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Sample records for affects sexual differentiation

  1. Does atrazine affect larval development and sexual differentiation of South African clawed frogs?

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Urbatzka, Ralph; Springer, Tim; Krueger, Hank; Wolf, Jeffrey; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

    2009-04-01

    The potential impact of atrazine (ATZ) on gonadal malformations in larval Xenopus laevis has been controversially discussed, and a hypothesis has been generated that ATZ might induce the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme aromatase, leading to feminization or demasculinization. Recently, extensive long-term studies clearly indicate that no adverse effect of ATZ on larval development and sexual differentiation could be found. Therefore, to determine potential transient impacts of ATZ on sexual differentiation processes, short-term exposures were conducted using tadpoles treated for 4 days with ATZ at 25 microg/L. The expression levels of the key players for sexual differentiation in amphibians were determined in the brain, assessing aromatase, 5alpha-reductase type 1 (S1) and type 2 (S2), and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, and in the gonads, measuring aromatase, S1, and S2, by means of quantitative RT-PCR. No significant changes in any of these parameters have been found, implicating, in accordance with recent long-term exposures, that no aromatase induction by ATZ could be observed, and it seems likely that no further endocrine mechanism of ATZ affecting sexual differentiation in X. laevis exists.

  2. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development. PMID:25800987

  3. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development.

  4. Sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sinisi, A A; Pasquali, D; Notaro, A; Bellastella, A

    2003-01-01

    In humans, like as in other mammals, the gonads, the internal genital ducts, and the external genital structures all develop from bipotential embryologic tissues. Male or female phenotype develops through a cascade of processes which initiate with sex determination and follow with sex differentiation. The karyotype (46, XY or 46, XX) of the embryo (genetic sex) determines whether primordial gonad differentiates into a testis or an ovary, respectively (gonadal differentiation). A Y-related gene, SRY, acts as a switch signal for testis differentiation. Testis development process involves several steps controlled by other non-OY-linked genes, such as Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1), EMX2, LIM1, steroidogenic factor 1(SF-1), SRY box-related gene 9 (SOX9). Since other genes, such as Wnt-4 and DAX-1, are necessary for the initiation of female pathway in sex determination, female development cannot be considered a default process. Hormonal production of differentiated gonads is relevant for differentiation of the internal and external genitalia during fetal life, and for the development of secondary sex characteristics at puberty. Antimullerian hormone (AMH) secreted by Sertoli cells inhibits the development of female internal genitalia (tube, uterus, upper part of vagina); testosterone secreted by Leydig cells induces stabilization of wolffian ducts and development of internal male genitalia. Differentiation of external male genitalia requires the transformation of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by 5alpha reductase type 2 expressed in genital skin and urogenital sinus. The effects of androgens occur in presence of functional androgen receptor (AR) protein. Mutations of genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes, AMH, AMH receptor, AR and 5alpha reductase are all associated with impairment of sex differentiation and result in genital ambiguity. PMID:12834017

  5. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed Central

    Papoulias, Diana M; Villalobos, Sergio A; Meadows, John; Noltie, Douglas B; Giesy, John P; Tillitt, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development. PMID:12515675

  6. In ovo exposure to o,p -DDE affects sexual development but not sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Villalobos, Sergio A.; Meadows, J.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Despite being banned in many countries, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) continue to be found in fish tissues at concentrations of concern. Like o,p -DDT, o,p -DDE is estrogenic and is believed to exert its effects through binding to the estrogen receptor. The limited toxicologic data for o,p -DDE suggest that it decreases fecundity and fertility of fishes. We conducted an egg injection study using the d-rR strain of medaka and environmentally relevant concentrations of o,p -DDE to examine its effects on sexual differentiation and development. The gonads of exposed fish showed no evidence of sex reversal or intersex. However, other gonad abnormalities occurred in exposed individuals. Females exhibited few vitellogenic oocytes and increased atresia. Male testes appeared morphologically normal but were very small. Gonadosomatic index values for both sexes were lower for exposed fish. Our observations of abnormal female and very small male gonads after in ovo o,p -DDE exposure may be indicative of effects on early endocrine processes important for normal ovarian and testicular development.

  7. Repeated and chronic administration of Vardenafil or Sildenafil differentially affects emotional and socio-sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, H; Parmigiani, S; Nicolini, Y; Freschini, S; Gioiosa, L; Patrelli, T S; Palanza, P; Volpi, R

    2013-09-15

    Selective phosphodiesterases (PDEs) inhibitors have been widely studied as therapeutic agents for treatment of various human diseases, including cardiotonics, vasodilators, smooth muscle relaxants, antidepressants, antithrombotics, antiasthmatics, and agents for improving learning and memory. Although Sildenafil(®) and Vardenafil(®) have similar chemical formulae, the same target and interact with many of the same residues at the active site of phosphodiesterse-5 (PDE-5), they exhibit both in vitro and in vivo some important functional differences that could differentially affect behavior. Therefore we assessed whether repeated and chronic administration of Vardenafil and Sildenafil at a dose based upon human treatment can differentially affect aggressive, social, emotional and sexual behavior. To this aim, the effects of Sildenafil (10mg/kg) or Vardenafil (2mg/kg) (t.i.w., for 5 weeks) were observed in CD1 subordinate male mice in a low aggression and social subordination context. The results show that Sildenafil increased competitive aggression, environmental and social exploration, and reduced anxiety like behaviors as compared to controls, whereas Vardenafil had a significant major effect on appetitive and consummatory aspect of sexual behavior. This demonstrates that Sildenafil and Vardenafil, although being structurally and functionally similar, are characterized by different neuro-behavioral actions and can have differential therapeutic potentials. PMID:23850358

  8. Aspergillus asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are differentially affected by transcriptional and translational mechanisms regulating stunted gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Miller, B L

    1997-01-01

    The Stunted protein (StuAp) is a member of a family of transcription factors that regulate fungal development and cell cycle progression. Regulated stuA gene expression is required for correct cell pattern formation during asexual reproduction (conidiation) and for initiation of the sexual reproductive cycle in Aspergillus nidulans. Transcriptional initiation from two different promoters yields overlapping mRNAs (stuA alpha and stuAbeta) that upon translation yield the same protein. Here we show that multiple regulatory mechanisms interact to control (i) developmental competence-dependent expression of both transcripts and (ii) induction-dependent expression of stuA alpha, but not stuAbeta, by the conidiation-specific Bristle (BrlAp) transcriptional activator. Quantitative levels of both mRNAs are further modulated by (i) an activator(s) located at a far-upstream upstream activation sequence, (ii) feedback regulation by StuAp, and (iii) positive translational regulation that requires the peptide product of a micro-open reading frame unique to the stuA alpha mRNA 5' untranslated region. Gradients in stuA alpha expression were most important for correct cell and tissue type development. Threshold requirements were as follows: metula-phialide differentiation < ascosporogenesis < cleistothecial shell-Hülle cell differentiation. Altered stuA expression affected conidiophore morphology and conidial yields quantitatively but did not alter the temporal development of cell types or conidiophore density. By contrast, the sexual cycle showed both temporal delay and quantitative reduction in the number of cleistothecial initials but normal morphogenesis of tissue types. PMID:9315680

  9. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity. PMID:23901739

  10. Agricultural intensity in ovo affects growth, metamorphic development and sexual differentiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Routledge, Edwin

    2011-06-01

    Pollution was cited by the Global Amphibian Assessment to be the second most important cause of amphibian decline worldwide, however, the effects of the agricultural environment on amphibians are not well understood. In this study, spawn from Bufo bufo was taken from four sites in England and Wales with varying intensities of arable agriculture. Spawn was either placed in tanks containing aged tap water (ex-situ, five replicates) or in cages at the native site (caged, five replicates). Hatching success, abnormal tadpoles, and forelimb emergence were recorded during the larval stage. Individuals were also sampled at five time points (TP) during development (5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 15-weeks post-hatch) and analysed for morphological parameters. The thyroids (TP2) and the gonads (TP3,4,5) were also analysed histologically. With the exception of the thyroid histopathology, all analysed endpoints were significantly different between ex-situ individuals reared under identical conditions from the different sites. In addition, intensity of arable agriculture had a negative effect on growth and development. At one site, despite distinct rearing conditions, a high level of intersex (up to 42%) and similar sex ratios were observed in both ex-situ and caged individuals. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal exposure and/or events in ovo had a much larger effect on growth, metamorphic development, and sexual differentiation in B. bufo than the ambient environment. This could have important implications for traditional exposure scenarios that typically begin at the larval stage. Intersex is reported for the first time in European amphibians in situ, highlighting the potential use of distinct populations of amphibians in fundamental research into the aetiology of specific developmental effects in wild amphibians.

  11. Prenatal and neonatal testosterone exposure interact to affect differentiation of sexual behavior and partner preference in female ferrets.

    PubMed

    Baum, M J; Erskine, M S; Kornberg, E; Weaver, C E

    1990-02-01

    Implanting testosterone (T) subcutaneously over Postnatal Days 5-20 masculinized sexual behavior, reduced proceptive responsiveness, and shifted sexual preference more readily in male than in female ferrets gonadectomized on Day 5. This enhanced sensitivity of males to neonatal T was best duplicated in females exposed transplacentally to T over Embryonic Days (E) 27-39 (41-day gestation) and injected at birth with T (2.5 micrograms sc in oil: 10% ethanol). Extended exposure of male ferrets to high levels of T, beginning shortly after the onset of testicular steroidogenesis (E25) and continuing for several hours after birth (E41) normally sensitizes their brains to the subsequent organizational effects on coital performance and sexual motivation of the relatively low levels of T that circulate in male ferrets during the first 3 postnatal weeks.

  12. [Differentiation between primary and neurotic sexual disorders].

    PubMed

    Leonhard, K

    1978-04-01

    The object of this paper is to show that there are different forms of sexual anomalies which permit of basic and therapeutic differentiation. Atavisms of responding have been observed to play an essential role in real perversions.

  13. Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Dick F

    2007-09-01

    During the intrauterine period the human brain develops in the male direction via direct action of a boy's testosterone, and in the female direction through the absence of this hormone in a girl. During this time, gender identity (the feeling of being a man or a woman), sexual orientation, and other behaviors are programmed. As sexual differentiation of the genitals takes places in the first 2 months of pregnancy, and sexual differentiation of the brain starts during the second half of pregnancy, these two processes may be influenced independently of each other, resulting in transsexuality. This also means that in the case of an ambiguous gender at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the same degree of masculinization of the brain. Differences in brain structures and brain functions have been found that are related to sexual orientation and gender.

  14. Hormone-independent pathways of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    New observations over the last 25 years of hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms have gradually and unequivocally overturned the dogma, arising from Jost's elegant experiments in the mid-1900s, that all somatic sex dimorphisms in vertebrates arise from the action of gonadal hormones. Although we know that Sry, a Y-linked gene, is the primary gonadal sex determinant in mammals, more recent analysis in marsupials, mice, and finches has highlighted numerous sexual dimorphisms that are evident well before the differentiation of the testis and which cannot be explained by a sexually dimorphic hormonal environment. In marsupials, scrotal bulges and mammary primordia are visible before the testis has differentiated due to the expression of a gene(s) on the X chromosome. ZZ and ZW gynandromorph finches have brains that develop in a sexually dimorphic way dependent on their sex chromosome content. In genetically manipulated mice, it is the X chromosomes, not the gonads, that determine many characters including rate of early development, adiposity, and neural circuits. Even spotted hyenas have sexual dimorphisms that cannot be simply explained by hormonal exposure. This review discusses the recent findings that confirm that there are hormone-independent sexual dimorphisms well before the gonads begin to produce their hormones. PMID:24577198

  15. Sexual selection and the differential effect of polyandry.

    PubMed

    Collet, Julie; Richardson, David S; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-05-29

    In principle, widespread polyandry (female promiscuity) creates potential for sexual selection in males both before and after copulation. However, the way polyandry affects pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection remains little understood. Resolving this fundamental question has been difficult because it requires extensive information on mating behavior as well as paternity for the whole male population. Here we show that in replicate seminatural groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, polyandry eroded variance in male mating success, which simultaneously weakened the overall intensity of sexual selection but increased the relative strength of postcopulatory episodes. We further illustrate the differential effect of polyandry on pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection by considering the case of male social status, a key determinant of male reproductive success in this species. In low-polyandry groups, however, status was strongly sexually selected before copulation because dominants mated with more females. In high-polyandry groups, sexual selection for status was weakened and largely restricted after copulation because dominants defended paternity by mating repeatedly with the same female. These results reveal polyandry as a potent and dynamic modulator of sexual selection episodes. PMID:22592795

  16. Sexual Differentiation of Behavior in Monkeys: Role of Prenatal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Hassett, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to sexual differentiation of behavior has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation requiring both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other’s reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affects individual gender socialization. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing potential underlying biological contributions in favor of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioral sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioral sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy’s pioneering work with rhesus monkeys which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviors are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that for a variety of behaviors, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behavior more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalizations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother’s response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Together these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioral biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioral sex differences that distinguish males

  17. "Normal" Childhood Sexual Play and Games: Differentiating Play from Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Coakley, Mary

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 128 undergraduate female students indicated that 44% had experienced cross-gender sexual play as children, which was often seen as involving persuasion, manipulation, or coercion. A typology of six kinds of sexual play experiences was derived. Discussion focuses on the differentiation of childhood sexual abuse from play and gender…

  18. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  19. Sex ratio and density affect sexual selection in a sex-role reversed fish.

    PubMed

    Aronsen, Tonje; Berglund, Anders; Mobley, Kenyon B; Ratikainen, Irja I; Rosenqvist, Gunilla

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how demographic processes influence mating systems is important to decode ecological influences on sexual selection in nature. We manipulated sex ratio and density in experimental populations of the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We quantified sexual selection using the Bateman gradient (βss'), the opportunity for selection (I), and sexual selection (Is), and the maximum standardized sexual selection differential (smax'). We also measured selection on body length using standardized selection differentials (s') and mating differentials (m'), and tested whether the observed I and Is differ from values obtained by simulating random mating. We found that I, Is, and s'max, but not βss', were higher for females under female than male bias and the opposite for males, but density did not affect these measures. However, higher density decreased sexual selection (m' but not s') on female length, but selection on body length was not affected by sex ratio. Finally, Is but not I was higher than expected from random mating, and only for females under female bias. This study demonstrates that both sex ratio and density affect sexual selection and that disentangling interrelated demographic processes is essential to a more complete understanding of mating behavior and the evolution of mating systems.

  20. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  1. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  2. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  3. Differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on sexual experiences and partner interactions in couples.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, α-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems.

  4. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  5. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.

  6. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. PMID:26584611

  7. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Dick F; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    During the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. In this way, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation are programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation.

  8. Sexual differentiation of childhood play: a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Richard C; Downey, Jennifer I

    2014-01-01

    Freud (1905/1953) anchored his theories of unconscious psychological functioning in observations and inferences about childhood sexuality. These ideas remain influential among psychoanalysts today. Much progress subsequently occurred in extra-psychoanalytic research in human sexuality. This included the discovery in 1959 of an entirely new area of psychology: the sexual differentiation of behavior (Phoenix, Goy, Gerall, & Young, 1959; Wallen, 2009). The observations that led to this new field originally concerned the effects of androgen administered prenatally to non-human animals. This early research was compatible with later studies of humans as well. Prenatal androgen influences both erotic and non-erotic behavior, including childhood rough-and-tumble play (RTP). We have previously emphasized the need to integrate this psychoneuroendocrine knowledge with psychoanalytic theory and practice (Friedman, 1988; Friedman & Downey, 2002, 2008a, 2008b). In this article, we discuss additional aspects of the relationship between sexually differentiated childhood play, particularly RTP, and gender differences in psychosexual development and functioning. These topics and other aspects of the sexual differentiation of behavior have been under-emphasized in psychoanalytic thought. PMID:24366660

  9. Metropolitan Professional Sexual Differentiation, 1970: An Ecological Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gordon C., Jr.

    From the perspective of contemporary human ecology, this paper presents a descriptive analysis of sexual differentiation in professional occupations, using data provided for the large metropolitan labor forces of the United States in 1970. Aggregate profile characteristics of the total metropolitan labor force [the combined professional work…

  10. Metropolitan Professional Sexual Differentiation: Toward a Human Ecological Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gordon C., Jr.

    A human ecology theoretical framework for the study of sexual differentiation in metropolitan area professional occupations is presented in this paper. Human ecology theory attempts to describe characteristics of organizations for a population as a whole. Differences in the characteristics of organizations among populations represent the…

  11. Low dose effects of bisphenol A on sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kazuhiko; Arai, Okio; Omura, Minoru; Watanabe, Rumi; Ogata, Rika; Aou, Shuji

    2003-03-01

    There is an endocrinological concern that environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) may influence sexual differentiation. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of EEDs, is released from polycarbonate plastics, and has been detected in the human umbilical cord. In this study, we examined the effect of BPA on the sexual differentiation of open-field behavior and the sexually dimorphic nuclei in the brain in the offspring of rats exposed to BPA during the fetal and suckling periods at a dosage below the human tolerable daily intake (TDI) level. In the control group, females were more active in the open field and had a larger locus coeruleus (LC) volume than males. BPA abolished and inverted the sex differences of the open-field behavior and the LC volume, respectively, without affecting the reproductive system. We also compared the effects of estrogenic compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES) and resveratrol (RVT), to that of BPA because of their structural similarities. DES affected the open-field behavior, LC volume and reproductive system, while RVT affected the LC volume and the reproductive system. These results suggest that the brain is highly sensitive to BPA at a dosage below TDI and that the disrupting effects of BPA on sexual differentiation may vary from those of RVT and DES. PMID:12631470

  12. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus.

  13. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  14. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  15. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  16. Gestational protein restriction affects trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haijun; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Whether and how gestational protein restriction (PR) affects placental development and function remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that PR can affect trophoblast differentiation in mid-and late pregnancy, rats were fed a 20% or an isocaloric 6% protein diet from Day 1 to 14 or 18 of pregnancy and effects of PR on trophoblast differentiation were determined by changes in expressions of marker gene(s) for trophoblast lineages. At Day 18 of pregnancy, PR increased expressions of Esrrb, Id1 andId2 (trophoblast stem cell markers), decreased expressions of Ascl2 (spongiotrophblast cell marker) and Prl2c1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), but did not alter expressions of Gjb3 and Pcdh12(glycogen cell markers) in the junctional zone (JZ). In the labyrinth zone (LZ), PR did not change expressions of Prl2b1 (trophoblast giant cell marker), Gcm1 and Syna (syncytiotrophoblast cell markers), but decrease expression of Ctsq (sinusoidal trophoblast giant cell marker). These results indicate that PR impairs the differentiation of trophoblast stem cell into spongiotrophoblast and trophoblast giant cells in JZ, and formation of sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells in LZ.

  17. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  18. Determinants and consequences of sexual networks as they affect the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Irene A; Padian, Nancy S; Marlow, Cameron; Aral, Sevgi O

    2005-02-01

    Because pathogens spread only within the unique context of a sexual union between people when one person is infectious, the other is susceptible to new infection, and condoms are not used to prevent transmission, the epidemiological study of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is particularly challenging. Social network analysis entails the study of ties among people and how the structure and quality of such ties affect individuals and overall group dynamics. Although ascertaining complete sexual networks is difficult, application of this approach has provided unique insights into the spread of STIs that traditional individual-based epidemiological methods do not capture. This article provides a brief background on the design and assessments of studies of social networks, to illustrate how these methods have been applied to understanding the distribution of STIs, to inform the development of interventions for STI control. PMID:15627230

  19. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female "attractiveness" was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  20. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  1. Commit and Transmit: Molecular Players in Plasmodium Sexual Development and Zygote Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guttery, David S; Roques, Magali; Holder, Anthony A; Tewari, Rita

    2015-12-01

    During each cycle of asexual endomitotic division in erythrocytes, the malaria parasite makes a fundamental and crucial decision: to continue to invade and proliferate or to differentiate into gametocytes ready for continuation of sexual development. The proteins and regulatory pathways involved in Plasmodium sexual development have been of great interest in recent years as targets for blocking malaria transmission. However, the 'Holy Grail', the master switch orchestrating asexual-to-sexual commitment and further differentiation, has remained elusive - until now. Here we highlight the recent studies identifying the epigenetic and transcriptional master regulators of sexual commitment and discuss the key players in reversible phosphorylation pathways involved in sexual and zygote differentiation. PMID:26440790

  2. Transcriptional profile of the male and female rate hypothalamus during sexual differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation, specifically masculinization, of the hypothalamus is proposed to involve a seriesofeventsthat includethearomatization oftestosteronetoestradiol inthebrainattheend ofgestationandtheday ofbirth. Thishormonethenactivatesthetranscription ofestrogen¬responsive ...

  3. Switchgrass cultivars differentially affect soil carbon stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Wullschleger, S. D.; De Graaff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage depends on the amount and quality of plant-derived carbon (C) inputs to soil, which is largely regulated by plant roots via the processes of root turnover and exudation. While we know that plant roots mediate SOC stabilization, we do not fully understand which root characteristics specifically promote soil C storage. With this study we asked whether roots with coarse root systems versus roots with finely branched root systems differentially affect soil C stabilization. In order to answer this question, we collected soil cores (4.8 cm diameter, to a depth of 30 cm) from directly over the crown of six switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars that differed in root architecture. Specifically, three cultivars had fibrous root systems (i.e. high specific root length) and three had coarse root systems (i.e. low specific root length). The cultivars (C4 species) were grown in a C3 grassland for four years, allowing us to use isotopic fractionation techniques to assess differences in soil C input and stabilization. The cores were divided into depth increments of 10 cm and the soils were sieved (2mm). Soil from each depth increment was dispersed by shaking for 16 hours in a NaHMP solution to isolate coarse particulate organic matter (C-POM), fine particulate organic matter (F-POM), silt, and clay-sized fractions. Samples of soil fractions across all depths were analyzed for C and N contents as well as δ13C signature. We found that the relative abundance of the different soil fractions and associated δ13C signatures differed significantly among cultivars. These results indicate that switchgrass cultivars can differentially impact soil carbon inputs and stabilization. We hypothesize that these differences may be driven by variability in root architectures.

  4. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  5. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  6. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice.

  7. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5), any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95% CI = 1.0, 1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men’s sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women’s. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women’s sexual identity and women’s same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  8. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M Maria; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.5], any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95 % CI = 1.0-1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95 % CI = 0.4-0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men's sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women's. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women's sexual identity and women's same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS: LOW DOSES OF VINCLOZOLIN ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In humans and rodents, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of 100 or 200 mg vinclozolin (V) kg-1 day-1 during sexual differentiation in rats induces female-like anogenital...

  10. SRY alone can induce normal male sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, M.; Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.

    1995-01-30

    Most individuals with the rare 46,XX male {open_quotes}syndrome{close_quotes} arise due to an unequal interchange between Xp and Yp termini during paternal meiosis. The pattern of Y-sequences in these patients varies considerably, but very few cases have been reported showing only SRY. The phenotype in these patients is also variable ranging from severe impairment of the external genitalia through hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism to occasional normal male phenotype. We report a Mexican 46,XX male patient without genital ambiguities in whom DNA analysis showed the presence of SRY and the absence of ZFY. We conclude that in this case SRY alone was enough for complete male sexual differentiation. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Sexual differentiation in the developing mouse brain: contributions of sex chromosome genes.

    PubMed

    Wolstenholme, J T; Rissman, E F; Bekiranov, S

    2013-03-01

    Neural sexual differentiation begins during embryogenesis and continues after birth for a variable amount of time depending on the species and brain region. Because gonadal hormones were the first factors identified in neural sexual differentiation, their role in this process has eclipsed investigation of other factors. Here, we use a mouse with a spontaneous translocation that produces four different unique sets of sex chromosomes. Each genotype has one normal X-chromosome and a unique second sex chromosome creating the following genotypes: XY(*x) , XX, XY(*) , XX(Y) (*) . This Y(*) mouse line is used by several laboratories to study two human aneuploid conditions: Turner and Klinefelter syndromes. As sex chromosome number affects behavior and brain morphology, we surveyed brain gene expression at embryonic days 11.5 and 18.5 to isolate X-chromosome dose effects in the developing brain as possible mechanistic changes underlying the phenotypes. We compared gene expression differences between gonadal males and females as well as individuals with one vs. two X-chromosomes. We present data showing, in addition to genes reported to escape X-inactivation, a number of autosomal genes are differentially expressed between the sexes and in mice with different numbers of X-chromosomes. Based on our results, we can now identify the genes present in the region around the chromosomal break point that produces the Y(*) model. Our results also indicate an interaction between gonadal development and sex chromosome number that could further elucidate the role of sex chromosome genes and hormones in the sexual differentiation of behavior.

  12. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  13. Wired on steroids: sexual differentiation of the brain and its role in the expression of sexual partner preferences.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brenda M; Skinner, Donal C; Roselli, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity.

  14. Wired on Steroids: Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Its Role in the Expression of Sexual Partner Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Brenda M.; Skinner, Donal C.; Roselli, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity. PMID:22654808

  15. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  16. Mechanical processess affecting differentiation of protolunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanisms prior to lunar formation are sought to account for the loss of volatiles, the depletion of iron, and the enrichment of plagioclase. Some of the same mechanisms are necessary to account for achondritic, stony-iron, and iron meteorites. Collisions seem marginally capable of providing the heat to accomplish the differentiation into iron, magnesian silicates, and plagioclase. Once this differentiation is accomplished, the subsequent mechanical history should have been sufficient to sort material according to composition in the protolunar circumterrestrial cloud. Effects operating include the correlation of body size with mechanical strength; the lesser ability of the cloud to trap the larger, denser infalling bodies; the more rapid drawing into the Earth of the larger moonlets; and the higher energy orbits for dominantly plagioclase smaller pieces broken off by collision.

  17. An inkblot for sexual preference: a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F; Bernhardt, Johanna; Dierksmeier, Andreas; Banse, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    A newly developed Semantic Misattribution Procedure (SMP), a semantic variant of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), was used in three studies as an indirect measure of sexual interest. Using a known-group approach, homosexual men (Studies 1 and 2), heterosexual men (Studies 1 to 3) and heterosexual women (Study 3) were asked to guess the meaning of briefly presented Chinese ideographs as "sexual" or "not sexual". The ideographs were preceded by briefly presented primes depicting male and female individuals of varying sexual maturity. As hypothesised, the frequency of "sexual" responses increased after priming with pictures of individuals of the preferred sex and increasing sexual maturation. The SMP showed satisfactory reliability and convergent validity as indicated by correlations with direct and two indirect measures of sexual interest. In two further studies, the hypothesised pattern was replicated whereas a standard AMP with the identical prime stimuli did not produce this result. The potential usefulness of semantic variants of the AMP is discussed.

  18. Environmental Influences on Genetic Expression: Biological and Behavioral Aspects of Sexual Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmer, Norman, Ed.; Walcher, Dwain N., Ed.

    A cross-disciplinary approach to the topic of sexual differentiation comprises this volume. Diverse papers are included under a variety of headings: 1) critical Periods in development; 2) embryology; 3) RNA-DNA; 4) chromosomes-growth and development; 5) physiology; 6) primates; 7) cognition; 8) cultural differences in patterns of sexual behavior;…

  19. Differential developmental profiles of adolescents using sexually explicit internet material.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine whether different developmental trajectories of boys' and girls' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) exist, which factors predict these trajectories, and whether sexual behavior develops differently for adolescents in these trajectories. A combination of latent class growth analysis on SEIM use and latent growth curve analysis on sexual behavior was used on four-wave longitudinal data of 787 eighth through tenth grade Dutch adolescents. Among boys, four SEIM use trajectories were identified, which were labeled Nonuse/Infrequent Use, Strongly Increasing Use, Occasional Use, and Decreasing Use. Among girls, a large Stable Nonuse/Infrequent Use and smaller Strongly Increasing Use and Stable Occasional Use trajectories were distinguished. Higher initial levels and/or stronger increases in SEIM use were predicted by demographic, social contextual, personal, and media use characteristics, including a stronger sexual interest, a higher degree of perceived realism regarding sexualized Internet content, and more permissive sexual attitudes. Moreover, initial levels of and, to some extent, developmental changes in sexual behavior varied for boys and girls in the different SEIM use trajectories. Whereas some adolescents showed concurrent low levels, or parallel strong increases in SEIM use and sexual behavior, a subgroup of boys decreased their SEIM use while increasing their sexual behavior.

  20. The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; Erdem, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differences in the female and male brains are observed in many animal species; however, these differences are variable between species. Animal and human (in vivo imaging and postmortem) studies on sex differences in the brain have shown many differences in the local distribution of the cortex, the gray-white matter ratio, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, limbic system and neurotransmitter systems. This review aims to evaluate the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical differences in the female and male brains and to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones on the developing brain. PMID:24592097

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF NEURAL BIOMARKERS OF ALTERED SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE***

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during late gestation through the early postnatal period. The development of the phenotypical male brain is dependent on the aromatization of circulating testosterone to estradiol. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) duri...

  2. Identification of neural biomarkers of altered sexual differentiation following gestational exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during late gestation through the early postnatal period. The development of the phenotypical male brain is dependent on the aromatization of circulating testosterone to estradiol. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during...

  3. Identification of neural biomarkers of altered sexual differentiation following gestational exposure###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during late gestation through the early postnatal period. The development of the phenotypical male brain is dependent on the aromatization of circulating testosterone to estradiol. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) duri...

  4. Phthalate-induced toxicity: Identifying the vulnerable pathways during sexual differentiation in the male rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to phthalate ester plasticizer compounds are widespread. Studies in rodents have demonstrated that in utero exposure to various phthalates throughout sexual differentiation (GD14-18) results in decreased fetal testicular androgen production, and ultimately leads t...

  5. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract that are manifested later in adult life. Induction of these malformations is associated with declines in fetal testicular testoste...

  6. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments.

  7. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

  8. Tinbergen’s fourth question, ontogeny: sexual and individual differentiation

    PubMed Central

    CREWS, DAVID; GROOTHUIS, TON

    2006-01-01

    Based on Tinbergen’s view of the study of behavioural development we describe some recent advances and their importance in this field. We argue that the study of behavioural development should combine both proximate and ultimate approaches, and can help to understand how early subtle environmental factors shape consistent individual variation both between and within sexes. This is illustrated by reviewing the profound effects of incubation temperature on the development of brain and social behaviour in the leopard gecko, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, and the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones on social behaviour in rodents and especially birds. Both are maternal effects: incubation temperature can be partly determined by the nest site where the mother deposited her eggs, while in both oviparous and viviparous vertebrates maternal hormones reach and influence the embryo. In the gecko, incubation temperature affects sexual and aggressive behaviour, growth, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as the size, connectivity and metabolic capacity of certain brain areas. In this way not only is the gonad type determined, but so too is the morphological, physiological, neural, and behavioural phenotype established that explains much of within-sex variation. In rodents, maternal hormones affect similar aspects. In avian species, maternal hormones, deposited in the eggs, vary systematically between and within clutches and have both short- and long-lasting effects on competitive behaviour. Evidence suggests that mothers adaptively adjust hormone allocation to the environmental context. In addition, we discuss some effects of postnatal experience on behavioural development in geckos, mice and bird species. Our results also illustrate how the study of animal models other than rodents can help in understanding important developmental processes. PMID:16501662

  9. Differential Annual Movement Patterns in a Migratory Species: Effects of Experience and Sexual Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Paulo E.; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies. PMID:21799853

  10. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis. PMID:26894583

  11. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle Mifom; Tanaka, Sayumi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Minakuchi, Chieka

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH) on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana). We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  12. Cell Death and Sexual Differentiation of Behavior: Worms, Flies, and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Nancy G.; de Vries, Geert J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sex differences in the nervous system are found throughout the animal kingdom. Here, we discuss three prominent genetic models: nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. In all three, differential cell death is central to sexual differentiation and shared molecular mechanisms have been identified. Our knowledge of the precise function of neural sex differences lags behind. One fruitful approach to the “function” question is to contrast sexual differentiation in standard laboratory animals with differentiation in species exhibiting unique social and reproductive organizations. Advanced genetic strategies are also addressing this question in worms and flies, and may soon be applicable to vertebrates. PMID:20934320

  13. Affective Openness: Its Relationship to Sexuality and the Counseling of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Asa J.

    1973-01-01

    The discussion presented in this paper is an attempt to bring some issues involving the nature of affective openness, its pitfalls, energy demands and benefits into focus for the counselor dealing with nonpathologic youth manifesting sexual concerns. (Author)

  14. Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Sexual Experience among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effect of unsupportive family relations and low self-esteem on teenage sexual activity and alcohol use. Data from a telephone survey of 301 male and 242 female adolescents in Iowa suggested significant gender differences, with young women in unsupportive contexts seeking compensatory intimacy outside the family. (JB)

  15. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  16. How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Donald; And Others

    Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

  17. Sexual function and affect in parkinsonian men treated with L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Brown, E; Brown, G M; Kofman, O; Quarrington, B

    1978-12-01

    Using psychiatric interviews, sexual and affect rating scales, hormonal studies, and neurologic assessment, the authors assessed the effect of L-dopa treatment on men with Parkinson's disease. Patients demonstrated variable affect changes. Approximately one-half of the patients reported an increased sexual interest that was not related to improvement in locomotor function. Hormonal factors appeared to be involved. The findings suggest that male parkinsonian patients who possess an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis experience increased sexual function related to L-dopa treatment.

  18. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  19. Operational sex ratio and density do not affect directional selection on male sexual ornaments and behavior.

    PubMed

    Head, Megan L; Lindholm, Anna K; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Demographic parameters including operational sex ratio (OSR) and population density may influence the opportunity for, and strength of sexual selection. Traditionally, male-biased OSRs and high population densities have been thought to increase the opportunity for sexual selection on male sexual traits due to increased male competition for mates. Recent experimental evidence, however, suggests that male-biased OSRs might reduce the opportunity for sexual selection due to increased sexual coercion experienced by females. How OSR, density, and any resultant changes in the opportunity for sexual selection actually affect selection on male sexual traits is unclear. In this study, we independently manipulated OSR and density in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) without altering the number of males present. We recorded male and female behavior and used DNA microsatellite data to assign paternity to offspring and estimate male reproductive success. We then used linear selection analyses to examine the effects of OSR and density on directional sexual selection on male behavioral and morphological traits. We found that females were pursued more by males in male-biased treatments, despite no change in individual male behavior. There were no differences in sexual behavior experienced by females or performed by males in relation to density. Neither OSR nor density significantly altered the opportunity for sexual selection. Also, Although there was significant multivariate linear selection operating on males, neither OSR nor density altered the pattern of sexual selection on male traits. Our results suggest that differences in either OSR or density (independent of the number of males present) are unlikely to alter directional evolutionary change in male sexual traits.

  20. Operational sex ratio and density do not affect directional selection on male sexual ornaments and behavior.

    PubMed

    Head, Megan L; Lindholm, Anna K; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Demographic parameters including operational sex ratio (OSR) and population density may influence the opportunity for, and strength of sexual selection. Traditionally, male-biased OSRs and high population densities have been thought to increase the opportunity for sexual selection on male sexual traits due to increased male competition for mates. Recent experimental evidence, however, suggests that male-biased OSRs might reduce the opportunity for sexual selection due to increased sexual coercion experienced by females. How OSR, density, and any resultant changes in the opportunity for sexual selection actually affect selection on male sexual traits is unclear. In this study, we independently manipulated OSR and density in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) without altering the number of males present. We recorded male and female behavior and used DNA microsatellite data to assign paternity to offspring and estimate male reproductive success. We then used linear selection analyses to examine the effects of OSR and density on directional sexual selection on male behavioral and morphological traits. We found that females were pursued more by males in male-biased treatments, despite no change in individual male behavior. There were no differences in sexual behavior experienced by females or performed by males in relation to density. Neither OSR nor density significantly altered the opportunity for sexual selection. Also, Although there was significant multivariate linear selection operating on males, neither OSR nor density altered the pattern of sexual selection on male traits. Our results suggest that differences in either OSR or density (independent of the number of males present) are unlikely to alter directional evolutionary change in male sexual traits. PMID:18067568

  1. The 'too muchness' of excitement: sexuality in light of excess, attachment and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Jessica; Atlas, Galit

    2015-02-01

    This paper brings together contemporary thinking about early attachment and affect regulation with our clinical and theoretical understanding of the problems of adult sexuality. In addition to recent theories of affect regulation and attachment, we incorporate Laplanche's idea of 'excess', which was an important transitional concept integrating real experience with fantasy in sexuality. We elaborate the idea of excess-- 'too-muchness' --to illuminate the early overwhelming of the psyche that affects the formation of sexuality. Linked to recent theoretical developments, this idea helps to grasp the relationship between sexual excitement and early affect regulation, showing how excitement becomes dangerous, thus impeding or distorting desire. The 'too-muchness' of excitement recalls the experience of being a stimulated, overwhelmed, unsoothed child and influences later inability to tolerate sexual arousal and the excitement affect. A clinical case illustrates this connection between attachment trauma, anxiety about sexuality, as well as shameful experiences of gender identity as an area of trauma. We emphasize the importance of working through the terrors and desires of the mother-baby relationship as they emerge in the transference-countertransference in order to develop the ability to hold excitement and stimulation without experiencing the too-much as the intolerable. This includes the working-through of ruptures related to overstimulation as well as the delicate balance of attention to fantasy and intersubjective work in the transference. PMID:25704459

  2. The 'too muchness' of excitement: sexuality in light of excess, attachment and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Jessica; Atlas, Galit

    2015-02-01

    This paper brings together contemporary thinking about early attachment and affect regulation with our clinical and theoretical understanding of the problems of adult sexuality. In addition to recent theories of affect regulation and attachment, we incorporate Laplanche's idea of 'excess', which was an important transitional concept integrating real experience with fantasy in sexuality. We elaborate the idea of excess-- 'too-muchness' --to illuminate the early overwhelming of the psyche that affects the formation of sexuality. Linked to recent theoretical developments, this idea helps to grasp the relationship between sexual excitement and early affect regulation, showing how excitement becomes dangerous, thus impeding or distorting desire. The 'too-muchness' of excitement recalls the experience of being a stimulated, overwhelmed, unsoothed child and influences later inability to tolerate sexual arousal and the excitement affect. A clinical case illustrates this connection between attachment trauma, anxiety about sexuality, as well as shameful experiences of gender identity as an area of trauma. We emphasize the importance of working through the terrors and desires of the mother-baby relationship as they emerge in the transference-countertransference in order to develop the ability to hold excitement and stimulation without experiencing the too-much as the intolerable. This includes the working-through of ruptures related to overstimulation as well as the delicate balance of attention to fantasy and intersubjective work in the transference.

  3. FUNCTION OF SEXUAL GLANDS AND MECHANISM OF SEX DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Prior to any investigation of toxicant effects on sexual development it is necessary to have a complete understanding of the relevant physiology of reproductive development. Beginning at conception, development of males and females diverge to form the respective...

  4. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed Central

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L. Lacey

    2013-01-01

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors—isolation, ecological and sexual selection—contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation—differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence—and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta. PMID:23173206

  5. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L Lacey

    2013-01-01

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors--isolation, ecological and sexual selection--contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation-differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence-and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta.

