steroidogenic factors was decreased by 10(-8)M LNG in both genders at NF 66. Assessment of gonad gross morphology and histology revealed poorly developed testes in the 10(-8)M LNG treatment. Our results reveal considerable effects of chronic LNG exposure on sexual development of amphibians. The persistent inhibition of LHβ expression concomitant with decreased mRNA levels of gonadal steroidogenic enzymes is suggested to result in the disruption of reproduction in adult amphibians.

  10. Sexual circuitry in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Thomas O; Benton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The sexual behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding paradigm to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of sophisticated animal actions. We discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the genetic hardwiring of the underlying neuronal circuitry, and how pertinent sensory cues are differentially detected and integrated in the male and female brain. We also consider how experience influences these circuits over short timescales, and the evolution of these pathways over longer timescales to endow species-specific sexual displays and responses.

  11. Differential effect of chronic stress on mouse hippocampal memory and affective behavior: Role of major ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Karisetty, Bhanu Chandra; Maitra, Swati; Wahul, Abhipradnya Bipin; Musalamadugu, Anusha; Khandelwal, Nitin; Guntupalli, Sumasri; Garikapati, Ramya; Jhansyrani, Thatiparthi; Kumar, Arvind; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of depression-like pathophysiology in female rodent models are less reported compared to males, despite its higher prevalence in human females. Moreover, the stress-response in brain circuitries including reward and cognition circuitries varies with age or hormonal status of the females. So, to understand the stress-induced mood and cognitive disorders in intact females (with ovaries) and ovariectomized (OVX) females, we studied changes in mouse hippocampus, a functionally heterogeneous neural structure involved in both affective and cognitive behaviors. Here, we used a 6-day Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) paradigm in mice to induce depression and related mood disorders. Interestingly, intact females and OVX females showed difference in mood disorder sub-phenotypes to CUS. Similar to an earlier report of CUS affecting the critical reward circuitry structure the nucleus accumbens differently in females with and without ovaries, cognitive behavior in intact females and OVX females also responded differentially to CUS, as evident from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test results. We report that the presence or absence of ovarian hormones, particularly the estrogen, has a significant impact in altering the hippocampus related spatial memory and affective behavior, in females. Our results also illustrate that estrogen administration improves both reward and cognitive behavior, and plays a significant role in alleviating stress-induced despair behavior and enhancing spatial reference memory following a brief 6-day stressful paradigm. Further, it also indicates that the NMDA receptor subunits, GRIN2A and GRIN2B, might mediate the effects of estrogen in the hippocampal functions, thus suggestive of a translational significance of the finding.

  12. Prenatal Exposures of Male Rats to the Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Impact the Sexual Differentiation Process.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Maksoud, Fatma M; Leasor, Khrystyna R; Butzen, Kate; Braden, Timothy D; Akingbemi, Benson T

    2015-12-01

    The increasing incidence of reproductive anomalies, described as testicular dysgenesis syndrome, is thought to be related to the exposure of the population to chemicals in the environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which have hormonal and antihormonal activity, have attracted public attention due to their presence in consumer products. The present study investigated the effects of BPA and DEHP on reproductive development. Timed-pregnant female rats were exposed to BPA and DEHP by gavage from gestational days 12 to 21. Results showed that prenatal exposures to test chemicals exerted variable effects on steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA binding protein 4 protein expression and increased (P < .05) sex-determining region Y-box 9 and antimüllerian hormone protein in the infantile rat testis compared with levels in the control unexposed animals. Pituitary LHβ and FSHβ subunit protein expression was increased (P < .05) in BPA- and DEHP-exposed prepubertal male rats but were decreased (P < .05) in adult animals relative to control. Exposure to both BPA and DEHP in utero inhibited (P < .05) global DNA hydroxymethylation in the adult testis in association with altered DNA methyltransferase protein expression. Together the present data suggest that altered developmental programming in the testes associated with chemical exposures are related to the disruption of sexual differentiation events and DNA methylation patterns. The chemical-induced effects impact the development of steroidogenic capacity in the adult testis.

  13. Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is sexually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Cusmano, Danielle M; Hadjimarkou, Maria M; Mong, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids.

