Science.gov

Sample records for affects word identification

  1. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on…

  2. How Prior Knowledge Affects Word Identification and Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Sarah J.; Keenan, Janice M.; Miller, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    While prior knowledge of a passage topic is known to facilitate comprehension, little is known about how it affects word identification. We examined oral reading errors in good and poor readers when reading a passage where they either had prior knowledge of the passage topic or did not. Children who had prior knowledge of the topic were matched on decoding skill to children who did not know the topic so that the groups differed only on knowledge of the passage topic. Prior knowledge of the passage topic was found to significantly increase fluency and reduce reading errors, especially errors based on graphic information, in poor readers. Two possible mechanisms of how prior knowledge might operate to facilitate word identification were evaluated using the pattern of error types, as was the relationship of errors to comprehension. Implications of knowledge effects for assessment and educational policy are discussed. PMID:21799586

  3. Word frequency affects hypermnesia.

    PubMed

    Macie, K M; Larsen, J D

    1996-12-01

    Hypermnesia, the tendency of participants to recall more items from a list they have studied when they are asked to recall the list several times on a free-recall test, is enhanced by factors that lead to better performance on free-recall tests. This study tested the hypothesis that words which appear with high frequency in the English language would produce hypermnesia but that low frequency words would not. The activity the 57 participants were required to do between repeated recall tests was also manipulated but had no effect on the number of words recalled. High frequency words resulted in hypermnesia but low frequency words did not. PMID:9009796

  4. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  5. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  6. 9 CFR 590.860 - Identification wording.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification wording. 590.860 Section 590.860 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products...

  7. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create". PMID:21777466

  8. The Effect of Vocabulary Knowledge on Novel Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Alison M.; Brady, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and novel word reading. Fourth-grade students were assessed on standardized measures of word identification, decoding, and receptive vocabulary, as well as on an experimental word identification measure using words that students in the fourth grade are unlikely to have seen…

  9. Interfering Neighbours: The Impact of Novel Word Learning on the Identification of Visually Similar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Hanley, Derek A.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the impact of visual similarity on written word identification by having participants learn new words (e.g. BANARA) that were neighbours of familiar words that previously had no neighbours (e.g. BANANA). Repeated exposure to these new words made it more difficult to semantically categorize the familiar words. There was some evidence of…

  10. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  11. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  12. Semi-supervised word polarity identification in resource-lean languages.

    PubMed

    Dehdarbehbahani, Iman; Shakery, Azadeh; Faili, Heshaam

    2014-10-01

    Sentiment words, as fundamental constitutive parts of subjective sentences, have a substantial effect on analysis of opinions, emotions and beliefs. Most of the proposed methods for identifying the semantic orientations of words exploit rich linguistic resources such as WordNet, subjectivity corpora, or polarity tagged words. Shortage of such linguistic resources in resource-lean languages affects the performance of word polarity identification in these languages. In this paper, we present a method which exploits a language with rich subjectivity analysis resources (English) to identify the polarity of words in a resource-lean foreign language. The English WordNet and a sparse foreign WordNet infrastructure are used to create a heterogeneous, multilingual and weighted semantic network. To identify the semantic orientation of foreign words, a random walk based method is applied to the semantic network along with a set of automatically weighted English positive and negative seeds. In a post-processing phase, synonym and antonym relations in the foreign WordNet are used to filter the random walk results. Our experiments on English and Persian languages show that the proposed method can outperform state-of-the-art word polarity identification methods in both languages. PMID:24950956

  13. Prefix Identification in the Reading of Dutch Bisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Haarman, Vera

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to explore the role of prefix identification in the reading of Dutch bisyllabic words. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence exist. A case in point is the grapheme E which can represent the vowels epsilon, e and oe in polysyllabic words. In…

  14. Monitoring Early Reading Development in First Grade: Word Identification Fluency Versus Nonsense Word Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    This study contrasts the validity of 2 early reading curriculum-based measurement (CBM) measures: word identification fluency and nonsense word fluency. At-risk children (n = 151) were assessed (a) on criterion reading measures in the fall and spring of first grade and (b) on the 2 CBM measures each week for 7 weeks and twice weekly for an…

  15. Experiments in automatic word class and word sense identification for information retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Gauch, S.; Futrelle, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Automatic identification of related words and automatic detection of word senses are two long-standing goals of researchers in natural language processing. Word class information and word sense identification may enhance the performance of information retrieval system4ms. Large online corpora and increased computational capabilities make new techniques based on corpus linguisitics feasible. Corpus-based analysis is especially needed for corpora from specialized fields for which no electronic dictionaries or thesauri exist. The methods described here use a combination of mutual information and word context to establish word similarities. Then, unsupervised classification is done using clustering in the word space, identifying word classes without pretagging. We also describe an extension of the method to handle the difficult problems of disambiguation and of determining part-of-speech and semantic information for low-frequency words. The method is powerful enough to produce high-quality results on a small corpus of 200,000 words from abstracts in a field of molecular biology.

  16. Sub-word based Arabic handwriting analysis for writer identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliki, Makki; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2013-05-01

    Analysing a text or part of it is key to handwriting identification. Generally, handwriting is learnt over time and people develop habits in the style of writing. These habits are embedded in special parts of handwritten text. In Arabic each word consists of one or more sub-word(s). The end of each sub-word is considered to be a connect stroke. The main hypothesis in this paper is that sub-words are essential reflection of Arabic writer's habits that could be exploited for writer identification. Testing this hypothesis will be based on experiments that evaluate writer's identification, mainly using K nearest neighbor from group of sub-words extracted from longer text. The experimental results show that using a group of sub-words could be used to identify the writer with a successful rate between 52.94 % to 82.35% when top1 is used, and it can go up to 100% when top5 is used based on K nearest neighbor. The results show that majority of writers are identified using 7 sub-words with a reliability confident of about 90% (i.e. 90% of the rejected templates have significantly larger distances to the tested example than the distance from the correctly identified template). However previous work, using a complete word, shows successful rate of at most 90% in top 10.

  17. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  18. Orthographic Processing in Visual Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A series of 6 experiments involving 210 subjects from a college subject pool examined orthographic priming effects between briefly presented pairs of letter strings. A theory of othographic priming is presented, and the implications of the findings for understanding word recognition and reading are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Word Identification in the Intermediate and Middle Grades: Some Tenets and Practicalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Scott C.; Bilbow, Melissa

    2002-01-01

    Explores and enumerates best practice in the upper elementary and middle grades regarding word identification, including phonics and other subskills. Identifies 16 word identification strategies to attain eventual comprehension, including focusing on consonants, word sorting, chunking, and word building. Identifies less effective strategies such…

  20. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Identification Is Robust but Constrained: Evidence from the Picture-Word Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.; Mattys, Sven L.; Damian, Markus F.; Hanley, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Three picture-word interference (PWI) experiments assessed the extent to which embedded subset words are activated during the identification of spoken superset words (e.g., "bone" in "trombone"). Participants named aloud pictures (e.g., "brain") while spoken distractors were presented. In the critical condition, superset distractors contained a…

  1. Improving Word Identification Skills Using Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) Strategies. Research to Practice Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Christine D.; Clapper, Ann T.; Deshler, Donald D.