  6. Sexual differentiation of the adolescent rodent brain: hormonal influences and developmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Janice M; Sisk, Cheryl L; DonCarlos, Lydia L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexual differentiation is the process by which the nervous system becomes structurally and functionally dissimilar in females and males. In mammals, this process has been thought to occur during prenatal and early postnatal development, when a transient increase in testosterone secretion masculinizes and defeminizes the developing male nervous system. Decades of research have led to the views that structural sexual dimorphisms created during perinatal development are passively maintained throughout life, and that ovarian hormones do not play an active role in feminization of the nervous system. Furthermore, perinatal testosterone was thought to determine sex differences in neuron number by regulating cell death and cell survival, and not by regulating cell proliferation. As investigations of neural development during adolescence became more prominent in the late 20th century and revealed the extent of brain remodeling during this time, each of these tenets has been challenged and modified. Here we review evidence from the animal literature that 1) the brain is further sexually differentiated during puberty and adolescence; 2) ovarian hormones play an active role in the feminization of the brain during puberty; and 3) hormonally modulated, sex-specific addition of new neurons and glial cells, as well as loss of neurons, contribute to sexual differentiation of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical regions during adolescence. This architectural remodeling during the adolescent phase of sexual differentiation of the brain may underlie the known sex differences in vulnerability to addiction and psychiatric disorders that emerge during this developmental period.

  7. Exposure to PCB 77 affects partner preference but not sexual behavior in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J A; Clemens, L G; Nunez, A A

    2008-10-20

    In rats, exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl congener 3, 4, 3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) affects the brain and behavior of the offspring as well as the maternal behavior of the dams. In the present study, a cross-fostering design was used to examine the effects of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to PCB 77 on sexual behavior and partner preference in female rats, and to determine the role of altered maternal behavior in the mediation of these effects. Pregnant rats were treated with oil or PCB dissolved in oil (2 mg/kg b.w.) on gestation days 6-18 and then given pups that had been exposed to either the oil vehicle or PCB during gestation. As adults, the female offspring were tested for partner preference (that is, whether they preferred to spend time with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male) and sexual behavior. None of the treatments affected female sexual behavior. However, both double exposure and postnatal exposure diminished the animals' preference for a male over a female stimulus, but partner preference was not affected by prenatal exposure alone. There were no significant correlations between the changes in partner preferences due to PCB exposure and the amount of maternal grooming and licking received by the treated litters. Thus, female partner preference is affected by early PCB exposure, and the effects depend upon whether the exposure is in utero or via lactation and may be independent of any effects of the PCB on maternal care.

  8. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, C; Stoolmiller, M; Nelson, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors evaluated a coeducational program for teenagers on preventing sexual coercion in dating situations. Students examined individual and social attitudes underlying coercive sexual behavior and learned communication skills aimed at preventing or dealing with unwanted sexual advances. Instruction was enhanced by video and an interactive video "virtual date." Outcomes were assessed using sexual attitude scales with a sample of 458 high school students. Student health education classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control condition. Findings, based on a latent variable model of differential effectiveness, showed that students in the treatment group with initial coercive attitude scores at or above the mean benefited significantly more than students with the same range of scores in the control group.

  9. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  10. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA.

  11. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

  12. Sexual differentiation in three unconventional mammals: spotted hyenas, elephants and tammar wallabies.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Stephen E; Short, Roger V; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2005-11-01

    The present review explores sexual differentiation in three non-conventional species: the spotted hyena, the elephant and the tammar wallaby, selected because of the natural challenges they present for contemporary understanding of sexual differentiation. According to the prevailing view of mammalian sexual differentiation, originally proposed by Alfred Jost, secretion of androgen and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) by the fetal testes during critical stages of development accounts for the full range of sexually dimorphic urogenital traits observed at birth. Jost's concept was subsequently expanded to encompass sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Although the central focus of this review involves urogenital development, we assume that the novel mechanisms described in this article have potentially significant implications for sexual differentiation of brain and behavior, a transposition with precedent in the history of this field. Contrary to the "specific" requirements of Jost's formulation, female spotted hyenas and elephants initially develop male-type external genitalia prior to gonadal differentiation. In addition, the administration of anti-androgens to pregnant female spotted hyenas does not prevent the formation of a scrotum, pseudoscrotum, penis or penile clitoris in the offspring of treated females, although it is not yet clear whether the creation of masculine genitalia involves other steroids or whether there is a genetic mechanism bypassing a hormonal mediator. Wallabies, where sexual differentiation occurs in the pouch after birth, provide the most conclusive evidence for direct genetic control of sexual dimorphism, with the scrotum developing only in males and the pouch and mammary glands only in females, before differentiation of the gonads. The development of the pouch and mammary gland in females and the scrotum in males is controlled by genes on the X chromosome. In keeping with the "expanded" version of Jost's formulation, secretion

  13. Travelling and Sticky Affects: Exploring Teens and Sexualized Cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette; Ringrose, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler's (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people's affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and…

  14. SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF CENTRAL VASOPRESSIN AND VASOTOCIN SYSTEMS IN VERTEBRATES: DIFFERENT MECHANISMS, SIMILAR ENDPOINTS

    PubMed Central

    De VRIES, G. J.; PANZICA, G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Vasopressin neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and amygdala and vasotocin neurons in homologous areas in non-mammalian vertebrates show some of the most consistently found neural sex differences, with males having more cells and denser projections than females. These projections have been implicated in social and reproductive behaviors but also in autonomic functions. The sex differences in these projections may cause as well as prevent sex differences in these functions. This paper discusses the anatomy, steroid dependency, and sexual differentiation of these neurons. Although the final steps in sexual differentiation of vasopressin/vasotocin expression may be similar across vertebrate species, what triggers differentiation may vary dramatically. For example, during development, estrogen masculinizes vasopressin expression in rats but feminizes its counterpart in Japanese quail. Apparently, nature consistently finds a way of maintaining sex differences in vasopressin and vasotocin pathways, suggesting that the function of these differences is important enough that it was conserved during evolution. PMID:16310321

  15. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of sexual differentiation in the mammalian nervous system.

    PubMed

    Forger, Nancy G; Strahan, J Alex; Castillo-Ruiz, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientists are likely to discover new sex differences in the coming years, spurred by the National Institutes of Health initiative to include both sexes in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in the mammalian nervous system, based primarily on work in rodents. Cellular mechanisms examined include neurogenesis, migration, the differentiation of neurochemical and morphological cell phenotype, and cell death. At the molecular level we discuss evolving roles for epigenetics, sex chromosome complement, the immune system, and newly identified cell signaling pathways. We review recent findings on the role of the environment, as well as genome-wide studies with some surprising results, causing us to re-think often-used models of sexual differentiation. We end by pointing to future directions, including an increased awareness of the important contributions of tissues outside of the nervous system to sexual differentiation of the brain. PMID:26790970

  16. Our stolen figures: the interface of sexual differentiation, endocrine disruptors, maternal programming, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jill E; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The prevalence of adult obesity has risen markedly in the last quarter of the 20th century and has not been reversed in this century. Less well known is the fact that obesity prevalence has risen in domestic, laboratory, and feral animals, suggesting that all of these species have been exposed to obesogenic factors present in the environment. This review emphasizes interactions among three biological processes known to influence energy balance: Sexual differentiation, endocrine disruption, and maternal programming. Sexual dimorphisms include differences between males and females in body weight, adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, ingestive behavior, and the underlying neural circuits. These sexual dimorphisms are controlled by sex chromosomes, hormones that masculinize or feminize adult body weight during perinatal development, and hormones that act during later periods of development, such as puberty. Endocrine disruptors are natural and synthetic molecules that attenuate or block normal hormonal action during these same developmental periods. A growing body of research documents effects of endocrine disruptors on the differentiation of adipocytes and the central nervous system circuits that control food intake, energy expenditure, and adipose tissue storage. In parallel, interest has grown in epigenetic influences, including maternal programming, the process by which the mother's experience has permanent effects on energy-balancing traits in the offspring. This review highlights the points at which maternal programming, sexual differentiation, and endocrine disruption might dovetail to influence global changes in energy balancing traits.

  17. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impairs sexual differentiation of exploratory behavior and increases depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Kubo, Kazuhiko; Aou, Shuji

    2006-01-12

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA, 0.1 and 1 ppm in drinking water applied to mother rats for 6 weeks) has been shown to impair the sexual differentiation in exploratory behavior, but the exact critical period of this disrupting effect is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA (0.1 ppm in drinking water applied to dams during the final week of pregnant) on emotional and learning behaviors in addition to exploratory behavior. Estimated daily intake was 15 microg/kg/day, below the reference dose (RfD) in the United States and the daily tolerable intake (TDI) in Japan (50 microg/kg/day). The rats were successively tested in open-field test, elevated plus maze test, passive avoidance test and forced swimming test during development from 6 to 9 weeks of juvenile period. Prenatal exposure to BPA mainly affected male rats and abolished sex differences in rearing behavior in the open-field test and struggling behavior in the forced swimming test. BPA increased the immobility of male rats in the forced swimming test. The avoidance learning and behaviors in the elevated plus maze were not affected. The present study demonstrates that male rats at the final week of prenatal period are sensitive to BPA, which impairs sexual differentiation in rearing and struggling behavior and facilitate depression-like behavior.

  18. Men's sexual behaviour affects their wives' risk of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Various types of human papillomavirus have been implicated as causes of cervical cancer. However, researchers have suggested that the transmission of the virus can be reduced through condom use. At least 23% of all cervical cancer in Thailand may be attributed to the lack of condom use among the customers of prostitutes. The husbands of 225 women with cervical cancer and 791 controls in Bangkok and Chiang Mai were interviewed in a study to determine whether husbands' lack of condom use with prostitutes affects their wives' risk of developing cervical cancer. The cases studied were reported between 1979 and 1988 and were limited to women born after 1930 in Bangkok and after 1925 in Chiang Mai who had lived for at least 1 year in the areas served by the three hospitals which participated in the research. Among women whose husbands first had sex with a prostitute in their teens or 20s and who did not use condoms at that time, the risk of cervical cancer is twice that of women whose husbands had never visited a prostitute. All women reported having been married only once and having had sex only with their husbands. The period between date of marriage and diagnosis of cervical cancer ranged from 6 to 45 years, with a mean and median of 24 years.

  19. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  20. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  1. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  2. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  3. The sexual erotic market as an analytical framework for understanding erotic-affective exchanges in interracial sexually intimate and affective relationships.

    PubMed

    Vigoya, Mara Viveros

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the way in which erotic-affective exchanges in interracial relationships have been analysed in Latin America. It considers how race, gender and class operate within a market of values such that erotic, affective and economic status are shaped by racial, gender and class hierarchies. In this paper I analyse historical and social arrangements that embody the region's political economy of race and sex. Such a perspective allows me to address the simultaneous co-existence of socio-racial exclusion and inclusion and the repressive and productive effects of power, attraction and anxiety as aspects of lived experiences in relation to sexuality. From there, I outline an analytical framework that references an erotic or pleasure-based market in which capital and other resources are exchanged from a structural perspective stressing relationship alliances. I conclude by identifying the scope and limits of such an approach. PMID:25431884

  4. Amyloid Beta Peptides Differentially Affect Hippocampal Theta Rhythms In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Lerma, Armando I.; Ordaz, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is responsible for the early cognitive dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease. Both cholinergically and glutamatergically induced hippocampal theta rhythms are related to learning and memory, spatial navigation, and spatial memory. However, these two types of theta rhythms are not identical; they are associated with different behaviors and can be differentially modulated by diverse experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not application of soluble Aβ alters the two types of theta frequency oscillatory network activity generated in rat hippocampal slices by application of the cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists carbachol or DHPG, respectively. Due to previous evidence that oscillatory activity can be differentially affected by different Aβ peptides, we also compared Aβ25−35 and Aβ1−42 for their effects on theta rhythms in vitro at similar concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 μM). We found that Aβ25−35 reduces, with less potency than Aβ1−42, carbachol-induced population theta oscillatory activity. In contrast, DHPG-induced oscillatory activity was not affected by a high concentration of Aβ25−35 but was reduced by Aβ1−42. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of exerting a generalized inhibitory effect on neuronal network function. PMID:23878547

  5. P450 aromatase expression in the temperature-sensitive sexual differentiation of salamander (Hynobius retardatus) gonads.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Natsuko; Tamori, Yoichiro; Wakahara, Masami

    2005-01-01

    Sex differentiation of gonads in amphibians is believed to be controlled genetically, but altered epigenetically or environmentally. When larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus were reared at defined temperatures from hatching to metamorphic stages, a high temperature (28 degrees C) induced exclusively female gonads (ovaries), whereas intermediate (20 and 23 degrees C) or lower (16 degrees C) temperatures produced a 1:1 sex ratio of the morphological gonads. The thermosensitive period was determined to be restricted from 15 to 30 days after hatching, just before or when sexual differentiation occurred. Hynobius P450 aromatase (P450arom) cDNA was isolated from adult gonads and the partial nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences were determined, showing a high level of identity with various vertebrate species. The P450arom gene was expressed predominantly in the adult ovary and brain, weakly in testis, but not in other somatic organs. A typical sexual dimorphism in P450arom expression was detected in normally developing larvae by a quantitative competitive RT-PCR; strong expression in the female gonads but very weak in male gonads. The dimorphism was detected much earlier than the morphological sexual differentiation of the gonads. When larvae were reared at the female-producing temperature (28 degrees C), strong expression was detected in all the temperature-treated larvae, suggesting that P450arom was up-regulated, even in genetic males. Our results confirm the importance of the P450arom regulation in the sexual differentiation of gonads and demonstrate that an up-regulation of P450arom is involved in the process of temperature-sensitive sex reversal in this species.

  6. A novel gene, msa1, inhibits sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hee Tae; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Katsunori; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Hideyuki; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is triggered by nutrient starvation or by the presence of mating pheromones. We identified a novel gene, msa1, which encodes a 533-aa putative RNA-binding protein that inhibits sexual differentiation. Disruption of the msa1 gene caused cells to hypersporulate. Intracellular levels of msa1 RNA and Msa1 protein diminished after several hours of nitrogen starvation. Genetic analysis suggested that the function of msa1 is independent of the cAMP pathway and stress-responsive pathway. Deletion of the ras1 gene in diploid cells inhibited sporulation and in haploid cells decreased expression of mating-pheromone-induced genes such as mei2, mam2, ste11, and rep1; simultaneous deletion of msa1 reversed both phenotypes. Overexpression of msa1 decreased activated Ras1(Val17)-induced expression of mam2. Phenotypic hypersporulation was similar between cells with deletion of only rad24 and both msa1 and rad24, but simultaneous deletion of msa1 and msa2/nrd1 additively increased hypersporulation. Therefore, we suggest that the primary function of Msa1 is to negatively regulate sexual differentiation by controlling the expression of Ste11-regulated genes, possibly through the pheromone-signaling pathway. PMID:15166138

  7. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE AND DIBUTYL PHTHALATE PRODUCE DOSE ADDITIVE DISRUPTIONS OF MALE RAT SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procymidone (PRO) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) alter male rat sexual differentiation by disrupting the androgen-signaling pathway via distinctly different cellular mechanisms of toxicity. DBP inhibits fetal Leydig cell androgen production whereas PRO binds AR and blocks androgen a...

  8. Gender Identity and Sex-of-rearing in Children with Disorders of Sexual Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To compare declared sexual identity to sex-of-rearing in individuals with disorders of sexual differentiation. Methods: All 84 patients ≥5 years old in a pediatric psychosexual development clinic were assessed for sex-of-rearing and sexual identity. Diagnoses included 1) male-typical prenatal androgen effects but an absent or severely inadequate penis - 45 patients with cloacal exstrophy or aphallia; 2) inadequate prenatal androgens and a Y-chromosome - 28 patients with partial androgen insensitivity (pAIS) mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD), hermaphroditism, or craniofacial anomalies with genital ambiguity; 3) inappropriate prenatal androgen effects and a 46,XX karyotype - 11 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Results: Of 73 patients with disordered sexual differentiation and a Y-chromosome, 60 were reared female 26 of the 60 (43%) declared female identity while 32 (53%) declared male identity including 18 (55%) with cloacal exstrophy, six (55%) with MGD, four (40%) with pAIS, one (50%) with aphallia, one (100%) with hermaphroditism, and two (67%) with craniofacial anomalies; two (3%) declined to discuss identity. Nine of 11 patients with CAH and a 46,XX karyotype were reared female and two reared male; six (55%) declared female identity and five (45%) declared male identity. Of 84 total patients, 69 were reared female, but only 32 lived as female, while 29 lived as male; four patients refused to discuss sex-of-living; parents of four patients rejected their declarations of male identity. All 15 patients reared male lived as male including two genetic females. Conclusion: Active prenatal androgen effects appeared to dramatically increase the likelihood of recognition of male sexual identity independent of sex-of-rearing. Genetic males with maletypical prenatal androgen effects should be reared male. PMID:16042322

  9. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  10. Does atrazine influence larval development and sexual differentiation in Xenopus laevis?

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka; Springer, Timothy; Krueger, Henry; Wolf, Jeff; Holden, Larry; Hosmer, Alan

    2009-02-01

    Debate and controversy exists concerning the potential for the herbicide atrazine to cause gonadal malformations in developing Xenopus laevis. Following review of the existing literature the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required a rigorous investigation conducted under standardized procedures. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to atrazine at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 25, or 100 microg/l from day 8 postfertilization (dpf) until completion of metamorphosis or dpf 83, whichever came first. Nearly identical experiments were performed in two independent laboratories: experiment 1 at Wildlife International, Ltd. and experiment 2 at the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB). Both experiments employed optimized animal husbandry procedures and environmental conditions in validated flow-through exposure systems. The two experiments demonstrated consistent survival, growth, and development of X. laevis tadpoles, and all measured parameters were within the expected ranges and were comparable in negative control and atrazine-treated groups. Atrazine, at concentrations up to 100 microg/l, had no effect in either experiment on the percentage of males or the incidence of mixed sex as determined by histological evaluation. In contrast, exposure of larval X. laevis to 0.2 microg 17beta-estradiol/l as the positive control resulted in gonadal feminization. Instead of an even distribution of male and female phenotypes, percentages of males:females:mixed sex were 19:75:6 and 22:60:18 in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. These studies demonstrate that long-term exposure of larval X. laevis to atrazine at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 microg/l does not affect growth, larval development, or sexual differentiation.

  11. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  12. Introduced Goldfish Affect Amphibians through Inhibition of Sexual Behaviour in Risky Habitats: an Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians. PMID:24312432

  13. Cell-cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller-detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes.

  14. Effects of methyl testosterone exposure on sexual differentiation in medaka, Oryzias latipes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Noltie, D.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize effects of a known androgen on sexual differentiation and development of medaka, Oryzias latipes (d-rR strain), at two life stages. Embryos were injected with graded doses of methyl testosterone (MT) prior to epiboly. The occurrence of sex-reversal, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were evaluated in adults. Primary germ cells were counted and gonad volumes calculated for larvae to determine if sex-reversal could be detected at an early life stage. Sex-reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males was observed at both life stages. The GSI for phenotypic females was greater than for phenotypic males, while the GSI in XX males was similar to XY males. MT appeared to reduce the GSI of XX females exposed to MT but not sex-reversed. Our results indicate that embryonic exposure to androgens influences sexual development in medaka. Utilizing the d-rR strain of medaka allows detection of an effect as early as 2 weeks after chemical exposure making this a useful tool to screen chemicals for effects on sexual differentiation. Copyright (C) 2000.

  15. Cell–cell signalling in sexual chemotaxis: a basis for gametic differentiation, mating types and sexes

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    While sex requires two parents, there is no obvious need for them to be differentiated into distinct mating types or sexes. Yet this is the predominate state of nature. Here, we argue that mating types could play a decisive role because they prevent the apparent inevitability of self-stimulation during sexual signalling. We rigorously assess this hypothesis by developing a model for signaller–detector dynamics based on chemical diffusion, chemotaxis and cell movement. Our model examines the conditions under which chemotaxis improves partner finding. Varying parameter values within ranges typical of protists and their environments, we show that simultaneous secretion and detection of a single chemoattractant can cause a multifold movement impediment and severely hinder mate finding. Mutually exclusive roles result in faster pair formation, even when cells conferring the same roles cannot pair up. This arrangement also allows the separate mating types to optimize their signalling or detecting roles, which is effectively impossible for cells that are both secretors and detectors. Our findings suggest that asymmetric roles in sexual chemotaxis (and possibly other forms of sexual signalling) are crucial, even without morphological differences, and may underlie the evolution of gametic differentiation among both mating types and sexes. PMID:26156301

  16. A genetic analysis of intersex, a gene regulating sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster females

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, B.A. |; Baker, B.S.

    1995-04-01

    Sex-type in Drosophila melanogaster is controlled by a hierarchically acting set of regulatory genes. At the terminus of this hierarchy lie those regulatory genes responsible for implementing sexual differentiation: genes that control the activity of target loci whose products give rise to sexually dimorphic phenotypes. The genetic analysis of the intersex (ix) gene presented here demonstrates that ix is such a terminally positioned regulatory locus. The ix locus has been localized to the cytogenetic interval between 47E3-6 and 47F11-18. A comparison of the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of homozygotes and hemizygotes for three point mutations at ix indicates that the null phenotypes of homozygotes diplo-X animals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. Analysis of X-ray induced, mitotic recombination clones lacking ix{sup +} function in the abdomen of diplo-X individuals indicates that the ix{sup +} product functions in a cell-autonomous manner and that it is required at least until the termination of cell division in this tissue. Taken together with previous analyses, our results indicate that the ix{sup +} product is required to function with the female-specific product of doublesex to implement appropriate female sexual differentiation in diplo-X animals. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Micropatterning topology on soft substrates affects myoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Serena, Elena; Luni, Camilla; Cimetta, Elisa; Elvassore, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    Micropatterning techniques and substrate engineering are becoming useful tools to investigate several aspects of cell-cell interaction biology. In this work, we rationally study how different micropatterning geometries can affect myoblast behavior in the early stage of in vitro myogenesis. Soft hydrogels with physiological elastic modulus (E = 15 kPa) were micropatterned in parallel lanes (100, 300, and 500 μm width) resulting in different local and global myoblast densities. Proliferation and differentiation into multinucleated myotubes were evaluated for murine and human myoblasts. Wider lanes showed a decrease in murine myoblast proliferation: (69 ± 8)% in 100 μm wide lanes compared to (39 ± 7)% in 500 μm lanes. Conversely, fusion index increased in wider lanes: from (46 ± 7)% to (66 ± 7)% for murine myoblasts, and from (15 ± 3)% to (36 ± 2)% for human primary myoblasts, using a patterning width of 100 and 500 μm, respectively. These results are consistent with both computational modeling data and conditioned medium experiments, which demonstrated that wider lanes favor the accumulation of endogenous secreted factors. Interestingly, human primary myoblast proliferation is not affected by patterning width, which may be because the high serum content of their culture medium overrides the effect of secreted factors. These data highlight the role of micropatterning in shaping the cellular niche through secreted factor accumulation, and are of paramount importance in rationally understanding myogenesis in vitro for the correct design of in vitro skeletal muscle models.

  18. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem. PMID:20961376

  19. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  20. Carotenoid Supplementation Positively Affects the Expression of a Non-Visual Sexual Signal

    PubMed Central

    Van Hout, Alain J.-M.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic) signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). After only 3–7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent) positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T), we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented) song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant) nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual) signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments. PMID:21283591

  1. Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2013-03-01

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a

  2. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  3. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  4. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  5. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations.

    PubMed

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L; Parsons, Scott A; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  6. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations

    PubMed Central

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L.; Parsons, Scott A.; Alford, Ross A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  7. Host-associated differentiation in a highly polyphagous, sexually reproducing insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Josephine B; Sword, Gregory A; Medina, Raul F

    2015-01-01

    Insect herbivores may undergo genetic divergence on their host plants through host-associated differentiation (HAD). Much of what we know about HAD involves insect species with narrow host ranges (i.e., specialists) that spend part or all their life cycle inside their hosts, and/or reproduce asexually (e.g., parthenogenetic insects), all of which are thought to facilitate HAD. However, sexually reproducing polyphagous insects can also exhibit HAD. Few sexually reproducing insects have been tested for HAD, and when they have insects from only a handful of potential host-plant populations have been tested, making it difficult to predict how common HAD is when one considers the entire species’ host range. This question is particularly relevant when considering insect pests, as host-associated populations may differ in traits relevant to their control. Here, we tested for HAD in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) pest, the cotton fleahopper (CFH) (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus), a sexually reproducing, highly polyphagous hemipteran insect. A previous study detected one incidence of HAD among three of its host plants. We used Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess HAD in CFH collected from an expanded array of 13 host-plant species belonging to seven families. Overall, four genetically distinct populations were found. One genetically distinct genotype was exclusively associated with one of the host-plant species while the other three were observed across more than one host-plant species. The relatively low degree of HAD in CFH compared to the pea aphid, another hemipteran insect, stresses the likely importance of sexual recombination as a factor increasing the likelihood of HAD. PMID:26257868

  8. Influence of neurotransmitters on sexual differentiation of brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Döhler, K D; Jarzab, B; Sickmöller, P M; Kokociñska, D; Kaminski, M; Gubala, E; Achtelik, W; Wagiel, J

    1991-01-01

    Newborn rats received daily subcutaneous treatment with compounds which influence serotoninergic, cholinergic, alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic activity. In adulthood luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion pattern, female sexual behavior, and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic are (SDN-POA) were determined. Postnatal administration of l-tryptophan increased the volume of the SDN-POA significantly when given alone or when given simultaneously with testosterone propionate (TP). Para-chlorophenyl-alanine (pCPA) also increased SDN-POA volume, but did not potentiate the stimulating influence of TP. Clonidine had no effect per se on SDN-POA development, but it significantly potentiated the effect of TP in females. Salbutamol increased SDN-POA volume in females and in males. Postnatal treatment of female rats with the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists prazosine and yohimbine or with the nicotin receptor antagonist mecamylamine had permanent potentiating effects on the pattern of LH secretion, whereas postnatal treatment with beta-adrenergic compounds reduced the LH-release response to gonadal steroids in adulthood. Postnatal treatment with clonidin or l-tryptophane inhibited differentiation of the capacity for lordosis behavior. Beta-receptor agonists postnatally had a potentiating effect on the capacity for lordosis behavior in female and male rats. Cholinergic stimulation postnatally inhibited differentiation of the capacity for lordosis behavior in female rats, but prevented the inhibitory effect of postnatal androgenization. There was no correlation between SDN-POA volume and any of the two functional parameters. PMID:1685710

  9. Dazl is a target RNA suppressed by mammalian NANOS2 in sexually differentiating male germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yuzuru; Katsuki, Takeo; Kokubo, Hiroki; Masuda, Aki; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionally conserved Nanos RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in germ cell development. While a mammalian Nanos family protein, NANOS2, is required for sexual differentiation of male (XY) germ cells in mice, the underlying mechanisms and the identities of its target RNAs in vivo remain elusive. Using comprehensive microarray analysis and a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic system, here we identify Dazl, a germ cell-specific gene encoding an RNA-binding protein implicated in translation, as a crucial target of NANOS2. Importantly, removal of the Dazl 3′-untranslated region in XY germ cells stabilizes the Dazl mRNA, resulting in elevated meiotic gene expression, abnormal resumption of the cell cycle and impaired processing-body formation, reminiscent of Nanos2-knockout phenotypes. Furthermore, our data suggest that NANOS2 acts as an antagonist of the DAZL protein. We propose a dual system of NANOS2-mediated suppression of Dazl expression as a pivotal molecular mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of XY germ cells. PMID:27072294

  10. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  11. Dazl is a target RNA suppressed by mammalian NANOS2 in sexually differentiating male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuzuru; Katsuki, Takeo; Kokubo, Hiroki; Masuda, Aki; Saga, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionally conserved Nanos RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in germ cell development. While a mammalian Nanos family protein, NANOS2, is required for sexual differentiation of male (XY) germ cells in mice, the underlying mechanisms and the identities of its target RNAs in vivo remain elusive. Using comprehensive microarray analysis and a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic system, here we identify Dazl, a germ cell-specific gene encoding an RNA-binding protein implicated in translation, as a crucial target of NANOS2. Importantly, removal of the Dazl 3'-untranslated region in XY germ cells stabilizes the Dazl mRNA, resulting in elevated meiotic gene expression, abnormal resumption of the cell cycle and impaired processing-body formation, reminiscent of Nanos2-knockout phenotypes. Furthermore, our data suggest that NANOS2 acts as an antagonist of the DAZL protein. We propose a dual system of NANOS2-mediated suppression of Dazl expression as a pivotal molecular mechanism promoting sexual differentiation of XY germ cells. PMID:27072294

  12. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  13. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    PubMed

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  14. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  15. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Jandegian, Caitlin M; Deem, Sharon L; Bhandari, Ramji K; Holliday, Casey M; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Selcer, Kyle W; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vélez-Rivera, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K

    2015-05-15

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26°C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100μgBPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated "males", but in none of the control males (n=35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low=30%, BPA-medium=33%, BPA-high=39%), this difference was not significant (p=0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations. PMID:25863134

  16. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    PubMed

    Jandegian, Caitlin M; Deem, Sharon L; Bhandari, Ramji K; Holliday, Casey M; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Selcer, Kyle W; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vélez-Rivera, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K

    2015-05-15

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26°C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100μgBPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated "males", but in none of the control males (n=35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low=30%, BPA-medium=33%, BPA-high=39%), this difference was not significant (p=0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  17. Lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting same-sex sexual partners: results from NHANES III.

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, S D; Mays, V M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting a history of same-sex sexual partners. METHODS: In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, men aged 17 to 39 years were assessed for lifetime history of affective disorders and sexual behavior patterns. The study classified this subset of men into 3 groups: those reporting same-sex sexual partners, those reporting only female sexual partners, and those reporting no sexual partners. Groups were compared for histories of suicide symptoms and affective disorders. RESULTS: A total of 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3%, 3.1%) of men reported same-sex sexual partners. These men evidenced greater lifetime prevalence rates of suicide symptoms than men reporting only female partners. However, homosexually/bisexually experienced men were no more likely than exclusively heterosexual men to meet criteria for lifetime diagnosis of other affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence of an increased risk for suicide symptoms among homosexually experienced men. Results also hint at a small, increased risk of recurrent depression among gay men, with symptom onset occurring, on average, during early adolescence. PMID:10754972

  18. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship. PMID:23519591

  19. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  20. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed.

  1. Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

  2. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  3. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.

  4. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  5. Utilizing hypnosis and ego-state therapy to facilitate healthy adaptive differentiation in the treatment of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Much of the literature focuses on the pathology that falls to the far right of the Watkins (1997) differentiation-dissociation continuum, such as Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder NOS. Adding a "far left" to this continuum, as well as a construct of what the "far left" looks like, makes apparent the value of healthy adaptive differentiation for those individuals that fall to the "far left" of the spectrum; those who don't differentiate enough. A discussion of sexual dysfunction at this end of the continuum and cases of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Vaginismus demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of an approach combining hypnosis and ego-state therapy to facilitate healthy adaptive differentiation.

  6. Probabilistically determining the cellular source of DNA derived from differential extractions in sexual assault scenarios.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan

    2016-09-01

    Sexual assault cases are the type of case that often produces questions about the cellular source of DNA. In these cases multiple findings of microscopy, DNA profiling and presumptive testing need to be considered when addressing source level propositions. In this work, I consider a line of questioning that has been raised a number of times in the recent past, where in court it was disputed that low levels of sperm seen on a microscope slide were the cellular source of the male DNA profile component generated from the sperm fraction of a differential DNA extraction. I demonstrate how the cell scoring results and DNA profiling results can be considered together, in helping address this source level question through the use of Bayesian Networks.

  7. Probabilistically determining the cellular source of DNA derived from differential extractions in sexual assault scenarios.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan

    2016-09-01

    Sexual assault cases are the type of case that often produces questions about the cellular source of DNA. In these cases multiple findings of microscopy, DNA profiling and presumptive testing need to be considered when addressing source level propositions. In this work, I consider a line of questioning that has been raised a number of times in the recent past, where in court it was disputed that low levels of sperm seen on a microscope slide were the cellular source of the male DNA profile component generated from the sperm fraction of a differential DNA extraction. I demonstrate how the cell scoring results and DNA profiling results can be considered together, in helping address this source level question through the use of Bayesian Networks. PMID:27388428

  8. Sexual competition and N supply interactively affect the dimorphism and competiveness of opposite sexes in Populus cathayana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-07-01

    Several important dioecious species show sexual spatial segregation (SSS) along environmental gradients that have significant ecological effect on terrestrial ecosystem. However, little attention has been paid to understanding of how males and females respond to environmental gradients and sexual competition. We compared eco-physiological parameters of males and females of Populus cathayana under different sexual competition patterns and nitrogen (N) supply levels. We found that males and females interacting with the same or opposite sex showed significant differences in biomass partition, photosynthetic capacity, carbon (C) and N metabolism, and leaf ultrastructure, and that the sexual differences to competition were importantly driven by N supply. The intersexual competition was enhanced under high N, while the intrasexual competition among females was amplified under low N. Under high N, the intersexual competition stimulated the growth of the females and negatively affected the males. In contrast, under low N, the males exposed to intrasexual competition had the highest tolerance, whereas females exposed to intrasexual competition showed the lowest adaptation among all competition patterns. Sexual competition patterns and N supply levels significantly affected the sexual dimorphism and competitiveness, which may play an important role in spatial segregation of P. cathayana populations.

  9. Sexual competition and N supply interactively affect the dimorphism and competiveness of opposite sexes in Populus cathayana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-07-01

    Several important dioecious species show sexual spatial segregation (SSS) along environmental gradients that have significant ecological effect on terrestrial ecosystem. However, little attention has been paid to understanding of how males and females respond to environmental gradients and sexual competition. We compared eco-physiological parameters of males and females of Populus cathayana under different sexual competition patterns and nitrogen (N) supply levels. We found that males and females interacting with the same or opposite sex showed significant differences in biomass partition, photosynthetic capacity, carbon (C) and N metabolism, and leaf ultrastructure, and that the sexual differences to competition were importantly driven by N supply. The intersexual competition was enhanced under high N, while the intrasexual competition among females was amplified under low N. Under high N, the intersexual competition stimulated the growth of the females and negatively affected the males. In contrast, under low N, the males exposed to intrasexual competition had the highest tolerance, whereas females exposed to intrasexual competition showed the lowest adaptation among all competition patterns. Sexual competition patterns and N supply levels significantly affected the sexual dimorphism and competitiveness, which may play an important role in spatial segregation of P. cathayana populations. PMID:25366665

  10. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN AND TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON PREGNANCY AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE AND FEMALE SD RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Sufficient levels of androgens during fetal sexual differentiation in the mammal produces the male phenotype, and the absence of androgens or the dysfunction of the androgen receptor can produce the female phenotype. In previous studies in our laboratory, adminis...

  11. Human monocyte differentiation stage affects response to arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Alvarez, Elizabeth; Pelaez, Carlos A; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    AA-induced cell death mechanisms acting on human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), U937 promonocytes and PMA-differentiated U937 cells were studied. Arachidonic acid induced apoptosis and necrosis in monocytes and U937 cells but only apoptosis in MDM and U937D cells. AA increased both types of death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells and increased the percentage of TNFalpha+ cells and reduced IL-10+ cells. Experiments blocking these cytokines indicated that AA-mediated death was TNFalpha- and IL-10-independent. The differences in AA-mediated cell death could be explained by high ROS, calpain and sPLA-2 production and activity in monocytes. Blocking sPLA-2 in monocytes and treatment with antioxidants favored M. tuberculosis control whereas AA enhanced M. tuberculosis growth in MDM. Such evidence suggested that AA-modulated effector mechanisms depend on mononuclear phagocytes' differentiation stage.

  12. Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: towards an evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication.

    PubMed

    Groot, Astrid T; Ward, Catherine; Wang, Jing; Pokrzywa, Amanda; O'Brien, Jennifer; Bennett, Joy; Kelly, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

    2004-12-01

    without Hv-chromosome 22. However, in BC5 and BC11 females, the correlation between Z11-16:OH and Hv-chromosome 22 was lost, suggesting that there are separate QTL for the acetates and for Z11-16:OH, and that the relative amount of the alcohol component is only affected in epistasis with other (minor) QTL. Now that we have succeeded in isolating the chromosome that has a major effect on acetate production, we can test in behavioral experiments whether the presence of acetates may have been a driving force for a shift in pheromone composition. Such tests are necessary to move towards an evolutionary understanding of the differentiation in sexual communication in Heliothis spp. moths.

  13. Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

    2014-07-01

    Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms.

  14. Iodine Affects Differentiation and Migration Process in Trophoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Vidal, Zendy Evelyn; Rodríguez, Roció Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h. Then trophoblast cells were treated with low iodine doses of 5-500 μM and high iodine doses of 100-5000 μM. Oxidative stress, viability, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC) were measured by colorimetric methods. Migration throphoblast cells were evaluated by both wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Iodine deprivation induces a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), viability, and migration process vs control cells. We found a significant overregulation in the mRNA's peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma), Snail, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA's in cells deprived of iodine, as well as a down glial cell missing-1 (GCM-1) regulation, hGC, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and E-cadherin mRNA expression. The expression of hypoxic induction factor alpha (HIFα) mRNA does not change with iodine deprivation. In cells deprived of iodine, supplementing low iodine doses (5-500 μM) does not induce any significant changes in viability. However, ROS and migration process were decreased, although we found an increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion as a differentiation marker. In addition, we found that PPAR-gamma, Snail, and MPP-9 mRNAs expression are downregulated with low iodine doses, in contrast with GCM-1, PAPP

  15. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  16. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  17. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  18. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  19. Perceived smoking availability differentially affects mood and reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kathryn C.; Juliano, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This between subjects study explored the relationship between smoking availability and smoking motivation and is the first study to include three smoking availability time points. This allowed for an examination of an extended period of smoking unavailability, and a test of the linearity of the relationships between smoking availability and smoking motivation measures. Methods Ninety 3-hour abstinent smokers (mean ∼15 cigarettes per day) were randomly assigned to one of three availability manipulations while being exposed to smoking stimuli (i.e., pack of cigarettes): smoke in 20 min, smoke in 3 h, or smoke in 24 h. Participants completed pre- and post-manipulation measures of urge, positive affect and negative affect, and simple reaction time. Results The belief that smoking would next be available in 24 h resulted in a significant decrease in positive affect and increase in negative affect relative to the 3 h and 20 min conditions. A Lack of Fit test suggested a linear relationship between smoking availability and affect. A quadratic model appeared to be a better fit for the relationship between smoking availability and simple reaction time with participants in the 24 h and 20 min conditions showing a greater slowing of reaction time relative to the 3 h condition. There were no effects of the manipulations on self-reported urge, but baseline ceiling effects were noted. Conclusions Future investigations that manipulate three or more periods of time before smoking is available will help to better elucidate the nature of the relationship between smoking availability and smoking motivation. PMID:25727393

  20. Family-Based Processes Associated with Adolescent Distress, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Families Affected by Maternal HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Exploited, War-Affected Congolese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Paul; McMullen, John; Shannon, Ciaran; Rafferty, Harry; Black, Alastair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) delivered by nonclinical facilitators in reducing posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety and conduct problems and increasing prosocial behavior in a group of war-affected, sexually exploited girls in a single-blind, parallel-design, randomized,…

  2. Sexual differentiation of the brain: a model for drug-induced alterations of the reproductive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gorski, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The process of the sexual differentiation of the brain represents a valuable model system for the study of the chemical modification of the mammalian brain. Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. It is suggested that a relatively marked structural sex difference in the rat brain, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA), is a morphological signature of the permanent or organizational action of estradiol derived from the aromatization of testicular testosterone. The SDN-POA of the male rat is severalfold larger in volume and is composed of more neurons than that of the female. The observation that the mitotic formation of the neurons of the SDN-POA is specifically prolonged has enabled us to identify the time course and pathway of neuronal migration into the nucleus. Study of the development of the SDN-POA suggests that estradiol in the male increases the number of neurons which survive a phase of neuronal death by exerting a neurite growth promoting action and/or a direct neuronotrophic action. Finally, although it is clear that gonadal hormones have dramatic permanent effects on the brain during perinatal development, even after puberty and in adulthood gonadal steroids can alter neuronal structure and, perhaps as a corollary to this, have permanent effects on reproductive function. Although the brain may be most sensitive to gonadal hormones or exogenous chemical factors during perinatal development, such as sensitivity does not appear limited to this period.