  14. IL-6 mediates differentiation disorder during spermatogenesis in obesity-associated inflammation by affecting the expression of Zfp637 through the SOCS3/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guizhen; Yuan, Miao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jun; Gong, Di; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lugang

    2016-01-01

    Zfp637 is a recently identified zinc finger protein, and its functions remain largely unknown. Here, we innovatively demonstrate the effects of Zfp637 on the differentiation of mouse spermatogonia and on its downstream target gene SOX2 in vitro. Obesity has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to decreased sexual function and sexual development disorders. We observed higher levels of IL-6 in serum and testis homogenates from obese mice compared with control mice. We also demonstrated that high levels of IL-6 inhibited Zfp637 expression, and we elucidated the underlying mechanisms. SOCS3 overexpression and STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor (AG490) were used to investigate the function of the SOCS3/STAT3 pathway during this process. Our results showed that exposure of mouse spermatogonial cells to high levels of IL-6 inhibited Zfp637 expression by increasing SOCS3 expression and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, further reducing cellular differentiation. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed increasing expression levels of SOCS3 and SOX2, but a reduction of Zfp637 expression, in obese mouse testes. In conclusion, Zfp637 plays a crucial role in spermatogenesis by downregulating SOX2 expression, and IL-6 can decrease the expression of Zfp637 through the SOCS3/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27329259

  15. Effect of androgens on sexual differentiation of pituitary gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit GABA(B) expression.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, María S; Catalano, Paolo N; Bonaventura, María M; Silveyra, Patricia; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A R

    2004-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated a sexually dimorphic ontogenic expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(B)R) in rat pituitary. As sex steroids determine sex-specific expression patterns, we now studied the effect of sex hormones on pituitary GABA(B)R expression. GABA(B)R subunits, measured by Western blot and by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone measured by RIA were determined in two experimental designs: First experimental design: 8- and 15-day-old females (8F, 15F); 8F and 15F treated with 100 mug testosterone propionate (TP) on day 1 of life (8F100TP, 15F100TP), 8- and 15-day-old males (8M, 15M) and 8M and 15M castrated on day 1 (8MC, 15MC). Second experimental design: 8-day-old female and male animals: 8F, 8F100TP, 8F treated with 1 mug/day TP on days 1-4 (8F1TP), 8F treated with the androgen antagonist Flutamide (Flut: 2.5 mg/100 g BW of pregnant mother on days E17-E23) (8F-Flut), 8M, 8MC, 8M treated with Flut as above (8M-Flut) and 8MC-Flut. In these animals, in addition, GABA, glutamate, aspartate and taurine were measured by HPLC in hypothalami and cortex. In the first set of experiments, GABA(B1)R mRNA/protein expression was higher in 8F than in 15F, 8M or 15M. In 8F100TP, GABA(B1)R mRNA/protein decreased to male levels. TP treatment did not alter GABA(B1)R expression in 15F. There was no difference in GABA(B1)R expression between 8M and 15M and neonatal castration did not modify its expression. In the second set of experiments, TP (1 mug) or Flut did not modify GABA(B1)R in 8F, while 100 microg TP continued to decrease GABA(B1)R expression. In 8M, Flut, alone or with castration, increased GABA(B1)R mRNA/protein expression to 8F. Hypothalamic GABA content followed the same pattern as pituitary GABA(B)R expression in 8-day-old animals, suggesting a cross-regulation. With regard to hormonal levels, 100 microg, but not 1 microg TP altered gonadotropins at 8 days, although both

  16. Natural Variation in the VELVET Gene bcvel1 Affects Virulence and Light-Dependent Differentiation in Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Julia; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Simon, Adeline; Traeger, Stefanie; Moraga, Javier; Collado, Isidro González; Viaud, Muriel; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA) formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1). The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions. PMID:23118899

  17. Sexual dimorphism in the Atapuerca-SH hominids: the evidence from the mandibles.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María