    This brief focuses on the word identification strategy component of the Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) and reviews recent research showing the effectiveness of this strategy for secondary students with disabilities. The word identification strategy is intended to help struggling readers decode and identify unfamiliar words and is based on the…

  2. Word Length and Word Frequency Affect Eye Movements in Dyslexic Children Reading in a Regular (German) Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrwachter, Ute; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Reinhard, Jens; Klosinski, Gunther; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    We combined independently the word length and word frequency to examine if the difficulty of reading material affects eye movements in readers of German, which has high orthographic regularity, comparing the outcome with previous findings available in other languages. Sixteen carefully selected German-speaking dyslexic children (mean age, 9.5…

  3. Commonalities and Differences in Word Identification Skills among Learners of English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    This study examined word identification skills between two groups of college students with different first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese and Korean) learning to read English as a second language (ESL). Word identification skills were tested in a naming experiment and an auditory category judgment task. Both groups of ESL learners demonstrated…

  4. Speech Perception Engages a General Timer: Evidence from a Divided Attention Word Identification Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casini, Laurence; Burle, Boris; Nguyen, Noel

    2009-01-01

    Time is essential to speech. The duration of speech segments plays a critical role in the perceptual identification of these segments, and therefore in that of spoken words. Here, using a French word identification task, we show that vowels are perceived as shorter when attention is divided between two tasks, as compared to a single task control…

  5. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  6. Does Word Length Affect Speech Onset Latencies when Producing Single Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Markus F.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Spalek, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Most models of spoken production predict that shorter utterances should be initiated faster than longer ones. However, whether word-length effects in single word production exist is at present controversial. A series of experiments did not find evidence for such an effect. First, an experimental manipulation of word length in picture naming showed…

  7. Repetition in visual word identification: benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Kipps, Tahli J; Matthews, Julian R

    2014-10-01

    University students performed lexical tasks with visually presented target words after the presentation of an identical or unrelated prime, at short (80-120 ms) or longer (410-710 ms) prime-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Experiment 1 showed perceptual identification benefits in vocal responding at a short SOA that were reduced (accuracy) or reversed (latency) at a longer SOA. Experiment 2 showed a transition from a repetition benefit to a cost over 3 SOAs in a target-masked version of the lexical decision task (LDT; target displayed for only 141 ms). In Experiment 3 the repetition cost was replicated at a 530-ms SOA in the LDT with masked targets, but a repetition benefit was observed in the conventional LDT (target displayed until response). The dependence of repetition costs on target masking is more consistent with biases based on episodic confusions than refractoriness of lexical representations. PMID:25248100

  8. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Word and Picture Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    Words and pictures with earlier learned labels are processed faster than words and pictures with later learned labels. This age-of-acquisition (AoA) effect has been extensively investigated in many different types of tasks. This article provides a review of these studies including picture naming, word naming, speeded word naming, word…

  9. The effects of the concreteness of differently valenced words on affective priming.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether affective priming is influenced by the concreteness of emotional words. To address this question, we conducted three experiments using lexical decision-priming task. In Experiment 1, positive-abstract (PA) and positive-concrete (PC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of positive words on affective priming, and in Experiment 2, negative-abstract (NA) and negative-concrete (NC) words were used as primes to examine the effect of the concreteness of negative words on affective priming. Results showed that participants responded faster to affectively congruent-abstract trails than incongruent-abstract trails in PA prime conditions, but for PC or negative word (NC and NA) prime conditions, there were no differences between the response times of congruent trails and incongruent trails. To examine the reliability of the priming effects observed in Experiments 1 and 2, we set up a neutral condition as a baseline in Experiment 3, through which we confirmed the difference in the affective priming effect between positive and negative primes in a concrete-abstract dimension. PA words were found to have the tendency to possess more emotional load and facilitate affective association between the prime and the target. The study finding suggests that aside from arousal and valence, the concreteness of positive words also has an impact on affective priming effect. PMID:23684852

  10. The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding

  11. A Developmental Investigation of Word Length Effects in Reading Using a New On-Line Word Identification Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijeljac-Babic, Ranka; Millogo, Victor; Farioli, Fernand; Grainger, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Third and fifth grade children (average age 8.6 and 10.6 years) and adult participants were tested with printed words of varying length in a new on-line identification task (the luminance increment paradigm, LIP) and a speeded naming task. Effects of general length (length in letters, phonemes and syllables) were shown to decrease systematically…

  12. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  13. Affective responses to emotional words are boosted in communicative situations.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Lana; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    Emotional verbal messages are typically encountered in meaningful contexts, for instance, during face-to-face communication in social situations. Yet, they are often investigated by confronting single participants with isolated words on a computer screen, thus potentially lacking ecological validity. In the present study we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during emotional word processing in communicative situations provided by videos of a speaker, assuming that emotion effects should be augmented by the presence of a speaker addressing the listener. Indeed, compared to non-communicative situations or isolated word processing, emotion effects were more pronounced, started earlier and lasted longer in communicative situations. Furthermore, while the brain responded most strongly to negative words when presented in isolation, a positivity bias with more pronounced emotion effects for positive words was observed in communicative situations. These findings demonstrate that communicative situations--in which verbal emotions are typically encountered--strongly enhance emotion effects, underlining the importance of social and meaningful contexts in processing emotional and verbal messages. PMID:25596462

  14. Distal Prosodic Context Affects Word Segmentation and Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Laura C.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of distal (i.e., nonlocal) prosody in word segmentation and lexical processing. In Experiment 1, prosodic characteristics of the initial five syllables of eight-syllable sequences were manipulated; the final portions of these sequences were lexically ambiguous (e.g., "note bookworm", "notebook worm"). Distal…

  15. How Word Frequency Affects Morphological Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated processing of morphologically complex words in three different frequency ranges in monolingual Finnish speakers and Finnish-Swedish bilinguals. By employing a visual lexical decision task, we found a differential pattern of results in monolinguals vs. bilinguals. Monolingual Finns seemed to process low frequency and…

  16. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    PubMed

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  17. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Anthony F.; Benitez, Viridian L.; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body – and its momentary posture – may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1–3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1–5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies’ momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6–9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge –not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping – but through the body’s momentary disposition in space. PMID:25785834

  18. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    PubMed

    Morse, Anthony F; Benitez, Viridian L; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space. PMID:25785834

  19. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  20. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)—that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word’s more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system. PMID:27152129

  1. Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500 ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400 m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. PMID:25656318

  2. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  3. Auditory word identification in dyslexic and normally achieving readers

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Keating, Patricia; Sperling, Anne J.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The integrity of phonological representation/processing in dyslexic children was explored with a gating task in which children listened to successively longer segments (gates) of a word. At each gate, the task was to decide what the entire word was. Responses were scored for overall accuracy as well as the children’s sensitivity to coarticulation from the final consonant. As a group, dyslexic children were less able than normally achieving readers to detect coarticulation present in the vowel portion of the word, particularly on the most difficult items, namely those ending in a nasal sound. Hierarchical regression and path analyses indicated that phonological awareness mediated the relation of gating and general language ability to word and pseudoword reading ability. PMID:17359994

  4. Mixing positive and negative valence: Affective-semantic integration of bivalent words.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J; Briesemeister, Benny B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. 'Bombensex' (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks. PMID:27491491

  5. Mixing positive and negative valence: Affective-semantic integration of bivalent words

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J.; Briesemeister, Benny B.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. ‘Bombensex’ (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks. PMID:27491491