  3. Attachment Representations and Anxiety: Differential Relationships among Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to document an example of how childhood sexual abuse and attachment representation interact while contributing to the trait anxiety of nonoffending mothers following the disclosure of their daughters' sexual abuse. The study sample consisted of 57 ethnically diverse mothers of sexually abused girls aged 6 to 16 and 47…

  4. College Women and Personal Goals: Cognitive Dimensions that Differentiate Risk-Reduction Sexual Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nelwyn B.; Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.

    2006-01-01

    As the twenty-first century begins, a high level of participation in premarital sexual intercourse by college women is well-documented. But, in the research exploring risk-reduction sexual behaviors, the relationship of cognitive abilities to responsible sexual behavior has been under-researched. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 626…

  5. How mothers' parenting styles affect their children's sexual efficacy and experience.

    PubMed

    Taris, T W; Semin, G R

    1998-03-01

    The relations among mothers' parenting styles and adolescents' sexual self-efficacy and sexual experience were examined in a sample of 253 British adolescent-mother pairs. Also explored was whether adolescents' self-efficacy would be positively or negatively related to their sexual experience. Mothers' parenting styles were expected to influence children's locus of control, based on the theory that mothers who are involved with their children and mothers who stress independence contribute to the development of an internal locus of control in their children, increasing the children's feelings of sexual self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to test a longitudinal model. The results support the assumption that maternal involvement leads to higher levels of self-efficacy, whereas maternal control was associated with lower levels of self-efficacy. Sexual self-efficacy was associated with higher levels of sexual experience. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  6. Differential Meteoric Ablation and its affects in the atmosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M.; Broadley, S. L.; Whalley, C. L.; Saunders, R. W.; Gomez Martin, J.; Janches, D.; Dyrud, L.

    2009-12-01

    Differential ablation occurs when the constituents of a molten meteoroid evaporate at different rates during the passage of the meteoroid through the upper atmosphere. This can result in relatively volatile elements (e.g., Na and K) evaporating more than 20 km higher than a refractory element such as Ca. This paper will describe a new chemical ablation model (CABMOD) which predicts the ablation rates of individual elements from a meteoroid under specified entry conditions. The model also treats ionization of the individual elements by hyperthermal collisions with air molecules. This data has been used to compute the fine structure in the altitude profile of the "head echo" which would be observed by a large aperture radar. Good agreement was found with observations from the Arecibo radar in Puerto Rico. CABMOD has also been used to explain the curious results of multiple common-volume lidar observations of meteor trails, and to predict the most likely composition of meteoric smoke particles which result from the recondensation of vaporized meteoroids.

  7. Binge drinking differentially affects adolescent male and female brain morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Sorg, Scott F.; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adolescent binge drinking is concerning, as important neurodevelopments occur during this stage. Previous research suggests that binge drinking may disrupt typical brain development, and females may be particularly vulnerable. Objectives We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine cortical thickness in adolescent females and males with and without histories of binge drinking. Methods Participants (N=59) were 16–19-year-old adolescents recruited from local schools. Recent binge drinkers (n=29, 48% female) were matched to non-drinkers (n=30, 50% female) on age, gender, pubertal development, and familial alcoholism. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery and MRI session. Cortical surfaces were reconstructed with FreeSurfer. Results Binge × gender interactions (p<.05) were seen for cortical thickness in four left frontal regions: frontal pole, pars orbitalis, medial orbital frontal, and rostral anterior cingulate. For all interactions, female bingers had thicker cortices than female controls, while male bingers had thinner cortices than male controls. Thicker left frontal cortices corresponded with poorer visuospatial, inhibition, and attention performances for female bingers (r=−0.69 to 0.50, p<0.05) and worse attention for male bingers (r=−0.69, p=0.005). Conclusions Adolescent females with recent binge drinking showed ~8% thicker cortices in left frontal regions than demographically similar female non-drinkers, which was linked to worse visuospatial, inhibition, and attention performances. In contrast, adolescent binge-drinking males showed ~7% thinner cortices in these areas than non-drinking males. These cross-sectional data suggest either different gray matter risk factors for males as for females toward developing heavy drinking, or differential adverse sequelae. PMID:21952669

  8. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female's sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  9. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female’s sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  10. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  11. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  12. Sexual Behavior and Perceived Peer Norms: Comparing Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Affected Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Elkington, Katherine; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Dolezal, Curtis; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are becoming adolescents and exploring their sexuality. This study explored the prevalence of sexual behaviors (kissing, touching, engaging in oral sex, or having vaginal/anal intercourse) in a sample of predominantly ethnic minority youths (N = 339; 54.1% Black and 30.4% Latino; 51%…

  13. Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identification of Positive and Negative Facial Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Sex and sexual orientation related differences in processing of happy and sad facial emotions were examined using an experimental facial emotion recognition paradigm with a large sample (N=240). Analysis of covariance (controlling for age and IQ) revealed that women (irrespective of sexual orientation) had faster reaction times than men for…

  14. Domesticated transposase Kat1 and its fossil imprints induce sexual differentiation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Naghmeh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Lin, Feng; Åström, Stefan U.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) have had a major influence on shaping both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, largely through stochastic events following random or near-random insertions. In the mammalian immune system, the recombination activation genes1/2 (Rag1/2) recombinase has evolved from a transposase gene, demonstrating that TEs can be domesticated by the host. In this study, we uncovered a domesticated transposase, Kluyveromyces lactis hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposase 1 (Kat1), operating at the fossil imprints of an ancient transposon, that catalyzes the differentiation of cell type. Kat1 induces mating-type switching from mating type a (MATa) to MATα in the yeast K. lactis. Kat1 activates switching by introducing two hairpin-capped DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the MATa1–MATa2 intergenic region, as we demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro. The DSBs stimulate homologous recombination with the cryptic hidden MAT left alpha (HMLα) locus resulting in a switch of the cell type. The sites where Kat1 acts in the MATa locus most likely are ancient remnants of terminal inverted repeats from a long-lost TE. The KAT1 gene is annotated as a pseudogene because it contains two overlapping ORFs. We demonstrate that translation of full-length Kat1 requires a programmed −1 frameshift. The frameshift limited Kat1 activity, because restoring the zero frame causes switching to the MATα genotype. Kat1 also was transcriptionally activated by nutrient limitation via the transcription factor mating type switch 1 (Mts1). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that KAT1 was domesticated specifically in the Kluyveromyces clade of the budding yeasts. We conclude that Kat1 is a highly regulated transposase-derived endonuclease vital for sexual differentiation. PMID:25313032

  15. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  16. A Lumpers versus Splitters Approach to Sexual Differentiation of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    Over fifty years of rigorous empirical attention to the study of sexual differentiation of the brain has produced sufficient data to reveal fundamental guiding principles, but has also required the generation of new hypotheses to explain non-conforming observations. An early emphasis on the powerful impact and essential role of gonadal steroids is now complemented by an appreciation for genetic contributions to sex differences in the brain. The organizing effects of early steroid hormones on reproductively relevant brain regions and endpoints are largely dependent upon neuronal aromatization of androgens to estrogens. The effect of estradiol is mediated via estrogen receptors (ER). The presence or absence of ER can restrict hormone action to select cells and either prevent or invoke cell death. Alternatively, ER activation can initiate signaling cascades that induce cell-to-cell communication and thereby transduce organizational steroid effects to large numbers of cells. However, the specific details by which cell death and cell-to-cell communication are achieved appear to be locally, even cellularly, unique and specific to that particular subpopulation. As the field moves forward the increasingly specific and detailed elucidation of mechanism challenges us to generate new guiding principles in order to gain a holistic understanding of how the brain develops in males and females. PMID:21296103

  17. The Effect of Differentiation Approach Developed on Creativity of Gifted Students: Cognitive and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a differentiation approach for the mathematics education of gifted middle school students and to determine the effect of the differentiation approach on creative thinking skills of gifted students based on both cognitive and affective factors. In this context, the answer to the following question was searched:…

  18. Natural allelic variations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes affect sexual dimorphism in Oryzias latipes

    PubMed Central

    Katsumura, Takafumi; Oda, Shoji; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms, which are phenotypic differences between males and females, are driven by sexual selection. Interestingly, sexually selected traits show geographical variations within species despite strong directional selective pressures. This paradox has eluded many evolutionary biologists for some time, and several models have been proposed (e.g. ‘indicator model’ and ‘trade-off model’). However, disentangling which of these theories explains empirical patterns remains difficult, because genetic polymorphisms that cause variation in sexual differences are still unknown. In this study, we show that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which encodes a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, are associated with geographical differences in sexual dimorphism in the anal fin morphology of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Biochemical assays and genetic cross experiments show that high- and low-activity CYP1B1 alleles enhanced and declined sex differences in anal fin shapes, respectively. Behavioural and phylogenetic analyses suggest maintenance of the high-activity allele by sexual selection, whereas the low-activity allele possibly has experienced positive selection due to by-product effects of CYP1B1 in inferred ancestral populations. The present data can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms behind genetic variations in sexual dimorphism and indicate trade-off interactions between two distinct mechanisms acting on the two alleles with pleiotropic effects of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25377463

  19. Natural allelic variations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes affect sexual dimorphism in Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Katsumura, Takafumi; Oda, Shoji; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki

    2014-12-22

    Sexual dimorphisms, which are phenotypic differences between males and females, are driven by sexual selection. Interestingly, sexually selected traits show geographical variations within species despite strong directional selective pressures. This paradox has eluded many evolutionary biologists for some time, and several models have been proposed (e.g. 'indicator model' and 'trade-off model'). However, disentangling which of these theories explains empirical patterns remains difficult, because genetic polymorphisms that cause variation in sexual differences are still unknown. In this study, we show that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which encodes a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, are associated with geographical differences in sexual dimorphism in the anal fin morphology of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Biochemical assays and genetic cross experiments show that high- and low-activity CYP1B1 alleles enhanced and declined sex differences in anal fin shapes, respectively. Behavioural and phylogenetic analyses suggest maintenance of the high-activity allele by sexual selection, whereas the low-activity allele possibly has experienced positive selection due to by-product effects of CYP1B1 in inferred ancestral populations. The present data can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms behind genetic variations in sexual dimorphism and indicate trade-off interactions between two distinct mechanisms acting on the two alleles with pleiotropic effects of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

  20. DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
    Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

  1. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO THE PHTHALATES DEHP, BBP AND DINP, BUT NOT DEP, DMP OR DOTP ALTERS SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In mammals, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of AR antagonists like vinclozolin and procymidone or chemicals like di (2-bis) ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), that inhibit ...

  2. Affective, behavioral, and social-cognitive dysregulation as mechanisms for sexual abuse revictimization.

    PubMed

    Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Phelps, Carolyn E Roecker; Reichle, Adam C

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 1117 female college students, this study examined emotional, behavioral, and social-cognitive mechanisms of sexual abuse revictimization. It was hypothesized that numbing, alexithymia, alcohol problems, mistrust, and adult attachment dimensions would mediate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual abuse (ASA). Aside from the close adult attachment dimension, the results indicated that all of the hypothesized mediators were associated with CSA. However, only alcohol problems and mistrust met the necessary conditions of mediation. The results with respect to mistrust are especially unique in that it is one of the first empirical demonstrations of a social-cognitive mechanism for sexual abuse revictimization. Thus, these results enhance our understanding of interpersonal mediators of the relationship between CSA and ASA and provide a new direction for future research.

  3. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  4. Differentiation of Competence and Affect Self-Perceptions in Elementary School Students: Extending Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to address two underexplored research questions regarding support for the separation between competence and affect self-perceptions due to differential relations to outcome criteria. First, it is tested whether higher relations between affect self-perceptions and effort than between competence self-perceptions and effort can also…

  5. How HIV diagnosis and disclosure affect sexual behavior and relationships in Ugandan fishing communities.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Moriah; Birdthistle, Isolde; Seeley, Janet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim

    2013-08-01

    In this article we examine how members of fishing communities on the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda respond to HIV diagnosis in terms of disclosure to sexual partners. We then explore the subsequent changes in sexual behavior and relationships. To access this information, we collected life history data from 78 HIV-positive individuals in five fishing communities. We found that the strength of the sexual relationships shaped how and why individuals disclosed to partners, and that these relationships tended to be stronger when partners shared familial responsibility. Those who perceived their current sexual partnership to be weak sought to conceal their status by maintaining prediagnosis patterns of sexual behavior. The majority of the study's participants rarely changed their sexual behavior following HIV diagnosis, regardless of their relationship's strength. These findings elucidate barriers to disclosure and behavior change, and suggest that a life-course approach might enhance individual-level counseling so that counselors can provide tailored support to individuals regarding disclosure decisions and outcomes.

  6. Differentiating Youth Who Sexually Abuse: Applying a Multidimensional Framework when Assessing and Treating Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that children with sexual behavior problems and adolescents who offend sexually are diverse populations consisting of several subtypes (Hall, Mathews, & Pearce, 2002; Pithers, Gray, Busconi, & Houchens, 1998; Worling, 2001). This article reviews the descriptive and empirical research related to identifying…

  7. Interaction of naltrexone with postnatal administration of testosterone and estrogen on neurobehavioral sexual differentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F; Henschel, D M

    1990-03-01

    The present study examined whether some effects of gonadal sex hormones on neurobehavioral sexual differentiation might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Male and female pups were administered sesame oil, testosterone propionate (TP; 25 micrograms) or estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 micrograms) on postnatal Days 2 and 3. Half of each group was also administered naltrexone (N; 50 micrograms) twice daily on these two days. Females were studied for effects of the treatments on puberty. Males and females were studied in adulthood for open field behavior, daily water intake, and saccharin consumption and preference for 0.125, 0.25, and 0.50% saccharin solutions. TP treatment significantly delayed the date of vaginal opening, whereas EB treatment significantly accelerated the date. N treatment potentiated this effect of TP, but had no effect in EB treated females, nor did it influence the anovulatory sterility produced by both hormone treatments. N treatment alone had no effect on puberty in females or open field behavior of either sex. The drug produced an overall increase in female saccharin consumption and preference, but no effect was observed in males on these measures. Both TP and EB treatment produced marked increases in daily water consumption in females, an effect which was significantly attenuated by N treatment. Effects of both hormones on saccharin consumption were sex dependent and partially antagonized by N treatment. Finally, we observed a sex difference in daily water intake wherein females were found to consume approximately 20% more water on a body weight basis in a 24-hr period than males. Postnatal TP and EB treatment increased adult daily water consumption in females above the level of controls. This increase was partially antagonized by N. Treatment with N alone had no effect on female water consumption, but produced a small decrease in male consumption. Overall, these results provide preliminary evidence that some organizational effects of TP and EB on

  8. Expression patterns of gonadotropin hormones and their receptors during early sexual differentiation in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongwei; Ijiri, Shigeho; Wu, Quan; Kobayashi, Tohru; Li, Shuang; Nakaseko, Taro; Adachi, Shinji; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    In Nile tilapia, sex-specific expression of foxl2 and cyp19a1a in XX gonads and dmrt1 in XY gonads at 5-6 days after hatching (dah) is critical for differentiation of the gonads into either ovaries or testes. The factors triggering sexually dimorphic expression of these genes are unknown, and whether the gonadotropin hormones are involved in early gonadal sex differentiation of the Nile tilapia has been unclear. In the present study, we determined the precise timing of expression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the pituitary and that of their receptors (fshra and lhcgrbb) in the undifferentiated gonad in both XX and XY tilapia fry by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of fshb mRNA and Fsh protein in the pituitary was detected from the first sampling day (3 dah) to 25 dah in both XX and XY tilapia larvae without sexual dimorphism and increased gradually after 25 dah in the pituitary. fshra mRNA was expressed beginning 5 dah and was present at significantly higher levels in XX gonads than in the XY gonads at 6-25 dah. These results indicate that the level of Fsh protein in the pituitary was not critical for differentiation of gonads into ovaries or testes, but the expression level of its receptor, fshra, in undifferentiated gonads appeared to be involved in determining gonadal sexual differentiation. Based on these observations, it is likely that in XX gonads, up-regulation of fshra may be necessary to induce cyp19a1a expression, which stimulates estradiol-17beta (E(2)) production and subsequent ovarian differentiation. On the other hand, lhb mRNA was not detected until 25 dah in the pituitaries of both sexes, and sexual dimorphism in lhcgrbb mRNA levels appeared later (10-25 dah) than that of fshra in the gonads, indicating the limited role of LH and lhcgrbb in gonadal differentiation of the Nile tilapia.

  9. THROUGH HER EYES: Factors Affecting Women's Perception of and Resestance to Acquaintance Sexual Aggression Threat

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Jeanette; Nurius, Paula S.; Dimeff, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    A major component of a woman's ability to resist assaults by strangers versus acquaintances lies in the social and cognitive context in which she is engaged with the perpetrator and within which she must recognize potential threat before engaging in a behavioral response. This paper presents questionnaire and focus group findings of heterosexual college sorority women's social contexts, perceived risks, responses, and psychological barriers to protecting themselves from sexual aggression threat by fraternity acquaintances. Several social and cognitive factors, including alcohol consumption and psychological barriers, were related to projected responses to sexual aggression. Participants in general held a high sense of invulnerability to victimization and an optimistic belief in their ability to resist sexual aggression. Several differences between previously victimized and nonvictimized women also emerged. PMID:25705073

  10. Disgust as a Unique Affective Predictor of Mental Contamination Following Sexual Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Ojserkis, Rachel; McKay, Dean; Feldner, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Mental contamination has been described as an internal experience of dirtiness that can arise and persist in the absence of contact with observable physical contaminants. Recent research has examined mental contamination specifically related to unwanted physical contact and sexual trauma. This study evaluated the degree to which disgust propensity and both self-focused and perpetrator-focused peritraumatic disgust were associated with mental contamination in a sample of women who experienced sexual trauma (n = 72). Results showed that peritraumatic self-focused disgust, but not peritraumatic perpetrator-focused disgust or fear, was significantly associated with mental contamination. Additionally, disgust propensity contributed significantly to the incremental validity of the model. These findings support the nascent literature showing that disgust plays a significant role in mental contamination, particularly following sexual trauma. Future research directions, and clinical/theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25129888

  11. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man.

  12. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. PMID:24612972

  13. How REM sleep deprivation and amantadine affects male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M R; Ferraz, M M; Santos, R

    2001-01-01

    There are conflicting findings about the sexual effects of REM sleep deprivation (REMd). Otherwise, several studies show a dopaminergic hypersensitivity after REMd. The effect of REMd and amantadine (AMA) was studied for standard measures and temporal patterning in the first experiment, in four groups: normal with vehicle, normal with AMA (5.0 and 10 mg/kg), REMd with vehicle and REMd with AMA (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg). REMd reduced mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL) and mount number (MN) and increased copulatory efficiency (CE) and hit rate factor. REMd also reduced the mount bout number (MBN) and increased the sexual interaction (mount bout time, MBT) among male and female during copula. AMA stimulates initiation and hit rate factors and accelerates the temporal patterning of sexual behavior, evoking fewer and quicker mount bouts. In the experiments with combination of REMd and AMA administration, AMA did not increase behavior effects evoked by REM deprivation, probably due to a top or a bottom effect, depending on the measures considered. A second experiment studied the effects of AMA (1.25 to 5.0 mg/kg) and REMd on the sexual reflexes of nonimmobilized male rats. REMd enhanced the AMA effects upon the seminal emission reflex, but inhibited the penile erection reflex elicited by 1.25 mg/kg of AMA. Curiously, our results showed that REMd, like AMA, a dopaminergic agonist, causes similar effects of sexual behavior in the male rat, particularly those related to arousal mechanism and hit rate factor. The results are discussed and the effects of REMd probably involve dopaminergic hypersensitivity and increased sexual motivational response.

  14. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blueher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  15. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  16. The differential effects of Autism and Down's syndrome on sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Stokes, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Although sexuality plays a major role in the socialization of people, few studies have examined the sexual behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Because of this, we decided to investigate sexuality in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (Ds) and to compare them with typically developing adolescents, by surveying their parents. Specifically, it was hypothesized that young people with ASD would display lower levels over five domains: social behavior, privacy, sex education, sexual behavior, and parental concerns, than peers with Ds and typically developing young people. In addition, we sought to verify developmental trends in five domains with age for each group. Overall, 269 parents participated; 94 parents of typically developing adolescents, 93 parents of adolescents diagnosed with Ds, and 82 parents of adolescents diagnosed with ASD. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Behavior Scale developed by Stokes and Kaur [] that assesses parents' reports of their child's: social behavior, privacy awareness, sex education, sexual behavior and parental concerns about the child's behaviors. It was found that three groups were significantly different on all five domains, adolescents with ASD reportedly displaying lower levels than other groups. Moreover, there was a significant improvement in knowledge of privacy and parental concerns with age for adolescents with ASD and a decline in sex education for adolescents with Ds. The results obtained emphasize the need to train adolescents with developmental disability, and especially for adolescents with ASD through sex education programs.

  17. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  18. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs. PMID:16794556

  19. Does Recent Physical and Sexual Victimization Affect Further Substance Use for Adult Drug-Involved Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Rossman, Shelli B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether physical and sexual victimization experiences were related to further substance use for a sample of drug-involved adult offenders and whether this increase could be attributed to depression experienced after the victimization occurred. A total of 674 men and 284 women from the longitudinal Multisite Adult Drug Court…

  20. Treatment of Individuals and Families Affected by Child Sexual Abuse: Defining Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of expertise as defined in various professions is applied to psychotherapy and more specifically to the field of childhood sexual abuse. Given the dearth of research in this area, exploration of the issue is accompanied by reviewing the curriculum vitae of a number of recognized experts in the field. The paper concludes…

  1. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-12-07

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.

  2. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours. PMID:22237501

  3. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450 mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH.

  4. Environmental-like exposure to low levels of estrogen affects sexual behavior and physiology of female rats.

    PubMed

    Della Seta, Daniele; Farabollini, Francesca; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Fusani, Leonida

    2008-11-01

    Xenoestrogens are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that mimic the action of endogenous estrogen hormones. Effects of xenoestrogen on aquatic wildlife are well documented, whereas the experimental evidence for impairment of reproductive behavior and physiology in mammals after exposure to xenoestrogens has been debated. The strongest arguments against such studies have been that the route, time course, and intensity of exposure did not simulate environmental exposure and that the chemicals tested have additional nonestrogenic toxic effects, hindering generalization of actual xenoestrogenic effects. Here we show that environmental-like exposure to the pure estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol during development alters reproductive behavior and physiology in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. We simulated environmental exposure by giving low doses (0.4 and 0.004 microg/kg.d) of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol orally to pregnant females from conception to weaning of the pups, which continued to receive the treatment until puberty. We studied the sexual behavior, estrous cycle, and estradiol plasma levels of intact female rats when they reached 3 months of age. Exposure to the higher dose strongly affected female sexual behavior and physiology, with suppression of lordosis and the estrous cycle and enhanced aggression toward males. The lower dose disrupted appetitive components of sexual behavior that influence the rate of copulation. Estradiol plasma levels were not affected by the treatment. Our study revealed that exposure to low oral doses of a pure estrogen during development alters female sexual behavior and physiology. These results suggest potential risks of reproductive failure from xenoestrogen exposure in realistic ecological conditions.

  5. The environmental contaminant DDE fails to influence the outcome of sexual differentiation in the marine turtle Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed Central

    Podreka, S; Georges, A; Maher, B; Limpus, C J

    1998-01-01

    In many turtles, the temperature experienced during the middle of egg incubation determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex determination opens the possibility that endocrine-disrupting contaminants may also influence the outcome of sexual differentiation. In this study we investigate the potential effects of DDE (a common DDT metabolite) on sexual differentiation of Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle). Four clutches of eggs collected from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, were treated with DDE at the beginning of the thermosensitive period for sexual determination. An incubation temperature of 28 degrees C or less produces male hatchlings in this species, whereas 30 degrees C or more produces female hatchlings. Dosed eggs were consequently incubated at two temperatures (27.6 degrees C and 30.4 degrees C) on the upper and lower boundaries of the sex determination threshold for this species. DDE, ranging from 3.3 to 66.5 microg, was dissolved in 5, 10, and 25 microl ethanol and applied to eggshells above the embryo. Less than 2.5 ng/g DDE was present in eggs prior to dosing. Approximately 34% of the applied DDE was absorbed in the eggs, but only approximately 8% of applied DDE was found in embryos. Thus, treated eggs, corrected for background DDE, had up to 543 ng/g DDE. The sex ratio at these doses did not differ from what would be expected on consideration of temperature alone. Incubation time, hatching success, incidence of body deformities, hatching size, and weight were also within the limits of healthy developed hatchlings. This indicates that the eggs of C. mydas in the wild with concentrations of DDE less than 543 ng/g should produce hatchlings with relatively high hatching success, survival rate, and normally differentiated gonads. Images Figure 1 PMID:9485482

  6. The environmental contaminant DDE fails to influence the outcome of sexual differentiation in the marine turtle Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed

    Podreka, S; Georges, A; Maher, B; Limpus, C J

    1998-04-01

    In many turtles, the temperature experienced during the middle of egg incubation determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex determination opens the possibility that endocrine-disrupting contaminants may also influence the outcome of sexual differentiation. In this study we investigate the potential effects of DDE (a common DDT metabolite) on sexual differentiation of Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle). Four clutches of eggs collected from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, were treated with DDE at the beginning of the thermosensitive period for sexual determination. An incubation temperature of 28 degrees C or less produces male hatchlings in this species, whereas 30 degrees C or more produces female hatchlings. Dosed eggs were consequently incubated at two temperatures (27.6 degrees C and 30.4 degrees C) on the upper and lower boundaries of the sex determination threshold for this species. DDE, ranging from 3.3 to 66.5 microg, was dissolved in 5, 10, and 25 microl ethanol and applied to eggshells above the embryo. Less than 2.5 ng/g DDE was present in eggs prior to dosing. Approximately 34% of the applied DDE was absorbed in the eggs, but only approximately 8% of applied DDE was found in embryos. Thus, treated eggs, corrected for background DDE, had up to 543 ng/g DDE. The sex ratio at these doses did not differ from what would be expected on consideration of temperature alone. Incubation time, hatching success, incidence of body deformities, hatching size, and weight were also within the limits of healthy developed hatchlings. This indicates that the eggs of C. mydas in the wild with concentrations of DDE less than 543 ng/g should produce hatchlings with relatively high hatching success, survival rate, and normally differentiated gonads.

  7. Sexual differentiation of the mechanism controlling pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone contributes to sexual differences in the timing of puberty in sheep.

    PubMed

    Claypool, L E; Foster, D L

    1990-02-01

    Sexual differences in the regulation of tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion were examined in immature female and male sheep (eight each, including six pairs of female/male twins). After gonadectomy of lambs at 2 weeks of age, Silastic capsules filled with estradiol, a primary central feedback steroid in both females and males, were implanted every 3 weeks for 3 days, and then removed, so that the pattern of LH secretion could be repeatedly determined in the same individuals both with and without steroid feedback. Implanted capsules yielded circulating steroid levels of 2-5 pg/ml. Circulating LH concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay in blood samples collected at 12-min intervals for 4 h immediately before estradiol was implanted, and again, immediately before it was removed 3 days later. In male lambs, a decrease in responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to inhibition by estradiol began at 8-11 weeks, as evidenced by the progressive increase in mean LH concentrations and frequency of LH pulses. This correlated temporally with the onset of spermatogenesis in intact male controls (n = 8). In females, a similar decrease in responsiveness did not occur until 26-29 weeks of age, corresponding to the onset of ovulatory cycles in intact female controls (n = 6). In the absence of estradiol implants, LH pulse frequencies were higher in male lambs than in female lambs between 5 and 35 weeks of age. There was no further increase in LH pulse frequency in the absence of the gonads in either sex during the pubertal period. These findings suggest that the mechanism regulating tonic LH secretion in developing lambs is sexually differentiated in its responsiveness to inhibition by estradiol. This differentiation also occurs at a more fundamental steroid-independent level, but any causal relationship between the higher steroid-independent LH pulse frequency and the lower responsiveness to estradiol negative feedback in males is not evident. We hypothesize

  8. Sexual differentiation of the copulatory neuromuscular system in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): normal ontogeny and manipulation of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli

    2005-09-01

    The copulatory neuromuscular system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differentiates during embryonic development, although details of the process were unknown. In Experiment 1, we determined the time course of normal ontogeny. Both male and female embryos possessed bilateral copulatory organs (hemipenes) and associated muscles until incubation day 13; the structures completely regressed in female embryos by incubation day 19 (total incubation 34 days). In Experiment 2, we treated eggs with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or vehicle on both incubation days 10 and 13 to determine whether these steroid hormones mediate sexual differentiation. These time points fall between gonadal differentiation, which was determined in Experiment 1 to complete before day 10, and regression of the peripheral copulatory system in females. Tissue was collected on the day of hatching. Gonads were classified as testes or ovaries; presence versus absence of hemipenes and muscles, and the number and size of copulatory motoneurons were determined. Copulatory system morphology of vehicle-treated animals matched their gonadal sex. Hemipenes and muscles were absent in estradiol-treated animals, and androgens rescued the hemipenes and muscles in most females. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment also caused hypertrophy of the hemipenes, which were everted in animals treated with these steroids. Copulatory motoneurons, assessed on the day of hatching in both experiments, were not dimorphic in size or number. Steroid treatment significantly increased motoneuron size and number overall, but no significant differences were detected in pairwise comparisons. These data demonstrate that differentiation of peripheral copulatory neuromuscular structures occurs during embryonic development and is influenced by gonadal steroids (regression by estradiol and enhancement by androgens), but associated motoneurons do not differentiate until later in life.

  9. Does Severe Maternal Morbidity Affect Female Sexual Activity and Function? Evidence from a Brazilian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Andreucci, Carla B.; Cecatti, José G.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary A.; Ferreira, Elton C.; Angelini, Carina R.; Santos, Juliana P.; Zanardi, Dulce M.; Bussadori, Jamile C.; Cecchino, Gustavo N.; Souza, Renato T.; Sousa, Maria H.; Costa, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective to assess Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores and delay to resume sexual activity associated with a previous severe maternal morbidity. Method This was a multidimensional retrospective cohort study. Women who gave birth at a Brazilian tertiary maternity between 2008 and 2012 were included, with data extraction from the hospital information system. Those with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near miss episodes (severe maternal morbidity) were considered the exposed group. The control group was a random sample of women who had had uncomplicated pregnancy. Female sexual function was evaluated through FSFI questionnaire, and general and reproductive aspects were addressed through specific questions. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson´s Chi-square for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to identify variables independently associated with lower FSFI scores. Results 638 women were included (315 at exposed and 323 at not exposed groups). The majority of women were under 30 years-old in the control group and between 30 and 46 years-old in the exposed group (p = 0.003). Women who experienced severe maternal morbidity (SMM) had statistically significant differences regarding cesarean section (82.4% versus 47.1% among deliveries without complications, p<0.001), and some previous pathological conditions. FSFI mean scores were similar among groups ranging from 24.39 to 24.42. It took longer for exposed women to resume sexual activity after index pregnancy (mean 84 days after SMM and 65 days for control group, p = 0.01). Multiple analyses showed no significant association of FSFI below cut-off value with any predictor. Conclusion FSFI scores were not different in both groups. However, they were lower than expected. SMM delayed resumption of sexual activity after delivery, beyond postpartum period. However, the proportion of women in both groups having sex at 3 months after delivery was similar

  10. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blüher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPARγ2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 μM) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 μM) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  11. Pleasure, Affection, and Love Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) versus MSM of Other Races: Countering Dehumanizing Stereotypes via Cross-Race Comparisons of Reported Sexual Experience at Last Sexual Event

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Schick, Vanessa R.; Novak, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U. S. men ages 18–87 (MAge = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010–2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72–87 % orgasmed, 57–82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70–91 % kissed, 47–90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three. PMID:25604209

  12. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  13. Deconstructing Positive Affect in Later Life: A Differential Functionalist Analysis of Joy and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R.

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the…

  14. The Amelioration of Olfactory Acuity upon Sexual Maturation Might Affect Food Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Bignetti, Enrico; Sinesio, Fiorella; Aiello, Gaetano L.; Cannella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Upon sexual maturation, olfactory acuity in women ameliorates and starts oscillating across the cycle. During ovulation, mean olfactory threshold is 30 times lower than during bleeding. Interestingly, menstruated women undergo maleodorant trimethylaminuria. We argued that olfactory amelioration during ovulation might concur to a mating strategy, whereas olfactory impairment during bleeding might protect women against self-refusal. Testosterone and its 17β-estradiol derivative might be responsible for the synchronization of these menstrual events. Furthermore, we posed the question whether olfactory detection amelioration upon sexual maturation might provoke a change in food preferences, for instance a reduction in fish consumption. A preliminary survey in Italy provided encouraging results: 15-44 year-old women have lower fish consumption than 3-14 year-old girls. Surprisingly, men exhibited the same behaviour, so new olfactory tests as well as testosterone measurements are under way. PMID:22253964

  15. Control of Sexual Differentiation and Behavior by the doublesex gene in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Elizabeth J.; Dornan, Anthony J.; Neville, Megan C.; Eadie, Suzanne; Goodwin, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Doublesex proteins, part of the structurally and functionally conserved Dmrt gene family, play essential roles in sex determination throughout the animal kingdom. We targeted the insertion of GAL4 into the doublesex (dsx) locus of Drosophila melanogaster, allowing visualization and manipulation of dsx cells in various tissues. In the nervous system, significant differences between the sexes were detected in dsx neuronal numbers, axonal projections, and synaptic density. We show that dsx is required for the development of male-specific neurons that co-express fruitless (fru), a key regulator of male sexual behavior. We propose that both dsx and fru act together to form the neuronal framework necessary for male sexual behavior. Significantly, we show that disrupting dsx neuronal function has profound effects on male sexual behavior. Furthermore, we demonstrate a role for dsx neurons in pre- through to post-copulatory female reproductive behaviors. PMID:20305646

  16. Crush: Mapping Historical, Material and Affective Force Relations in Young Children's Hetero-Sexual Playground Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huuki, Tuija; Renold, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic multi-modal data of the gendered and sexual dynamics of pre-school play (age 6) in a rapidly declining fishing and farming community in North Finland, this paper offers a glimpse into our sense-making of a short video-recorded episode in which three boys repeatedly pile up on and demand a kiss from one of their girl…

  17. Differentiation of mixed biological traces in sexual assaults using DNA fragment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Apostolov, Аleksandar

    2014-01-01

    During the investigation of sexual abuse, it is not rare that mixed genetic material from two or more persons is detected. In such cases, successful profiling can be achieved using DNA fragment analysis, resulting in individual genetic profiles of offenders and their victims. This has led to an increase in the percentage of identified perpetrators of sexual offenses. The classic and modified genetic models used, allowed us to refine and implement appropriate extraction, polymerase chain reaction and electrophoretic procedures with individual assessment and approach to conducting research. Testing mixed biological traces using DNA fragment analysis appears to be the only opportunity for identifying perpetrators in gang rapes. PMID:26019514

  18. Racial versus Sexual Differentiation in Social Schemata of Children Attending Integrated and Nonintegrated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Dewitt C.

    1978-01-01

    Racial and sexual distinctions in social schemata of 328 second grade children were examined in this study. Photographs of Black and White male and female children were presented in three-picture sets, and subjects were asked to pair two of the pictures and separate the third. All groups paired photographs more often on race than on sex. (SE)

  19. Identification of genes differentially expressed during apomictic and sexual development in buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction through seeds with the absence of meiosis and fertilization holds great potential for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Buffelgrass, an apomictic forage grass, has well characterized apomictic, facultative and sexual accessions to study apomictic...

  20. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  1. An in vivo model fish system to test chemical effects on sexual differentiation and development: exposure to ethinyl estradiol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    A model system was characterized which may be used as an in vivo screen for effects of chemicals or environmental mixtures on sexual differentiation and development of reproductive organs and gametes. We evaluated the effects of a model environmental estrogen, ethinyl estradiol (EE2), on the d-rR strain of medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a nano-injection exposure. Gonad histopathology indicated that a single injection of 0.5–2.5 ng EE2/egg can cause phenotypic sex-reversal of genetic males to females. Sex-reversals could be detected as early as 7 days post-hatch. Sex-reversed males had female-typical duct development and the secondary sex characteristics we measured were generally consistent with phenotype, with the exception of a few EE2-exposed XX and XY females which possessed ambiguous anal fins. Using discriminant analysis, we determined that the presence or absence of the secondary sex characteristic, a dorsal fin notch, was a very reliable indicator of gonadal sex. No instances of gonadal intersexes were observed. Ethinyl estradiol also appeared to reduce growth but not condition (weight-at-length) and exposed XX females appeared to have a higher incidence of atretic follicles relative to controls. Our results suggest that estrogenic chemicals may influence sexual differentiation and development and that the medaka model is well suited to assessing these effects.

  2. Catechins Variously Affect Activities of Conjugation Enzymes in Proliferating and Differentiated Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lněničková, Kateřina; Procházková, Eliška; Skálová, Lenka; Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Souček, Pavel; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of processes in intestinal cells is essential, as most xenobiotics come into contact with the small intestine first. Caco-2 cells are human colorectal adenocarcinoma that once differentiated, exhibit enterocyte-like characteristics. Our study compares activities and expressions of important conjugation enzymes and their modulation by green tea extract (GTE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using both proliferating (P) and differentiated (D) caco-2 cells. The mRNA levels of the main conjugation enzymes were significantly elevated after the differentiation of Caco-2 cells. However, no increase in conjugation enzymes' activities in differentiated cells was detected in comparison to proliferating ones. GTE/EGCG treatment did not affect the mRNA levels of any of the conjugation enzymes tested in either type of cells. Concerning conjugation enzymes activities, GTE/EGCG treatment elevated glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity by approx. 30% and inhibited catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity by approx. 20% in differentiated cells. On the other hand, GTE as well as EGCG treatment did not significantly affect the activities of conjugation enzymes in proliferating cells. Administration of GTE/EGCG mediated only mild changes of GST and COMT activities in enterocyte-like cells, indicating a low risk of GTE/EGCG interactions with concomitantly administered drugs. However, a considerable chemo-protective effect of GTE via the pronounced induction of detoxifying enzymes cannot be expected as well. PMID:27617982

  3. Positive and negative family emotional climate differentially predict youth anxiety and depression via distinct affective pathways.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2014-08-01

    A socioaffective specificity model was tested in which positive and negative affect differentially mediated relations of family emotional climate to youth internalizing symptoms. Participants were 134 7(th)-9(th) grade adolescents (65 girls; 86 % Caucasian) and mothers who completed measures of emotion-related family processes, experienced affect, anxiety, and depression. Results suggested that a family environment characterized by maternal psychological control and family negative emotion expressiveness predicted greater anxiety and depression, and was mediated by experienced negative affect. Conversely, a family emotional environment characterized by low maternal warmth and low positive emotion expressiveness predicted only depression, and was mediated through lowered experienced positive affect. This study synthesizes a theoretical model of typical family emotion socialization with an extant affect-based model of shared and unique aspects of anxiety and depression symptom expression.