    2002-04-01

    The pattern of sexual dimorphism in 15 mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH Middle Pleistocene site, attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, is explored. Two modern human samples of known sex are used as a baseline for establishing sexing criteria. The mandible was divided for analysis into seven study regions and differential expression of sexual dimorphism in these regions is analysed. A total of 40 continuous and 32 discrete variables were scored on the mandibles. The means method given in Regh & Leigh (Am. J. phys. Anthrop.110, 95-104, 1999) was followed for evaluating the potential of correct sex attribution for each variable. On average, the mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH site present a degree of sexual dimorphism about eight points higher than in H. sapiens samples. However, mandibular anatomy of the European Middle Pleistocene hominid records sexual dimorphism differentially. Different areas of the Atapuerca-SH mandibles exhibit quite distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism. For instance, variables of the alveolar arcade present very low or practically no sexual dimorphism. Variables related to overall size of the mandible and symphysis region present a medium degree of sex differences. Finally, ramus height, and gonion and coronoid process present a high degree of sexual dimorphism (indexes of sexual dimorphism are all above 130%). Whether this marked sexual dimorphism in specific anatomical systems affects sexual differences in body size is not completely clear and further studies are needed. Sexual differences detected in the mandible of modern humans have at least two components: differences related to musculo-skeletal development and differences related to a different growth trajectory in males and females (relative development of some of the basal border features). The Atapuerca-SH mandibles display little variation in the basal border, however. The limited variation of this mandibular region may indicate that the pattern of sexual variation in H

  18. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  19. Sexual health and contraception.

    PubMed

    Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods

  20. Prenatal Hypoxia in Different Periods of Embryogenesis Differentially Affects Cell Migration, Neuronal Plasticity, and Rat Behavior in Postnatal Ontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Dmitrii S.; Dubrovskaya, Nadezhda M.; Tumanova, Natalia L.; Zhuravin, Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines, and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5′ethynyl-2′deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns, affects formation of

  1. The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron Type and Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons. To further understand the mechanisms of Dimm function we ectopically expressed Dimm or Dimm together with dInR in a wide range of Dimm positive and Dimm negative peptidergic neurons, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and gut endocrine cells. We provide further evidence that dInR mediated cell growth occurs in a Dimm dependent manner and that one source of insulin-like peptide (DILP) for dInR mediated cell growth in the CNS is DILP6 from glial cells. Expressing both Dimm and dInR in Dimm negative neurons induced growth of cell bodies, whereas dInR alone did not. We also found that Dimm alone can regulate cell growth depending on specific cell type. This may be explained by the finding that the dInR is a direct target of Dimm. Conditional gene targeting experiments showed that Dimm alone could affect cell growth in certain neuron types during metamorphosis or in the adult stage. Another important finding was that ectopic Dimm inhibits apoptosis of several types of neurons normally destined for programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together our results suggest that Dimm plays multiple transcriptional roles at different developmental stages in a cell type-specific manner. In some cell types ectopic Dimm may act together with resident combinatorial code transcription factors and affect terminal differentiation, as well as act in transcriptional networks that participate in long term maintenance

  2. Sexual burglaries and sexual homicide: clinical, forensic, and investigative considerations.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B; Revitch, E

    1999-01-01

    Burglary, the third most common crime after larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft, is rarely the focus of forensic psychiatric study. While most burglaries are motivated simply by material gain, there is a subgroup of burglaries fueled by sexual dynamics. The authors differentiate two types of sexual burglaries: 1) fetish burglaries with overt sexual dynamics; and 2) voyeuristic burglaries, in which the sexual element is often covert and far more subtle. Many forensic practitioners have informally noted the relationship of burglaries to sexual homicide, but this relationship has not otherwise been studied in any detail. In this article, the incidence of (sexual) burglaries by 52 sexual murderers whom the authors evaluated, as well as the incidence in cases reported by others, is reported. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and profiling of unidentified offenders are discussed.

  3. Cyberpornography: Time Use, Perceived Addiction, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Blais-Lecours, Sarah; Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Sabourin, Stéphane; Godbout, Natacha

    2016-11-01

    Using pornography through the Internet is now a common activity even if associated sexual outcomes, including sexual satisfaction, are highly variable. The present study tested a two-step sequential mediation model whereby cyberpornography time use is related to sexual satisfaction through the association with, in a first step, perceived addiction t