  6. The adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian.

    PubMed

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    We developed affective norms for 1,121 Italian words in order to provide researchers with a highly controlled tool for the study of verbal processing. This database was developed from translations of the 1,034 English words present in the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW; Bradley & Lang, 1999) and from words taken from Italian semantic norms (Montefinese, Ambrosini, Fairfield, & Mammarella, Behavior Research Methods, 45, 440-461, 2013). Participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a Web survey procedure. Participants also provided evaluations of three subjective psycholinguistic indexes (familiarity, imageability, and concreteness), and five objective psycholinguistic indexes (e.g., word frequency) were also included in the resulting database in order to further characterize the Italian words. We obtained a typical quadratic relation between valence and arousal, in line with previous findings. We also tested the reliability of the present ANEW adaptation for Italian by comparing it to previous affective databases and performing split-half correlations for each variable. We found high split-half correlations within our sample and high correlations between our ratings and those of previous studies, confirming the validity of the adaptation of ANEW for Italian. This database of affective norms provides a tool for future research about the effects of emotion on human cognition. PMID:24150921

  7. Words That Fascinate the Listener: Predicting Affective Ratings of On-Line Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Felix; Staudt, Pascal; Schuller, Björn

    2013-01-01

    In a large scale study on 843 transcripts of Technology, Entertainment and Design (TED) talks, the authors address the relation between word usage and categorical affective ratings of lectures by a large group of internet users. Users rated the lectures by assigning one or more predefined tags which relate to the affective state evoked in the…

  8. The Impact of Orthographic Consistency on German Spoken Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to find out whether sound-to-spelling consistency has an impact on German spoken word processing, and whether such an impact is different at different stages of reading development. Four groups of readers (school children in the second, third and fifth grades, and university students)…

  9. Fluency: A Key Link between Word Identification and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Anthony S.; Hook, Pamela E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to respond to A. G. Kamhi's (2007) challenge to consider two points of view on reading--the broad and the narrow. Each point of view includes a component of the reading process; namely, comprehension and word recognition. Taken separately, each point of view is insufficient for our understanding of the…

  10. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  11. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects’ embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  12. Immersion versus Primary Language Effects for Growth in Spanish and English Letter-Word Identification among Children, Classrooms, and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates program effects (English immersion versus primary language instruction using varying degrees of Spanish) upon English and Spanish word identification in the context of changing classrooms (cross-classification) from kindergarten through second grade. Letter-word identification is an important predictor of early reading…

  13. Identification of Printed Nonsense Words for an Individual with Autism: A Comparison of Constant Time Delay and Stimulus Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redhair, Emily I.; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Caterino, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a stimulus fading (SF) procedure with a constant time delay (CTD) procedure for identification of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense words for a participant with autism. An alternating treatments design was utilized through a computer-based format. Receptive identification of target words was evaluated using a computer…

  14. Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-09-01

    Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages. PMID:24937349

  15. Sensitivity to Lateral Information on a Perceptual Word Identification Task in French Third and Fifth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khelifi, Rachid; Sparrow, Laurent; Casalis, Severine

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at examining sensitivity to lateral linguistic and nonlinguistic information in third and fifth grade readers. A word identification task with a threshold was used, and targets were displayed foveally with or without distractors. Sensitivity to lateral information was inferred from the deterioration of the rate of correct word…

  16. Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Effect of Sound Field Amplification on Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flexer, Carol; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Using sound field amplification which increased the intensity of the teacher's voice by 10 decibels, 9 primary-level children with developmental disabilities made fewer errors on a word identification task, were more relaxed, and responded more quickly than without amplification. (Author/JDD)

  17. Using Semantics, Grammar, Phonology, and Rapid Naming Tasks To Predict Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammill, Donald D.; Mather, Nancy; Allen, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Rhia

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of semantic, grammatical, phonological, and rapid naming abilities in predicting word identification skills in 200 children (grades 1-6) using correlation, factor analysis, multiple regression, and predictive outcome analysis techniques. Composite measures of these abilities correlated significantly…

  18. Using Word Identification Fluency to Monitor First-Grade Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading…

  19. Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived…

  20. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity. PMID:24061785

  1. Basic Emotions in the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL BE): New Method of Classifying Emotional Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Turnau, Paweł; Grabowska, Anna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL) has recently been introduced as a standardized database of Polish words suitable for studying various aspects of language and emotions. Though the NAWL was originally based on the most commonly used dimensional approach, it is not the only way of studying emotions. Another framework is based on discrete emotional categories. Since the two perspectives are recognized as complementary, the aim of the present study was to supplement the NAWL database by the addition of categories corresponding to basic emotions. Thus, 2902 Polish words from the NAWL were presented to 265 subjects, who were instructed to rate them according to the intensity of each of the five basic emotions: happiness, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The general characteristics of the present word database, as well as the relationships between the studied variables are shown to be consistent with typical patterns found in previous studies using similar databases for different languages. Here we present the Basic Emotions in the Nencki Affective Word List (NAWL BE) as a database of verbal material suitable for highly controlled experimental research. To make the NAWL more convenient to use, we introduce a comprehensive method of classifying stimuli to basic emotion categories. We discuss the advantages of our method in comparison to other methods of classification. Additionally, we provide an interactive online tool (http://exp.lobi.nencki.gov.pl/nawl-analysis) to help researchers browse and interactively generate classes of stimuli to meet their specific requirements. PMID:26148193

  2. Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Muses on the power of words and how they shape people's lives. Relates stories from the author's life illustrating this, and relates the author's (a writer of novels for children and young adults) struggles and rewards as she works with words. (SR)

  3. The hardest butter to button: immediate context effects in spoken word identification.

    PubMed

    Brock, Jon; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    According to some theories, the context in which a spoken word is heard has no impact on the earliest stages of word identification. This view has been challenged by recent studies indicating an interactive effect of context and acoustic similarity on language-mediated eye movements. However, an alternative explanation for these results is that participants looked less at acoustically similar objects in constraining contexts simply because they were looking more at other objects that were cued by the context. The current study addressed this concern whilst providing a much finer grained analysis of the temporal evolution of context effects. Thirty-two adults listened to sentences while viewing a computer display showing four objects. As expected, shortly after the onset of a target word (e.g., "button") in a neutral context, participants saccaded preferentially towards a cohort competitor of the word (e.g., butter). This effect was significantly reduced when the preceding verb made the competitor an unlikely referent (e.g., "Sam fastened the button"), even though there were no other contextually congruent objects in the display. Moreover, the time-course of these two effects was identical to within approximately 30 ms, indicating that certain forms of contextual information can have a near-immediate effect on word identification. PMID:23745798

  4. Phonological Neighborhood Competition Affects Spoken Word Production Irrespective of Sentential Context

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Neal P.; Reilly, Megan; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of phonologically similar neighbors on articulation of words’ initial stop consonants in order to investigate the conditions under which lexically-conditioned phonetic variation arises. In Experiment 1, participants produced words in isolation. Results showed that the voice-onset time (VOT) of a target’s initial voiceless stop was predicted by its overall neighborhood density, but not by its having a voicing minimal pair. In Experiment 2, participants read aloud the same targets after semantically predictive sentence contexts and after neutral sentence contexts. Results showed that, although VOTs were shorter in words produced after predictive contexts, the neighborhood density effect on VOT production persisted irrespective of context. These findings suggest that global competition from a word’s neighborhood affects spoken word production independently of contextual modulation and support models in which activation cascades automatically and obligatorily among all of a selected target word’s phonological neighbors during acoustic-phonetic encoding. PMID:26124538