  4. Social relationships in a herd of Sorraia horses Part II. Factors affecting affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Heitor, Filipa; do Mar Oom, Maria; Vicente, Luís

    2006-11-01

    The influence of age, dominance rank, kinship and aggressiveness over affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours were analysed in a herd of Sorraia horses, Equus caballus, kept under extensive management. Subjects were 10 adult mares 5-18 years old that had known each other since birth, and a stallion introduced into the group for breeding for the first time. Kinship coefficient and dominance rank were the most important factors affecting affiliative relationships. Bonds were reciprocal and stronger among mares with higher kinship. Mares spent more time in proximity to close-ranking and lower-ranking females. Mares with stronger affiliative relationships or higher relatedness were not less aggressive towards each other. Affiliative relationships between the stallion and the mares were not reciprocal: lower-ranking mares formed stronger bonds with the stallion but he preferred the less genetically related mares for proximity. However, the stallion was involved in sexual behaviours more frequently with the mares that were more genetically related to him. These results suggest that kinship beyond close relatives may affect affiliative relationships both among familiar and among unfamiliar horses. However, the influence of kinship does not imply that horses possess a kin recognition system and alternative explanations are discussed. PMID:16828984

  5. Genetics of a Pheromonal Difference Affecting Sexual Isolation between Drosophila Mauritiana and D. Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, J. A.; Charlesworth, B.

    1997-01-01

    Females of the sibling species Drosophila sechellia and D. mauritiana differ in their cuticular hydrocarbons: the predominant compound in D. sechellia is 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), while that in D. mauritiana is 7-tricosene (7-T). We investigate the genetic basis of this difference and its involvement in reproductive isolation between the species. Behavioral studies involving hydrocarbon transfer suggest that these compounds play a large role in the sexual isolation between D. mauritiana males and D. sechellia females, while sexual isolation in the reciprocal hybridization results more from differences in female behavior than hydrocarbons. This interspecific difference in hydrocarbon profile is due to evolutionary change at a minimum of six loci, all on the third chromosome. The localization of evolutionary change to the third chromosome has been seen in every other genetic analysis of female hydrocarbon differences in the D. melanogaster group. We suggest that the high 7,11-HD phenotype seen in two species evolved twice independently from ancestors having the high 7-T phenotype, and that the recurrent third-chromosome effects are evolutionary convergences that may be due to a concentration of ``hydrocarbon genes'' on that chromosome. PMID:9093854

  6. Historicizing affect, psychoanalyzing history: pedophilia and the discourse of child sexuality.

    PubMed

    Angelides, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Within the last two decades in Australia, Britain, and the United States, we have seen a veritable explosion of cultural panic regarding the problem of pedophilia. Scarcely a day passes without some mention in the media of predatory pedophiles or organized pedophile networks. Many social constructionist historians and sociologists have described this incitement to discourse as indicative of a moral panic. The question that concerns me in this article is: If this incitement to discourse is indicative of a moral panic, to what does the panic refer? I begin by detailing, first, how social constructionism requires psychoanalytic categories in order to understand the notion of panic, and second, how a psychoanalytic reading of history might reveal important unconscious forces at work in the current pedophilia "crisis" that our culture refuses to confront. Here, I will suggest a repressed discourse of child sexuality is writ large. I will argue that the hegemonic discourse of pedophilia is contained largely within a neurotic structure and that many of our prevailing responses to pedophilia function as a way to avoid tackling crucial issues about the reality and trauma of childhood sexuality. PMID:15086220

  7. Historicizing affect, psychoanalyzing history: pedophilia and the discourse of child sexuality.

    PubMed

    Angelides, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Within the last two decades in Australia, Britain, and the United States, we have seen a veritable explosion of cultural panic regarding the problem of pedophilia. Scarcely a day passes without some mention in the media of predatory pedophiles or organized pedophile networks. Many social constructionist historians and sociologists have described this incitement to discourse as indicative of a moral panic. The question that concerns me in this article is: If this incitement to discourse is indicative of a moral panic, to what does the panic refer? I begin by detailing, first, how social constructionism requires psychoanalytic categories in order to understand the notion of panic, and second, how a psychoanalytic reading of history might reveal important unconscious forces at work in the current pedophilia "crisis" that our culture refuses to confront. Here, I will suggest a repressed discourse of child sexuality is writ large. I will argue that the hegemonic discourse of pedophilia is contained largely within a neurotic structure and that many of our prevailing responses to pedophilia function as a way to avoid tackling crucial issues about the reality and trauma of childhood sexuality.

  8. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  9. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999

  10. Glacial history affected phenotypic differentiation in the alpine plant, Campanula thyrsoides.

    PubMed

    Scheepens, J F; Frei, Eva S; Stöcklin, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Numerous widespread Alpine plant species show molecular differentiation among populations from distinct regions. This has been explained as the result of genetic drift during glacial survival in isolated refugia along the border of the European Alps. Since genetic drift may affect molecular markers and phenotypic traits alike, we asked whether phenotypic differentiation mirrors molecular patterns among Alpine plant populations from different regions. Phenotypic traits can be under selection, so we additionally investigated whether part of the phenotypic differentiation can be explained by past selection and/or current adaptation. Using the monocarpic Campanula thyrsoides as our study species, a common garden experiment with plants from 21 populations from four phylogeographic groups located in regions across the Alps and the Jura Mountains was performed to test for differentiation in morphological and phenological traits. Past selection was investigated by comparing phenotypic differentiation among and within regions with molecular differentiation among and within regions. The common garden results indicated regional differentiation among populations for all investigated phenotypic traits, particularly in phenology. Delayed flowering in plants from the South-eastern Alps suggested adaptation to long sub-mediterranean summers and contrasted with earlier flowering of plants experiencing shorter growing seasons in regions with higher elevation to the West. Comparisons between molecular and phenotypic differentiation revealed diversifying selection among regions in height and biomass, which is consistent with adaptation to environmental conditions in glacial refugia. Within regions, past selection acted against strong diversification for most phenotypic traits, causing restricted postglacial adaptation. Evidence consistent with post-glacial adaptation was also given by negative correlation coefficients between several phenotypic traits and elevation of the population

  11. Differential neural responses to child and sexual stimuli in human fathers and non-fathers and their hormonal correlates

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1–2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167

  12. Differentiating LGBT individuals in substance abuse treatment: analyses based on sexuality and drug preference.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Santa, Annesa Flentje

    2007-01-01

    In a prior study (Cochran & Cauce, 2006), LGBT individuals seeking treatment demonstrated greater substance use severity, more psychosocial stressors, and increased use of psychiatric services when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. That study, and similar to others in the field of LGBT research, collapsed LGBT individuals into a single category and did not examine individual differences within this category. The present study utilizes the same sample of LGBT clients (N = 610); however, an exploratory cluster analysis was conducted, based on drug preference, to determine which subcategories exist within this unique sample. In a subsequent set of analyses, the sample was divided based on sexuality to determine if there were differences between these groups on psychosocial functioning variables. Results indicated three distinct clusters, which differed in both demographic characteristics and severity of substance use problems. Groups based on sexuality differed in terms of primary problem substance, as well as psychosocial variables. Implications for treatment of these subgroups are discussed. PMID:19835042

  13. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M; McDonnell, Lisa P; Nourse, Jamison L; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C; Flanagan, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation. PMID:25686615

  14. Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulmoli, Janahan; Pathak, Medha M.; McDonnell, Lisa P.; Nourse, Jamison L.; Tombola, Francesco; Earthman, James C.; Flanagan, Lisa A.

    2015-02-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) fate is strongly influenced by mechanotransduction as modulation of substrate stiffness affects lineage choice. Other types of mechanical stimuli, such as stretch (tensile strain), occur during CNS development and trauma, but their consequences for NSPC differentiation have not been reported. We delivered a 10% static equibiaxial stretch to NSPCs and examined effects on differentiation. We found static stretch specifically impacts NSPC differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin linkages. Generation of oligodendrocytes from NSPCs was reduced on laminin, an outcome likely mediated by the α6 laminin-binding integrin, whereas similar effects were not observed for NSPCs on fibronectin. Our data demonstrate a direct role for tensile strain in dictating the lineage choice of NSPCs and indicate the dependence of this phenomenon on specific substrate materials, which should be taken into account for the design of biomaterials for NSPC transplantation.

  15. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  16. Disgust proneness and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a clinical sample: structural differentiation from negative affect.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Ebesutani, Chad; David, Bieke; Fan, Qianqian; McGrath, Patrick B

    2011-10-01

    Although a growing body of research has revealed robust associations between disgust and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms, there remains a paucity of research examining the specificity of this association in clinical samples. The present study employed structural equation modeling to differentiate disgust from negative affect in the prediction of OCD symptoms in a clinical sample (n=153). Results indicate that disgust and negative affect latent factors were independently related to OCD symptoms. However, when both variables were simultaneously modeled as predictors, latent disgust remained significantly associated with OCD symptoms, whereas the association between latent negative affect and OCD symptoms became nonsignificant. Multiple statistical tests of mediation converged in support of disgust as a significant intervening variable between negative affect and OCD symptoms. The implications of these findings for further delineating the role of individual differences in disgust proneness in the development of OCD are discussed.

  17. Emotions and language about motion: Differentiating affective dominance with syntax from valence with semantics.

    PubMed

    Freddi, Sébastien; Esteban, José; Dru, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    Motion as encoded in linguistic cues is used to differentiate affective valence and dominance. Participants were invited to rate their affective responses to different words along valence and dominance scales. The words were nouns describing static cues and verbs describing motion, connected to DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues. The results of three studies showed that valence and dominance could be differentiated through syntax and semantics of motion. On one hand, dominance feelings, compared to valence ones, are particularly influenced by motion encoded in syntactic classes (verbs vs. nouns). On the other hand, valence feelings, compared to dominance ones, are influenced by a semantics of motion through DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues, considered as polarities. A polarity correspondence effect is proposed to explain these results.

  18. Exposure to altered gravity affects all stages of endochondral cartilage differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, P. J.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    1999-01-01

    Chondrogenesis has a number of well-defined steps: (1) condensation, which involves cell aggregation, adhesion and communication; (2) activation of cartilage genes, which is accompanied by rounding up of the cells and intracellular differentiation; and (3) production and secretion of cartilage specific matrix molecules. Our studies show that each of these steps is affected by exposure to gravitational changes. Clinorotation and centrifugation affected initial aggregation and condensation. In the CELLS experiment, where cells were exposed to microgravity after some condensation occurred perflight, intracellular differentiation and matrix production were delayed relative to controls. Once cartilage has developed, in rats, further differentiation (hypertrophy, matrix production) was also affected by spaceflight and hind limb suspension. For the process of chondrogenesis to proceed as we know it, loading and other factors present at lg are required at each step of the process. This requirement means that not only will skeletal development and bone healing, processes involving chondrogenesis, be altered by long term exposure to microgravity, but that continuous intervention will be necessary to correct any defects produced by altered gravity environments.

  19. Adult partner preference and sexual behavior of male rats affected by perinatal endocrine manipulations.

    PubMed

    Brand, T; Kroonen, J; Mos, J; Slob, A K

    1991-09-01

    Intact adult male rats, in which aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was prevented pre- and/or neonatally by ATD (1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione), were repeatedly tested for partner preference behavior (choice: estrous female vs active male). In consecutive tests increasing preference scores for the female were found. Neonatal ATD males showed significantly lower preference scores for an estrous female than controls or prenatal ATD males. Prenatal ATD caused preference scores only slightly lower than those of controls. Ejaculation frequencies were markedly reduced or even absent in neonatal ATD males. Prenatal ATD treatment only had no or a moderately lowering effect on ejaculation frequency. Lordosis behavior of adult intact males was more facilitated following neonatal ATD treatment than following prenatal ATD treatment. In a number of tests the serotonergic drug 8-OH-DPAT was injected prior to testing for sexual partner preference and copulatory behavior. DPAT significantly increased preference for an estrous female in all groups of males when interaction was possible, but had no effect when sexual interaction was prevented by wire mesh. DPAT was able to increase the number of ejaculators in nonejaculating groups (i.e., perinatally ATD-treated males). "Premature ejaculations," i.e., ejaculations with the first intromission, were frequently observed with DPAT treatment in all groups of males. In conclusion, the availability of neonatal estrogen (derived from testosterone) organizes, at least partially, the preference for an estrous female normally shown by adult male rats. The lack of neonatal estrogen causes males to be less masculinized, both in partner preference behavior and ejaculatory behavior, and less defeminized in lordosis behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Heparin affects human bone marrow stromal cell fate: Promoting osteogenic and reducing adipogenic differentiation and conversion.

    PubMed

    Simann, Meike; Schneider, Verena; Le Blanc, Solange; Dotterweich, Julia; Zehe, Viola; Krug, Melanie; Jakob, Franz; Schilling, Tatjana; Schütze, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Heparins are broadly used for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis and embolism. Yet, osteoporosis is considered to be a severe side effect in up to one third of all patients on long-term treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying this clinical problem are only partially understood. To investigate if heparin affects differentiation of skeletal precursors, we examined the effects of heparin on the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). Due to the known inverse relationship between adipogenesis and osteogenesis and the capacity of pre-differentiated cells to convert into the respective other lineage, we also determined heparin effects on osteogenic conversion and adipogenic differentiation/conversion. Interestingly, heparin did not only significantly increase mRNA expression and enzyme activity of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), but it also promoted mineralization during osteogenic differentiation and conversion. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of the osteogenic marker bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) was enhanced. In addition, heparin administration partly prevented adipogenic differentiation and conversion demonstrated by reduced lipid droplet formation along with a decreased expression of adipogenic markers. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays, inhibitor experiments and gene expression analyses revealed that heparin had putative permissive effects on osteogenic signaling via the BMP pathway and reduced the mRNA expression of the Wnt pathway inhibitors dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and sclerostin (SOST). Taken together, our data show a rather supportive than inhibitory effect of heparin on osteogenic hBMSC differentiation and conversion in vitro. Further studies will have to investigate the net effects of heparin administration on bone formation versus bone resorption in vivo to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heparin-associated osteoporosis and reconcile

  1. Motivation and Affective Judgments Differentially Recruit Neurons in the Primate Dorsolateral Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Amemori, Ken-ichi; Amemori, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    The judgment of whether to accept or to reject an offer is determined by positive and negative affect related to the offer, but affect also induces motivational responses. Rewarding and aversive cues influence the firing rates of many neurons in primate prefrontal and cingulate neocortical regions, but it still is unclear whether neurons in these regions are related to affective judgment or to motivation. To address this issue, we recorded simultaneously the neuronal spike activities of single units in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of macaque monkeys as they performed approach–avoidance (Ap–Av) and approach–approach (Ap–Ap) decision-making tasks that can behaviorally dissociate affective judgment and motivation. Notably, neurons having activity correlated with motivational condition could be distinguished from neurons having activity related to affective judgment, especially in the Ap–Av task. Although many neurons in both regions exhibited similar, selective patterns of task-related activity, we found a larger proportion of neurons activated in low motivational conditions in the dlPFC than in the ACC, and the onset of this activity was significantly earlier in the dlPFC than in the ACC. Furthermore, the temporal onsets of affective judgment represented by neuronal activities were significantly slower in the low motivational conditions than in the other conditions. These findings suggest that motivation and affective judgment both recruit dlPFC and ACC neurons but with differential degrees of involvement and timing. PMID:25653353

  2. Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-04-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimuli. In a community sample of women with (N = 48) and without (N = 48) a history of CSA, we tested (1) the mediation of negative affect on the relation between sexual self-schemas and sexual function/satisfaction, (2) the mediation of negative affect in the relation between CSA and sexual function/satisfaction, and (3) the mediation of sexual self-schemas in the relation between a history of CSA and negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. We found that more Embarrassed/Conservative and less Romantic/Passionate sexual self-schemas predicted negative affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli which, in turn, predicted levels of sexual satisfaction. The lower sexual satisfaction of CSA survivors was partially mediated by higher reports of negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. However, negative affect prior to sexual stimuli was not mediated by the sexual self-schemas of CSA survivors. Thus, although sexual self-schemas predicted sexual satisfaction, they did not predict variance in negative affect prior to sexual videos experienced by women with a history of CSA. PMID:21140286

  3. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  4. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  6. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    PubMed

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of

  7. Nanoscale topography and chemistry affect embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Vanessa L S; Fernandes, Ana Tiago; Bell, Nia C; Stellacci, Francesco; Stevens, Molly M

    2013-12-01

    Adherent cells respond to a wide range of substrate cues, including chemistry, topography, hydrophobicity, and surface energy. The cell-substrate interface is therefore an important design parameter in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications, where substrate cues are used to influence cell behavior. Thin films comprising 4.5 nm (average diameter) gold nanoparticles coated with a mixture of two alkanethiols can confer hemispherical topography and specific chemistry to bulk substrates. The behavior of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) on the thin films can then be compared with their behavior on self-assembled monolayers of the same alkanethiols on vapor-deposited gold, which lack the topographical features. Cells cultured both with and without differentiation inhibitors are characterized by immunofluorescence for Oct4 and qPCR for Fgf5, Foxa2, Nanog, Pou5f1, and Sox2. Nanoscale chemistry and topography are found to influence stem cell differentiation, particularly the early differentiation markers, Fgf5 and Foxa2. Nanoscale topography also affects Oct4 localization, whereas the chemical composition of the substrate does not have an effect. It is demonstrated for the first time that ESCs can sense topographical features established by 4.5 nm particles, and these findings suggest that nanoscale chemistry and topography can act synergistically to influence stem cell differentiation. This study furthers the understanding of the effects of these substrate properties, improving our ability to design materials to control stem cell fate.

  8. THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE ALTERS SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN THE MALE RAT BY ACTING AS AN ANDROGEN-RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fungicide procymidone alters sexual differentiation in the male rat by acting as an androgen-receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro.

    Ostby J, Kelce WR, Lambright C, Wolf CJ, Mann P, Gray LE Jr.

    Endocrinology Branch, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  9. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  10. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  11. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ ALTERS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION IN THE DAM AND SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prenatal Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz alters the onset of Parturition in
    the Dam and Sexual Differentiation in Male Rat Offspring.
    N. Noriega1; E. Gray1; J. Ostby1; C. Lambright1; V. Wilson1
    1. RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA;

    Prochloraz...

  12. Affect and Sexual Behavior in Adolescents: A Review of the Literature and Comparison of Momentary Sampling With Diary and Retrospective Self-Report Methods of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Shrier, Lydia A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Beardslee, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Assessment of mental health is important in understanding sexual risk behavior in adolescents, yet few studies have examined how affect is directly related to sexual behavior. Momentary sampling (MS) methods permit real-time assessment of affect in relation to specific events and embed the collected data in the context of the respondent’s moment-to-moment life. The objectives of this study were to review the literature on affect and sexual behavior and to compare the feasibility and acceptability of MS with diaries and retrospective self-report as a means of collecting temporally relevant data on affect and sexual behavior in adolescents. Methods Sexually active, nondepressed adolescent outpatients who were aged 15 to 18 years were randomly assigned to a schedule of the 3 methods of data collection for 2 weeks each. All participants completed a retrospective self-report by interview at the end of each 2-week period. In the diary arm, participants completed twice-daily paper-and-pencil diary cards, which were returned by mail. In the MS arm, participants used 2-way pagers to respond to several random pages per day. Primary outcomes included rates of completion (diaries vs MS reports) and the participants’ tolerance of and preferences for the methods. A secondary outcome was the agreement in means for positive and negative affect and in report of days on which substance use and sexual activity occurred. Associations of affect with contextual factors and with sexual activity were also explored in the MS arm. Results Ten youths completed 30 of 30 retrospective self-reports (100%, 3 per participant, by design), 254 of 280 diaries (91%; mean: 25.4 per participant), and 442 of 600 MS reports (74%; mean: 44.2 per participant). Most participants preferred the MS method to the diaries or retrospective self-report. Affect scores and reports of sexual activity and substance use were correlated among the methods. Measured with MS, affect was found to differ by

  13. Differentiation of affective and denotative meaning systems and their influence in personality ratings.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, O C

    1975-12-01

    The present study presents an empirical example of the dichotomy of affective and denotative meaning systems and their influence on individual differences in personality ratings. The three-mode factor analytic technique with a newly developed transformation methodology for the scale mode was applied to data collected by Hogenraad from 50 French-speaking Belgians, rating 40 personality concepts against 40 semantic differential scales. Results indicated that three affective dimensions (evaluation, potency, and activity) proved to be dominant in the indigenous factor structure of personality impressions and that three dimensions in the "other" space, orthogonal to affect, are clearly interpretable denotative semantic features of personalities. Three idealized individual differences on interactions of these two meaning systems with four concept factors were highlighted by the final rotated inner core matrix. The present methodology along with the semantic differential technique and three-mode factor analysis can be applied to various types of subjects and/or concept domains for better understanding of intra- and intercultural differences. PMID:1214218

  14. Developmental fluoxetine exposure and prenatal stress alter sexual differentiation of the brain and reproductive behavior in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rayen, Ine; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Charlier, Thierry D; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2013-09-01

    Depression during pregnancy and postpartum is a significant health problem and affects up to 20% of women. While selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are the drug of choice for treatment of maternal depression, the combined effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development is poorly investigated. Our aim was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on sexual behavior and sexually dimorphic brain structures in male offspring using a rodent model of maternal adversity. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were stressed during gestation and were chronically treated throughout lactation with either fluoxetine or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1. Four groups of offspring were used: (1) Control+Vehicle, (2) Control+Fluoxetine, (3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and (4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. We show here that developmental fluoxetine treatment decreases the anogenital distance in juvenile male offspring. In adult male offspring, maternal fluoxetine treatment results in a decrease in the number of intromissions, a longer latency to the first intromission, and a longer latency to the first ejaculation. Furthermore, developmental fluoxetine and/or prenatal stress decrease the area of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Prenatal stress, but not exposure to developmental fluoxetine, decreases the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv) and the volume of the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST) in male offspring. These results provide important evidence for the long-term impact of maternal adversity and maternal fluoxetine use on the development of primary endocrinology systems in juvenile and adult male offspring.

  15. [Differential diagnosis of late-stage neuroborreliosis with affection of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Spirin, N N; Baranova, N S; Fadeeva, O A; Pakhomova, Iu A; Stepanov, I O; Shipova, E G; Kasatkin, D S; Spirina, N N

    2012-01-01

    Chronic neuroborreliosis is an actual problem in neurology due to its under-investigation in Russia, variety of clinical forms, and the absence of well established diagnostic criteria. We present clinical and laboratory differential diagnostic criteria of chronic borrelial encephalomyelitis in comparison with multiple sclerosis. Distinguishing characteristics of Lyme encephalopathy versus vascular encephalopathy are considered. Problems and possibilities of immunological methods for identification of B. burgdorferi are discussed. The results of the antibiotic treatment of different clinical forms of neuroborreliosis with affection of the central nervous system are described.

  16. The differentiation of paranoid from affective psychoses by patients' premorbid characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kay, D W; Cooper, A F; Garside, R F; Roth, M

    1976-09-01

    Various premorbid characteristics of a group of patients aged 50 or over suffering from paranoid psychoses (N = 54) were compared with those of patients of similar age suffering from affective psychoses (N = 57). (The diagnoses were those of the consultants.) The presence of deafness was investigated in the manner described by Cooper et al(1974). Using the discriminant function method, the diagnostic groups were highly significantly differentiated by six independent variables, which in combination predicted 40 per cent of the variance. These were: a 'schizoid personality' factor, the number of surviving children, precipitating events, deafness, family history and social class.

  17. Hand proximity differentially affects visual working memory for color and orientation in a binding task.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shane P; Brockmole, James R

    2014-01-01

    Observers determined whether two sequentially presented arrays of six lines were the same or different. Differences, when present, involved either a swap in the color of two lines or a swap in the orientation of two lines. Thus, accurate change detection required the binding of color and orientation information for each line within visual working memory. Holding viewing distance constant, the proximity of the arrays to the hands was manipulated. Placing the hands near the to-be-remembered array decreased participants' ability to remember color information, but increased their ability to remember orientation information. This pair of results indicates that hand proximity differentially affects the processing of various types of visual information, a conclusion broadly consistent with functional and anatomical differences in the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways. It further indicates that hand proximity affects the likelihood that various object features will be encoded into integrated object files. PMID:24795671

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Sexual Risk Behavior Among School-Aged Adolescents in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-07-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. PMID:27242369

  19. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Borgquist, Amanda; Rivas, Virginia Mela; Kachani, Malika; Sinchak, Kevin; Wagner, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 μM) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle- treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 μg) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, nearly one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903

  20. Trade-offs between clonal and sexual reproduction in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae) scale up to affect the fitness of entire clones.

    PubMed

    Van Drunen, Wendy E; Dorken, Marcel E

    2012-10-01

    Many plants combine sexual reproduction with vegetative propagation, but how trade-offs between these reproductive modes affect fitness is poorly understood. Although such trade-offs have been demonstrated at the level of individual shoots (ramets), there is little evidence that they scale up to affect genet fitness. For hermaphrodites, reproductive investment is further divided between female and male sexual functions. Female function should generally incur greater carbon costs than male function, which might involve greater nitrogen (N) costs. Using a common garden experiment with diclinous, clonal Sagittaria latifolia we manipulated investment in reproduction through female and male sex functions of 412 plants from monoecious and dioecious populations. We detected a 1:1 trade-off between biomass investment in female function and clonal reproduction. For male function, there was no apparent trade-off between clonal and sexual reproduction in terms of biomass investment. Instead, male function incurred a substantially higher N cost. Our results indicate that: trade-offs between investment in clonal propagation and sexual reproduction occur at the genet level in S. latifolia; and sexual reproduction interferes with clonal expansion, with investment in female function limiting the quantity of clonal propagules produced, and investment in male function limiting the nutrient content of clonal propagules.

  1. Sex-Biased Transcriptome of Schistosoma mansoni: Host-Parasite Interaction, Genetic Determinants and Epigenetic Regulators Are Associated with Sexual Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Marion A. L.; Boissier, Jérôme; Roquis, David; Grunau, Christoph; Allienne, Jean-François; Duval, David; Toulza, Eve; Arancibia, Nathalie; Caffrey, Conor R.; Long, Thavy; Nidelet, Sabine; Rohmer, Marine; Cosseau, Céline

    2016-01-01

    Background Among more than 20,000 species of hermaphroditic trematodes, Schistosomatidae are unusual since they have evolved gonochorism. In schistosomes, sex is determined by a female heterogametic system, but phenotypic sexual dimorphism appears only after infection of the vertebrate definitive host. The completion of gonad maturation occurs even later, after pairing. To date, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the sexual differentiation in these species remain unknown, and in vivo studies on the developing schistosomulum stages are lacking. To study the molecular basis of sex determination and sexual differentiation in schistosomes, we investigated the whole transcriptome of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni in a stage- and sex-comparative manner. Methodology/ Principal Findings We performed a RNA-seq on males and females for five developmental stages: cercariae larvae, three in vivo schistosomulum stages and adults. We detected 7,168 genes differentially expressed between sexes in at least one of the developmental stages, and 4,065 of them were functionally annotated. Transcriptome data were completed with H3K27me3 histone modification analysis using ChIP-Seq before (in cercariae) and after (in adults) the phenotypic sexual dimorphism appearance. In this paper we present (i) candidate determinants of the sexual differentiation, (ii) sex-biased players of the interaction with the vertebrate host, and (iii) different dynamic of the H3K27me3 histone mark between sexes as an illustration of sex-biased epigenetic landscapes. Conclusions/ Significance Our work presents evidence that sexual differentiation in S. mansoni is accompanied by distinct male and female transcriptional landscapes of known players of the host-parasite crosstalk, genetic determinants and epigenetic regulators. Our results suggest that such combination could lead to the optimized sexual dimorphism of this parasitic species. As S. mansoni is pathogenic for humans, this study represents a

  2. NLRP7 affects trophoblast lineage differentiation, binds to overexpressed YY1 and alters CpG methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal-effect mutations in NLRP7 cause rare biparentally inherited hydatidiform moles (BiHMs), abnormal pregnancies containing hypertrophic vesicular trophoblast but no embryo. BiHM trophoblasts display abnormal DNA methylation patterns affecting maternally methylated germline differentially methy...

  3. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Col/milk did not affect probiotic colonization in AttHRV vaccinated pigs. However, unvaccinated pigs fed col/milk shed higher numbers of probiotic bacteria in feces than non-col/milk fed colonized controls. In AttHRV vaccinated pigs, col/milk feeding with probiotic treatment resulted in higher mean serum IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers compared to col/milk fed, non-colonized vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated pigs without col/milk, probiotic colonization did not affect IgA HRV antibody titers, but serum IgG HRV antibody titers and gut IgG ASC numbers were lower, suggesting that certain probiotics differentially impact HRV vaccine responses. Our findings suggest that col/milk components (soluble mediators) affect initial probiotic colonization, and together, they modulate neonatal antibody responses to oral AttHRV vaccine in complex ways. PMID:23453730

  4. DAX-1, an unusual orphan receptor at the crossroads of steroidogenic function and sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Enzo; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2003-08-01

    The unusual orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily DAX-1 (NR0B1) owes its name to its double role in human pathology. On one side, duplications in Xp21, containing the DAX-1 gene, cause phenotypic sex reversal in XY individuals. On the other side, DAX-1 gene mutations are responsible for adrenal hypoplasia congenita, invariably associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. DAX-1 functions as a global negative regulator of steroid hormone production by repressing the expression of multiple genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway. Here we review the mechanism of DAX-1 function in adrenal and gonadal differentiation, with special emphasis on recent results showing the critical role of DAX-1 protein misfolding in the pathogenesis of adrenal hypoplasia congenita. PMID:12775766

  5. The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Parks, L G; Ostby, J S; Lambright, C R; Abbott, B D; Klinefelter, G R; Barlow, N J; Gray, L E

    2000-12-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) such as DEHP are high production volume plasticizers used in vinyl floors, food wraps, cosmetics, medical products, and toys. In spite of their widespread and long-term use, most PE have not been adequately tested for transgenerational reproductive toxicity. This is cause for concern, because several recent investigations have shown that DEHP, BBP, DBP, and DINP disrupt reproductive tract development of the male rat in an antiandrogenic manner. The present study explored whether the antiandrogenic action of DEHP occurs by (1) inhibiting testosterone (T) production, or by (2) inhibiting androgen action by binding to the androgen receptor (AR). Maternal DEHP treatment at 750 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 3 caused a reduction in T production, and reduced testicular and whole-body T levels in fetal and neonatal male rats from GD 17 to PND 2. As a consequence, anogenital distance (AGD) on PND 2 was reduced by 36% in exposed male, but not female, offspring. By GD 20, DEHP treatment also reduced testis weight. Histopathological evaluations revealed that testes in the DEHP treatment group displayed enhanced 3ss-HSD staining and increased numbers of multifocal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia as well as multinucleated gonocytes as compared to controls at GD 20 and PND 3. In contrast to the effects of DEHP on T levels in vivo, neither DEHP nor its metabolite MEHP displayed affinity for the human androgen receptor at concentrations up to 10 microM in vitro. These data indicate that DEHP disrupts male rat sexual differentiation by reducing T to female levels in the fetal male rat during a critical stage of reproductive tract differentiation.

  6. Neural Mechanisms of Attentional Control Differentiate Trait and State Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Laura D.; Heller, Wendy; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Warren, Stacie L.; Bredemeier, Keith; Sutton, Bradley P.; Banich, Marie T.; Miller, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that cognitive processes are modulated differentially by trait and state negative affect (NA). Brain activation associated with trait and state NA was measured by fMRI during an attentional control task, the emotion-word Stroop. Performance on the task was disrupted only by state NA. Trait NA was associated with reduced activity in several regions, including a prefrontal area that has been shown to be involved in top-down, goal-directed attentional control. In contrast, state NA was associated with increased activity in several regions, including a prefrontal region that has been shown to be involved in stimulus-driven aspects of attentional control. Results suggest that NA has a significant impact on cognition, and that state and trait NA disrupt attentional control in distinct ways. PMID:22934089

  7. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  8. CO2, nitrogen, and diversity differentially affect seed production of prairie plants.

    PubMed

    HilleRisLambers, J; Harpole, W S; Schnitzer, S; Tilman, D; Reich, P B

    2009-07-01

    Plant species composition and diversity is often influenced by early life history stages; thus, global change could dramatically affect plant community structure by altering seed production. Unfortunately, plant reproductive responses to global change are rarely studied in field settings, making it difficult to assess this possibility. To address this issue, we quantified the effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen deposition, and declining diversity on inflorescence production and inflorescence mass of 11 perennial grassland species in central Minnesota, U.S.A. We analyzed these data to ask whether (1) global change differentially affects seed production of co-occurring species; (2) seed production responses to global change are similar for species within the same functional group (defined by ecophysiology and growth form); and (3) seed production responses to global change match productivity responses: We found that, on average, allocation to seed production decreased under elevated CO2, although individual species responses were rarely significant due to low power (CO2 treatment df = 2). The effects of nitrogen deposition on seed production were similar within functional groups: C4 grasses tended to increase while C3 grasses tended to decrease allocation to seed production. Responses to nitrogen deposition were negatively correlated to productivity responses, suggesting a trade-off. Allocation to seed production of some species responded to a diversity gradient, but responses were uncorrelated to productivity responses and not similar within functional groups. Presumably, species richness has complex effects on the biotic and abiotic variables that influence seed production. In total, our results suggest that seed production of co-occurring species will be altered by global change, which may affect plant communities in unpredictable ways. Although functional groups could be used to generalize seed production responses to nitrogen deposition in Minnesota prairies, we

  9. Gossypol with methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol male does not affect rat spermatogonial stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cui, G; Zheng, W; Sun, Y; Zhang, Q; Deng, X; Chen, X

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of the regimen of gossypol at 12 mg/kg/day combined with methyltestosterone at 20 mg/kg/day and ethinylestradiol at 100 microg/kg/day for a long term of twenty-four weeks could affect the existence and differentiation of rat spermatogonial stem cell. This was assessed by conducting TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling detection, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and fertility recovery evaluation. Our results showed that spontaneous apoptosis was observed in normal rats' testes from the control group with an apoptotic index (AI) average of 10.24+/-1.52. In the regimen-treated group, the predominant apoptotic cells were spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonia were not apoptotic (AI averaged 113.42+/-13.24). Two to three months after transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells isolated from regimen-treated rats into recipient nude mice, elongated rat spermatids were identified in the seminiferous tubules of recipient nude mice. Six weeks after withdrawal of the administration, fertility of the regimen-treated rats was recovered compared with that of the control group. The number of litters produced by females mated with regimen-treated males averaged 9.88+/-0.166 matched 10.30+/-0.171 of control group and the litters of the first generation appeared to be normal. These results indicated that the administration of this regimen did not affect the existence and differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells of the regimen-treated rats.

  10. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  11. [Inappropriate sexual differentiation of sex reversal type in 16-year-old boy with male phenotype].

    PubMed

    Starzyk, Jerzy; Górska, Aleksandra; Januś, Dominika

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with gynecomastia and symptoms of delayed puberty (relatively small testes and penis), who attended the Endocrinology Clinic. Pubic hair development was normal. Basic hormonal blood tests showed a primary testicular lesion (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). The result of karyotype examination showed female karyotype 46, XX. Based on those results the boy was diagnosed to be 46, XX male. A replacement testosterone therapy was administered. He stays in follow-up for gonad observation. The authors emphasize the possibility of establishing the diagnosis of a severe disorder belonging to the group of inappropriate sex differentiation of sex reversal type not earlier than in teenage adolescents, who present symptoms of delayed puberty. In such cases the main rule in establishing a final diagnosis is played by a physical examination with evaluation of sex development, as well as basic hormonal blood tests and karyotype result. Their correct interpretation is possible only by a physician who has reliable knowledge of the physiology of male sex determination.

  12. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light–dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5′-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5′-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5′-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation. PMID:26554015

  13. Parkinson's disease differentially affects adaptation to gradual as compared to sudden visuomotor distortions.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Banquet, Jean P; Burnod, Yves; Contreras-vidal, José L

    2011-08-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in movement adaptation to optimize performance in novel environmental contexts such as altered screen cursor-hand relationships. Prior studies have shown that the time course of the distortion differentially affects visuomotor adaptation to screen cursor rotations, suggesting separate mechanisms for gradual and sudden adaptation. Moreover, studies in human and non-human primates suggest that adaptation to sudden kinematic distortions may engage the basal ganglia, whereas adaptation to gradual kinematic distortions involves cerebellar structures. In the present studies, participants were patients with PD, who performed center-out pointing movements, using either a digitizer tablet and pen or a computer trackball, under normal or rotated screen cursor feedback conditions. The initial study tested patients with PD using a cross-over experimental design for adaptation to gradual as compared with sudden rotated hand-screen cursor relationships and revealed significant after-effects for the gradual adaptation task only. Consistent with these results, findings from a follow-up experiment using a trackball that required only small finger movements showed that patients with PD adapt better to gradual as against sudden perturbations, when compared to age-matched healthy controls. We conclude that Parkinson's disease affects adaptation to sudden visuomotor distortions but spares adaptation to gradual distortions. PMID:21414678

  14. Parkinson’s Disease Differentially Affects Adaptation to Gradual as Compared to Sudden Visuomotor Distortions

    PubMed Central

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Banquet, Jean P.; Burnod, Yves; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have difficulties in movement adaptation to optimize performance in novel environmental contexts such as altered screen cursor-hand relationships. Prior studies have shown that the time course of the distortion differentially affects visuomotor adaptation to screen cursor rotations, suggesting separate mechanisms for gradual and sudden adaptation. Moreover, studies in human and non-human primates suggest that adaptation to sudden kinematic distortions may engage the basal ganglia, whereas adaptation to gradual kinematic distortions involves cerebellar structures. In the present studies, participants were patients with PD, who performed center-out pointing movements, using either a digitizer tablet and pen or a computer trackball, under normal or rotated screen cursor feedback conditions. The initial study tested patients with PD using a cross-over experimental design for adaptation to gradual as compared with sudden rotated hand-screen cursor relationships and revealed significant after-effects for the gradual adaptation task only. Consistent with these results, findings from a follow-up experiment using a trackball that required only small finger movements showed that patients with PD adapt better to gradual as against sudden perturbations, when compared to age-matched healthy controls. We conclude that Parkinson’s disease affects adaptation to sudden visuomotor distortions but spares adaptation to gradual distortions. PMID:21414678

  15. Parkinson's disease differentially affects adaptation to gradual as compared to sudden visuomotor distortions.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Banquet, Jean P; Burnod, Yves; Contreras-vidal, José L

    2011-08-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in movement adaptation to optimize performance in novel environmental contexts such as altered screen cursor-hand relationships. Prior studies have shown that the time course of the distortion differentially affects visuomotor adaptation to screen cursor rotations, suggesting separate mechanisms for gradual and sudden adaptation. Moreover, studies in human and non-human primates suggest that adaptation to sudden kinematic distortions may engage the basal ganglia, whereas adaptation to gradual kinematic distortions involves cerebellar structures. In the present studies, participants were patients with PD, who performed center-out pointing movements, using either a digitizer tablet and pen or a computer trackball, under normal or rotated screen cursor feedback conditions. The initial study tested patients with PD using a cross-over experimental design for adaptation to gradual as compared with sudden rotated hand-screen cursor relationships and revealed significant after-effects for the gradual adaptation task only. Consistent with these results, findings from a follow-up experiment using a trackball that required only small finger movements showed that patients with PD adapt better to gradual as against sudden perturbations, when compared to age-matched healthy controls. We conclude that Parkinson's disease affects adaptation to sudden visuomotor distortions but spares adaptation to gradual distortions.