  5. Continuing evaluation of the Queen's University tactile vocoder. I: Identification of open set words.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P L; Frost, B J; Mason, J L; Gibson, D M

    1986-01-01

    Identification of open set words, by an experienced normal hearing subject using the tactile vocoder developed at Queen's University, was examined. The tactile vocoder filters and processes the acoustic waveform into 16 filter channels, each of which controls a vibrator on the skin surface. After acquiring a 250-word vocabulary through the tactile vocoder, the subject was presented with three sets of 1000 different open set words in three reception conditions. The percentages of words correctly identified in the tactile vocoder (TV), lipreading (L), and lipreading plus tactile vocoder (L + TV) conditions were 8.8, 39.4, and 68.7 percent respectively. Phonemic analysis of stimulus/response pairs revealed that 36.7, 64.9 and 85.5 percent of the phonemes were correctly identified in TV, L, and L + TV conditions, respectively, indicating that incorrect-response words often contained many correct phonemes. Also, syllabic stress of stimulus and response words was identical 88 percent of the time in the TV condition. Important information about speech was transmitted through the tactile vocoder. PMID:3958993

  6. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845

  7. Affective norms of 875 Spanish words for five discrete emotional categories and two emotional dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J A; Martínez-García, N; Villalba-García, C; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Sánchez-Carmona, A; Pozo, M A; Montoro, P R

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we introduce affective norms for a new set of Spanish words, the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS), that were scored on two emotional dimensions (valence and arousal) and on five discrete emotional categories (happiness, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust), as well as on concreteness, by 660 Spanish native speakers. Measures of several objective psycholinguistic variables-grammatical class, word frequency, number of letters, and number of syllables-for the words are also included. We observed high split-half reliabilities for every emotional variable and a strong quadratic relationship between valence and arousal. Additional analyses revealed several associations between the affective dimensions and discrete emotions, as well as with some psycholinguistic variables. This new corpus complements and extends prior databases in Spanish and allows for designing new experiments investigating the influence of affective content in language processing under both dimensional and discrete theoretical conceptions of emotion. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials for this article from www.dropbox.com/s/o6dpw3irk6utfhy/Hinojosa%20et%20al_Supplementary%20materials.xlsx?dl=0 . PMID:25740761

  8. Improving the Efficacy of First Grade Reading Screening: An Investigation of Word Identification Fluency with Other Early Literacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…

  9. Using Word Identification Fluency to Monitor First-Grade Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Zumeta, Rebecca O; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading achievement (n = 202) and those with high/average achievement (n = 213). Data were collected weekly on broadly and narrowly sampled WIF lists for 15 weeks and on criterion measures in the fall and spring. Broad lists were developed by sampling words from 500 high-frequency words, whereas narrow lists were created by sampling from the 133 words from Dolch preprimer, primer, and first-grade word lists. Overall, predictive validity for performance level, predictive validity for growth, and commonality analysis showed narrow sampling was better for screening the representative group and the high/average subgroup. Broad sampling was superior for screening the low-achieving subgroup and for progress monitoring across groups. PMID:22736804

  10. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  11. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  12. Improved single-letter identification after whole-word training in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Irene; Domahs, Frank

    2009-06-01

    Pure alexia is characterised by a very time-consuming letter-by-letter reading strategy due to an impaired identification or integration of single letters. So far, therapy interventions have addressed impaired letter identification using specific single-letter training approaches. In the present study, we report patient KA with pure alexia and letter-by-letter reading. Contrary to common approaches, we investigated whether a whole-word reading approach can be successful despite severe impairments at the level of single-letter identification. As a first step, auditory-visual verification tasks were used to familiarise the patient with the training items, which in a second step were read with limited exposure duration. After a four week intervention, KA's word reading performance improved significantly for trained and control items in terms of speed and accuracy. Although not specifically addressed during our training programme, even single-letter identification and text reading performance increased significantly. However, the patient's reading was still based on a letter-by-letter strategy. PMID:19191066

  13. Dissociating the Influence of Affective Word Content and Cognitive Processing Demands on the Late Positive Potential.

    PubMed

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Ouyang, Guang; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin; Zhou, Changsong; Sommer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective stimuli in the event-related brain potential (ERP) is often assumed to be a member of the P3 family. The present study addresses the relationship of the LPP to the classic P3b in a published data set, using a non-parametric permutation test for topographical comparisons, and residue iteration decomposition to assess the temporal features of the LPP and the P3b by decomposing the ERP into several component clusters according to their latency variability. The experiment orthogonally manipulated arousal and valence of words, which were either read or judged for lexicality. High-arousing and positive valenced words induced a larger LPP than low-arousing and negative valenced words, respectively, and the LDT elicited a larger P3b than reading. The experimental manipulation of arousal, valence, and task yielded main effects without any interactions on ERP amplitude in the LPP/P3b time range. The arousal and valence effects partially differed from the task effect in scalp topography; in addition, whereas the late positive component elicited by affective stimuli, defined as LPP, was stimulus-locked, the late positive component elicited by task demand, defined as P3b, was mainly latency-variable. Therefore LPP and P3b manifest different subcomponents. PMID:26012382

  14. Does post-identification feedback affect evaluations of eyewitness testimony and identification procedures?

    PubMed

    Douglass, Amy Bradfield; Neuschatz, Jeffrey S; Imrich, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Miranda

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test whether post-identification feedback affects evaluations of eyewitnesses. In Experiment 1 (N = 156), evaluators viewed eyewitness testimony. They evaluated witnesses who received confirming post-identification feedback as more accurate and more confident, among other judgments, compared with witnesses who received disconfirming post-identification feedback or no feedback. This pattern persisted regardless of whether the witness's confidence statement was included in the testimony. In Experiment 2 (N = 161), witness evaluators viewed the actual identification procedure in which feedback was delivered. Instructions to disregard the feedback were manipulated. Again, witnesses who received confirming feedback were assessed more positively. This pattern occurred even when witness evaluators received instructions to disregard the feedback. These experiments are the first to confirm researchers' assumptions that feedback effects on witnesses translate to changes in judgments of those witnesses. PMID:19585229

  15. It Matters How Much You Talk: On the Automaticity of Affective Connotations of First and Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane; Doycheva, Cveta; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an affective priming study conducted with proficient sequential German and French bilinguals to assess automatic affective word processing in L1 and L2. Additionally, a semantic priming task was conducted in both languages. Whereas semantic priming effects occurred in L1 and L2, and significant affective priming effects…

  16. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

    2003-03-01

    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

  17. How variations in distance affect eyewitness reports and identification accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, R C L; Semmler, Carolyn; Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil; Lindsay, Marilyn R

    2008-12-01

    Witnesses observe crimes at various distances and the courts have to interpret their testimony given the likely quality of witnesses' views of events. We examined how accurately witnesses judged the distance between themselves and a target person, and how distance affected description accuracy, choosing behavior, and identification test accuracy. Over 1,300 participants were approached during normal daily activities, and asked to observe a target person at one of a number of possible distances. Under a Perception, Immediate Memory, or Delayed Memory condition, witnesses provided a brief description of the target, estimated the distance to the target, and then examined a 6-person target-present or target-absent lineup to see if they could identify the target. Errors in distance judgments were often substantial. Description accuracy was mediocre and did not vary systematically with distance. Identification choosing rates were not affected by distance, but decision accuracy declined with distance. Contrary to previous research, a 15-m viewing distance was not critical for discriminating accurate from inaccurate decisions. PMID:18253819

  18. Similarities Between Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Hearing Students' Awareness of Affective Words' Valence in Written Language.

    PubMed

    Li, Degao; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    An affective priming task was used with two cohorts of college students, one deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH), the other hearing, in two experiments. The same set of affective-word targets, preceded by "※※" in Experiment 1 but by affective-word primes of the same valence as the targets in Experiment 2, were presented vertically above or below the screen center. Stimuli that preceded the targets were shown at the screen center. D/HH participants generally performed more poorly than hearing participants, but both groups performed similarly in that both did better on the positive targets than on the negative in both experiments, and on supporting metaphorical associations between valence and vertical positions (Meier & Robinson, 2004), as indicated by reaction times, in Experiment 2. The researchers concluded that D/HH and hearing college students perform similarly in developing cognition-grounded representations of affective words in written language. PMID:27477038

  19. Identification of letters in the predesignated target paradigm: a word superiority effect for the common word the.

    PubMed

    Peterzell, D H; Sinclair, G P; Healy, A F; Bourne, L E

    1990-01-01

    The size of the perceptual unit used in reading was addressed using the predesignated target paradigm. Sixteen subjects viewed the following stimuli in random order: the words tee, the, tie, and toe; the nonwords eet, eht, eit, and eot; and the letters e, h, i, and o. Subjects fixated on the location of the center letter and identified the letter as e, h, i, or o, alternatives which were known to them at the onset. A word superiority effect was obtained for the common word the but not for the less common words tee, tie, and toe. The word superiority effect was attributable to bias rather than discriminability: Subjects exhibited a bias to perceive the words in this experiment as the (i.e., there was a bias to perceive h in the t e stimulus presentations). These results suggest that the common word the is processed in reading units that are larger than the letter, and that the system is biased to perceive common rather than uncommon words in data-limited conditions. PMID:2221192

  20. Using Arabic word identification fluency to monitor first-grade reading progress.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the applicability, reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the curriculum-based measurement word identification fluency (CBM WIF) measure in Jordanian students. A sample of 75 first-grade students, 50 average readers and 25 with reading difficulties, were recruited from two public primary schools. Results indicated that the CBM WIF is a reliable, valid and cost-effective measure. A 15-week trial demonstrated the effectiveness of using CBM WIF with the first-grade students. In addition, CBM WIF was a good predictor of grade point average in the native language. Moreover, students who were struggling with reading scored significantly lower on CBM WIF probes than did average readers. Results suggest that the CBM WIF measures may be useful for evaluating and predicting reading performance in Arabic. PMID:24375873

  1. Open-Set Word Identification by an Adult with Profound Hearing Impairment: Integration of Touch, Aided Hearing, and Speechreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The ability of an adult with profound hearing impairment to integrate speech information from touch, aided hearing, and speechreading in identification of open-set words was investigated. Results indicated that the subject integrated speech information across modalities, with highest performance in the condition including speechreading plus aided…

  2. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice. PMID:25496428

  3. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words. PMID:18942034

  4. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  5. Some Factors in Children's Identification of Key Words in Written Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Kennedy, Dale

    For this study of children's selection of key words, children in the first, third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grades were asked to identify which words, in their judgment, were key words in written materials. Relationship of these choices to skilled readers, to words derived from passage analysis, and to random selections of hypothetical subjects…

  6. Employees’ Organizational Identification and Affective Organizational Commitment: An Integrative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover. PMID:25875086

  7. Employees' organizational identification and affective organizational commitment: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Stinglhamber, Florence; Marique, Géraldine; Caesens, Gaëtane; Desmette, Donatienne; Hansez, Isabelle; Hanin, Dorothée; Bertrand, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have empirically supported the distinction between organizational identification (OI) and affective commitment (AC), there is still disagreement regarding how they are related. Precisely, little attention has been given to the direction of causality between these two constructs and as to why they have common antecedents and outcomes. This research was designed to fill these gaps. Using a cross-lagged panel design with two measurement times, Study 1 examined the directionality of the relationship between OI and AC, and showed that OI is positively related to temporal change in AC, confirming the antecedence of OI on AC. Using a cross-sectional design, Study 2 investigated the mediating role of OI in the relationship between three work experiences (i.e., perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and job autonomy) and AC, and found that OI partially mediates the influence of work experiences on AC. Finally, Study 3 examined longitudinally how OI and AC combine in the prediction of actual turnover, and showed that AC totally mediates the relationship between OI and turnover. Overall, these findings suggest that favorable work experiences operate via OI to increase employees' AC that, in turn, decreases employee turnover. PMID:25875086

  8. Case Study on the Effect of Word Repetition Method Supported by Neurological Affecting Model on Fluent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Erol

    2013-01-01

    This research is a case study which is a qualitative study model and named as example event as well. The purpose of this research is determining the effect of word repetitive reading method supported with neurological affecting model on fluent reading. In this study, False Analysis Inventory was used in order to determine the student's oral…

  9. Perceptual and lexical effects in letter identification: an event-related potential study of the word superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clara D; Nazir, Tatjana; Thierry, Guillaume; Paulignan, Yves; Démonet, Jean-François

    2006-07-01

    Most classical models of visual word recognition are based on sequentially organized levels of representation and involve feedback mechanisms to various extents. In this study, we aim at clarifying which of the early processing stages of visual word recognition are modulated by top-down lexical effects. We studied the identification of letters embedded in briefly presented words (e.g., TABLE) and illegal nonwords (e.g., GTFRS) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were involved in the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm: they were asked to indicate which of two letters displayed above and below a string of hashes was flashed immediately before at fixation within a letter string, which was either a word or a nonword. Event-related potentials were significantly modulated by the lexical status of stimuli around 200 ms after stimulus onset, i.e., in the peaking window of the N1 component. In light of our results, we propose that visual word form representations can constrain letter identification at a prelexical stage i.e., during the extraction of letter-shape information. In addition, we show that this facilitatory top-down effect is sensitive to stimulus exposure duration. PMID:16774747

  10. The left fusiform area is affected by written frequency of words.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    The recent neuroimaging literature gives conflicting evidence about whether the left fusiform gyrus (FG) might recognize words as unitary visual objects. The sensitivity of the left FG to word frequency might provide a neural basis for the orthographic input lexicon theorized by reading models [Patterson, K., Marshall, J. C., & Coltheart, M. (1985). Surface dyslexia: Cognitive and neuropsychological studies of phonological reading. London: Lawrence Erlbaum]. The goal of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of word processing in right-handed readers engaged in an orthographic decision task. Three hundred and twenty Italian words of high and low written frequency and 320 non-derived legal pseudo-words were presented for 250ms in the central visual field. ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites in 10 Italian University students. Behavioural data showed a word superiority effect, with faster RTs to words than pseudo-words. Left occipito/temporal N2 (240ms) was greater to high-frequency than low-frequency words and pseudo-words. According to the swLORETA inverse solution, the underlying neural source of this effect was located in the left fusiform gyrus of the occipital lobe (X=-29, Y=-66, Z=-10, BA19) and the right superior temporal gyrus (X=51, Y=6, Z=-5, BA22), which are probably involved in word recognition and semantic representation, respectively. Later frontal ERP components, LPN (300-350) and P3 (400-500), also showed strong lexical sensitivity, thus suggesting implicit semantic processes. The results shed some light on the possible neural substrate of visual reading disabilities such as developmental surface dyslexia or pure alexia. PMID:18485421