  16. Sexual Behavior Increases Cell Proliferation in the Rostral Migratory Stream and Promotes the Differentiation of the New Cells into Neurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Rebeca; Retana-Márquez, Socorro; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated, that 15 days after female rats pace the sexual interaction, there is an increase in the number of new cells that reach the granular cell layer (GrL) of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate, if the first sexual experience in the female rat increases cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also tested if this behavior promotes the survival of the new cells that integrate into the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and AOB 45 days after the behavioral test. Sexually, naive female rats were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on the day of the behavioral test. They were randomly divided into the following groups: Female rats placed alone in the mating cage (1); Females exposed to amyl acetate odor [banana scent, (2)]; Females that could see, hear, and smell the male but physical contact was not possible [exposed to male, (3)]; Female rats that could pace the sexual interaction (4); and females that mated without the possibility of pacing the sexual interaction (5). Animals were sacrificed 2 days after the behavioral test (proliferation) or 45 days later (survival). Our results show that 2 days after females were exposed to banana scent or to the male, they had a higher number of cells in the SVZ. Females, that mated in pace and no-paced conditions had more new cells in the RMS. At 45 days, no significant differences were found in the number of new cells that survived in the MOB or in the AOB. However, mating increased the percentage of new cells, that differentiated into neurons in the GrL of the AOB. These new cells expressed c-Fos after a second sexual encounter just before the females were sacrificed. No significant differences in plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were observed between groups. Our results indicate that the first sexual experience increases cell proliferation in the RMS and mating

  17. Sexual dysfunction in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Morrell, M J

    1991-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction may arise more frequently in men and women with epilepsy than with other chronic illnesses, manifesting primarily as diminished sexual desire and potency. Studies using retrospective self-report of sexual attitude and behavior find an incidence of sexual dysfunction ranging from 14-66%. Sexual dysfunction may be more common in partial than in generalized epilepsies. Sexual dysfunction in epilepsy may result from a disturbance in social or psychological factors affecting sexual responsiveness. Alternatively, epileptiform discharges may disrupt the function of structures mediating sexual behavior, particularly the limbic cortex, or alter the release of hypothalamic or pituitary hormones. Antiepileptic drugs modulate hormone release from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and may have direct inhibitory effects on sexual behavior. Evidence both supports and refutes each of these etiologies in the sexual dysfunction seen with epilepsy. Specific evaluation and treatment protocols for patients with sexual dysfunction are available.

  18. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) affects T cell differentiation in OVA induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Akirav, Eitan M; Henegariu, Octavian; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Clynes, Raphael; Herold, Kevan C

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for glycation end products (RAGE) has been previously implicated in shaping the adaptive immune response. RAGE is expressed in T cells after activation and constitutively in T cells from patients with diabetes. The effects of RAGE on adaptive immune responses are not clear: Previous reports show that RAGE blockade affects Th1 responses. To clarify the role of RAGE in adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms of its effects, we examined whether RAGE plays a role in T cell activation in a Th2 response involving ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice. WT and RAGE deficient wild-type and OT-II mice, expressing a T cell receptor specific for OVA, were immunized intranasally with OVA. Lung cellular infiltration and T cell responses were analyzed by immunostaining, FACS, and multiplex bead analyses for cytokines. RAGE deficient mice showed reduced cellular infiltration in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and impaired T cell activation in the mediastinal lymph nodes when compared with WT mice. In addition, RAGE deficiency resulted in reduced OT-II T cell infiltration of the lung and impaired IFNγ and IL-5 production when compared with WT mice and reduced infiltration when transferred into WT hosts. When cultured under conditions favoring the differentiation of T cells subsets, RAGE deficient T cells showed reduced production of IFNγ but increased production of IL-17. Our data show a stimulatory role for RAGE in T activation in OVA-induced asthma. This role is largely mediated by the effects of RAGE on T cell proliferation and differentiation. These findings suggest that RAGE may play a regulatory role in T cell responses following immune activation.

  19. Morphine administration or sexual segregation in infancy affect the response to the same drug in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Laviola, G; Terranova, M L; Alleva, E

    1993-01-01

    Several experiments indicate that CNS opioid regulatory systems show a remarkable plasticity during development. The same systems respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli, particularly those which can affect the threshold of pain sensitivity (e.g., Environmentally Induced Analgesia). This paper summarizes a series of studies using outbred CD-1 mice, aimed at assessing: a) morphine effects on pain sensitivity and locomotor activity at two ages during development, namely, before and after weaning, and b) the consequences of such exposure on adult sensitivity to the same drug. The development of hot-plate response consisted mainly of a progressive decrease of latencies and of a parallel reduction of sensitivity to morphine. While morphine depressed activity on day 14, it increased or had apparently no effect on day 21. With respect to carry-over consequences of early drug and test exposure, the animals with a history of testing at the preweanling stage were more sensitive to the depressant effect of morphine (10 mg/kg) than those pretested at a later stage. By contrast, morphine analgesia was attenuated by drug pre-exposure, independently of the age of previous testing. In sum, the age of early exposure and type of early treatment interacted to determine the level of adult pain sensitivity in the no-drug state. Finally, the long-term effects of sexual segregation in infancy on the response to painful stimulation and morphine were assessed. Adult male mice-reared from birth to weaning in litters containing either only male pups (MM), or both male and female pups (MF)--were challenged in a hot-plate test upon morphine or saline injection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  1. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects. PMID:23842783

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  3. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant.

  4. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  5. Loss of Gnas Imprinting Differentially Affects REM/NREM Sleep and Cognition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Glenda; Ball, Simon T.; Maggi, Silvia; Colonna, Giovanni; Nieus, Thierry; Cero, Cheryl; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Peters, Jo; Tucci, Valter

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM–linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM–dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes. PMID:22589743

  6. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25558904

  7. Low SP1 Expression Differentially Affects Intestinal-Type Compared with Diffuse-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ensel; Erkin, Özgür Cem; Jung, Hun Soon; Cho, Mi-Hyun; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Wang, Li-Hui; Park, Min-Jeong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Yang, Ho Bin; Jia, Lina; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2013-01-01

    Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is an essential transcription factor that regulates multiple cancer-related genes. Because aberrant expression of SP1 is related to cancer development and progression, we focused on SP1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its correlation with disease outcomes. Although patient survival decreased as SP1 expression increased (P<0.05) in diffuse-type gastric cancer, the lack of SP1 expression in intestinal-type gastric cancer was significantly correlated with poor survival (P<0.05). The knockdown of SP1 in a high SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, MKN28, increased migration and invasion but decreased proliferation. Microarray data in SP1 siRNA-transfected MKN28 revealed that the genes inhibiting migration were downregulated, whereas the genes negatively facilitating proliferation were increased. However, both migration and invasion were decreased by forced SP1 expression in a low SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, AGS. Unlike the intestinal-type, in a high SP1-expressing diffuse-type gastric cell line, SNU484, migration and invasion were decreased by SP1 siRNA. In contrast to previous studies that did not identify differences between the 2 histological types, our results reveal that low expression of SP1 is involved in cancer progression and metastasis and differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:23437057

  8. Accumulation of distinct prelamin A variants in human diploid fibroblasts differentially affects cell homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Candelario, Jose; Borrego, Stacey; Reddy, Sita; Comai, Lucio

    2011-02-01

    Lamin A is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a major role in the structural organization and function of the nucleus. Lamin A is synthesized as a prelamin A precursor which undergoes four sequential post-translational modifications to generate mature lamin A. Significantly, a large number of point mutations in the LMNA gene cause a range of distinct human disorders collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms by which mutations in lamin A affect cell function and cause disease are unclear. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested that alterations in the normal lamin A pathway can contribute to cellular dysfunction. Specifically, we and others have shown, at the cellular level, that in the absence of mutations or altered splicing events, increased expression of wild-type prelamin A results in a growth defective phenotype that resembles that of cells expressing the mutant form of lamin A, termed progerin, associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS). Remarkably, the phenotypes of cells expressing elevated levels of wild-type prelamin A can be reversed by either treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors or overexpression of ZMPSTE24, a critical prelamin A processing enzyme, suggesting that minor increases in the steady-state levels of one or more prelamin A intermediates is sufficient to induce cellular toxicity. Here, to investigate the molecular basis of the lamin A pathway toxicity, we characterized the phenotypic changes occurring in cells expressing distinct prelamin A variants mimicking specific prelamin A processing intermediates. This analysis demonstrates that distinct prelamin A variants differentially affect cell growth, nuclear membrane morphology, nuclear distribution of lamin A and the fundamental process of transcription. Expression of prelamin A variants that are constitutively farnesylated induced the formation of lamin A aggregates and dramatic changes in nuclear membrane morphology, which led to reduced

  9. Using a three-dimension head mounted displayer in audio-visual sexual stimulation aids in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moon, K-H; Song, P-H; Park, T-C

    2005-01-01

    We designed this study to compare the efficacy of using a three-dimension head mounted displayer (3-D HMD) and a conventional monitor in audio-visual sexual stimulation (AVSS) in differential diagnosis of psychogenic from organic erectile dysfunction (ED). Three groups of subjects such as psychogenic ED, organic ED, and healthy control received the evaluation. The change of penile tumescence in AVSS was monitored with Nocturnal Electrobioimpedance Volumetric Assessment and sexual arousal after AVSS was assessed by a simple question as being good, fair, or poor. Both the group of healthy control and psychogenic ED demonstrated a significantly higher rate of normal response in penile tumescence (P<0.05) and a significantly higher level of sexual arousal (P<0.05) if stimulated with 3-D HMD than conventional monitor. In the group of organic ED, even using 3-D HMD in AVSS could not give rise to a better response in both assessments. Therefore, we conclude that using a 3-D HMD in AVSS helps more to differentiate psychogenic from organic ED than a conventional monitor in AVSS.

  10. Research in Human Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Joan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)

  11. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits. PMID:24655072

  12. The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, M; Rubin, C-J; Höglund, A; Sahlqvist, A-S; Jonsson, K B; Kerje, S; Ekwall, O; Kämpe, O; Andersson, L; Jensen, P; Wright, D

    2014-05-01

    Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study, we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White Leghorn populations and wild-derived Red Junglefowl to, first, map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bone allocation and, second, to identify expression QTL that correlate and colocalize with comb mass. These candidate quantitative genes were then assessed for potential pleiotropic effects on bone tissue and fecundity traits. We identify genes that correlate with both relative comb mass and bone traits suggesting a combination of both pleiotropy and linkage mediates gene regulatory variation in these traits.

  13. FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

  14. Neural progenitor cell apoptosis and differentiation were affected by activated microglia in spinal cord slice culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuqing; Chu, Tak-Ho; Su, Huanxing; Guo, Anchen; Wu, Wutian

    2014-03-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation offers great potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). NPCs may replace lost neurons or oligodendrocytes and act as a source of neurotrophic factors to support survival of remaining cells. However, their efficiency was limited by poor survival after transplantation, and they tended more to differentiate into astrocytes, but not neurons and oligodendrocytes. This study investigated whether activated microglia is a factor that contributes to this phenomenon. Organotypic spinal cord slice (SCS) culture was used to mimic the local environment after SCI, and NPCs were co-cultured with them to share the culture medium. After specific depletion of microglia in the SCSs with clodronate loaded liposome, the apoptotic rate of NPCs decreased, more NPCs differentiated into neurons, and glial differentiation was impaired. This suggested that microglia may impair NPC survival, and neuronal differentiation, but improve astrocyte differentiation. In NPC transplantation strategy for SCI, microglia would be manipulated to improve the survival and neuronal differentiation of NPCs.

  15. Detecting differential transmissibilities that affect the size of self-limited outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Seth; Funk, Sebastian; Pulliam, Juliet R C

    2014-10-01

    Our ability to respond appropriately to infectious diseases is enhanced by identifying differences in the potential for transmitting infection between individuals. Here, we identify epidemiological traits of self-limited infections (i.e. infections with an effective reproduction number satisfying [0 < R eff < 1) that correlate with transmissibility. Our analysis is based on a branching process model that permits statistical comparison of both the strength and heterogeneity of transmission for two distinct types of cases. Our approach provides insight into a variety of scenarios, including the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Arabian peninsula, measles in North America, pre-eradication smallpox in Europe, and human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. When applied to chain size data for MERS-CoV transmission before 2014, our method indicates that despite an apparent trend towards improved control, there is not enough statistical evidence to indicate that R eff has declined with time. Meanwhile, chain size data for measles in the United States and Canada reveal statistically significant geographic variation in R eff, suggesting that the timing and coverage of national vaccination programs, as well as contact tracing procedures, may shape the size distribution of observed infection clusters. Infection source data for smallpox suggests that primary cases transmitted more than secondary cases, and provides a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of control interventions. Human monkeypox, on the other hand, does not show evidence of differential transmission between animals in contact with humans, primary cases, or secondary cases, which assuages the concern that social mixing can amplify transmission by secondary cases. Lastly, we evaluate surveillance requirements for detecting a change in the human-to-human transmission of monkeypox since the cessation of cross-protective smallpox vaccination. Our

  16. How differential deflection of the inboard and outboard leading-edge flaps affected the handling qua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    How differential deflection of the inboard and outboard leading-edge flaps affected the handling qualities of this modified F/A-18A was evaluated during the first check flight in the Active Aeroelastic Wing program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The Active Aeroelastic Wing program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center seeks to determine the advantages of twisting flexible wings for primary maneuvering roll control at transonic and supersonic speeds, with traditional control surfaces such as ailerons and leading-edge flaps used to aerodynamically induce the twist. From flight test and simulation data, the program intends to develop structural modeling techniques and tools to help design lighter, more flexible high aspect-ratio wings for future high-performance aircraft, which could translate to more economical operation or greater payload capability. AAW flight tests began in November, 2002 with checkout and parameter-identification flights. Based on data obtained during the first flight series, new flight control software will be developed and a second series of research flights will then evaluate the AAW concept in a real-world environment. The program uses wings that were modified to the flexibility of the original pre-production F-18 wing. Other modifications include a new actuator to operate the outboard leading edge flap over a greater range and rate, and a research flight control system to host the aeroelastic wing control laws. The Active Aeroelastic Wing Program is jointly funded and managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, with Boeing's Phantom Works as prime contractor for wing modifications and flight control software development. The F/A-18A aircraft was provided by the Naval Aviation Systems Test Team and modified for its research role by NASA Dryden technicians.

  17. Electrospun fibre diameter, not alignment, affects mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into the tendon/ligament lineage.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Robyn D; Dahlgren, Linda A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to develop engineered tendons and ligaments have focused on the use of a biomaterial scaffold and a stem cell source. However, the ideal scaffold microenvironment to promote stem cell differentiation and development of organized extracellular matrix is unknown. Through electrospinning, fibre scaffolds can be designed with tailorable architectures to mimic the intended tissue. In this study, the effects of fibre diameter and orientation were examined by electrospinning thin mats, consisting of small (< 1 µm), medium (1-2 µm) or large (> 2 µm) diameter fibres with either random or aligned fibre orientation. C3H10T1/2 model stem cells were cultured on the six different electrospun mats, as well as smooth spin-coated films, and the morphology, growth and expression of tendon/ligament genes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fibre diameter affects cellular behaviour more significantly than fibre alignment. Initially, cell density was greater on the small fibre diameter mats, but similar cell densities were found on all mats after an additional week in culture. After 2 weeks, gene expression of collagen 1α1 and decorin was increased on all mats compared to films. Expression of the tendon/ligament transcription factor scleraxis was suppressed on all electrospun mats relative to spin-coated films, but expression on the large-diameter fibre mats was consistently greater than on the medium-diameter fibre mats. These results suggest that larger-diameter fibres (e.g. > 2 µm) may be more suitable for in vitro development of a tendon/ligament tissue.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide differentially affects activity in the pre-Bötzinger complex and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shakil A.; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate neuronal excitability. In the present study we examined the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a well established ROS, on neuronal activity from two neonatal mouse brain regions, i.e., the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) within the ventral respiratory column (VRC) and the CA1 area of the hippocampus. In the preBötC, 2.2 mM H2O2 evoked a transient depression followed by augmentation of neuronal activity. The iron chelator deferoxamine (500 μM) did not prevent H2O2-mediated neuronal augmentation but prevented the initial depression. Combined application of Fe2+ and H2O2 only caused depression of the preBötC rhythm. In contrast, H2O2 suppressed neuronal activity in the CA1 region, and this effect was accentuated by coapplication of Fe2+ and H2O2, suggesting that hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton reaction mediates the effects of H2O2 on CA1 neuronal activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were monitored as an index of lipid peroxidation in H2O2-treated preBötC and CA1 areas. MDA levels were unaltered in H2O2-treated preBötC, whereas MDA levels were markedly elevated in the CA1 region. These findings suggest that 1) exogenous administration of H2O2 exerts differential effects on neuronal activities of preBötC versus CA1 neuronal populations and 2) H2O2 is a potent modulator of respiratory rhythmogenesis from the preBötC without affecting global oxidative status. PMID:21849609

  19. Carrageenans, Sulphated Polysaccharides of Red Seaweeds, Differentially Affect Arabidopsis thaliana Resistance to Trichoplusia ni (Cabbage Looper)

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder S.; Khan, Wajahatullah; Ji, Xiuhong; Zhang, Junzeng; Mills, Aaron A. S.; Critchley, Alan T.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ι-, κ- and λ-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation) on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ι- and κ-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with λ- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ι- and κ- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by λ-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ι-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but κ- and λ-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ι-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect. PMID:22046375

  20. Detecting Differential Item Functioning in the Japanese Version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lei, Pui-Wa; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential item functioning (DIF) of the English version and the Japanese-translated version of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List--Revised (MAACL-R) using the logistic regression (LR) procedure. The results of the LR are supplemented by multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). A total of five items are…

  1. Does dropping day 5 PEP follow-up affect outcomes? An audit of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis at a central London sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, C; Nwokolo, N; McOwan, A; Whitlock, G

    2015-07-01

    UK post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) guidelines were updated by the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) in 2011. In 2013, we changed policy to omit day 5 PEP follow-up at 56 Dean Street as it was felt clinically unnecessary. This audit compares our performance against BASHH standards for PEP attenders during June 2012 and June 2013. We identified 162 PEP prescriptions; PEP assessment and appropriate sexually transmitted infection testing was done well. PEP completion rates and post-PEP HIV testing were lower than BASHH standards. Following omission of day 5 review, documentation that results have been checked was poor; however, attendance at follow-up was not adversely affected.

  2. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  3. In the face of war: examining sexual vulnerabilities of Acholi adolescent girls living in displacement camps in conflict-affected Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls are an overlooked group within conflict-affected populations and their sexual health needs are often neglected. Girls are disproportionately at risk of HIV and other STIs in times of conflict, however the lack of recognition of their unique sexual health needs has resulted in a dearth of distinctive HIV protection and prevention responses. Departing from the recognition of a paucity of literature on the distinct vulnerabilities of girls in time of conflict, this study sought to deepen the knowledge base on this issue by qualitatively exploring the sexual vulnerabilities of adolescent girls surviving abduction and displacement in Northern Uganda. Methods Over a ten-month period between 2004–2005, at the height of the Lord’s Resistance Army insurgency in Northern Uganda, 116 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were held with adolescent girls and adult women living in three displacement camps in Gulu district, Northern Uganda. The data was transcribed and key themes and common issues were identified. Once all data was coded the ethnographic software programme ATLAS was used to compare and contrast themes and categories generated in the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Our results demonstrated the erosion of traditional Acholi mentoring and belief systems that had previously served to protect adolescent girls’ sexuality. This disintegration combined with: the collapse of livelihoods; being left in camps unsupervised and idle during the day; commuting within camp perimeters at night away from the family hut to sleep in more central locations due to privacy and insecurity issues, and; inadequate access to appropriate sexual health information and services, all contribute to adolescent girls’ heightened sexual vulnerability and subsequent enhanced risk for HIV/AIDS in times of conflict. Conclusions Conflict prevention planners, resettlement programme developers, and policy-makers need to recognize

  4. How populations differentiate despite gene flow: sexual and natural selection drive phenotypic divergence within a land fish, the Pacific leaping blenny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Divergence between populations in reproductively important features is often vital for speciation. Many studies attempt to identify the cause of population differentiation in phenotype through the study of a specific selection pressure. Holistic studies that consider the interaction of several contrasting forms of selection are more rare. Most studies also fail to consider the history of connectivity among populations and the potential for genetic drift or gene flow to facilitate or limit phenotypic divergence. We examined the interacting effects of natural selection, sexual selection and the history of connectivity on phenotypic differentiation among five populations of the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum), a land fish endemic to the island of Guam. Results We found key differences among populations in two male ornaments—the size of a prominent head crest and conspicuousness of a coloured dorsal fin—that reflected a trade-off between the intensity of sexual selection (male biased sex ratios) and natural selection (exposure to predators). This differentiation in ornamentation has occurred despite evidence suggesting extensive gene flow among populations, which implies that the change in ornament expression has been recent (and potentially plastic). Conclusions Our study provides an early snapshot of divergence in reproductively important features that, regardless of whether it reflects genetic or plastic changes in phenotype, could ultimately form a reproductive barrier among populations. PMID:24884492

  5. Lesions to the medial preoptic nucleus differentially affect singing and nest box-directed behaviors within and outside of the breeding season in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Alger, Sarah J.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about how the brain regulates context appropriate communication. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seasonally-breeding songbirds that produce song in various social contexts. During the breeding season, males that acquire nest sites sing high levels of sexually-motivated song in response to a female. Outside of this context, however, song rates are not affected by female presence. The medial preoptic nucleus (POM) is a region outside of the song control system that regulates male sexual behavior, and several studies in songbirds implicate the POM in sexually-motivated song. However, recent data suggest that the role of the POM might extend to song produced in other contexts as well. To examine this possibility, effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the POM on singing and other behaviors in adult male starlings within sexually relevant and non-sexual contexts in response to various social stimuli were examined. Lesions to the POM exclusively reduced song and nest box-directed behaviors within highly sexually relevant contexts. Unexpectedly, POM lesions increased song in a non-sexual context, suggesting an inhibitory role for the POM in this context. These data suggest that the POM interacts with the song control system so that song occurs in an appropriate social context in response to appropriate stimuli. PMID:17201478

  6. Perinatal exposure to the phthalates DEHP, BBP, and DINP, but not DEP, DMP, or DOTP, alters sexual differentiation of the male rat.

    PubMed

    Gray, L E; Ostby, J; Furr, J; Price, M; Veeramachaneni, D N; Parks, L

    2000-12-01

    In mammals, exposure to antiandrogenic chemicals during sexual differentiation can produce malformations of the reproductive tract. Perinatal administration of AR antagonists like vinclozolin and procymidone or chemicals like di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) that inhibit fetal testicular testosterone production demasculinize the males such that they display reduced anogenital distance (AGD), retained nipples, cleft phallus with hypospadias, undescended testes, a vaginal pouch, epididymal agenesis, and small to absent sex accessory glands as adults. In addition to DEHP, di-n-butyl (DBP) also has been shown to display antiandrogenic activity and induce malformations in male rats. In the current investigation, we examined several phthalate esters to determine if they altered sexual differentiation in an antiandrogenic manner. We hypothesized that the phthalate esters that altered testis function in the pubertal male rat would also alter testis function in the fetal male and produce malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. In this regard, we expected that benzyl butyl (BBP) and diethylhexyl (DEHP) phthalate would alter sexual differentiation, while dioctyl tere- (DOTP or DEHT), diethyl (DEP), and dimethyl (DMP) phthalate would not. We expected that the phthalate mixture diisononyl phthalate (DINP) would be weakly active due to the presence of some phthalates with a 6-7 ester group. DEHP, BBP, DINP, DEP, DMP, or DOTP were administered orally to the dam at 0.75 g/kg from gestational day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 3. None of the treatments induced overt maternal toxicity or reduced litter sizes. While only DEHP treatment reduced maternal weight gain during the entire dosing period by about 15 g, both DEHP and DINP reduced pregnancy weight gain to GD 21 by 24 g and 14 g, respectively. DEHP and BBP treatments reduced pup weight at birth (15%). Male (but not female) pups from the DEHP and BBP groups displayed shortened AGDs (about 30%) and reduced testis weights

  7. Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass

  8. Protein v. carbohydrate intake differentially affects liking- and wanting-related brain signalling.

    PubMed

    Born, Jurriaan M; Martens, Mieke J I; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Goebel, Rainer; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-28

    Extreme macronutrient intakes possibly lead to different brain signalling. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ingesting high-protein v. high-carbohydrate food on liking and wanting task-related brain signalling (TRS) and subsequent macronutrient intake. A total of thirty female subjects (21.6 (SD 2.2) years, BMI 25.0 (SD 3.7) kg/m²) completed four functional MRI scans: two fasted and two satiated on two different days. During the scans, subjects rated all food items for liking and wanting, thereby choosing the subsequent meal. The results show that high-protein (PROT) v. high-carbohydrate (CARB) conditions were generated using protein or carbohydrate drinks at the first meal. Energy intake and hunger were recorded. PROT (protein: 53.7 (SD 2.1) percentage of energy (En%); carbohydrate: 6.4 (SD 1.3) En%) and CARB conditions (protein: 11.8 (SD 0.6) En%; carbohydrate: 70.0 (SD 2.4) En%) were achieved during the first meal, while the second meals were not different between the conditions. Hunger, energy intake, and behavioural liking and wanting ratings were decreased after the first meal (P< 0.001). Comparing the first with the second meal, the macronutrient content changed: carbohydrate -26.9 En% in the CARB condition, protein -37.8 En% in the PROT condition. After the first meal in the CARB condition, wanting TRS was increased in the hypothalamus. After the first meal in the PROT condition, liking TRS was decreased in the putamen (P< 0.05). The change in energy intake from the first to the second meal was inversely related to the change in liking TRS in the striatum and hypothalamus in the CARB condition and positively related in the PROT condition (P< 0.05). In conclusion, wanting and liking TRS were affected differentially with a change in carbohydrate or protein intake, underscoring subsequent energy intake and shift in macronutrient composition. PMID:22643242

  9. Substance Use and Sexual Behavior among Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Effects of Parent-Adolescent Differential Acculturation and Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094

  10. How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model.

    PubMed

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Integrating leader-member exchange (LMX) research with role engagement theory (Kahn, 1990) and role system theory (Katz & Kahn, 1978), we propose a multilevel, dual process model to understand the mechanisms through which LMX quality at the individual level and LMX differentiation at the team level simultaneously affect individual and team performance. With regard to LMX differentiation, we introduce a new configural approach focusing on the pattern of LMX differentiation to complement the traditional approach focusing on the degree of LMX differentiation. Results based on multiphase, multisource data from 375 employees of 82 teams revealed that, at the individual level, LMX quality positively contributed to customer-rated employee performance through enhancing employee role engagement. At the team level, LMX differentiation exerted negative influence on teams' financial performance through disrupting team coordination. In particular, teams with the bimodal form of LMX configuration (i.e., teams that split into 2 LMX-based subgroups with comparable size) suffered most in team performance because they experienced greatest difficulty in coordinating members' activities. Furthermore, LMX differentiation strengthened the relationship between LMX quality and role engagement, and team coordination strengthened the relationship between role engagement and employee performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25000359

  11. Sexual Misconduct and Enactment

    PubMed Central

    Plakun, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  12. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.

  13. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  14. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, E J; Brand, T; de Jonge, F H; Joosten, R N; van de Poll, N E; Slob, A K

    1994-09-01

    The present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters of masculinization in male rats that were treated perinatally with the aromatase-inhibitor ATD. Males were treated with ATD either prenatally or pre- and neonatally, or with the vehicle. Masculine sexual behavior and partner preference were investigated in adulthood. Thereafter, animals were sacrificed and SDN-POA volume was measured. The SDN-POA volume was reduced in both the prenatally and the pre- and neonatally treated group, with a larger reduction in the latter than in the former group. Combined pre- and neonatal ATD treatment resulted in reduced frequency of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations, as well as a reduced preference for a female over a male. The SDN-POA size was significantly and positively correlated with frequency of masculine sexual behavior, as well as preference for a female over a male.

  15. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair.

  16. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bravenboer, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  17. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17F, and IL-4 Differentially Affect Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Coral, Angela P; Bakker, Astrid D; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Forouzanfar, Tim; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2016-01-01

    During the initial stages of bone repair, proinflammatory cytokines are released within the injury site, quickly followed by a shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is controversial. Here, we investigated the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17F and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were treated with TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17F, or IL-4 (10 ng/mL) for 72 h mimicking bone repair. TNF-α reduced collagen type I gene expression but increased hASC proliferation and ALP activity. IL-6 also strongly enhanced ALP activity (18-fold), as well as bone nodule formation by hASCs. IL-8 did not affect proliferation or osteogenic gene expression but reduced bone nodule formation. IL-17F decreased hASC proliferation but enhanced ALP activity. IL-4 enhanced osteocalcin gene expression and ALP activity but reduced RUNX2 gene expression and bone nodule formation. In conclusion, all cytokines studied have both enhancing and reducing effects on osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, even when applied for 72 h only. Some cytokines, specifically IL-6, may be suitable to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as a strategy for enhancing bone repair. PMID:27667999

  18. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  19. Butyrate affects differentiation, maturation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Millard, A L; Mertes, P M; Ittelet, D; Villard, F; Jeannesson, P; Bernard, J

    2002-01-01

    We studied the in vitro effects of butyric acid on differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ) generated from human monocytes. A non-toxic dose of butyrate was shown to alter the phenotypic differentiation process of DC as assessed by a persistence of CD14, and a decreased CD54, CD86 and HLA class II expression. The more immature differentiation stage of treated cells was confirmed further by their increased phagocytic capability, their altered capacity to produce IL-10 and IL-12, and their weak allostimulatory abilities. Butyrate also altered DC terminal maturation, regardless of the maturation inducer, as demonstrated by a strong down-regulation of CD83, a decreased expression of CD40, CD86 and HLA class II. Similarly, butyrate altered MΦ differentiation, down-regulating the expression of the restricted membrane antigens and reducing the phagocytic capacity of treated cells. To investigate further the mechanism by which butyrate hampers the monocyte dual differentiation pathway, we studied the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in combination with butyrate on the phenotypic features of DC. Unlike 1,25(OH)2D3, butyrate inhibited DC differentiation without redirecting it towards MΦ. Combined treatment gave rise to a new cell subset (CD14high, CD86 and HLA-DRlow) phenotypically distinct from monocytes. These results reveal an alternative mechanism of inhibition of DC and MΦ differentiation. Altogether, our data demonstrate a novel immune suppression property of butyrate that may modulate both inflammatory and immune responses and support further the interest for butyrate and its derivatives as new immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:12390312

  20. Differential selection on pollen and pistil traits in relation to pollen competition in the context of a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Åsa; Strandh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Sexual conflict and its evolutionary consequences are understudied in plants, but the theory of sexual conflict may help explain how selection generates and maintains variability. Here, we investigated selection on pollen and pistil traits when pollen arrives sequentially to partially receptive pistils in relation to pollen competition and a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in the mixed-mating annual Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). In this species the conflict is generated by early fertilizing pollen that reduces seed production, which is counteracted by delaying receptivity in the recipient. We performed sequential two-donor pollinations at early floral developmental stages involving two pollen deposition schedules (with or without a time lag of 1 day), using only outcross or self and outcross pollen. We investigated pollen and pistil traits in relation to siring success (male fitness) and seed production (female fitness). In contrast to previous findings in receptive pistils in C. heterophylla and in other species, last arriving pollen donors showed highest siring success in partially receptive pistils. The last male advantage was weaker when self pollen was the first arriving donor. Two measures of germination rate (early and late) and pollen tube growth rate of first arriving donors were important for siring success in crosses with a time lag, while only late germination rate had an effect in contemporary crosses. Curiously, late stigma receptivity was negatively related to seed production in our contemporary crosses, which was opposite to expectation. Our results in combination with previous studies suggest that pollen and pistil traits in C. heterophylla are differentially advantageous depending on stage of floral development and varying pollen deposition schedules. Variation in success of these traits over floral development time may result from sexually antagonistic selection. PMID:27562796

  1. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Seo, Minseok; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Oh, Jae-Don; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Tae Sub; Shin, Sangsu; Jiao Jiao, Zhang; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight). Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2), and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2). Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP), as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87) in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1) shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis) indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  2. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Oh, Jae-Don; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Tae Sub; Shin, Sangsu; Jiao Jiao, Zhang; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight). Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2), and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2). Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP), as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87) in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1) shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis) indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production. PMID:26418419

  3. Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…

  4. Anti-Müllerian Hormone Is Required for Chicken Embryonic Urogenital System Growth but Not Sexual Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Ayers, Katie; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Sinclair, Andrew H; Smith, Craig A

    2015-12-01

    In mammals, the primary role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.

  5. Brief report: impaired differentiation of vegetative/affective and intentional nonverbal vocalizations in a subject with Asperger syndrome (AS).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Riedel, Andreas; Ackermann, Hermann

    2012-10-01

    The Asperger syndrome (AS) includes impaired recognition of other people's mental states. Since language-based diagnostic procedures may be confounded by cognitive-linguistic compensation strategies, nonverbal test materials were created, including human affective and vegetative sounds. Depending on video context, each sound could be interpreted either as direct expression of an agent's affective/vegetative state or as result of intentional-executive mental operations. "Situational relevance" and "intentionality" ratings by a group of twelve healthy subjects nicely differentiated between context types. By contrast, an AS subject showed a systematic over-interpretation of vegetative/affective signals in terms of planned activities. Such overestimation of intentional motivation, leading to impaired social cognition, might be due to the inability to utilize "affective resonance" mechanisms for the interpretation of an individual's internal state. PMID:22314575

  6. Evolutionary inevitability of sexual antagonism.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-02-01

    Sexual antagonism, whereby mutations are favourable in one sex and disfavourable in the other, is common in natural populations, yet the root causes of sexual antagonism are rarely considered in evolutionary theories of adaptation. Here, we explore the evolutionary consequences of sex-differential selection and genotype-by-sex interactions for adaptation in species with separate sexes. We show that sexual antagonism emerges naturally from sex differences in the direction of selection on phenotypes expressed by both sexes or from sex-by-genotype interactions affecting the expression of such phenotypes. Moreover, modest sex differences in selection or genotype-by-sex effects profoundly influence the long-term evolutionary trajectories of populations with separate sexes, as these conditions trigger the evolution of strong sexual antagonism as a by-product of adaptively driven evolutionary change. The theory demonstrates that sexual antagonism is an inescapable by-product of adaptation in species with separate sexes, whether or not selection favours evolutionary divergence between males and females.

  7. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships. PMID:26301436

  9. Piloting community-based medical care for survivors of sexual assault in conflict-affected Karen State of eastern Burma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the challenges to ensuring facility-based care in conflict settings, the Women’s Refugee Commission and partners have been pursuing a community-based approach to providing medical care to survivors of sexual assault in Karen State, eastern Burma. This new model translates the 2004 World Health Organization’s Clinical Management of Rape Survivors facility-based protocol to the community level through empowering community health workers to provide post-rape care. The aim of this innovative study is to examine the safety and feasibility of community-based medical care for survivors of sexual assault to contribute to building an evidence base on alternative models of care in humanitarian settings. Methods A process evaluation was implemented from July-October 2011 to gather qualitative feedback from trained community health workers, traditional birth attendants, and community members. Two focus group discussions were conducted among the highest cadre health care workers from the pilot and non-pilot sites. In Karen State, eight focus group discussions were convened among traditional birth attendants and 10 among women and men of reproductive age. Results Qualitative feedback contributed to an understanding of the model’s feasibility. Pilot site community health workers showed interest in providing community-based care for survivors of sexual assault. Traditional birth attendants attested to the importance of making this care available. Community health workers were deeply aware of the need to maintain confidentiality and offer compassionate care. They did not raise safety as an excess concern in the provision of treatment. Conclusions Data speak to the promising “feasibility” of community-based post-rape care. More time, awareness-raising, and a larger catchment population are necessary to answer the safety perspective. The pilot is an attempt to translate facility-based protocol to the community level to offer solutions for settings where

  10. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882443

  11. Parental Non-verbal Sexual Communication: Its Relationship to Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Guilt.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H; Franca-Koh, A C

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One hundred and thirty-seven young adults completed questionnaires measuring remembered parental non-verbal sexual communication, current sexual behaviour and sexual guilt. Higher levels of parental non-verbal sexual communication were found to be linked to: earlier onset of sexual activity, fewer sexual partners and lower feelings of aspects of sexual guilt. The findings are discussed in terms of how to advance this area of study. PMID:22049235

  12. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  13. Temperature affect on caste differentiation and protein composition in Coptotermes formosanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caste systems, and the division of labor they make possible, are common underlying features of all social insects. In termites, multiple extrinsic factors have been shown to impact caste differentiation; for example, temperature has been shown to increase soldier production. The objective of this in...

  14. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  15. Identification of sexually dimorphic gene expression in brain tissue of the fish Leporinus macrocephalus through mRNA differential display and real time PCR analyses.

    PubMed

    Alves-Costa, Fernanda A; Wasko, A P

    2010-03-01

    Differentially expressed genes in males and females of vertebrate species generally have been investigated in gonads and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues. Therefore, we attempted to identify sexually dimorphic gene expression in the brains of adult males and females of Leporinus macrocephalus, a gonochoristic fish species that presents a ZZ/ZW sex determination system, throughout a comparative analysis using differential display reverse transcriptase-PCR and real-time PCR. Four cDNA fragments were characterized, representing candidate genes with differential expression between the samples. Two of these fragments presented no significant identity with previously reported gene sequences. The other two fragments, isolated from male specimens, were associated to the gene that codes for the protein APBA2 (amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2) and to the Rab 37 gene, a member of the Ras oncogene family. The overexpression of these genes has been associated to a greater production of the beta-amyloid protein which, in turns, is the major factor that leads to Alzheimer's disease, and to the development of brain-tumors, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a higher Apba2 gene expression in males, thus validating the previous data on differential display. L. macrocephalus may represent an interesting animal model to the understanding of the function of several vertebrate genes, including those involved in neurodegenerative and cancer diseases.

  16. Sexual dimorphism of liver metastasis by murine pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is affected by expression of complement C5

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Tanupriya; Kobayashi, Shinta; da Silva, Edaise; Clausen, Richard; Chan, Chang; Vosburgh, Evan; Tang, Laura H.; Levine, Arnold J.; Harris, Chris R.

    2016-01-01

    In a mouse model for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (PanNETs), liver metastasis occurred at a higher frequency in males. Male mice also had higher serum and intratumoral levels of the innate immunity protein complement C5. In mice that lost the ability to express complement C5, there was a lower frequency of metastasis, and males no longer had a higher frequency of metastasis than females. Treatment with PMX53, a small molecule antagonist of C5aR1/CD88, the receptor for complement C5a, also reduced metastasis. Mice lacking a functional gene for complement C5 had smaller primary tumors, which were less invasive and lacked the CD68+ macrophages that have previously been associated with metastasis in this type of tumor. This is the first report of a gene that causes sexual dimorphism of metastasis in a mouse model. In the human disease, which also shows sexual dimorphism for metastasis, clinically advanced tumors expressed more complement C5 than less advanced tumors. PMID:27105526

  17. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    PubMed Central

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  18. Does victim age differentiate between perpetrators of sexual child abuse? A study of mental health, psychosocial circumstances, and crimes.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Anita; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Brimse, Agneta; Innala, Sune; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    To test the theory that sexual offenders who abuse very young children (0-5 years) have more severe mental health and psychosocial problems than those who victimize older children, authors compared psychiatric diagnoses, social circumstances, and crime-related data in all sexual offenders against minors referred to forensic psychiatric investigation in Sweden during a 5-year period. Thirty-one men had committed index crimes involving victims between the ages of 0 and 5 years (Group 1), 90 had 6-to 11-year-old victims (Group 2), and 41 had 12- to 15-year-old victims (Group 3). All three offender groups were characterized by severe mental health problems, in many cases fulfilling American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for both Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, but these problems did not differ between groups. Neither did social situation or sexual orientation. Offenders with 0- to 5-year-old victims significantly more often abused both boys and girls. Frequencies of retrospectively diagnosed childhood-onset behavior disorders were high in all three offender groups. The authors' data did not support previous findings of increasingly severe mental health problems with decreasing victim age. PMID:19901238

  19. TGF-β affects development and differentiation of human natural killer cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Allan, David S.J.; Rybalov, Basya; Awong, Génève; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Kopcow, Hernan D.; Carlyle, James R.; Strominger, Jack L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Human peripheral blood NK cells may be divided into two main subsets: CD56brightCD16− and CD56dimCD16+. Since TGF-β is known to influence the development of many leukocyte lineages, its effects on NK cell differentiation either from human CD34+Lin− hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells in vitro or from peripheral blood NK cells were investigated. TGF-β represses development of NK cells from CD34+ progenitors and inhibits differentiation of CD16+ NK cells. Moreover, TGF-β also results in conversion of a minor fraction of CD56brightCD16+ cells found in peripheral blood into CD56brightCD16− cells, highlighting a possible role of the former as a developmental intermediate and of TGF-β in influencing the genesis of NK subsets found in blood. PMID:20540115

  20. Centriole Amplification in Zebrafish Affects Proliferation and Survival but Not Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Dzafic, Edo; Strzyz, Paulina J; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Norden, Caren

    2015-10-01

    In animal cells, supernumerary centrosomes, resulting from centriole amplification, cause mitotic aberrations and have been associated with diseases, including microcephaly and cancer. To evaluate how centriole amplification impacts organismal development at the cellular and tissue levels, we used the in vivo imaging potential of the zebrafish. We demonstrate that centriole amplification can induce multipolar anaphase, resulting in binucleated cells. Such binucleation causes substantial apoptosis in the neuroepithelium. Interestingly, not all epithelia are similarly sensitive to binucleation, as skin cells tolerate it without entering apoptosis. In the neuroepithelium, however, binucleation leads to tissue degeneration and subsequent organismal death. Notably, this tissue degeneration can be efficiently counterbalanced by compensatory proliferation of wild-type cells. Because the risk for generating a binucleated daughter recurs at every cell division, centriole amplification in the neuroepithelium is especially deleterious during progenitor proliferation. Once cells reach the differentiation phase, however, centriole amplification does not impair neuronal differentiation.

  1. Perturbation of polyamine catabolism can strongly affect root development and xylem differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tisi, Alessandra; Federico, Rodolfo; Moreno, Sandra; Lucretti, Sergio; Moschou, Panagiotis N; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2011-09-01

    Spermidine (Spd) treatment inhibited root cell elongation, promoted deposition of phenolics in cell walls of rhizodermis, xylem elements, and vascular parenchyma, and resulted in a higher number of cells resting in G(1) and G(2) phases in the maize (Zea mays) primary root apex. Furthermore, Spd treatment induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation as well as precocious differentiation and cell death in both early metaxylem and late metaxylem precursors. Treatment with either N-prenylagmatine, a selective inhibitor of polyamine oxidase (PAO) enzyme activity, or N,N(1)-dimethylthiourea, a hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenger, reverted Spd-induced autofluorescence intensification, DNA fragmentation, inhibition of root cell elongation, as well as reduction of percentage of nuclei in S phase. Transmission electron microscopy showed that N-prenylagmatine inhibited the differentiation of the secondary wall of early and late metaxylem elements, and xylem parenchymal cells. Moreover, although root growth and xylem differentiation in antisense PAO tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were unaltered, overexpression of maize PAO (S-ZmPAO) as well as down-regulation of the gene encoding S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase via RNAi in tobacco plants promoted vascular cell differentiation and induced programmed cell death in root cap cells. Furthermore, following Spd treatment in maize and ZmPAO overexpression in tobacco, the in vivo H(2)O(2) production was enhanced in xylem tissues. Overall, our results suggest that, after Spd supply or PAO overexpression, H(2)O(2) derived from polyamine catabolism behaves as a signal for secondary wall deposition and for induction of developmental programmed cell death.

  2. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  3. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  4. Phenotypic differentiation does not affect tumorigenicity of primary human colon cancer initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Dubash, Taronish D; Hoffmann, Christopher M; Oppel, Felix; Giessler, Klara M; Weber, Sarah; Dieter, Sebastian M; Hüllein, Jennifer; Zenz, Thorsten; Herbst, Friederike; Scholl, Claudia; Weichert, Wilko; Werft, Wiebke; Benner, Axel; Schmidt, Manfred; Schneider, Martin; Glimm, Hanno; Ball, Claudia R

    2016-02-28

    Within primary colorectal cancer (CRC) a subfraction of all tumor-initiating cells (TIC) drives long-term progression in serial xenotransplantation. It has been postulated that efficient maintenance of TIC activity in vitro requires serum-free spheroid culture conditions that support a stem-like state of CRC cells. To address whether tumorigenicity is indeed tightly linked to such a stem-like state in spheroids, we transferred TIC-enriched spheroid cultures to serum-containing adherent conditions that should favor their differentiation. Under these conditions, primary CRC cells did no longer grow as spheroids but formed an adherent cell layer, up-regulated colon epithelial differentiation markers, and down-regulated TIC-associated markers. Strikingly, upon xenotransplantation cells cultured under either condition equally efficient formed serially transplantable tumors. Clonal analyses of individual lentivirally marked TIC clones cultured under either culture condition revealed no systematic differences in contributing clone numbers, indicating that phenotypic differentiation does not select for few individual clones adapted to unfavorable culture conditions. Our results reveal that CRC TIC can be propagated under conditions previously thought to induce their elimination. This phenotypic plasticity allows addressing primary human CRC TIC properties in experimental settings based on adherent cell growth.

  5. The Uptake of Extracellular Vesicles is Affected by the Differentiation Status of Myeloid Cells.

    PubMed

    Czernek, L; Chworos, A; Duechler, M

    2015-12-01

    Intercellular communication includes the exchange of various membrane vesicles including exosomes. Exosomes are intraluminal nanovesicles generated from multivesicular bodies, a late endosomal compartment. Cancer cells release exosomes that influence their proximate and distant environment to facilitate angiogenesis, metastatic dissemination and immune escape. Cancer-derived vesicles may also trigger an anti-tumour response by transferring tumour antigens to immune cells. We wanted to investigate whether differentiation and maturation of myeloid cells changes their capacity to take up cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EV). We compared the efficiency of vesicle uptake by monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. To visualize and quantify the cellular uptake, EV were labelled with two different dyes, carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester (CFSE), or DSSN+, a water soluble distyrylstilbene oligoelectrolyte which preferentially intercalates into the cell membrane. With the help of cytokines, THP-1 monocytes were differentiated into immature or mature dendritic cells, or macrophages. EV uptake was monitored by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The results show that macrophages and mature dendritic cells acquired stronger fluorescence transferred by EV than monocytes or immature dendritic cells indicating that the differentiation status influences the efficiency of EV uptake. PMID:26332303

  6. Sexuality for the Woman with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic How the female body works sexually Cancer, sex, and sexuality When you first learned you had ... affect your sexual function. What is a normal sex life? People vary a great deal in their ...

  7. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit OPA . '); Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also called sexually ... from mother to baby during pregnancy and through breastfeeding. Expand All How do STIs affect pregnant women? ...

  8. Expression of PKC iota affects neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells at least partly independent of kinase function

    PubMed Central

    Doonachar, Alana; Schoenfeld, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical PKC (aPKC) plays a role in establishing cell polarity and has been indicated in neuronal differentiation and polarization, including neurite formation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, albeit by unclear mechanisms. Here, the role of the aPKC isoform, PKC iota (PKCι), in the early neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells was investigated. NGF-treated PC12 cells with stably expressed exogenous wild-type PKCι showed decreased expression of a neuroendocrine marker, increased expression of a neuronal marker, and increased neurite formation. Stable expression of a kinase- inactive PKCι, but not constitutively active PKCι lacking a regulatory domain, had similar although less potent effects. Pharmacological inhibition of endogenous aPKC kinase activity in parental PC12 cells did not inhibit neurite formation, suggesting that some of the observed effects of PKCι expression on neuronal differentiation are kinase- independent. Interestingly, exogenous expression of wild-type and kinase-inactive PKCι had little effect on overall PKCι activity, but caused a decrease in PKC zeta (PKCζ) kinase activity, suggesting an interplay between the two isoforms that may underlie the observed results. Overall, these findings suggest that in PC12 and perhaps other neuroendocrine precursor cells, PKCι influences an early differentiation decision between the neuroendocrine (chromaffin) and sympathetic neuron cell lineages, potentially by affecting PKCζ function. PMID:24910851

  9. An infection of human adenovirus 31 affects the differentiation of preadipocytes into fat cells, its metabolic profile and fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bil-Lula, Iwona; Krzywonos-Zawadzka, Anna; Sawicki, Grzegorz; Woźniak, Mieczysław

    2016-03-01

    The primary issue undertaken in this study was to test the hypothesis that preadipocytes would have intrinsically elevated propensity to differentiate into mature adipocytes due to HAdV31 infection. To prove that, the metabolic and molecular mechanisms responsible for HAdV31-induced adipogenesis were examined. 3T3L1 cells (mouse embryonic fibroblast, adipose like cell line) were used as a surrogate model to analyze an increased proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of preadipocytes infected with human adenovirus. An expression of E4orf1, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ, GAPDH, aP2, LEP, and fatty acid synthase genes, intracellular lipid accumulation as well as cytokine release from the fat cells were assessed. Data showed that HAdV31 increased an expression of C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ genes leading to an enhanced differentiation of preadipocytes into fat cells. Besides, overexpression of GAPDH and fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of leptin caused an increased accumulation of intracellular lipids. Secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from HAdV31-infected cells was strongly decreased, leading to unlimited virus replication. The results obtained from this study provided the evidences that HAdV31, likewise previously documented HAdV36, is a subsequent human adenovirus affecting the differentiation and lipid accumulation of 3T3L1 cells.

  10. Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+ influx

    PubMed Central

    da Conceição, Aline O.; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Barbeau, Benoit; Lafond, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of crude methanol and n-hexane extracts of Hypericum connatum (H. connatum) and Hypericum caprifoliatum on trophoblast-like cells. Methods BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast-like cells were submitted to different extract concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL) and evaluated in relation to cell viability and in vitro trophoblast differentiation and function. Cell viability was evaluated using WST-1 reagent. Differentiation was measured by luciferase production, hCG production/release, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation. The function of the trophoblast-like cells was measured by 45Ca2+ influx evaluation. Results The results showed a decrease in cell viability/proliferation. Both plants and different extracts induced a significant decrease in hCG production/release and luciferase production. H. connatum did not cause mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway disturbance; however, Hypericum caprifoliatum n-hexane extract at 15 µg/mL inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation. The significant increase in Ca2+ influx by JEG-3 cells was seen after short and long incubation times with H. connatum methanolic extract at 15 µg/mL. Conclusions The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+ influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants. PMID:25182721

  11. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, noninvasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50 mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat. PMID:23500335

  12. Pattern of gonadal differentiation and development up to sexual maturity in the frogs, Microhyla ornata and Hylarana malabarica: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mali, Prajakta Vijay; Gramapurohit, Narahari Prabhakar

    2015-11-01

    Gonadogenesis was studied in Microhyla ornata (Family: Microhylidae) and Hylarana malabarica (Family: Ranidae) up to sexual maturity. Indifferent gonads of M. ornata directly differentiated into either testes or ovaries while those of H. malabarica differentiated into ovaries in all the individuals followed by testicular differentiation in males through an ovarian phase. In some tadpoles of M. ornata, formation of a central cavity at Gosner stage 27 marked ovary differentiation while meiosis was initiated at stage 29. Folliculogenesis was evident at stage 39. Vitellogenesis was initiated in females 9 months post-metamorphosis that attained maturity around 11 months after the completion of metamorphosis. Gonads of males with uniformly distributed germ and somatic cells remained undifferentiated until stage 41. Germ and somatic cells reorganized into seminiferous cords at stage 42. One month after completing metamorphosis, testes contained seminiferous tubules while those of 3 months old males exhibited all spermatogenic stages. In H. malabarica, germ cells entry into meiosis marked ovary differentiation at stage 29 while, ovarian cavity was discernable around stage 35. Post-metamorphosis, ovaries of 1-6 month old females contained pre-diplotene oocytes. Females were immature even 1 year after the completion of metamorphosis. In all the tadpoles, ovaries with central cavity and meiocytes were present up to the completion of metamorphosis. Gonads of prospective males displayed an obliterating ovarian cavity along with degenerating oocytes at the end of metamorphosis. Germ and somatic cells reorganized into seminiferous cords in males 3 months after the completion of metamorphosis. Testes of 4 months old males exhibited distinct seminiferous tubules while those of 6 months old exhibited meiosis. All spermatogenic stages were observed in testes of 9 months old males indicating maturity.

  13. Expression profiling of muscle reveals transcripts differentially expressed in muscle that affect water-holding capacity of pork.

    PubMed

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Murani, Eduard; Phatsara, Chirawath; Jonas, Elisabeth; Walz, Christina; Schwerin, Manfred; Schellander, Karl; Wimmers, Klaus

    2008-11-12

    To identify biological processes as well as molecular markers for drip loss, a parameter for water holding capacity of meat, the M. longissimus dorsi transcriptomes of six divergent sib pairs were analyzed using Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array. Functional categories of differentially regulated transcripts were determined by single-gene analysis and gene set analysis. The transcripts being up-regulated at high drip loss belong to groups of genes functionally categorized as genes of membrane proteins, signal transduction, cell communication, response to stimulus, and cytoskeleton. Among genes down-regulated with high drip loss, functional groups of oxidoreductase activity, lipid metabolism, and electron transport were identified. Differential regulation of the abundance of transcripts of these biological networks in live muscle affect mortem biochemical processes of meat maturation. Knowledge of this functional link is indicative for the identification of candidate genes for improvement of meat quality. PMID:18922009

  14. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  15. Visual information and rubber hand embodiment differentially affect reach-to-grasp actions.

    PubMed

    Heed, Tobias; Gründler, Michael; Rinkleib, Jennifer; Rudzik, Franziska H; Collins, Thérèse; Cooke, Edward; O'Regan, J Kevin

    2011-09-01

    During the "rubber hand illusion" (RHI) participants feel touch originating from an artificial hand, which is felt to belong to the own body. The perceived location of the real hand is shifted towards the location of the artificial hand. However, evidence as to whether the RHI is accompanied by alterations of hand action is mixed. We found that the perceived size of one's own hand was affected by the size of the artificial hand that was used to elicit the illusion. Moreover, we tested a possible transfer of the RHI to a reach-to-grasp action. We observed that hand transport (i.e., reach) errors after RHI induction were independent of artificial hand size, showing that the parameter which is important for these reaching errors is the hand's perceived location. Results thus show that the RHI affects not only perceptual, but also action processing. In contrast, grip aperture was affected by artificial hand size independent of the RHI, suggesting that visual information about hand size affects grasping independent of embodiment of the artificial hand. Grip size increased with artificial hand size; this effect is explained by a higher reliance on proprioceptive information during blind reaching after receiving distorted visual information.

  16. Differential Effects of Cognitive, Affective, and Proprioceptive Instructional Approaches on Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Ula Price; Manzo, Anthony V.

    The effectiveness of three instructional approaches was investigated in a study of how best to facilitate vocabulary acquisition. The three approaches were (1) the cognitive approach, a method employing dictionary worksheets and patterned after the most commonly used method of teaching vocabulary; (2) the affective approach, which urged students…

  17. The Differential Effects of Labelling: How Do "Dyslexia" and "Reading Difficulties" Affect Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Simon; Elliott, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a survey of primary school teachers' beliefs about working with poor readers. The primary research question was "does the way difficulties with reading are labelled affect the teachers' beliefs about their ability to intervene effectively?" An opportunity sample of teachers was surveyed using 2 questionnaires. One…

  18. Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.

    PubMed

    Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-03-01

    Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p<0.01), with negative estimated values (β coefficients) indicating that during cold storage conditions, the concentrations of these carotenoids tended to decrease. In cv. Nanicão, no carotenoid was significantly affected by cold storage (p>0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05).

  19. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily. PMID:27237783

  20. Mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke affect the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells discriminately.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-16

    Epidemiology studies suggest that maternal smoking and passive smoking have strongly resulted in the occurrence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in offspring. Cigarette smoke (CS) can be divided into mainstream smoke (MS) and sidestream smoke (SS); CS chemistry study indicates that significant differences exist in the composition of MS and SS. Therefore, MS and SS were suspected to process toxicity dissimilarly. However, much less was known about the difference in the developmental effects induced by MS and SS. In the current study, heart development was mimicked by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation. After MS and SS exposure, by tracing the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-Smad4 signalling pathway, interruption of downstream gene expression was observed, including Gata4, Mef2c and Nkx2.5, as well as myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. Specifically, SS caused inhibition of Gata4 expression, even at non-cytotoxic concentration. Further, SS-induced hypoacetylation in promoter regions of Gata4 reflected the orchestration of CS-gene modulation-epigenetic regulation. Even though SS induced apoptosis in ESC-derived cardiomyocytes, the partial clearance in cells with down-regulated Gata4 caused these cells to survive and undergo further differentiation, which laid potential risk for abnormal heart development. These data uncovered the difference between MS and SS on heart development preliminarily.

  1. Glucosylceramide synthesis inhibition affects cell cycle progression, membrane trafficking, and stage differentiation in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Stefanić, Sasa; Spycher, Cornelia; Morf, Laura; Fabriàs, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Schraner, Elisabeth; Wild, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B; Sonda, Sabrina

    2010-09-01

    Synthesis of glucosylceramide via glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) is a crucial event in higher eukaryotes, both for the production of complex glycosphingolipids and for regulating cellular levels of ceramide, a potent antiproliferative second messenger. In this study, we explored the dependence of the early branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia on GCS activity. Biochemical analyses revealed that the parasite has a GCS located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes that is active in proliferating and encysting trophozoites. Pharmacological inhibition of GCS induced aberrant cell division, characterized by arrest of cytokinesis, incomplete cleavage furrow formation, and consequent block of replication. Importantly, we showed that increased ceramide levels were responsible for the cytokinesis arrest. In addition, GCS inhibition resulted in prominent ultrastructural abnormalities, including accumulation of cytosolic vesicles, enlarged lysosomes, and clathrin disorganization. Moreover, anterograde trafficking of the encystations-specific protein CWP1 was severely compromised and resulted in inhibition of stage differentiation. Our results reveal novel aspects of lipid metabolism in G. lamblia and specifically highlight the vital role of GCS in regulating cell cycle progression, membrane trafficking events, and stage differentiation in this parasite. In addition, we identified ceramide as a potent bioactive molecule, underscoring the universal conservation of ceramide signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:20335568

  2. Thermal conditions experienced during differentiation affect metabolic and contractile phenotypes of mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Little, Alex G; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Central pathways regulate metabolic responses to cold in endotherms to maintain relatively stable internal core body temperatures. However, peripheral muscles routinely experience temperatures lower than core body temperature, so that it would be advantageous for peripheral tissues to respond to temperature changes independently from core body temperature regulation. Early developmental conditions can influence offspring phenotypes, and here we tested whether developing muscle can compensate locally for the effects of cold exposure independently from central regulation. Muscle myotubes originate from undifferentiated myoblasts that are laid down during embryogenesis. We show that in a murine myoblast cell line (C2C12), cold exposure (32°C) increased myoblast metabolic flux compared with 37°C control conditions. Importantly, myotubes that differentiated at 32°C compensated for the thermodynamic effects of low temperature by increasing metabolic rates, ATP production, and glycolytic flux. Myotube responses were also modulated by the temperatures experienced by "parent" myoblasts. Myotubes that differentiated under cold exposure increased activity of the AMP-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK), which may mediate metabolic changes in response cold exposure. Moreover, cold exposure shifted myosin heavy chains from slow to fast, presumably to overcome slower contractile speeds resulting from low temperatures. Adjusting thermal sensitivities locally in peripheral tissues complements central thermoregulation and permits animals to maintain function in cold environments. Muscle also plays a major metabolic role in adults, so that developmental responses to cold are likely to influence energy expenditure later in life. PMID:27385733

  3. Early Life Stage Exposure to BDE-47 Causes Adverse Effects on Reproductive Success and Sexual Differentiation in Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Thornton, Leah M; Path, Elise M; Nystrom, Gunnar S; Venables, Barney J; Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K

    2016-07-19

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a compound manufactured for use as a flame retardant, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and suspected endocrine disruptor. Though several studies have explored the reproductive effects of BDE-47 in adult fish, there is a paucity of data regarding the reproductive effects of early life stage exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the reproductive effects of early life stage BDE-47 exposure in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). To achieve this, minnows were exposed to either a low (57.68 μg BDE-47/g Artemia) or high (392.59 μg BDE-47/g Artemia) dose of BDE-47 from fertilization to 34 days postfertilization (dpf) via a combination of maternal transfer and dietary exposure. Larvae were then raised on a clean diet until sexual maturity (∼184 dpf) when reproductive function was evaluated using a 21 day breeding study. Fish exposed to BDE-47 had significantly reduced clutch size and fecundity relative to controls. BDE-47 exposed groups also had female-biased sex ratios and exposed males had fewer tubercles. Overall, this study demonstrates that exposure to BDE-47 during early life stages can alter both sexual differentiation and reproductive function. PMID:27326452

  4. Sex Role Socialization Via Teachers' Behavior and Sexually Stereotyped Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Sara E.; And Others

    Research has shown that children's differentiation of gender-appropriate behavior is not directly affected by their teacher's gender. However, the teacher's behavior in relation to the material being taught may convey the sex-appropriateness or -inappropriateness to the child. To examine the effects of student gender and sexual stereotype of the…

  5. Lesions to the medial preoptic nucleus differentially affect singing and nest box-directed behaviors within and outside of the breeding season in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Alger, Sarah J; Riters, Lauren V

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about how the brain regulates context-appropriate communication. European starlings produce song in various social contexts. During the breeding season, males with nest sites sing high levels of sexually motivated song in response to a female. Outside of this context, song rates are not affected by female presence. The medial preoptic nucleus (POM) regulates male sexual behavior, and studies in songbirds implicate the POM in sexually motivated song. Recent data suggest that the role of the POM might extend to song produced in other contexts as well. To examine this possibility, effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the POM on singing and other behaviors in adult male starlings within sexually relevant and nonsexual contexts were studied. Lesions to the POM exclusively reduced song and nest box-directed behaviors within highly sexually relevant contexts. Unexpectedly, POM lesions increased song in a nonsexual context, suggesting an inhibitory role for the POM in this context. These data suggest that the POM interacts with the song control system so that song occurs in an appropriate social context in response to appropriate stimuli. PMID:17201478

  6. Different profiles of acute stress disorder differentially predict posttraumatic stress disorder in a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip; Elklit, Ask

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to test the dimensional structure of acute stress disorder (ASD). Latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (Bryant, Moulds, & Guthrie, 2000) using a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma. Four distinct classes were found. Two of the classes represented high and low levels of ASD, and the high ASD class was associated with a high probability of subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were 2 intermediate classes that were differentiated by the number of arousal symptoms, and the class with high levels of arousal symptoms had a higher risk of PTSD. The results suggested that ASD is best described by qualitatively and quantitatively differing subgroups in this sample, whereas previous research has assumed ASD to be dimensional. This may explain the limited success of using ASD to predict subsequent PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Influence of the brain sexual differentiation process on despair and antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine in the rat forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M L; Martínez-Mota, L; Estrada-Camarena, E; Fernández-Guasti, A

    2014-03-01

    Sex differences exist in the depressive disorder prevalence and response to treatment. Several studies suggest that females respond better than males to the action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), suggesting that gonadal hormones modulate mood and the response to these drugs. Sexual steroid hormones exert organizational actions (perennial and on early development) and activational effects (transient and on differentiated tissues). The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the forced swim test (FST) in animals without treatment and after fluoxetine (FLX, 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg). Initially, we compared male and female adult rats under control conditions or after altering their sexual differentiation process (at day 5 postnatally, PN, 60μg of testosterone propionate to females and male castration to induce or preclude masculinization, respectively). To further analyze if the sex differences depend on organizational or activational steroid hormone action we tested the same animals before and after adult gonadectomy. To prevent variations depending upon the estrous cycle, control and masculinized females were tested in estrus. Control females showed lower immobility and required lower doses of FLX (5mg/kg), to show an antidepressant-like effect, than males (10mg/kg), even after adult gonadectomy. In control males adult orchidectomy prevented FLX's action. Neonatally masculinized females exhibited analogous levels of immobility than control ones; before ovariectomy they responded to FLX similar to controls, but after the surgery they did not respond to fluoxetine. Neonatally orchidectomized males exhibited similar immobility values and response to FLX than control females. The findings suggest that the sex difference in despair depends on the hormones organizational effects and, in males, the response to FLX relies on organizational and activational actions.

  8. α-Tocopheryl Succinate Affects Malignant Cell Viability, Proliferation, and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Savitskaya, M A; Onischenko, G E

    2016-08-01

    The widespread occurrence of malignant tumors motivates great attention to finding and investigating effective new antitumor preparations. Such preparations include compounds of the vitamin E family. Among them, α-tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E succinate (VES)) has the most pronounced antitumor properties. In this review, various targets and mechanisms of the antitumor effect of vitamin E succinate are characterized. It has been shown that VES has multiple intracellular targets and effects, and as a result VES is able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, inhibit their proliferation, induce differentiation, prevent metastasizing, and inhibit angiogenesis. However, VES has minimal effects on normal cells and tissues. Due to the variety of targets and selectivity of action, VES is a promising agent against malignant neoplasms. More detailed studies in this area can contribute to development of effective and safe chemotherapeutic preparations.

  9. α-Tocopheryl Succinate Affects Malignant Cell Viability, Proliferation, and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Savitskaya, M A; Onischenko, G E

    2016-08-01

    The widespread occurrence of malignant tumors motivates great attention to finding and investigating effective new antitumor preparations. Such preparations include compounds of the vitamin E family. Among them, α-tocopheryl succinate (vitamin E succinate (VES)) has the most pronounced antitumor properties. In this review, various targets and mechanisms of the antitumor effect of vitamin E succinate are characterized. It has been shown that VES has multiple intracellular targets and effects, and as a result VES is able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, inhibit their proliferation, induce differentiation, prevent metastasizing, and inhibit angiogenesis. However, VES has minimal effects on normal cells and tissues. Due to the variety of targets and selectivity of action, VES is a promising agent against malignant neoplasms. More detailed studies in this area can contribute to development of effective and safe chemotherapeutic preparations. PMID:27677550

  10. Central gray modulation of affective defense is differentially sensitive to naloxone.

    PubMed

    Pott, C B; Kramer, S Z; Siegel, A

    1987-01-01

    Specific areas of feline central gray (CG) modulate affective aggression elicited by hypothalamic stimulation and produce analgesia, possibly mediated by enkephalins. Despite correlations between opiates and aggressive behavior suggested previously, their relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. The goal of this study was to examine the possible role of endogenous opiate mechanisms in CG modulation of affective aggression. Electrodes were placed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VM) which, when stimulated, elicited affective attack. Control latency to VM-elicited hiss was established. CG cannula-electrodes were then implanted. Response modulation was determined by dual stimulation of CG and VM electrodes, alternated with VM stimulation alone. Naloxone was introduced through the CG electrodes and VM-elicited hiss latency was again determined, followed by paired trials of dual and single stimulation. Six ventral facilitatory and eight dorsal inhibitory sites were identified. Naloxone had no effect on CG facilitation but completely blocked CG inhibition of VM-elicited hissing. In support of these findings, it was observed that D-A1A2-MET5-enkephalin injected directly into CG-inhibitory sites suppressed VM-elicited hissing. These results demonstrate that opiate mechanisms are operative in the inhibitory modulation of intra-specific aggression. PMID:3628530

  11. Uncovering Sexual Problems

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, May

    1977-01-01

    While patients frequently make it difficult for us to uncover their sexual concerns, a much greater difficulty is due to physicians' unwillingness to deal with this subject. Physicians need to acquire basic knowledge about human sexuality as well as skills in making patients feel comfortable and open. A non-judgmental attitude is essential. The physician will also be able to anticipate and prevent sexual distress by education. Expertise must be developed in differentiating those problems requiring referral for specialized sexual counselling from those which the family physician can handle. PMID:21304865

  12. How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools.

    PubMed

    Nleya, Paul T; Segale, Emelda

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on the aspects of a Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoE & SD) HIV/AIDS Instructional Television (ITV) project modeled on a similar HIV/AIDS program implemented in Brazil. This Teacher Capacity Building Project (TCBP) in Botswana is in its initial years of implementation. Its overall goal is to contribute to the prevention and mitigation of the impact of HIV and AIDS by strengthening the capacity of the education and communication sectors to deliver interactive, distance HIV/AIDS education primarily to teachers so that they act as agents of behavior change among the in-school youth. One of the components of the TCBP program is a live teacher education television HIV/AIDS program called Talk Back program. Talk Back is a collaborative effort of the MoE & SD and the Botswana national television station. The Talk Back program involves development and implementation of weekly 1 hour live HIV/AIDS education interactive TV broadcasts for teachers. The development of the live programs is guided by a curriculum that provides a wide range of themes related to HIV/AIDS and education. This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers' and adolescents' sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers and students and thus make it difficult for the Talk Back program to impart

  13. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  14. A Mutation in an Hsp90 Gene Affects the Sexual Cycle and Suppresses Vegetative Incompatibility in the Fungus Podospora Anserina

    PubMed Central

    Loubradou, G.; Begueret, J.; Turcq, B.

    1997-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility is widespread in fungi but its molecular mechanism and biological function are still poorly understood. A way to study vegetative incompatibility is to investigate the function of genes whose mutations suppress this phenomenon. In Podospora anserina, these genes are known as mod genes. In addition to suppressing vegetative incompatibility, mod mutations cause some developmental defects. This suggests that the molecular mechanisms of vegetative incompatibility and development pathways are interconnected. The mod-E1 mutation was isolated as a suppressor of the developmental defects of the mod-D2 strain. We show here that mod-E1 also partially suppresses vegetative incompatibility, strengthening the link between development and vegetative incompatibility. mod-E1 is the first suppressor of vegetative incompatibility characterized at the molecular level. It encodes a member of the Hsp90 family, suggesting that development and vegetative incompatibility use common steps of a signal transduction pathway. The involvement of mod-E in the sexual cycle has also been further investigated. PMID:9335595

  15. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  16. Drugs and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed. PMID:23457886

  17. Social isolation differentially affects anxiety and depressive-like responses of bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Linge, Raquel; Pazos, Ángel; Díaz, Álvaro

    2013-05-15

    Social isolation in rodents may interfere in their behavioural responses on paradigms used to test anxiety- and depressive-like states. Herein we study the influence of social isolation upon the behavioural responses of olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX). In the open-field test (OFT), social isolation enhanced OBX-induced hyperactivity and exploratory behaviour. However, OBX-induced anxiety in the OFT (central activity) was less apparent after isolation, due to the increased level of anxiety showed by the sham-isolated counterparts. In the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF), isolation derived in an increased latency to feeding of both OBX and sham mice. The isolation did not affect the response of OBX mice and sham mice in the forced-swimming test (FST). Interestingly, OBX animals exhibited an increased immobility time during the FST, though a dramatic decrease in the climbing scores. Finally, OBX-induced anhedonia in the sucrose intake test was not affected by housing conditions. Our findings demonstrate that social isolation influences the performance of OBX mice in some behavioural paradigms, thus facilitating the characterization of depressive-like states, and by contrast, hindering anxiety-related behaviours. This fact should be taken into account in order to minimize economical and time-consuming efforts when assessing potential antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.

  18. Social isolation differentially affects anxiety and depressive-like responses of bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Linge, Raquel; Pazos, Ángel; Díaz, Álvaro

    2013-05-15

    Social isolation in rodents may interfere in their behavioural responses on paradigms used to test anxiety- and depressive-like states. Herein we study the influence of social isolation upon the behavioural responses of olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX). In the open-field test (OFT), social isolation enhanced OBX-induced hyperactivity and exploratory behaviour. However, OBX-induced anxiety in the OFT (central activity) was less apparent after isolation, due to the increased level of anxiety showed by the sham-isolated counterparts. In the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF), isolation derived in an increased latency to feeding of both OBX and sham mice. The isolation did not affect the response of OBX mice and sham mice in the forced-swimming test (FST). Interestingly, OBX animals exhibited an increased immobility time during the FST, though a dramatic decrease in the climbing scores. Finally, OBX-induced anhedonia in the sucrose intake test was not affected by housing conditions. Our findings demonstrate that social isolation influences the performance of OBX mice in some behavioural paradigms, thus facilitating the characterization of depressive-like states, and by contrast, hindering anxiety-related behaviours. This fact should be taken into account in order to minimize economical and time-consuming efforts when assessing potential antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. PMID:23416113

  19. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease.

    PubMed

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L; Brull, Astrid; Andreu, Antoni L; Vissing, John

    2016-05-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray, variations in fiber size, vacuoles, and some internal nuclei associated with cytosolic glycogen accumulation and ongoing regeneration; structural damage was seen only in a minority of human patients. Neither liver nor brain isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase were upregulated in muscles, thus providing no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus, despite differences, the mouse model of McArdle disease shares fundamental physiological and clinical features with the human disease and could be used for studies of pathogenesis and development of therapies. PMID:27030740

  1. Nicotinic Partial Agonists Varenicline and Sazetidine-A Have Differential Effects on Affective Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jill R.; Castellano, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in affective disorders; therefore, the potential therapeutic value of nicotinic partial agonists as treatments of these disorders is of growing interest. This study evaluated the effects of acute and chronic administration of nicotine and the α4β2 nicotinic partial agonists varenicline and sazetidine-A in mouse models of anxiety and depression. Acutely, only nicotine and varenicline had anxiolytic effects in the marble-burying test and in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test. In contrast, in animal models of antidepressant efficacy, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension test, only acute sazetidine-A had significant antidepressant-like effects. The NIH test provides an anxiety-related measure that is sensitive to the effects of chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment. Chronic nicotine and chronic sazetidine-A treatment were effective in this paradigm, but varenicline was ineffective. These results suggest that the partial agonists varenicline and sazetidine-A may have diverse therapeutic benefits in affective disorders. PMID:20435920

  2. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  3. Environmental phosphate differentially affects virulence phenotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates causative of prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Grillo-Puertas, M; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Rintoul, M R; Soto, S M; Rapisarda, V A

    2015-01-01

    K-12 Escherichia coli cells grown in static media containing a critical phosphate (Pi) concentration ≥25 mM maintained a high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase, impairing biofilm formation, a phenomenon that is triggered by polyP degradation. Pi concentration in human urine fluctuates according to health state. Here, the influence of environmental Pi concentration on the occurrence of virulence traits in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from acute prostatitis patients was evaluated. After a first screening, 3 isolates were selected according to differential biofilm formation profiles depending on media Pi concentration. For each isolate, biofilm positive and negative conditions were established. Regardless of the isolate, biofilm formation capacity was accompanied with curli and cellulose production and expression of some key virulence factors associated with adhesion. When the selected isolates were grown in their non-biofilm-forming condition, low concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin induced biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar to laboratory strains, polyP degradation induced biofilm formation in the selected isolates. Data demonstrated the complexity of UPEC responses to environmental Pi and the importance of polyP metabolism in the virulence of clinical isolates. PMID:26083279

  4. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type.

  5. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin(-/-) mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7(+) muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  6. Environmental phosphate differentially affects virulence phenotypes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates causative of prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Grillo-Puertas, M; Martínez-Zamora, MG; Rintoul, MR; Soto, SM; Rapisarda, VA

    2015-01-01

    K-12 Escherichia coli cells grown in static media containing a critical phosphate (Pi) concentration ≥25 mM maintained a high polyphosphate (polyP) level in stationary phase, impairing biofilm formation, a phenomenon that is triggered by polyP degradation. Pi concentration in human urine fluctuates according to health state. Here, the influence of environmental Pi concentration on the occurrence of virulence traits in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from acute prostatitis patients was evaluated. After a first screening, 3 isolates were selected according to differential biofilm formation profiles depending on media Pi concentration. For each isolate, biofilm positive and negative conditions were established. Regardless of the isolate, biofilm formation capacity was accompanied with curli and cellulose production and expression of some key virulence factors associated with adhesion. When the selected isolates were grown in their non-biofilm-forming condition, low concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin induced biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar to laboratory strains, polyP degradation induced biofilm formation in the selected isolates. Data demonstrated the complexity of UPEC responses to environmental Pi and the importance of polyP metabolism in the virulence of clinical isolates. PMID:26083279

  7. Pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and opioids have differential effects on sexually motivated song in male European starlings.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Molly B; Riters, Lauren V

    2006-07-30

    Vocal communication is common among social vertebrates, though little is known about the neural mechanisms regulating the motivation to communicate. This study examined a possible role for dopamine and opioids in sexually motivated song in male European starlings. The dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12909 increased singing behavior, whereas the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 decreased song, suggesting a role for dopamine in the motivation to sing. In contrast, the opioid agonist fentanyl decreased song, and the antagonist naloxone has previously been shown to increase song, findings consistent with a role for opioids in reward associated with song production. These results suggest that dopamine and opioids play opposing roles in the regulation of the motivation to communicate. PMID:16784760

  8. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect two nondeclarative memory tasks in schizophrenic patients: a double dissociation.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Richard J; Wasserman, James; Zanibbi, Katherine; Charbonneau, Danielle; Mangels, Jennifer; Beninger, Bruce V

    2003-06-01

    Nondeclarative memory (NDM) has subtypes associated with different brain regions; learning of a probabilistic classification task is impaired by striatal damage and learning of a gambling task is impaired by ventromedial prefrontocortical damage. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect immediate early gene expression in the striatum and frontal cortex in normal rats. This suggested the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics will have impaired probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and that similar patients treated with atypical antipsychotics will have impaired learning of the gambling task. Groups of schizophrenia patients treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics did not differ from each other on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) or a number of indexes of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) but performed worse than normal controls on these instruments. In the first study, patients treated with typicals (n=20) but not atypicals (n=20) or normal controls (n=32) were impaired in probabilistic classification. In the second study, those treated with atypicals (n=18) but not typicals (n=18) or normal controls (n=18) were impaired in the gambling task. Results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics differentially affect nondeclarative memory mediated by different brain regions. PMID:12729880

  9. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  10. Sexual difference in juvenile-hormone titer in workers leads to sex-biased soldier differentiation in termites.