  11. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6–12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the “kidBAWL,” we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  12. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  13. The Low-Frequency Encoding Disadvantage: Word Frequency Affects Processing Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Rachel A.; Reder, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency words produce more hits and fewer false alarms than high-frequency words in a recognition task. The low-frequency hit rate advantage has sometimes been attributed to processes that operate during the recognition test (e.g., L. M. Reder et al., 2000). When tasks other than recognition, such as recall, cued recall, or associative…

  14. Syllables and Bigrams: Orthographic Redundancy and Syllabic Units Affect Visual Word Recognition at Different Processing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Markus; Carreiras, Manuel; Tamm, Sascha; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increasing evidence for syllabic processing during visual word recognition. If syllabic effects prove to be independent from orthographic redundancy, this would seriously challenge the ability of current computational models to account for the processing of polysyllabic words. Three experiments are presented to…

  15. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  16. Do Phonological Constraints on the Spoken Word Affect Visual Lexical Decision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Reading a word may involve the spoken language in two ways: in the conversion of letters to phonemes according to the conventions of the language's writing system and the assimilation of phonemes according to the language's constraints on speaking. If so, then words that require assimilation when uttered would require a change in the phonemes…

  17. The Left Fusiform Area Is Affected by Written Frequency of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    The recent neuroimaging literature gives conflicting evidence about whether the left fusiform gyrus (FG) might recognize words as unitary visual objects. The sensitivity of the left FG to word frequency might provide a neural basis for the orthographic input lexicon theorized by reading models [Patterson, K., Marshall, J. C., & Coltheart, M.…

  18. Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

  19. Long-term temporal tracking of speech rate affects spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin

    2014-08-01

    Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. PMID:24907119

  20. Aging and the inhibition of competing hypotheses during visual word identification: evidence from the progressive demasking task.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Alisa D; Sears, Christopher R; Scialfa, Charles T; Sulsky, Lorne M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used the progressive demasking (PD) task to examine age differences in the ability to inhibit higher frequency competitors during the process of identifying a visually degraded word. In Experiment 1, older adults exhibited a larger inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect (i.e., slower identification of words with many higher frequency competitors) than younger adults, but additional analyses indicated that this difference could be explained by general slowing rather than a deficit in inhibitory abilities. In Experiment 2, a primed version of the PD task was used to promote hypothesis testing by semantically priming the target word (e.g., cry-weep) or a higher frequency competitor of the target (e.g, day-weep) prior to the onset of the demasking sequence. Although older adults were more likely to make identification errors consistent with an inhibitory deficit (e.g., identifying weep as week), these errors were infrequent overall and there was no corresponding evidence of a larger interference effect in the older adults' identification latencies. Taken together, performance in these two tasks provides little evidence of reduced inhibitory functioning in older adults. The implications for the inhibitory deficit hypothesis of cognitive aging and directions for future are discussed. PMID:24801737

  1. Training by visual identification and writing leads to different visual word expertise N170 effects in preliterate Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei; Li, Su; Zhao, Jing; Gaspar, Carl M; Weng, Xuchu

    2015-10-01

    The N170 component of EEG evoked by visual words is an index of perceptual expertise for the visual word across different writing systems. In the present study, we investigated whether these N170 markers for Chinese, a very complex script, could emerge quickly after short-term learning (∼ 100 min) in young Chinese children, and whether early writing experience can enhance the acquisition of these neural markers for expertise. Two groups of preschool children received visual identification and free writing training respectively. Short-term character training resulted in selective enhancement of the N170 to characters, consistent with normal expert processing. Visual identification training resulted in increased N170 amplitude to characters in the right hemisphere, and N170 amplitude differences between characters and faces were decreased; whereas the amplitude difference between characters and tools increased. Writing training led to the disappearance of an initial amplitude difference between characters and faces in the right hemisphere. These results show that N170 markers for visual expertise emerge rapidly in young children after word learning, independent of the type of script young children learn; and visual identification and writing produce different effects. PMID:26409757

  2. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope

    PubMed Central

    Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  3. Aging Affects Identification of Vocal Emotions in Semantically Neutral Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors determined the accuracy of younger and older adults in identifying vocal emotions using the Toronto Emotional Speech Set (TESS; Dupuis & Pichora-Fuller, 2010a) and investigated the possible contributions of auditory acuity and suprathreshold processing to emotion identification accuracy. Method: In 2 experiments, younger…

  4. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  5. Unrecognized Cultural Conventions for Assessing Word Reading That Affect Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.; Thompson, G. Brian; Yamada, Megumi; Naka, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    In research on the acquisition of reading, there have been cross-orthographic comparisons made between some alphabetic scripts and a few syllabic scripts. In the present study of Japanese Grade 1 children learning to read hiragana, a syllabic script, there was a comparison of assessments of oral word reading accuracy levels recorded by scorers…

  6. Shared Book Reading: When and How Questions Affect Young Children's Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewitt, Pamela; Rump, Keiran M.; Shealy, Stephanie E.; Cook, Samantha A.

    2009-01-01

    Shared book reading, and the conversation that accompanies it, can facilitate young children's vocabulary growth. To identify the features of extratextual questions that help 3-year-olds learn unfamiliar words during shared book reading, two experiments explored the impact of cognitive demand level, placement, and an approximation to scaffolding.…

  7. Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically…

  8. Foveational Complexity in Single Word Identification: Contralateral Visual Pathways Are Advantaged over Ipsilateral Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obregon, Mateo; Shillcock, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of a single word is an elemental task in innumerable cognitive psychology experiments, but involves unexpected complexity. We test a controversial claim that the human fovea is vertically divided, with each half projecting to either the contralateral or ipsilateral hemisphere, thereby influencing foveal word recognition. We report a…

  9. The Effect of Social Dialect on Sound Blending and Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desberg, Peter; And Others

    This study investigated the effect of two social dialects, Black English (BE) and standard English (SE), and word frequency on performance in blending and word recognition. The subjects were 60 second-grade children from three ethnic groups: 20 white SE speaking children, 20 black BE speaking children, and 20 black SE speaking children. The…

  10. Language Membership Identification Precedes Semantic Access: Suppression during Bilingual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research suggests that bilingual comprehenders access lexical representations of words in both languages nonselectively. However, it is unclear whether global language suppression plays a role in guiding attention to target language representations during ongoing lexico-semantic processing. To help clarify this issue, this study examined the relative timing of language membership and meaning activation during visual word recognition. Spanish-English bilinguals performed simultaneous semantic and language membership classification tasks on single words during EEG recording. Go/no-go ERP latencies provided evidence that language membership information was accessed before semantic information. Furthermore, N400 frequency effects indicated that the depth of processing of words in the nontarget language was reduced compared to the target language. These results suggest that the bilingual brain can rapidly identify the language to which a word belongs and subsequently use this information to selectively modulate the degree of processing in each language accordingly. PMID:26102228

  11. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  12. Identification of Drosophila Mutants Affecting Defense to an Entomopathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Jonathan B.; Brown, Markus A.; Euerle, Christopher; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi cause the majority of insect disease. However, to date attempts to model host–fungal interactions with Drosophila have focused on opportunistic human pathogens. Here, we performed a screen of 2,613 mutant Drosophila lines to identify host genes affecting susceptibility to the natural insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma549). Overall, 241 (9.22%) mutant lines had altered resistance to Ma549. Life spans ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 days, with females being more susceptible than males in all lines. Speed of kill correlated with within-host growth and onset of sporulation, but total spore production is decoupled from host genotypes. Results showed that mutations affected the ability of Drosophila to restrain rather than tolerate infections and suggested trade-offs between antifungal and antibacterial genes affecting cuticle and gut structural barriers. Approximately, 13% of mutations where in genes previously associated with host pathogen interactions. These encoded fast-acting immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis, encapsulation and melanization but not the slow-response induction of anti-fungal peptides. The non-immune genes impact a wide variety of biological functions, including behavioral traits. Many have human orthologs already implicated in human disorders; while others were mutations in protein and non-protein coding genes for which disease resistance was the first biological annotation. PMID:26202798

  13. Language affects symbolic arithmetic in children: the case of number word inversion.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Silke M; Moeller, Korbinian; Pixner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Specific language influences have been observed in basic numerical tasks such as magnitude comparison, transcoding, and the number line estimation task. However, so far language influences in more complex calculations have not been reported in children. In this translingual study, 7- to 9-year-old German- and Italian-speaking children were tested on a symbolic addition task. Whereas the order of tens and units in Italian number words follows the order of the Arabic notation, the order is inverted in German number words. For both language groups, addition problems were more difficult when a carry operation was needed, that is, when a manipulation within the place-value structure of the Arabic number system was particularly important. Most important, this carry effect was more pronounced in response latencies for children speaking German, a language with inverted verbal mapping of the place-value structure. In addition, independent of language group, the size of the carry effect was significantly related to verbal working memory. The current study indicates that symbolic arithmetic and the carry effect in particular are modulated by language-specific characteristics. Our results underline the fact that the structure of the language of instruction is an important factor in children's mathematical education and needs to be taken into account even for seemingly nonverbal symbolic Arabic tasks. PMID:24269580

  14. Base-language effects on word identification in bilingual speech: evidence from categorical perception experiments.

    PubMed

    Bürki-Cohen, J; Grosjean, F; Miller, J L

    1989-01-01

    The categorical perception paradigm was used to investigate whether French-English bilinguals categorize a code-switched word as French or English on the basis of its acoustic-phonetic information alone or whether they are influenced by the base-language context in which the word occurs, that is, by the language in which the majority of words are spoken. Subjects identified stimuli from computer-edited series that ranged from an English to a French word as either the English or the French endpoint. The stimuli were preceded by either an English or a French context sentence. In accord with previous studies (Grosjean, 1988), it was found that the base language had a contrastive effect on the perception of a code-switched word when the endpoints of the between-language series were phonetically marked as English and French, respectively. When the endpoints of the series were phonetically unmarked and thus compatible with either language, however, no effect of the base language was found; in particular, we failed to find the assimilative effect that has been observed with other paradigms (Grosjean, 1988; Soares and Grosjean, 1984; Macnamara and Kushnir, 1971). The current results provide confirming evidence that the perception of a code-switched word is influenced by the base-language context in which it occurs and, moreover, that the nature of the effect depends on the acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the code-switched word. In addition, the finding that a contrastive effect occurs across all paradigms used to date, but that an assimilative effect occurs in only some paradigms, suggests that these two context effects may arise at different stages of processing. PMID:2485850

  15. Identification of loci affecting flavour volatile emissions in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise M; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric A; Taylor, Mark G; Bliss, Peter; Kirst, Matias; Klee, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    Fresh tomato fruit flavour is the sum of the interaction between sugars, acids, and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids, and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perceived. As a first step to identify the genes responsible for the synthesis of flavour-related chemicals, an attempt was made to identify loci that influence the chemical composition of ripe fruits. A genetically diverse but well-defined Solanum pennellii IL population was used. Because S. pennellii is a small green-fruited species, this population exhibits great biochemical diversity and is a rich source of genes affecting both fruit development and chemical composition. This population was used to identify multiple loci affecting the composition of chemicals related to flavour. Twenty-five loci were identified that are significantly altered in one or more of 23 different volatiles and four were altered in citric acid content. It was further shown that emissions of carotenoid-derived volatiles were directly correlated with the fruit carotenoid content. Linked molecular markers should be useful for breeding programmes aimed at improving fruit flavour. In the longer term, the genes responsible for controlling the levels of these chemicals will be important tools for understanding the complex interactions that ultimately integrate to provide the unique flavour of a tomato. PMID:16473892

  16. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms. PMID:27483739

  17. Optokinetic Stimulation Affects Word Omissions but Not Stimulus-Centered Reading Errors in Paragraph Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Stefan; Schindler, Igor; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere lesions often omit or misread words on the left side of a text or the initial letters of single words, a phenomenon termed neglect dyslexia (ND). Omissions of words on the contralesional side of the page are considered as egocentric or space-based errors, whereas misread words can be viewed as a type of…

  18. Identification of mutations in Colombian patients affected with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alfredo; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Palacios, Maria Fernanda; Ospina, Sandra Yaneth; Pasqualim, Gabriela; da Silveira Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions. PMID:26297554

  19. Reading words and other people: A comparison of exception word, familiar face and affect processing in the left and right temporal variants of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Pressman, Peter S; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Narvid, Jared; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Strain, Paul J; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) typically presents with left-hemisphere predominant rostral temporal lobe (rTL) atrophy and the most significant complaints within the language domain. Less frequently, patients present with right-hemisphere predominant temporal atrophy coupled with marked impairments in processing of famous faces and emotions. Few studies have objectively compared these patient groups in both domains and therefore it is unclear to what extent the syndromes overlap. Clinically diagnosed svPPA patients were characterized as left- (n = 21) or right-predominant (n = 12) using imaging and compared along with 14 healthy controls. Regarding language, our primary focus was upon two hallmark features of svPPA; confrontation naming and surface dyslexia. Both groups exhibited naming deficits and surface dyslexia although the impairments were more severe in the left-predominant group. Familiarity judgments on famous faces and affect processing were more profoundly impaired in the right-predominant group. Our findings suggest that the two syndromes overlap significantly but that early cases at the tail ends of the continuum constitute a challenge for current clinical criteria. Correlational neuroimaging analyses implicated a mid portion of the left lateral temporal lobe in exception word reading impairments in line with proposals that this region is an interface between phonology and semantic knowledge. PMID:27389800

  20. Sensitivity to morphological composition in spoken word recognition: Evidence from grammatical and lexical identification tasks.