    PubMed

    Toga, Kouhei; Hanmoto, Shutaro; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Dai; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female medium and female major workers, and presoldiers differentiate from male minor workers. First, we tried to artificially induce presoldiers from male and female workers. In N. takasagoensis, the presoldier differentiation rate and mortality was significantly higher in male minor workers. Morphological analyses showed that both male and female induced presoldiers possessed normal soldier-specific morphologies. It was suggested that female workers, from which soldiers do not differentiate under natural conditions, also maintained the physiological and developmental potential for soldier differentiation. In R. speratus, however, no differences were observed in solder differentiation rate and mortality between male and female workers. Second, the JH titers of each sex/type of workers were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in two different seasons (April and December). The results showed that, in N. takasagoensis, JH titer in male minor

  11. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  12. Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  13. Daytime and nighttime wind differentially affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-05-01

    This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response. PMID:26541407

  14. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds. PMID:27344162

  15. An invader differentially affects leaf physiology of two natives across a gradient in diversity.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, Pamela; Maron, John; Marler, Marilyn

    2008-05-01

    Little is known about how exotics influence the ecophysiology of co-occurring native plants or how invader impact on plant physiology may be mediated by community diversity or resource levels. We measured the effect of the widespread invasive forb spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on leaf traits (leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen percentage, leaf C:N ratios, and delta13C as a proxy for water use efficiency) of two co-occurring native perennial grassland species, Monarda fistulosa (bee balm) and Koeleria macrantha (Junegrass). The impact of spotted knapweed was assessed across plots that varied in functional diversity and that either experienced ambient rainfall or received supplemental water. Impact was determined by comparing leaf traits between identical knapweed-invaded and noninvaded assemblages. Virtually all M. fistulosa leaf traits were affected by spotted knapweed. Knapweed impact, however, did not scale with its abundance; the impact of knapweed on M. fistulosa was similar across heavily invaded low-diversity assemblages and lightly invaded high-diversity assemblages. In uninvaded assemblages, M. fistulosa delta13C, leaf nitrogen, and C:N ratios were unaffected by native functional group richness, whereas leaf dry matter content significantly increased and specific leaf area significantly decreased across the diversity gradient. The effects of spotted knapweed on K. macrantha were weak; instead native functional group richness strongly affected K. macrantha leaf C:N ratio, delta13C, and specific leaf area, but not leaf dry matter content. Leaf traits for both species changed in response to spotted knapweed or functional richness, and in a manner that may promote slower biomass accumulation and efficient conservation of resources. Taken together, our results show that an invader can alter native plant physiology, but that these effects are not a simple function of how many invaders exist in the community.

  16. Research on the affect of differential-images technique to the resolution of infrared spatial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guang; An, Yuan; Qi, Yingchun; Hu, Fusheng

    2007-12-01

    The optical system of infrared spatial camera adopts bigger relative aperture and bigger pixel size on focal plane element. These make the system have bulky volume and low resolution. The potential of the optical systems can not be exerted adequately. So, one method for improving resolution of infrared spatial camera based on multi-frame difference-images is introduced in the dissertation. The method uses more than one detectors to acquire several difference images, and then reconstructs a new high-resolution image from these images through the relationship of pixel grey value. The technique of difference-images that uses more than two detectors is researched, and it can improve the resolution 2.5 times in theory. The relationship of pixel grey value between low-resolution difference-images and high-resolution image is found by analyzing the energy of CCD sampling, a general relationship between the enhanced times of the resolution of the detected figure with differential method and the least count of CCD that will be used to detect figure is given. Based on the research of theory, the implementation process of utilizing difference-images technique to improve the resolution of the figure was simulated used Matlab software by taking a personality image as the object, and the software can output the result as an image. The result gotten from the works we have finished proves that the technique is available in high-resolution image reconstruction. The resolution of infrared spatial camera can be improved evidently when holding the size of optical structure or using big size detector by applying for difference image technique. So the technique has a high value in optical remote fields.

  17. Histaminergic ligands injected into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis differentially affect fear conditioning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado; Blandina, Patrizio; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2013-04-01

    The role of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in fear conditioning encoding is well established. In the present report, we investigate the involvement of the NBM histaminergic system in consolidating fear memories. The NBM was injected bilaterally with ligands of histaminergic receptors immediately after contextual fear conditioning. Histaminergic compounds, either alone or in combination, were stereotaxically administered to different groups of adult male Wistar rats and memory was assessed as conditioned freezing duration 72 h after administration. This protocol prevents interference with NBM function during either acquisition or retrieval phases, hence restricting the effect of pharmacological manipulations to fear memory consolidation. The results presented here demonstrate that post-training H3 receptors (H3R) blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist thioperamide or activation with immepip in the NBM potentiates or decreases, respectively, freezing response at retrieval. Thioperamide induced memory enhancement seems to depend on H2R, but not H1R activation, as the H2R antagonist zolantidine blocked the effect of thioperamide, whereas the H1R antagonist pyrilamine was ineffective. Furthermore, the H2R agonist ampthamine improved fear memory expression independently of the H3R agonist effect. Our results indicate that activation of post-synaptic H2R within the NBM by endogenous histamine is responsible for the potentiated expression of fear responses. The results are discussed in terms of activation of H3 auto- and heteroreceptors within the NBM and the differential effect of H3R ligands on fear memory consolidation in distinct brain regions.

  18. Consumption of different soymilk formulations differentially affects the gut microbiomes of overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Raudales, Dina; Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Bringe, Neal A; Cox, Stephen B; Dowd, Scot E; Miller, Michael J; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of consuming foods on the intestinal microbiome of obese individuals remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of consuming low glycinin soymilk (LGS, 49.5% β-conglycinin/6% glycinin), conventional soymilk (S, 26.5% β-conglycinin/38.7% glycinin) or bovine milk (M, 0% β-conglycinin/0% glycinin) on the intestinal microbiome in overweight and obese men. In a randomized double-blind study, participants (64 men, BMI > 25, 20-45 y old), organized in three groups, consumed 500 mL of LGS, S or M daily for 3 mo. Three fecal samples were collected before (baseline) and after 3 mo of consumption. Dietary energy and macronutrient intake were monitored monthly and remained constant throughout the study (p > 0.05). Microbial composition was analyzed with qPCR and bTEFAP. Within groups, qPCR analysis showed that the total bacteria increased in all treatments over time (p < 0.001). Bacteroides-Prevotella (p = 0.001) and Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) increased in LGS and M, respectively. Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in LGS (p = 0.003) and S (p < 0.001). Bacterial diversity decreased for LGS, S and M (p = 0.004, 0.005, 0.001; respectively). Unweighted UniFrac analysis revealed that the microbial communities were more similar within than between individuals. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio decreased in both LGS and S groups and remained relatively unchanged in the M group (Time p = 0.012; Interaction p = 0.059). Indicator analysis revealed several genera that were indicative of each treatment including Lactobacillus and Prevotella. Consumption of the three beverages differentially altered the microbiota in overweight and obese men including a potentially beneficial alteration of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in both soymilk groups.

  19. Spatial memory extinction differentially affects dorsal and ventral hippocampal metabolic activity and associated functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; González-Pardo, Héctor; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L; Conejo, Nélida M

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies showed the involvement of brain regions associated with both spatial learning and associative learning in spatial memory extinction, although the specific role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and the extended hippocampal system including the mammillary body in the process is still controversial. The present study aimed to identify the involvement of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, together with cortical regions, the amygdaloid nuclei, and the mammillary bodies in the extinction of a spatial memory task. To address these issues, quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied as a metabolic brain mapping method. Rats were trained in a reference memory task using the Morris water maze, followed by an extinction procedure of the previously acquired memory task. Results show that rats learned successfully the spatial memory task as shown by the progressive decrease in measured latencies to reach the escape platform and the results obtained in the probe test. Spatial memory was subsequently extinguished as shown by the descending preference for the previously reinforced location. A control naïve group was added to ensure that brain metabolic changes were specifically related with performance in the spatial memory extinction task. Extinction of the original spatial learning task significantly modified the metabolic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the amygdala and the mammillary bodies. Moreover, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral mammillary body and the retrosplenial cortex were differentially recruited in the spatial memory extinction task, as shown by group differences in brain metabolic networks. These findings provide new insights on the brain regions and functional brain networks underlying spatial memory, and specifically spatial memory extinction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Postnatal Hyperoxia Exposure Differentially Affects Hepatocytes and Liver Haemopoietic Cells in Newborn Rats

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; Di Valerio, Valentina; Rapino, Monica; Zaramella, Patrizia; Dedja, Arben; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Porzionato, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Premature newborns are frequently exposed to hyperoxic conditions and experimental data indicate modulation of liver metabolism by hyperoxia in the first postnatal period. Conversely, nothing is known about possible modulation of growth factors and signaling molecules involved in other hyperoxic responses and no data are available about the effects of hyperoxia in postnatal liver haematopoiesis. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of hyperoxia in the liver tissue (hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells) and to investigate possible changes in the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB). Experimental design of the study involved exposure of newborn rats to room air (controls), 60% O2 (moderate hyperoxia), or 95% O2 (severe hyperoxia) for the first two postnatal weeks. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed. Severe hyperoxia increased hepatocyte apoptosis and MMP-9 expression and decreased VEGF expression. Reduced content in reticular fibers was found in moderate and severe hyperoxia. Some other changes were specifically produced in hepatocytes by moderate hyperoxia, i.e., upregulation of HIF-1α and downregulation of eNOS and NF-kB. Postnatal severe hyperoxia exposure increased liver haemopoiesis and upregulated the expression of VEGF (both moderate and severe hyperoxia) and eNOS (severe hyperoxia) in haemopoietic cells. In conclusion, our study showed different effects of hyperoxia on hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells and differential involvement of the above factors. The involvement of VEGF and eNOS in the liver haemopoietic response to hyperoxia may be hypothesized. PMID:25115881

  1. ORM Expression Alters Sphingolipid Homeostasis and Differentially Affects Ceramide Synthase Activity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, Athen N.; Chen, Ming; Dunn, Teresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipid synthesis is tightly regulated in eukaryotes. This regulation in plants ensures sufficient sphingolipids to support growth while limiting the accumulation of sphingolipid metabolites that induce programmed cell death. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is considered the primary sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory point. In this report, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative SPT regulatory proteins, orosomucoid-like proteins AtORM1 and AtORM2, were found to interact physically with Arabidopsis SPT and to suppress SPT activity when coexpressed with Arabidopsis SPT subunits long-chain base1 (LCB1) and LCB2 and the small subunit of SPT in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SPT-deficient mutant. Consistent with a role in SPT suppression, AtORM1 and AtORM2 overexpression lines displayed increased resistance to the programmed cell death-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1, with an accompanying reduced accumulation of LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) suppression lines of AtORM1 and AtORM2 displayed increased sensitivity to fumonisin B1 and an accompanying strong increase in LCBs and C16 fatty acid-containing ceramides relative to wild-type plants. Overexpression lines also were found to have reduced activity of the class I ceramide synthase that uses C16 fatty acid acyl-coenzyme A and dihydroxy LCB substrates but increased activity of class II ceramide synthases that use very-long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A and trihydroxy LCB substrates. RNAi suppression lines, in contrast, displayed increased class I ceramide synthase activity but reduced class II ceramide synthase activity. These findings indicate that ORM mediation of SPT activity differentially regulates functionally distinct ceramide synthase activities as part of a broader sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory network. PMID:27506241

  2. Peripheral and central blockade of interleukin-6 trans-signaling differentially affects sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Oyanedel, Carlos N; Kelemen, Eduard; Scheller, Jürgen; Born, Jan; Rose-John, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The immune system is known to essentially contribute to the regulation of sleep. Whereas research in this regard focused on the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in sleep regulation has been less intensely studied, probably due to the so far seemingly ambiguous results. Yet, this picture might simply reflect that the effects of IL-6 are conveyed via two different pathways (with possibly different actions), i.e., in addition to the 'classical' signaling pathway via the membrane bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), IL-6 stimulates cells through the alternative 'trans-signaling' pathway via the soluble IL-6R. Here, we concentrated on the contributions of the trans-signaling pathway to sleep regulation. To characterize this contribution, we compared the effect of blocking IL-6 trans-signaling (by the soluble gp130Fc fusion protein) in the brain versus body periphery. Thus, we compared sleep in transgenic mice expressing the soluble gp130Fc protein only in the brain (GFAP mice) or in the body periphery (PEPCK mice), and in wild type mice (WT) during a 24-h period of undisturbed conditions and during 18 h following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation. Compared with WT mice, PEPCK mice displayed less sleep, particularly during the late light phase, and this was accompanied by decreases in slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following sleep deprivation PEPCK mice primarily recovered REM sleep rather than SWS. GFAP mice showed a slight decrease in REM sleep in combination with a profound and persistent increase in EEG theta activity. In conclusion, peripheral and central nervous IL-6 trans-signaling differentially influences brain activity. Peripheral IL-6 trans-signaling appears to more profoundly contribute to sleep regulation, mainly by supporting SWS. PMID:26144889

  3. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Apolzan, John W; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Iglay, Heidi B; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-07-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macronutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a "comfortable level of fullness." Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults.

  4. Peripheral and central blockade of interleukin-6 trans-signaling differentially affects sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Oyanedel, Carlos N; Kelemen, Eduard; Scheller, Jürgen; Born, Jan; Rose-John, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The immune system is known to essentially contribute to the regulation of sleep. Whereas research in this regard focused on the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in sleep regulation has been less intensely studied, probably due to the so far seemingly ambiguous results. Yet, this picture might simply reflect that the effects of IL-6 are conveyed via two different pathways (with possibly different actions), i.e., in addition to the 'classical' signaling pathway via the membrane bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), IL-6 stimulates cells through the alternative 'trans-signaling' pathway via the soluble IL-6R. Here, we concentrated on the contributions of the trans-signaling pathway to sleep regulation. To characterize this contribution, we compared the effect of blocking IL-6 trans-signaling (by the soluble gp130Fc fusion protein) in the brain versus body periphery. Thus, we compared sleep in transgenic mice expressing the soluble gp130Fc protein only in the brain (GFAP mice) or in the body periphery (PEPCK mice), and in wild type mice (WT) during a 24-h period of undisturbed conditions and during 18 h following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation. Compared with WT mice, PEPCK mice displayed less sleep, particularly during the late light phase, and this was accompanied by decreases in slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following sleep deprivation PEPCK mice primarily recovered REM sleep rather than SWS. GFAP mice showed a slight decrease in REM sleep in combination with a profound and persistent increase in EEG theta activity. In conclusion, peripheral and central nervous IL-6 trans-signaling differentially influences brain activity. Peripheral IL-6 trans-signaling appears to more profoundly contribute to sleep regulation, mainly by supporting SWS.

  5. Wheat gene expression is differentially affected by a virulent Russian wheat aphid biotype.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Meng, Jianye; Starkey, Sharon; Smith, Charles Michael

    2011-05-01

    An improved understanding of the complex interactions between plants and aphids is emerging. Recognition of aphid feeding in plant tissues involves production of several defense response signaling pathways and downstream production of defense and detoxification compounds. Feeding by Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), a serious pest of cereal crops worldwide, induces foliar deformity and chlorophyll loss during compatible wheat-D. noxia interactions. Experiments described here revealed significant differences in level and pattern of gene expression in defense response signaling and metabolic pathways between compatible and incompatible D. noxia-wheat interactions. The jasmonate (JA)-signaling genes LOX, AOS, and AOC were significantly more upregulated (~3- to 7 fold) in incompatible interactions than in compatible interactions (~2.5 to 3.5 fold) as early as 1 h post D. noxia infestation (hpi). Cellulose synthase, responsible for strengthening plant cell walls via cellulose production, was also more upregulated in incompatible interactions (4 to 7 fold) than in compatible interactions (1 to 3.5 fold). In contrast, glycolysis and citric acid cycle genes were significantly downregulated (~1.5 to 2 fold) in incompatible interactions and upregulated or less downregulated in compatible interactions from 6 to 72 hpi. Differences in expression of JA-signaling genes between feeding site tissues and non-feeding site tissues suggest that D. noxia defense response signals in wheat are restricted primarily to aphid feeding sites in the initial 6 hpi. This is the first report of differential upregulation of plant genes at 1 hpi in incompatible interactions involving aphid herbivory. Early wheat plant defense responses in incompatible D. noxia interactions at 1, 3, and 6 hpi appear to be important aspects of D. noxia resistance in wheat.

  6. Spatial memory extinction differentially affects dorsal and ventral hippocampal metabolic activity and associated functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; González-Pardo, Héctor; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L; Conejo, Nélida M

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies showed the involvement of brain regions associated with both spatial learning and associative learning in spatial memory extinction, although the specific role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and the extended hippocampal system including the mammillary body in the process is still controversial. The present study aimed to identify the involvement of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, together with cortical regions, the amygdaloid nuclei, and the mammillary bodies in the extinction of a spatial memory task. To address these issues, quantitative cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied as a metabolic brain mapping method. Rats were trained in a reference memory task using the Morris water maze, followed by an extinction procedure of the previously acquired memory task. Results show that rats learned successfully the spatial memory task as shown by the progressive decrease in measured latencies to reach the escape platform and the results obtained in the probe test. Spatial memory was subsequently extinguished as shown by the descending preference for the previously reinforced location. A control naïve group was added to ensure that brain metabolic changes were specifically related with performance in the spatial memory extinction task. Extinction of the original spatial learning task significantly modified the metabolic activity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, the amygdala and the mammillary bodies. Moreover, the ventral hippocampus, the lateral mammillary body and the retrosplenial cortex were differentially recruited in the spatial memory extinction task, as shown by group differences in brain metabolic networks. These findings provide new insights on the brain regions and functional brain networks underlying spatial memory, and specifically spatial memory extinction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102086

  7. Municipal wastewater affects adipose deposition in male mice and increases 3T3-L1 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Masserdotti, Alice; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Papa, Matteo; Caimi, Luigi; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Trace concentration of EDs (endocrine disrupting compounds) in water bodies caused by wastewater treatment plant effluents is a recognized problem for the health of aquatic organisms and their potential to affect human health. In this paper we show that continuous exposure of male mice from early development to the adult life (140 days) to unrestricted drinking of wastewater collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant, is associated with an increased adipose deposition and weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. In parallel, bisphenol A (BPA) at the administration dose of 5 μg/kg/body weight, shows an increasing effect on total body weight and fat mass. In vitro, a solid phase extract (SPE) of the wastewater (eTW), caused stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at dilutions of 0.4 and 1 % in the final culture medium which contained a concentration of BPA of 40 nM and 90 nM respectively. Pure BPA also promoted adipocytes differentiation at the concentration of 50 and 80 μM. BPA effect in 3T3-L1 cells was associated to the specific activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in undifferentiated cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in differentiated cells. BPA also activated the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) upregulating a minimal 3XPPARE luciferase reporter and the PPARγ-target promoter of the aP2 gene in adipose cells, while it was not effective in preadipocytes. The pure estrogen receptor agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) played an opposite action to that of BPA inhibiting PPARγ activity in adipocytes, preventing cell differentiation, activating ERα in preadipocytes and inhibiting ERα and ERβ regulation in adipocytes. The results of this work show that the drinking of chemically-contaminated wastewater promotes fat deposition in male mice and that EDs present in sewage are likely responsible for this effect through a nuclear receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:26944108

  8. On the affective force of "nasty love".

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    Tackling the mimetic logic of sex-gender that limits the transsexual subject's sexuality into seeming a poor representation, the author argues that trans pornography and autoethnographic accounts from trans scholars emphasize the affective dimension of trans sex, a material remainder absent from mimetic theories of sexuality. Developing concepts from Alfred North Whitehead's process philosophy, in tandem with Morty Diamond's film Trans Entities: The Nasty Love of Papí and Wil (2007) and a selection of trans theorists, this article elaborates on the horizon of affective potential opened by transgender, brown, kinky, and pornographic "nastiness." The event of "nasty love" solicits a differential becoming, growing the edge of self. PMID:24294885

  9. Hyperglycemia Differentially Affects Maternal and Fetal DNA Integrity and DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Jusciele B.; Santos, Janine H.; Lorenzon-Ojea, Aline Rodrigues; Corrêa-Silva, Simone; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Rocha, Clarissa Ribeiro; Rudge, Marilza V.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Bevilacqua, Estela; Calderon, Iracema M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the DNA damage and its cellular response in blood samples from both mother and the umbilical cord of pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia. Methods: A total of 144 subjects were divided into 4 groups: normoglycemia (ND; 46 cases), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH; 30 cases), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; 45 cases) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2; 23 cases). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) isolation and/or leukocytes from whole maternal and umbilical cord blood were obtained from all groups at delivery. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage were measured by gene-specific quantitative PCR, and the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway were assessed by real-time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Apoptosis was measured in vitro experiments by caspase 3/7 activity and ATP levels. Results: GDM and DM2 groups were characterized by an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, an increase in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and decreased expression of mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1) involved in BER. The levels of hyperglycemia were associated with the in vitro apoptosis pathway. Blood levels of DNA damage in umbilical cord were similar among the groups. Newborns of diabetic mothers had increased expression of BER mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1, POLβ and FEN1). A diabetes-like environment was unable to induce apoptosis in the umbilical cord blood cells. Conclusions: Our data show relevant asymmetry between maternal and fetal blood cell susceptibility to DNA damage and apoptosis induction. Maternal cells seem to be more predisposed to changes in an adverse glucose environment. This may be due to differential ability in upregulating multiple genes involved in the activation of DNA repair response, especially the BER mechanism. However if this study shows a more effective adaptive response by the fetal organism, it also calls for

  10. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.

  11. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Family Members Are Differentially Affected by Alterations in Host Glycans and Membrane Cholesterol*

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Aria; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J.; Gargi, Amandeep; Cardwell, Marissa M.; Prouty, Michael G.; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are tripartite protein exotoxins produced by a diverse group of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Based on their ability to induce DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of cultured cells, CDTs are proposed to enhance virulence by blocking cellular division and/or directly killing epithelial and immune cells. Despite the widespread distribution of CDTs among several important human pathogens, our understanding of how these toxins interact with host cells is limited. Here we demonstrate that CDTs from Haemophilus ducreyi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni differ in their abilities to intoxicate host cells with defined defects in host factors previously implicated in CDT binding, including glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids. The absence of cell surface sialic acid sensitized cells to intoxication by three of the four CDTs tested. Surprisingly, fucosylated N-linked glycans and glycolipids, previously implicated in CDT-host interactions, were not required for intoxication by any of the CDTs tested. Finally, altering host-cellular cholesterol, also previously implicated in CDT binding, affected intoxication by only a subset of CDTs tested. The findings presented here provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of CDT-host interactions. PMID:20385557

  12. Paliperidone and aripiprazole differentially affect the strength of calcium-secretion coupling in female pituitary lactotrophs.

    PubMed

    Kucka, Marek; Tomić, Melanija; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S; Budimirovic, Dejan B

    2015-03-10

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse in vivo effect of antipsychotic medications that are used in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, paliperidone and aripiprazole, on cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release in female rat pituitary lactotrophs in vitro. Dopamine inhibited spontaneous cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release. In the presence of dopamine, paliperidone rescued cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas aripiprazole was only partially effective. In the absence of dopamine, paliperidone stimulated cAMP/calcium signaling and prolactin release, whereas aripiprazole inhibited signaling and secretion more potently but less effectively than dopamine. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP production was facilitated by paliperidone and inhibited by aripiprazole, although the latter was not as effective as dopamine. None of the compounds affected prolactin transcript activity, intracellular prolactin accumulation, or growth hormone secretion. These data indicate that paliperidone has dual hyperprolactinemic actions in lactotrophs i) by preserving the coupling of spontaneous electrical activity and prolactin secretion in the presence of dopamine and ii) by inhibiting intrinsic dopamine receptor activity in the absence of dopamine, leading to enhanced calcium signaling and secretion. In contrast, aripiprazole acts on prolactin secretion by attenuating, but not abolishing, calcium-secretion coupling.

  13. Motivational state, reward value, and Pavlovian cues differentially affect skilled forelimb grasping in rats.

    PubMed

    Mosberger, Alice C; de Clauser, Larissa; Kasper, Hansjörg; Schwab, Martin E

    2016-06-01

    Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in previous studies. In rodents, skilled motor performance has been successfully modeled with the skilled grasping task, in which animals use their forepaw to grasp for sugar pellet rewards through a narrow window. Using sugar pellets, the skilled grasping task is inherently tied to motivation processes. In the present study, we performed three experiments modulating animals' motivation during skilled grasping by changing the motivational state, presenting different reward value ratios, and displaying Pavlovian stimuli. We found in all three studies that motivation affected the speed of skilled grasping movements, with the strongest effects seen due to motivational state and reward value. Furthermore, accuracy of the movement, measured in success rate, showed a strong dependence on motivational state as well. Pavlovian cues had only minor effects on skilled grasping, but results indicate an inverse Pavlovian-instrumental transfer effect on movement speed. These findings have broad implications considering the increasing use of skilled grasping in studies of motor system structure, function, and recovery after injuries. PMID:27194796

  14. Morphogenesis in Mucor mucedo: mutations affecting gamone response and organ differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, T; Jockusch, H

    1978-02-27

    Mutants of Mucor mucedo minus strain that are affected in their trisporic acid (TA) mediated zygophore formation have been isolated. We have found mutants with cold sensitive (cs), with temperature sensitive (ts) and without zygophore formation as well as mutants with unstable zygophores (Zst-). From the appearence of certain pleiotropic phenotypes we deduce a one-dimensional sequence of states of competence of the mycelium to form different organs. TA appears to be a growth substance for zygophores acting on one transient state of competence. The fact that all isolates with lowered response to TA also have a lowered response to the mating type specific TA-precursor P strongly suggests that P has to be converted into TA before inducing zygophore growth. Furthermore, one mutant with lowered sensitivity to TA exhibits an excess zygophore formation in the presence of high TA-concentrations, while high concentrations of P cause a depressed zygophore formation (Fig. 6). Our interpretation of this behaviour is that P acts as an antagonist to TA in the regulation of zygophore growth.

  15. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  16. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. PMID:26010021

  17. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: associations with future substance use.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Molfese, Peter J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth's lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6-12 months later). PCE × Gender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  18. Wind and mechanical stimuli differentially affect leaf traits in Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Anten, Niels P R; Alcalá-Herrera, Rafael; Schieving, Feike; Onoda, Yusuke

    2010-10-01

    • Analysing plant phenotypic plasticity in response to wind is complicated as this factor entails not only mechanical stress but also affects leaf gas and heat exchange. • We exposed Plantago major plants to brushing (mechanical stress, MS) and wind (MS and air flow) and determined the effects on physiological, morphological and mechanical characteristics of leaf petioles and laminas as well as on growth and biomass allocation at the whole-plant level. • Both MS and wind similarly reduced growth but their effects on morphological and mechanical plant traits were different. MS induced the formation of leaves with more slender petioles, and more elliptic and thinner laminas, while wind tended to evoke the opposite response. These morphological and mechanical changes increased lamina and petiole flexibility in MS plants, thus reducing mechanical stress by reconfiguration of plant structure. Responses to wind, on the other hand, seemed to be more associated with reducing transpiration. • These results show that responses to mechanical stress and wind can be different and even in the opposite direction. Plant responses to wind in the field can therefore be variable depending on overall environmental conditions and plant characteristics.

  19. Cell differentiation within a yeast colony: metabolic and regulatory parallels with a tumor-affected organism.

    PubMed

    Cáp, Michal; Stěpánek, Luděk; Harant, Karel; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2012-05-25

    Nutrient sensing and metabolic reprogramming are crucial for metazoan cell aging and tumor growth. Here, we identify metabolic and regulatory parallels between a layered, multicellular yeast colony and a tumor-affected organism. During development, a yeast colony stratifies into U and L cells occupying the upper and lower colony regions, respectively. U cells activate a unique metabolism controlled by the glutamine-induced TOR pathway, amino acid-sensing systems (SPS and Gcn4p) and signaling from mitochondria with lowered respiration. These systems jointly modulate U cell physiology, which adapts to nutrient limitations and utilize the nutrients released from L cells. Stress-resistant U cells share metabolic pathways and other similar characteristics with tumor cells, including the ability to proliferate. L cells behave similarly to stressed and starving cells, which activate degradative mechanisms to provide nutrients to U cells. Our data suggest a nutrient flow between both cell types, resembling the Cori cycle and glutamine-NH(4)(+) shuttle between tumor and healthy metazoan cells.

  20. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. PMID:27555235

  1. Elevated Ambient Temperature Differentially Affects Virus Resistance in Two Tobacco Species.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Huang, X; Yu, R; Jing, X L; Xu, J; Wu, C A; Zhu, C X; Liu, H M

    2016-01-01

    Antiviral defense of plants is usually enhanced by an elevated temperature under natural conditions. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we carried out temperature shift experiments with Nicotiana glutinosa plants that were infected with Potato virus X (PVX) or the necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY(N)). The virus titer of the plants was found to be much lower when they were maintained at 30°C compared with 22°C, particularly in the upper leaves. PVX resistance at 30°C persisted for a short period even when temperature was shifted back to 22°C. In contrast, N. benthamiana lost the virus resistance immediately after the temperature dropped to 22°C. Expression analysis of two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in N. glutinosa (NgRDR) showed that a 12-day treatment at 30°C increased the expression of NgRDR1, while NgRDR6 was not affected. In addition, the NgRDR6 mRNA level correlated with the PVX titer but was unaffected by PVY(N) infection. These observations indicate that PVX and PVY(N), although they are both RNA viruses, might trigger different defense responses at elevated temperatures. Our study provides valuable data for a better understanding of the temperature-regulated host virus interaction. PMID:26474332

  2. Vanillin differentially affects azoxymethane-injected rat colon carcinogenesis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation.

  4. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  5. Wind and mechanical stimuli differentially affect leaf traits in Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Anten, Niels P R; Alcalá-Herrera, Rafael; Schieving, Feike; Onoda, Yusuke

    2010-10-01

    • Analysing plant phenotypic plasticity in response to wind is complicated as this factor entails not only mechanical stress but also affects leaf gas and heat exchange. • We exposed Plantago major plants to brushing (mechanical stress, MS) and wind (MS and air flow) and determined the effects on physiological, morphological and mechanical characteristics of leaf petioles and laminas as well as on growth and biomass allocation at the whole-plant level. • Both MS and wind similarly reduced growth but their effects on morphological and mechanical plant traits were different. MS induced the formation of leaves with more slender petioles, and more elliptic and thinner laminas, while wind tended to evoke the opposite response. These morphological and mechanical changes increased lamina and petiole flexibility in MS plants, thus reducing mechanical stress by reconfiguration of plant structure. Responses to wind, on the other hand, seemed to be more associated with reducing transpiration. • These results show that responses to mechanical stress and wind can be different and even in the opposite direction. Plant responses to wind in the field can therefore be variable depending on overall environmental conditions and plant characteristics. PMID:20663062

  6. Brivaracetam Differentially Affects Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents Without Impairing Sustained Repetitive Firing in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Niespodziany, Isabelle; André, Véronique Marie; Leclère, Nathalie; Hanon, Etienne; Ghisdal, Philippe; Wolff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Brivaracetam (BRV) is an antiepileptic drug in Phase III clinical development. BRV binds to synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein and is also suggested to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). To evaluate whether the effect of BRV on VGSCs represents a relevant mechanism participating in its antiepileptic properties, we explored the pharmacology of BRV on VGSCs in different cell systems and tested its efficacy at reducing the sustained repetitive firing (SRF). Methods Brivaracetam investigations on the voltage-gated sodium current (INa) were performed in N1E-155 neuroblastoma cells, cultured rat cortical neurons, and adult mouse CA1 neurons. SRF was measured in cultured cortical neurons and in CA1 neurons. All BRV (100–300 μM) experiments were performed in comparison with 100 μM carbamazepine (CBZ). Results Brivaracetam and CBZ reduced INa in N1E-115 cells (30% and 40%, respectively) and primary cortical neurons (21% and 47%, respectively) by modulating the fast-inactivated state of VGSCs. BRV, in contrast to CBZ, did not affect INa in CA1 neurons and SRF in cortical and CA1 neurons. CBZ consistently inhibited neuronal SRF by 75–93%. Conclusions The lack of effect of BRV on SRF in neurons suggests that the reported inhibition of BRV on VGSC currents does not contribute to its antiepileptic properties. PMID:25444522

  7. Thermal processing differentially affects lycopene and other carotenoids in cis-lycopene containing, tangerine tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    Tangerine tomatoes, unlike red tomatoes, accumulate cis-lycopenes instead of the all-trans isomer. cis-Lycopene is the predominating isomeric form of lycopene found in blood and tissues. Our objective was to understand how thermal processing and lipid concentration affect carotenoid isomerisation and degradation in tangerine tomatoes. We conducted duplicated factorial designed experiments producing tangerine tomato juice and sauce, varying both processing time and lipid concentration. Carotenoids were extracted and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, tetra-cis-lycopene, all-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes were quantified. Tetra-cis-lycopene decreased with increasing heating time and reached 80% of the original level in sauce after processing times of 180min. All-trans-lycopene and other-cis-lycopenes increased with longer processing times. Total carotenoids and total lycopene decreased with increased heating times while phytoene and phytofluene were unchanged. These data suggest limiting thermal processing of tangerine tomato products if delivery of tetra-cis-lycopene is desirable.

  8. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    PubMed

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

  9. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  10. Flaxseed and its components differentially affect estrogen targets in pre-neoplastic hen ovaries.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Anushka; Gao, Chunqi; Small, Carrie; Hales, Karen; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2016-05-01

    Flaxseed has been studied for decades for its health benefits that include anti-cancer, cardio-protective, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory properties. The biologically active components that mediate these effects are the omega-3 fatty acids and the lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. We have previously shown that whole flaxseed supplemented diet decreases the severity and incidence of ovarian cancer while a 15% dose of flaxseed is most protective against inflammation and estrogen-induced chemical and genotoxicity. The objective of this study was to dissect the independent effects of the two flaxseed components on estrogen signaling and metabolism. Two and half year old hens were fed either a control diet, 15% whole flaxseed diet, defatted flax meal diet or 5% flax oil diet for 3 months after which the animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were harvested. Whole flaxseed diet caused a decrease in expression of ERα. ERα target gene expression was assessed using RT(2) profiler PCR array. Some targets involved in the IGF/insulin signaling pathway (IRS1, IGFBP4, IGFBP5) were downregulated by flaxseed and its components. Flaxseed diet also downregulated AKT expression. A number of targets related to NF-kB signaling were altered by flaxseed diet including a series of targets implicated in cancer. Whole flaxseed diet also affected E2 metabolism by increasing CYP1A1 expression with a corresponding increase in the onco-protective E2 metabolite, 2-methoxyestradiol. The weak anti-estrogens, enterolactone, enterodiol and 2-methoxyestradiol, might be working synergistically to generate a protective effect on the ovaries from hens on whole flaxseed diet by altering the estrogen signaling and metabolism. PMID:26925929

  11. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  12. Metabolic stressors and signals differentially affect energy allocation between reproduction and immune function.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Cooper, Candace L; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Most free-living animals have finite energy stores that they must allocate to different physiological and behavioral processes. In times of energetic stress, trade-offs in energy allocation among these processes may occur. The manifestation of trade-offs may depend on the source (e.g., glucose, lipids) and severity of energy limitation. In this study, we investigated energetic trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems by experimentally limiting energy availability to female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, a compound that disrupts cellular utilization of glucose. We observed how glucoprivation at two levels of severity affected allocation to reproduction and immunity. Additionally, we treated a subset of these hamsters with leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a direct signal of available fat stores, in order to determine how increasing this signal of fat stores influences glucoprivation-induced trade-offs. We observed trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems and that these trade-offs depended on the severity of energy limitation and exogenous leptin signaling. The majority of the animals experiencing mild glucoprivation entered anestrus, whereas leptin treatment restored estrous cycling in these animals. Surprisingly, virtually all animals experiencing more severe glucoprivation maintained normal estrous cycling throughout the experiment; however, exogenous leptin resulted in lower antibody production in this group. These data suggest that variation in these trade-offs may be mediated by shifts between glucose and fatty acid utilization. Collectively, the results of the present study highlight the context-dependent nature of these trade-offs, as trade-offs induced by the same metabolic stressor can manifest differently depending on its intensity.

  13. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    PubMed

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat.

  14. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  15. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    hippocampal subregions that may contribute to the altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, which may underlie enhanced negative affective symptoms and perpetuation of the addiction cycle. PMID:25463524

  16. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans.

  17. Raising groundwater differentially affects mineralization and plant species abundance in dune slacks.

    PubMed

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Oosthoek, Annelies; Broekman, Rob; Bakker, Chris; Aerts, Rien

    2006-10-01

    The experience with restoring high water levels (i.e., rewetting) within restoration ecology is limited, and information on changes in soil nutrient supply is scarce. A reduction in nutrient supply is needed to restore the desired oligotrophic vegetation. We determined the effects of restoration of high water levels on decomposition and net carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) mineralization rates in wet dune slacks and its consequences for the relative abundance of eutrophic vs. oligotrophic species in the vegetation. This was done by analyzing these variables for valleys that experienced a large groundwater rise vs. valleys that had a small groundwater rise but the same current water level. In addition, the influences of underlying factors (waterlogging, vegetation dieback, and soil dynamics prior to groundwater rise) were separated in a transplantation experiment. Short-term effects of large groundwater rise were a massive dieback of vegetation, increased thickness of the fermentation layer, increased microbial decomposition activity, increased C mineralization, and decreased net N mineralization. Net P mineralization was not affected. The relative abundance of oligotrophic vs. eutrophic species was greater at large groundwater rise. Changes in decomposition and mineralization by large groundwater rise were, however, not caused by the vegetation dieback, but due to previous soil conditions. Soils experiencing waterlogged conditions for 3-4 years or more prior to large groundwater rise had lower C and higher net N mineralization rates at waterlogged conditions than soils that had experienced aerobic conditions, presumably due to differences in labile soil C contents. Contrary to expectations induced by previously determined nutrient pulses and measured vegetation dieback, large groundwater rise resulted in lower soil nutrient supply rates and more oligotrophic vegetation. If these trends continue on the longer term, restoration of high water levels may be

  18. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  19. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Flores Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Kornhauser-Araujo, Carlos; Mendoza-Garrido, M. Eugenia; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Sabanero-López, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:25477771

  20. Prenatal influence of an androgen agonist and antagonist on the differentiation of the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus in male and female lamb fetuses.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Charles E; Reddy, Radhika C; Estill, Charles T; Scheldrup, Melissa; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred; Montilla, Hernán J

    2014-12-01

    The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) is 2 times larger in rams than in ewes. Sexual differentiation of the oSDN is produced by testosterone exposure during the critical period occurring between gestational day (GD)60 and GD90 (term, 147 d). We tested the hypothesis that testosterone acts through the androgen receptor to control development of the male-typical oSDN. In experiment 1, pregnant ewes received injections of vehicle, androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, or nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) propionate during the critical period. Fetuses were delivered at GD135. Both antagonist and agonist treatments significantly reduced mean oSDN volume in males but had no effects in females. Experiment 2, we analyzed the effect of treatments on the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to determine whether compensatory changes in hormone secretion occurred that could explain the effect of DHT. Pregnant ewes were injected with vehicle, flutamide, or DHT propionate from GD60 to GD84, and fetuses were delivered on GD85. Flutamide significantly increased LH and testosterone in males, whereas DHT significantly decreased both hormones. In females, LH was unaffected by flutamide but significantly reduced by DHT exposure. DHT significantly decreased pituitary gonadotropin and hypothalamic kisspeptin mRNA expression in males and females. These results suggest that androgen receptor mediates the effect of testosterone on oSDN masculinization, because this process was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in eugonadal males. In contrast, the reduction of oSDN volume observed after DHT exposure appears to be mediated by a negative feedback mechanism exerted on the hypothalamus to reduce LH and testosterone secretion. The reduced androgen exposure most likely accounted for the decreased oSDN volume. We conclude that, during the critical period, the male reproductive axis in long gestation species, such as sheep, is sufficiently developed

  1. Language-related Cntnap2 gene is differentially expressed in sexually dimorphic song nuclei essential for vocal learning in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Panaitof, S. Carmen; Abrahams, Brett S.; Dong, Hongmei; Geschwind, Daniel H.; White, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies, involving distinct clinical populations, implicate contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) in aspects of language development and performance. While CNTNAP2 is broadly distributed in developing rodent brain, it shows a striking gradient of frontal cortical enrichment in developing human brain, consistent with a role in patterning circuits that subserve higher cognition and language. To test the hypothesis that CNTNAP2 may be important for learned vocal communication in additional species, we employed in situ hybridization to characterize transcript distribution in the zebra finch, an experimentally tractable songbird for which the neural substrate of this behavior is well-established. Consistent with an important role in learned vocalization, Cntnap2 was enriched or diminished in key song control nuclei relative to adjacent brain tissue. Importantly, this punctuated expression was observed in males, but not females, in accord with the sexual dimorphism of neural circuitry and vocal learning in this species. Ongoing functional work will provide important insights into the relationship between Cntnap2 and vocal communication in songbirds and thereby clarify mechanisms at play in disorders of human cognition and language. PMID:20394055

  2. Linking the response of endocrine regulated genes to adverse effects on sex differentiation improves comprehension of aromatase inhibition in a Fish Sexual Development Test.

    PubMed

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Westphal-Settele, Kathi; Brückner, Jasmin; Konradi, Sabine; Schiller, Viktoria; Schäfers, Christoph; Teigeler, Matthias; Fenske, Martina

    2016-07-01

    , this study demonstrated that the existing Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for aromatase inhibition in fish can be translated to the life-stage of sexual differentiation. We were further able to identify MoA-specific marker gene expression which can be instrumental in defining new measurable key events (KE) of existing or new AOPs related to endocrine disruption. PMID:27130971

  3. IL-10 Conditioning of Human Skin Affects the Distribution of Migratory Dendritic Cell Subsets and Functional T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberg, Jelle J.; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Sombroek, Claudia C.; Lougheed, Sinéad M.; Hooijberg, Erik; Stam, Anita G. M.; Santegoets, Saskia J. A. M.; Tijssen, Henk J.; Buter, Jan; Pinedo, Herbert M.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Scheper, Rik J.; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; van de Ven, Rieneke; de Gruijl, Tanja D.

    2013-01-01

    In cancer patients pervasive systemic suppression of Dendritic Cell (DC) differentiation and maturation can hinder vaccination efficacy. In this study we have extensively characterized migratory DC subsets from human skin and studied how their migration and T cell-stimulatory abilities were affected by conditioning of the dermal microenvironment through cancer-related suppressive cytokines. To assess effects in the context of a complex tissue structure, we made use of a near-physiological skin explant model. By 4-color flow cytometry, we identified migrated Langerhans Cells (LC) and five dermis-derived DC populations in differential states of maturation. From a panel of known tumor-associated suppressive cytokines, IL-10 showed a unique ability to induce predominant migration of an immature CD14+CD141+DC-SIGN+ DC subset with low levels of co-stimulatory molecules, up-regulated expression of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and the M2-associated macrophage marker CD163. A similarly immature subset composition was observed for DC migrating from explants taken from skin overlying breast tumors. Whereas predominant migration of mature CD1a+ subsets was associated with release of IL-12p70, efficient Th cell expansion with a Th1 profile, and expansion of functional MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells, migration of immature CD14+ DDC was accompanied by increased release of IL-10, poor expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and skewing of Th responses to favor coordinated FoxP3 and IL-10 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation and outgrowth. Thus, high levels of IL-10 impact the composition of skin-emigrated DC subsets and appear to favor migration of M2-like immature DC with functional qualities conducive to T cell tolerance. PMID:23875023

  4. Sexual conflict and speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G A; Partridge, L

    1998-01-01

    We review the significance of two forms of sexual conflict (different evolutionary interests of the two sexes) for genetic differentiation of populations and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Conflicting selection on the alleles at a single locus can occur in males and females if the sexes have different optima for a trait, and there are pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes for it. There will then be selection for sex limitation and hence sexual dimorphism. This sex limitation could break down in hybrids and reduce their fitness. Pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes could also affect the likelihood of mating in interpopulation encounters. Conflict can also occur between (sex-limited) loci that determine behaviour in males and those that determine behaviour in females. Reproductive isolation may occur by rapid coevolution of male trait and female mating preference. This would tend to generate assortative mating on secondary contact, hence promoting speciation. Sexual conflict resulting from sensory exploitation, polyspermy and the cost of mating could result in high levels of interpopulation mating. If females evolve resistance to make pre- and postmating manipulation, males from one population could be more successful with females from the other, because females would have evolved resistance to their own (but not to the allopatric) males. Between-locus sexual conflict could also occur as a result of conflict between males and females of different populations over the production of unfit hybrids. We develop models which show that females are in general selected to resist such matings and males to persist, and this could have a bearing on both the initial level of interpopulation matings and the likelihood that reinforcement will occur. In effect, selection on males usually acts to promote gene flow and to restrict premating isolation, whereas selection on females usually acts in the reverse direction. We review theoretical models

  5. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  6. Differentially expressed proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affected by amoebic gill disease.

    PubMed

    Valdenegro-Vega, Victoria A; Crosbie, Phil; Bridle, Andrew; Leef, Melanie; Wilson, Richard; Nowak, Barbara F

    2014-09-01

    The external surfaces of fish, such as gill and skin, are covered by mucus, which forms a thin interface between the organism and water. Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is a parasitic condition caused by Neoparamoeba perurans that affects salmonids worldwide. This disease induces excessive mucus production in the gills. The host immune response to AGD is not fully understood, and research tools such as genomics and proteomics could be useful in providing further insight. Gill and skin mucus samples were obtained from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which were infected with N. perurans on four successive occasions. NanoLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to identify proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon affected by AGD. A total of 186 and 322 non-redundant proteins were identified in gill and skin mucus respectively, based on stringent filtration criteria, and statistics demonstrated that 52 gill and 42 skin mucus proteins were differentially expressed in mucus samples from AGD-affected fish. By generating protein-protein interaction networks, some of these proteins formed part of cell to cell signalling and inflammation pathways, such as C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein 1, granulin, cathepsin, angiogenin-1. In addition to proteins that were entirely novel in the context in the host response to N. perurans, our results have confirmed the presence of protein markers in mucus that have been previously predicted on the basis of modified mRNA expression, such as anterior gradient-2 protein, annexin A-1 and complement C3 factor. This first proteomic analysis of AGD-affected salmon provides new information on the effect of AGD on protein composition of gill and skin mucus. Future research should focus on better understanding of the role these components play in the response against infection with N. perurans. PMID:24979223

  7. Differentially expressed proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affected by amoebic gill disease.

    PubMed

    Valdenegro-Vega, Victoria A; Crosbie, Phil; Bridle, Andrew; Leef, Melanie; Wilson, Richard; Nowak, Barbara F

    2014-09-01

    The external surfaces of fish, such as gill and skin, are covered by mucus, which forms a thin interface between the organism and water. Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is a parasitic condition caused by Neoparamoeba perurans that affects salmonids worldwide. This disease induces excessive mucus production in the gills. The host immune response to AGD is not fully understood, and research tools such as genomics and proteomics could be useful in providing further insight. Gill and skin mucus samples were obtained from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which were infected with N. perurans on four successive occasions. NanoLC tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to identify proteins in gill and skin mucus of Atlantic salmon affected by AGD. A total of 186 and 322 non-redundant proteins were identified in gill and skin mucus respectively, based on stringent filtration criteria, and statistics demonstrated that 52 gill and 42 skin mucus proteins were differentially expressed in mucus samples from AGD-affected fish. By generating protein-protein interaction networks, some of these proteins formed part of cell to cell signalling and inflammation pathways, such as C-reactive protein, apolipoprotein 1, granulin, cathepsin, angiogenin-1. In addition to proteins that were entirely novel in the context in the host response to N. perurans, our results have confirmed the presence of protein markers in mucus that have been previously predicted on the basis of modified mRNA expression, such as anterior gradient-2 protein, annexin A-1 and complement C3 factor. This first proteomic analysis of AGD-affected salmon provides new information on the effect of AGD on protein composition of gill and skin mucus. Future research should focus on better understanding of the role these components play in the response against infection with N. perurans.

  8. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories.

  9. Expression profiling of the RPE in zebrafish smarca4 mutant revealed altered signals that potentially affect RPE and retinal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Collery, Ross; Trowbridge, Sara; Zhong, Wenxuan; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expression profiles from zebrafish eye mutants. Methods The fish model we used was SWI/SNF-related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4 (smarca4), a retinal dystrophic mutant with a previously described retinal phenotype and expression profiles. Histological and Affymetrix GeneChip analyses were conducted to characterize the RPE defects and underlying differential expression, respectively. Results Histological analysis revealed that smarca4 RPE was formed, but its differentiation was abnormal. In particular, ultrastructural analysis of smarca4 RPE by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated several defects in melanogenesis. The nature of these defects also suggests that the cytoskeletal dynamics, which are tightly linked with melanogenesis, were impaired in smarca4 RPE. To compare the expression profile of normal wild-type (WT) and smarca4 RPE, the gene expression profiles of microdissected retinas and RPE-attached retinas were measured with Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. The RPE expression values were then estimated from these samples by subtracting the retinal expression values from the expression values of the RPE-attached retinas. A factorial analysis was conducted using the expression values of the RPE, retinal, and whole-embryo samples. Specific rules (contrasts) were built using the coefficients of the resulting fitted models to select for three groups of genes: 1) smarca4-regulated RPE genes, 2) smarca4-regulated retinal genes, and 3) smarca4-regulated RPE genes that are not differentially expressed in the retina. Interestingly, the third group consists of 39 genes that are highly related to cytoskeletal dynamics, melanogenesis, and paracrine and intracellular signal transduction. Conclusions Our analytical framework provides an experimental approach to identify differentially-regulated genes in the

  10. Factors Associated with the Sexual Experiences of Underprivileged Mexican Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Franco, Raquel; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents.…

  11. Mutations along the pituitary-gonadal axis affecting sexual maturation: novel information from transgenic and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2006-07-25

    During the last 10 years, numerous activating and inactivating mutations have been detected in the genes encoding the two gonadotrophins, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as their cognate receptors (R), LHR and FSHR. Because activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a crucial event in the onset and progression of puberty, mutations affecting gonadotrophin action have major influence on this developmental process. Many of the phenotypic effects observed have been expected on the basis of the existing information about gonadotrophin action (e.g. delayed puberty), but also many unexpected findings have been made, including the lack of phenotype in women with activating LHR mutations, and the discrepancy in phenotypes of men with inactivating mutations of FSHbeta (azoospermia and infertility) and FSHR (oligozoospermia and subfertility). Some of the possible mutations, such as inactivating LHbeta and activating FSHR mutations in women, have not yet been detected. Genetically modified mice provide relevant phenocopies for the human mutations and serve as good models for studies on molecular pathogenesis of these conditions. They may also predict phenotypes of the mutations that have not yet been detected in humans. We review here briefly the effects of gonadotrophin subunit and receptor mutations on puberty in humans and contrast the information with findings on genetically modified mice with similar mutations.

  12. Gonadal Steroid Modulation of Sleep and Wakefulness in Male and Female Rats Is Sexually Differentiated and Neonatally Organized by Steroid Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hadjimarkou, Maria M.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The paucity of clinical and preclinical studies investigating sex differences in sleep has resulted in mixed findings as to the exact nature of these differences. Although gonadal steroids are known to modulate sleep in females, less is known about males. Moreover, little evidence exists concerning the origin of these sex differences in sleep behavior. Thus, the goal of this study was to directly compare the sensitivity of sleep behavior in male and female Sprague Dawley rats to changes in the gonadal steroid milieu and to test whether the sex differences in sleep are the result of brain sexual differentiation or differences in circulating gonadal steroids. Here we report the magnitude of change in sleep behavior induced by either estradiol (E2) or testosterone (T) was greater in females compared with males, suggesting that sleep behavior in females is more sensitive to the suppressive effects of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the organizational effects of early gonadal steroid exposure result in male-like responsivity to gonadal steroids and directly alter the activity of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), an established sleep-promoting nucleus, in adult masculinized females. Moreover, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone did not suppress sleep in either males or females, suggesting that the T-mediated effect in females was due to the aromatization of T into E2. Together our data suggest that, like sex behavior, sex differences in sleep follow the classical organizational/activational effects of gonadal steroids. PMID:24189140

  13. Prenatal Exposures of Male Rats to the Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Impact the Sexual Differentiation Process.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Maksoud, Fatma M; Leasor, Khrystyna R; Butzen, Kate; Braden, Timothy D; Akingbemi, Benson T

    2015-12-01

    The increasing incidence of reproductive anomalies, described as testicular dysgenesis syndrome, is thought to be related to the exposure of the population to chemicals in the environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which have hormonal and antihormonal activity, have attracted public attention due to their presence in consumer products. The present study investigated the effects of BPA and DEHP on reproductive development. Timed-pregnant female rats were exposed to BPA and DEHP by gavage from gestational days 12 to 21. Results showed that prenatal exposures to test chemicals exerted variable effects on steroidogenic factor 1 and GATA binding protein 4 protein expression and increased (P < .05) sex-determining region Y-box 9 and antimüllerian hormone protein in the infantile rat testis compared with levels in the control unexposed animals. Pituitary LHβ and FSHβ subunit protein expression was increased (P < .05) in BPA- and DEHP-exposed prepubertal male rats but were decreased (P < .05) in adult animals relative to control. Exposure to both BPA and DEHP in utero inhibited (P < .05) global DNA hydroxymethylation in the adult testis in association with altered DNA methyltransferase protein expression. Together the present data suggest that altered developmental programming in the testes associated with chemical exposures are related to the disruption of sexual differentiation events and DNA methylation patterns. The chemical-induced effects impact the development of steroidogenic capacity in the adult testis. PMID:26372177

  14. A Closer Examination of Sexual Trauma During Deployment: Not all Sexual Traumas are Associated with Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Lindsey L; Menefee, Deleene S; Forster, Jeri E; Bahraini, Nazanin H

    2016-02-01

    Military personnel can be exposed to a wide range of sexual trauma while deployed, including sexual harassment and sexual assault. We examined whether different types of sexual trauma during deployment associated with recent suicidal ideation among previously deployed OEF/OIF/OND veterans admitted to trauma-focused treatment (n = 199). More severe forms of sexual trauma (e.g., sexual assault) were significantly and positively associated with suicidal ideation. In contrast, sexual trauma involving verbal remarks (e.g., sexual harassment) was not associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that sexual harassment and sexual assault during deployment may be differentially associated with suicidal ideation. PMID:26096625

  15. Exposure to a commercial glyphosate formulation (Roundup®) alters normal gill and liver histology and affects male sexual activity of Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Hued, Andrea Cecilia; Oberhofer, Sabrina; de los Ángeles Bistoni, María

    2012-01-01

    Roundup is the most popular commercial glyphosate formulation applied in the cultivation of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological lesions of the neotropical native fish, Jenynsia multidentata, in response to acute and subchronic exposure to Roundup and to determine if subchronic exposure to the herbicide causes changes in male sexual activity of individuals exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.5 mg/l) for 7 and 28 days. The estimated 96-h LC50 was 19.02 mg/l for both male and female fish. Gill and liver histological lesions were evaluated through histopathological indices allowing quantification of the histological damages in fish exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide. Roundup induced different histological alterations in a concentration-dependent manner. In subchronic-exposure tests, Roundup also altered normal histology of the studied organs and caused a significant decrease in the number of copulations and mating success in male fish exposed to the herbicide. It is expected that in natural environments contaminated with Roundup, both general health condition and reproductive success of J. multidenatata could be seriously affected.

  16. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population. PMID:27547313

  17. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  18. What Really Matters in Family Communication about Sexuality? A Qualitative Analysis of Affect and Style among African American Mothers and Adolescent Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika I.; Kuriloff, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The family--via communication (or lack thereof)--is a primary avenue for sexuality education. While most research on family sexuality communication has examined the content of parent-child communication (e.g. topics discussed), relatively few studies have assessed the process, the way in which communication occurs. This paper presents an analysis…

  19. IL-6 mediates differentiation disorder during spermatogenesis in obesity-associated inflammation by affecting the expression of Zfp637 through the SOCS3/STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guizhen; Yuan, Miao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jun; Gong, Di; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lugang

    2016-01-01

    Zfp637 is a recently identified zinc finger protein, and its functions remain largely unknown. Here, we innovatively demonstrate the effects of Zfp637 on the differentiation of mouse spermatogonia and on its downstream target gene SOX2 in vitro. Obesity has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to decreased sexual function and sexual development disorders. We observed higher levels of IL-6 in serum and testis homogenates from obese mice compared with control mice. We also demonstrated that high levels of IL-6 inhibited Zfp637 expression, and we elucidated the underlying mechanisms. SOCS3 overexpression and STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor (AG490) were used to investigate the function of the SOCS3/STAT3 pathway during this process. Our results showed that exposure of mouse spermatogonial cells to high levels of IL-6 inhibited Zfp637 expression by increasing SOCS3 expression and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, further reducing cellular differentiation. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed increasing expression levels of SOCS3 and SOX2, but a reduction of Zfp637 expression, in obese mouse testes. In conclusion, Zfp637 plays a crucial role in spermatogenesis by downregulating SOX2 expression, and IL-6 can decrease the expression of Zfp637 through the SOCS3/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27329259

  20. IL-6 mediates differentiation disorder during spermatogenesis in obesity-associated inflammation by affecting the expression of Zfp637 through the SOCS3/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guizhen; Yuan, Miao; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jun; Gong, Di; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lugang

    2016-01-01

    Zfp637 is a recently identified zinc finger protein, and its functions remain largely unknown. Here, we innovatively demonstrate the effects of Zfp637 on the differentiation of mouse spermatogonia and on its downstream target gene SOX2 in vitro. Obesity has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to decreased sexual function and sexual development disorders. We observed higher levels of IL-6 in serum and testis homogenates from obese mice compared with control mice. We also demonstrated that high levels of IL-6 inhibited Zfp637 expression, and we elucidated the underlying mechanisms. SOCS3 overexpression and STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor (AG490) were used to investigate the function of the SOCS3/STAT3 pathway during this process. Our results showed that exposure of mouse spermatogonial cells to high levels of IL-6 inhibited Zfp637 expression by increasing SOCS3 expression and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, further reducing cellular differentiation. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed increasing expression levels of SOCS3 and SOX2, but a reduction of Zfp637 expression, in obese mouse testes. In conclusion, Zfp637 plays a crucial role in spermatogenesis by downregulating SOX2 expression, and IL-6 can decrease the expression of Zfp637 through the SOCS3/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:27329259

  1. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  2. Natural Variation in the VELVET Gene bcvel1 Affects Virulence and Light-Dependent Differentiation in Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Julia; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Simon, Adeline; Traeger, Stefanie; Moraga, Javier; Collado, Isidro González; Viaud, Muriel; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive plant pathogen causing gray mold disease on various plant species. In this study, we identified the genetic origin for significantly differing phenotypes of the two sequenced B. cinerea isolates, B05.10 and T4, with regard to light-dependent differentiation, oxalic acid (OA) formation and virulence. By conducting a map-based cloning approach we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in an open reading frame encoding a VELVET gene (bcvel1). The SNP in isolate T4 results in a truncated protein that is predominantly found in the cytosol in contrast to the full-length protein of isolate B05.10 that accumulates in the nuclei. Deletion of the full-length gene in B05.10 resulted in the T4 phenotype, namely light-independent conidiation, loss of sclerotial development and oxalic acid production, and reduced virulence on several host plants. These findings indicate that the identified SNP represents a loss-of-function mutation of bcvel1. In accordance, the expression of the B05.10 copy in T4 rescued the wild-type/B05.10 phenotype. BcVEL1 is crucial for full virulence as deletion mutants are significantly hampered in killing and decomposing plant tissues. However, the production of the two best known secondary metabolites, the phytotoxins botcinic acid and botrydial, are not affected by the deletion of bcvel1 indicating that other factors are responsible for reduced virulence. Genome-wide expression analyses of B05.10- and Δbcvel1-infected plant material revealed a number of genes differentially expressed in the mutant: while several protease- encoding genes are under-expressed in Δbcvel1 compared to the wild type, the group of over-expressed genes is enriched for genes encoding sugar, amino acid and ammonium transporters and glycoside hydrolases reflecting the response of Δbcvel1 mutants to nutrient starvation conditions. PMID:23118899

  3. Prenatal Hypoxia in Different Periods of Embryogenesis Differentially Affects Cell Migration, Neuronal Plasticity, and Rat Behavior in Postnatal Ontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Dmitrii S.; Dubrovskaya, Nadezhda M.; Tumanova, Natalia L.; Zhuravin, Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines, and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5′ethynyl-2′deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns, affects formation of

  4. The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron Type and Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons. To further understand the mechanisms of Dimm function we ectopically expressed Dimm or Dimm together with dInR in a wide range of Dimm positive and Dimm negative peptidergic neurons, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and gut endocrine cells. We provide further evidence that dInR mediated cell growth occurs in a Dimm dependent manner and that one source of insulin-like peptide (DILP) for dInR mediated cell growth in the CNS is DILP6 from glial cells. Expressing both Dimm and dInR in Dimm negative neurons induced growth of cell bodies, whereas dInR alone did not. We also found that Dimm alone can regulate cell growth depending on specific cell type. This may be explained by the finding that the dInR is a direct target of Dimm. Conditional gene targeting experiments showed that Dimm alone could affect cell growth in certain neuron types during metamorphosis or in the adult stage. Another important finding was that ectopic Dimm inhibits apoptosis of several types of neurons normally destined for programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together our results suggest that Dimm plays multiple transcriptional roles at different developmental stages in a cell type-specific manner. In some cell types ectopic Dimm may act together with resident combinatorial code transcription factors and affect terminal differentiation, as well as act in transcriptional networks that participate in long term maintenance

  5. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  6. Charge and geometry of residues in the loop 2 β hairpin differentially affect agonist and ethanol sensitivity in glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Daya I; Trudell, James R; Asatryan, Liana; Davies, Daryl L; Alkana, Ronald L

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies highlighted the importance of loop 2 of α1 glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the propagation of ligand-binding energy to the channel gate. Mutations that changed polarity at position 52 in the β hairpin of loop 2 significantly affected sensitivity to ethanol. The present study extends the investigation to charged residues. We found that substituting alanine with the negative glutamate at position 52 (A52E) significantly left-shifted the glycine concentration response curve and increased sensitivity to ethanol, whereas the negative aspartate substitution (A52D) significantly right-shifted the glycine EC₅₀ but did not affect ethanol sensitivity. It is noteworthy that the uncharged glutamine at position 52 (A52Q) caused only a small right shift of the glycine EC₅₀ while increasing ethanol sensitivity as much as A52E. In contrast, the shorter uncharged asparagine (A52N) caused the greatest right shift of glycine EC₅₀ and reduced ethanol sensitivity to half of wild type. Collectively, these findings suggest that charge interactions determined by the specific geometry of the amino acid at position 52 (e.g., the 1-Å chain length difference between aspartate and glutamate) play differential roles in receptor sensitivity to agonist and ethanol. We interpret these results in terms of a new homology model of GlyR based on a prokaryotic ion channel and propose that these mutations form salt bridges to residues across the β hairpin (A52E-R59 and A52N-D57). We hypothesize that these electrostatic interactions distort loop 2, thereby changing agonist activation and ethanol modulation. This knowledge will help to define the key physical-chemical parameters that cause the actions of ethanol in GlyRs.

  7. The Langerhans islet cells of female rabbits are differentially affected by hypothyroidism depending on the islet size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Morimoto, S; Cuevas, E

    2015-04-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin levels are controversial, and its impact on the Langerhans islet morphology of adult subjects has been poorly addressed. In spite of hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus are more frequent in females than in males, most studies using animal models have been done in males. The effect of hypothyroidism on the immunolabeling of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) of islet cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hypothyroidism on the glucose and insulin concentrations, morphometry of islets, and immunostaining of TRs α1-2 and β1 and TSHR of islet cells in female rabbits. Control and hypothyroid (0.02% of methimazole for 30 days) animals were used to quantify blood levels of glucose and insulin, density of islets, cross-sectional area (CSA) of islets, number of cells per islet, cell proliferation, and the immunolabeling of TRs α1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR. Student's t or Mann-Whitney-U tests, two-way ANOVAs, and Fischer's tests were applied. Concentrations of glucose and insulin, as well as the insulin resistance were similar between groups. Hypothyroidism did not affect the density or the CSA of islets. The analysis of islets by size showed that hypothyroidism reduced the cell number in large and medium islets, but not in small ones. In small islets, cell proliferation was increased. The immunoreactivity of TRα1-2, TRβ1, and TSHR was increased by hypothyroidism in all islet sizes. Our results show that hypothyroidism affects differentially the islet cells depending on the size of islets.

  8. The impact of sexual trauma on sexual desire and function.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Barry; Farr, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The field of sexual trauma is one of the most controversial and value-laden in mental health. The three factors which most affect adult sexual desire and function are the type of sexual trauma, how the sexual incidents were dealt with at the time and, most important, whether the person views her/himself as a survivor or victim. The assessment and treatment program described focuses on couple sex therapy with a special focus on processing the sexual trauma, honoring the person's veto and being 'partners in healing'. The core therapeutic theme is valuing intimate, erotic sexuality, which reinforces being a proud survivor rather than a shameful, anxious or angry victim. It is crucial to create a relapse prevention program to ensure that the person with the sexual trauma history continues to experience the positive roles of adult couple sexuality. PMID:22005207

  9. Sexual dimorphism in the Atapuerca-SH hominids: the evidence from the mandibles.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María

    2002-04-01

    The pattern of sexual dimorphism in 15 mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH Middle Pleistocene site, attributed to Homo heidelbergensis, is explored. Two modern human samples of known sex are used as a baseline for establishing sexing criteria. The mandible was divided for analysis into seven study regions and differential expression of sexual dimorphism in these regions is analysed. A total of 40 continuous and 32 discrete variables were scored on the mandibles. The means method given in Regh & Leigh (Am. J. phys. Anthrop.110, 95-104, 1999) was followed for evaluating the potential of correct sex attribution for each variable. On average, the mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH site present a degree of sexual dimorphism about eight points higher than in H. sapiens samples. However, mandibular anatomy of the European Middle Pleistocene hominid records sexual dimorphism differentially. Different areas of the Atapuerca-SH mandibles exhibit quite distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism. For instance, variables of the alveolar arcade present very low or practically no sexual dimorphism. Variables related to overall size of the mandible and symphysis region present a medium degree of sex differences. Finally, ramus height, and gonion and coronoid process present a high degree of sexual dimorphism (indexes of sexual dimorphism are all above 130%). Whether this marked sexual dimorphism in specific anatomical systems affects sexual differences in body size is not completely clear and further studies are needed. Sexual differences detected in the mandible of modern humans have at least two components: differences related to musculo-skeletal development and differences related to a different growth trajectory in males and females (relative development of some of the basal border features). The Atapuerca-SH mandibles display little variation in the basal border, however. The limited variation of this mandibular region may indicate that the pattern of sexual variation in H

  10. Xenobiotics that affect oxidative phosphorylation alter differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells at concentrations that are found in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Llobet, Laura; Toivonen, Janne M.; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Gallardo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adipogenesis is accompanied by differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells to adipocytes. As part of this differentiation, biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system occurs. Many chemical compounds used in medicine, agriculture or other human activities affect oxidative phosphorylation function. Therefore, these xenobiotics could alter adipogenesis. We have analyzed the effects on adipocyte differentiation of some xenobiotics that act on the oxidative phosphorylation system. The tested concentrations have been previously reported in human blood. Our results show that pharmaceutical drugs that decrease mitochondrial DNA replication, such as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, such as ribosomal antibiotics, diminish adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion. By contrast, the environmental chemical pollutant tributyltin chloride, which inhibits the ATP synthase of the oxidative phosphorylation system, can promote adipocyte differentiation and leptin secretion, leading to obesity and metabolic syndrome as postulated by the obesogen hypothesis. PMID:26398948

  11. ADMINISTRATION OF POTENTIALLY ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDES (PROCYMIDONE, LINURON, IPRODIONE, CHLOZOLINATE, P,P'-DDE AND KETOCONAZOLE) AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES (DIBUTYL-AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, PCB 169, AND ETHANE DIMETHANE SULPHONATE) DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCES DIVERSE PROFILES OF REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and as a consequence, they induce different profiles of effects. For example, in utero treatment with the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, produces ventral prostate agenesis and testicu...

  12. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    PubMed

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

  13. Estradiol levels during the menstrual cycle differentially affect latencies to right and left hemispheres during dichotic listening: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Gail D

    2010-02-01

    Many behavioral studies have found high-estrogen phases of the menstrual cycle to be associated with enhanced left-hemisphere processing and low-estrogen phases to be associated with better right-hemisphere processing. This study examined the changing of hemispheric asymmetry during the menstrual cycle by analyzing event-related potential (ERP) data from midline and both hemispheres of 23 women during their performance of a dichotic tasks shown to elicit a left-hemisphere response (semantic categorization) and a right-hemisphere response (complex tones). Each woman was tested during her high-estrogen follicular phase and low-estrogen menstrual phase. Salivary assays of estradiol and progesterone were used to confirm cycle phase. Analyses of the ERP data revealed that latency for each hemisphere was differentially affected by phase and target side, such that latencies to the left hemisphere and from the right ear were shorter during the high-estrogen phase, and latencies to the right hemisphere and from the left ear were shorter during the low-estrogen phase. These findings supply electrophysiological correlates of the cyclically based interhemispheric differences evinced by behavioral studies.

  14. Dietary vitamin A restriction affects adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, M; Óvilo, C; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rey, A I; Daza, A; Fenández, A; González-Bulnes, A; López-Bote, C J; Isabel, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary vitamin A level is associated with differences in adipocyte differentiation or lipid accumulation in Iberian pigs at early growing (35.8kg live weight) and at finishing (158kg live weight). Iberian pigs of 16.3kg live weight were allocated to two feeding groups, one group received 10,000IU of vitamin A/kg diet (control); the other group received a diet with 0IU of vitamin A (var) for the whole experimental period. The dietary vitamin A level had no effect on growth performance and carcass traits. The early suppression of vitamin A increased the preadipocyte number in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in the early growth period (P<0.001) and the neutral lipid content and composition (higher MUFA and lower SFA content) at the end of the finishing period (P<0.05). Vitamin A restriction in young pigs increases their lipogenic potential without affecting carcass traits.

  15. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    PubMed

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements. PMID:23995918

  16. Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Nils; Yiğit, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

    2013-03-01

    Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system.

  17. Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Nils; Yiğit, Arzu; Engqvist, Leif; Schmoll, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Male reproductive success in the lesser wax moth Achroia grisella is strongly determined by pre-copulatory mate choice, during which females choose among males aggregated in small leks based on the attractiveness of ultrasonic songs. Nothing is known about the potential of post-copulatory mechanisms to affect male reproductive success. However, there is evidence that females at least occasionally remate with a second male and that males are unable to produce ejaculates quickly after a previous copulation. Here we investigated the effects of mating history on ejaculate size and demonstrate that the number of transferred sperm significantly decreased from first (i.e., virgin) to second (i.e., nonvirgin) copulation within individual males. For males of identical age, the number of sperm transferred was higher in virgin than in nonvirgin copulations, too, demonstrating that mating history, is responsible for the decrease in sperm numbers transferred and not the concomitant age difference. Furthermore, the number of transferred sperm was significantly repeatable within males. The demonstrated variation in ejaculate size both between subsequent copulations as well as among individuals suggests that there is allocation of a possibly limited amount of sperm. Because female fecundity is not limited by sperm availability in this system, post-copulatory mechanisms, in particular sperm competition, may play a previously underappreciated role in the lesser wax moth mating system. PMID:23531777

  18. Short- and long-term memory are differentially affected by metabolic inhibitors given into hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, L A; Vianna, M; Barros, D M; Mello e Souza, T; Ardenghi, P; Sant'Anna, M K; Rodrigues, C; Medinam, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2000-03-01

    Rats were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or in the entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance. Two retention tests were carried out in each animal, one at 1.5 h to measure short-term memory (STM) and another at 24 h to measure long-term memory (LTM). The purpose of the present study was to screen the effect on STM of various drugs previously shown to affect LTM of this task when given posttraining at the same doses that were used here. The drugs and doses were the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY83583 (LY, 2.5 microMg), the inhibitor of Tyr-protein kinase at low concentrations and of protein kinase G (PKG) at higher concentrations lavendustin A (LAV, 0.1 and 0.5 microMg), the PKG inhibitor KT5823 (2.0 microMg), the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor staurosporin (STAU, 2.5 microMg), the inhibitor of calcium/ calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) KN62 (3.6 microMg), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT5720 (0.5 microMg), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) inhibitor PD098059 (PD, 0.05 microMg). PD was dissolved in saline; all the other drugs were dissolved in 20% dimethyl sulfoxide. In all cases the drugs affected LTM as had been described in previous papers. The drugs affected STM and LTM differentially depending on the brain structure into which they were infused. STM was inhibited by KT5720, LY, and PD given into CA1 and by STAU and KT5720 given into the entorhinal cortex. PD given into the entorhinal cortex enhanced STM. LTM was inhibited by STAU, KN62, KT5720, KT5823, and LAV (0.5 microMg) given into CA1 and by STAU, KT5720, and PD given into the entorhinal cortex. The results suggest that STM and LTM involve different physiological mechanisms but are to an extent linked. STM appears to require PKA, guanylyl cyclase, and MAPKK activity in CA1 and PKA and PKC activity in the entorhinal cortex; MAPKK seems to play an inhibitory role in STM in the entorhinal cortex. In contrast

  19. Contraceptive use and sexual behavior in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2012-12-01

    Obesity and unintended pregnancy differentially affect women based on sociodemographic factors. Because of the overlap of these factors, obesity and unintended pregnancy have been described as colliding epidemics. Understanding the relationship between obesity and unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and sexual behavior is important in improving the reproductive health of women given the increasing weight demographic. A review of the literature reveals contraceptive use versus nonuse does not differ in women of different body weights. Obese women use oral contraceptives less than normal weight women and are more likely to use procedural methods like sterilization. No difference was noted in most types of sexual behavior for women of different body weights.

  20. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  1. Ontogenic expression profiles of gonadotropins (fshb and lhb) and growth hormone (gh) during sexual differentiation and puberty onset in female zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiting; Ge, Wei

    2012-03-01

    In the zebrafish model, the ontogenic expression profiles of all pituitary hormones have been reported except gonadotropins, partly because they are not supposed to be expressed in the embryonic stage. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of gonadotropins, namely follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh), in this species therefore remain largely unknown. As the master hormones controlling reproduction, the information on this issue would be valuable for understanding the roles of gonadotropins in early sexual development. Using double-colored fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), this study was undertaken to analyze the ontogenic expression patterns of FSHbeta (fshb) and LHbeta (lhb) subunits in the zebrafish pituitary, with particular emphasis on the stage of sexual differentiation (∼25-30 dpf [days postfertilization]) and puberty onset (∼45 dpf). As a control, growth hormone (gh) was also examined throughout the study. The zebrafish were collected at different time points of early development, including 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 38, 48, and 53 dpf. The head of each fish, including the brain and pituitary, was sampled for double-colored FISH analysis, whereas the body was fixed for histological examination of sex and gonadal developmental stage. Our results showed that the expression of fshb started much earlier than that of lhb, with its mRNA signal detectable (∼2-3 cells per pituitary) shortly after hatching (4 dpf). In contrast, lhb expression became detectable much later, at the time of sex differentiation (∼25 dpf). In female zebrafish, the first morphological sign for puberty is the first wave of follicle transition from the primary growth to previtellogenic stage, which occurs around 45 dpf and is marked by the appearance of cortical alveoli in the oocytes. Interestingly, the number of lhb-expressing cells was very low (∼5-6 cells per pituitary) before this transition

  2. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  3. Regulation of the Subcellular Localization of Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase in Response to Physiological Stresses and Sexual Differentiation in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yasuhiro; McInnis, Brittney; Marcus, Stevan

    2008-01-01

    We describe regulation of the subcellular localization of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulatory (Cgs1p) and catalytic (Pka1p) subunits in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe in response to physiological stresses and during sexual differentiation as determined by fluorescence microscopy of the Cgs1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Pka1-GFP fusion proteins, respectively. In wild-type S. pombe cells cultured to log phase under normal growth conditions, Cgs1p and Pka1p are concentrated in the nucleus and more diffusely present in the cytoplasm. Nuclear localization of both proteins is dependent on cAMP, since in cells lacking adenylate cyclase they are detectable only in the cytoplasm. In cells lacking Cgs1p or both Cgs1p and adenylate cyclase, Pka1p is concentrated in the nucleus, demonstrating a role for Cgs1p in the nuclear exclusion of Pka1p. Nuclear-cytoplasmic redistribution of Cgs1p and Pka1p is triggered by growth in glucose-limited or hyperosmotic media and in response to stationary-phase growth. In addition, both proteins are excluded from the nucleus in mating cells undergoing karyogamy and subsequently concentrated in postmeiotic spores. Cgs1p is required for subcellular redistribution of Pka1p induced by growth in glucose-limited and hyperosmotic media and during karyogamy but is not required for Pka1p redistribution triggered by stationary-phase growth or for the enrichment of Pka1p in spores. Our results demonstrate that PKA localization is regulated by cAMP and regulatory subunit-dependent and -independent mechanisms in S. pombe. PMID:18621924

  4. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  5. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-01-01

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity. PMID:27609467

  6. Region-Specific Disruption of Adenylate Cyclase Type 1 Gene Differentially Affects Somatosensorimotor Behaviors in Mice(1,2,3).

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Akkentli, Fatih; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2014-01-01

    Cover FigureRegion-specific adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) loss of function differentially affects both patterning and sensorimotor behaviors in mice. AC1 is expressed at all levels of the somatosensory pathway and plays a major role in refinement and patterning of topographic sensory maps. Cortex-specific AC1 loss of function (CxAC1KO mice) does not affect barrel patterning and activation of specific barrels corresponding to stimulated whiskers and does not impair sensorimotor behaviors. While global (AC1KO) and thalamus-specific (ThAC1KO) AC1 loss of function leads to absence of barrel patterns, selective whisker stimulation activates topographically aligned cortical loci. Despite functional topography of the whisker-barrel cortex, sensorimotor and social behaviors are impaired, indicating the importance of patterning of topographical sensory maps in the neocortex. Adenylate cyclase type I (AC1) is primarily, and, abundantly, expressed in the brain. Intracellular calcium/calmodulin increases regulate AC1 in an activity-dependent manner. Upon stimulation, AC1 produces cAMP and it is involved in the patterning and the refinement of neural circuits. In mice, spontaneous mutations or targeted deletion of the Adcy1 gene, which encodes AC1, resulted in neuronal pattern formation defects. Neural modules in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, the barrels, which represent the topographic distribution of the whiskers on the snout, failed to form (Welker et al., 1996; Abdel-Majid et al., 1998). Cortex- or thalamus-specific Adcy1 deletions led to different cortical pattern phenotypes, with thalamus-specific disruption phenotype being more severe (Iwasato et al., 2008; Suzuki et al., 2013). Despite the absence of barrels in the "barrelless"/Adcy1 null mice, thalamocortical terminal bouton density and activation of cortical zones following whisker stimulation were roughly topographic (Abdel-Majid et al., 1998; Gheorghita et