    PubMed

    Gwilliams, Laura E; Monahan, Philip J; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-11-01

    Access to morphological structure during lexical processing has been established across a number of languages; however, it remains unclear which constituents are held as mental representations in the lexicon. The present study examined the auditory recognition of different noun types across 2 experiments. The critical manipulations were morphological complexity and the presence of a verbal derivation or nominalizing suffix form. Results showed that nominalizations, such as "explosion," were harder to classify as a noun but easier to classify as a word when compared with monomorphemic words with similar actionlike semantics, such as "avalanche." These findings support the claim that listeners decompose morphologically complex words into their constituent units during processing. More specifically, the results suggest that people hold representations of base morphemes in the lexicon. PMID:25961359

  1. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  2. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy. PMID:16574302

  3. False Memories Lack Perceptual Detail: Evidence from Implicit Word-Stem Completion and Perceptual Identification Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, J.L.; Starns, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We used implicit measures of memory to ascertain whether false memories for critical nonpresented items in the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) contain structural and perceptual detail. In Experiment 1, we manipulated presentation modality in a visual word-stem-completion task. Critical item priming was significant and…

  4. The Role of Stress, Position and Intonation in the Representation and Identification of Early Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, Catharine H.

    Two studies examined children's perceptual biases in extracting or identifying words from the stream of speech. In one study, evidence for the salience of stressed and final syllables was found. Young children less frequently omitted those syllables from their productions and produced unstressed and nonfinal syllables less accurately. A second…

  5. The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence. Points out problems with the model and proposes a new model, the BIA+. The new model extends the old one by adding phonological and semantic lexical representations to the available orthographic ones, and assigns a different role to the so-called…

  6. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. Results: The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses

  7. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

  8. Affective Priming in a Lexical Decision Task: Is There an Effect of Words' Concreteness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferré, Pilar; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Affective priming occurs when responses to a target are facilitated when it is preceded by a prime congruent in valence. We conducted two experiments in order to test whether this is a genuine emotional effect or rather it can be accounted for by semantic relatedness between primes and targets. With this aim, semantic relatedness and emotional…

  9. How Single or Multiple Pitch Labels Affect Young Children's Identification of Pitch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…

  10. What Lexical Information Do L2 Learners Select in a CALL Dictionary and How Does It Affect Word Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Hill, Monica

    This study investigated the relationship between what people looked up about new words when different kinds of information were available and how well they remembered those words. Dictionary information was incorporated into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) program comprised of text, highlighted low-frequency words, and access to…

  11. Modern contaminants affecting microscopic residue analysis on stone tools: A word of caution.

    PubMed

    Pedergnana, A; Asryan, L; Fernández-Marchena, J L; Ollé, A

    2016-07-01

    Residue analysis is a method frequently used to infer the function of stone tools and it is very often applied in combination with use-wear analysis. Beyond its undeniable potential, the method itself has several intrinsic constraints. Apart from the exceptional circumstances necessary for residues to survive, the correct identification of the residue type is a very debatable topic. Before attempting to recognise ancient residues, a proper method should allow analysts to identify possible modern contaminants and exclude them from the final interpretation. Therefore, analysts should not underestimate the presence of modern contaminants and might learn how to discriminate the background noise due to handling. The main aim of this research is to provide some methodological improvements to residue analysis through the characterisation of some modern residues often present on the surface of stone tools (e.g. skin flakes, modelling clay). This characterisation was done by using both optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, a special care in the post-excavation treatment of stone tools is claimed in order to avoid major contamination of the samples. PMID:27113340

  12. Rasch Analysis of Word Identification and Magnitude Estimation Scaling Responses in Measuring Naive Listeners' Judgments of Speech Intelligibility of Children with Severe-to-Profound Hearing Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltyukova, Svetlana A.; Stone, Gregory M.; Ellis, Lee W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Speech intelligibility research typically relies on traditional evidence of reliability and validity. This investigation used Rasch analysis to enhance understanding of the functioning and meaning of scores obtained with 2 commonly used procedures: word identification (WI) and magnitude estimation scaling (MES). Method: Narrative samples…

  13. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described. PMID:22379714

  14. The Role of Native-Language Phonology in the Auditory Word Identification and Visual Word Recognition of Russian-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic…

  15. The Effects of Perceptual Similarity and Category Membership on Early Word-Referent Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the impact of perceptual and categorical relatedness between a target and a distracter object on early referent identification in infants and adults. In an intermodal preferential looking (IPL) task, participants looked at a target object paired with a distracter object that could be perceptually similar or dissimilar and drawn…

  16. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  17. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  18. "Fahrenheit 9-11," Need for Closure and the Priming of Affective Ambivalence: An Assessment of Intra-Affective Structures by Party Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbert, R. Lance; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    This study extends priming research in political communication by focusing on an alternative political information source (i.e., Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9-11), affect rather than cognitions, and the existence of intra-affective ambivalence. In addition, two moderator variables are analyzed: political party identification and need for closure.…

  19. [Containing, right hemisphere: projective identification as an interpersonal mechanism, the ability for affect regulation].

    PubMed

    Becker, Tobias; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of affect regulation develops with priority in reciprocal, non-verbal communication processes between the early caregiver and the baby. In this process, the projective identification plays the role of crucial means of communication. Processes of projective identification which emerge in therapeutic and educational interactions can be understood as such an early form of communication which contributes to the afterward-ripening of the capacity of affect regulation. Before the background of recent neuro-psychological findings it becomes clear, why the reciprocal and non-verbal communication between the early caregiver and infant as well as between the therapist and the patient is of such fundamental importance for the structural (re-) maturation of the right cerebral hemisphere, as well as for the connections between the left and right hemisphere. In case the projective identification persists as a defensive strategy in dealing with other people, pathological interaction circles can develop which can be overcome only when, for example, the other person assumes the role of the "regulating other". PMID:22957395

  20. Pre-learning stress differentially affects long-term memory for emotional words, depending on temporal proximity to the learning experience.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Clark, Brianne; Warnecke, Ashlee; Smith, Lindsay; Tabar, Jennifer; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2011-07-01

    Stress exerts a profound, yet complex, influence on learning and memory and can enhance, impair or have no effect on these processes. Here, we have examined how the administration of stress at different times before learning affects long-term (24-hr) memory for neutral and emotional information. Participants submerged their dominant hand into a bath of ice cold water (Stress) or into a bath of warm water (No stress) for 3 min. Either immediately (Exp. 1) or 30 min (Exp. 2) after the water bath manipulation, participants were presented with a list of 30 words varying in emotional valence. The next day, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via free recall and recognition tests. In both experiments, stressed participants exhibited greater blood pressure, salivary cortisol levels, and subjective pain and stress ratings than non-stressed participants in response to the water bath manipulation. Stress applied immediately prior to learning (Exp. 1) enhanced the recognition of positive words, while stress applied 30 min prior to learning (Exp. 2) impaired free recall of negative words. Participants' recognition of positive words in Experiment 1 was positively associated with their heart rate responses to the water bath manipulation, while participants' free recall of negative words in Experiment 2 was negatively associated with their blood pressure and cortisol responses to the water bath manipulation. These findings indicate that the differential effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory may depend on the temporal proximity of the stressor to the learning experience and the emotional nature of the to-be-learned information. PMID:21262248

  1. Lexical-semantic variables affecting picture and word naming in Chinese: a mixed logit model study in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi, Davide; Che, Wei-Chun; Su, I-Fan; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Lexical-semantic variables (such as word frequency, imageability and age of acquisition) have been studied extensively in neuropsychology to address the structure of the word production system. The evidence available on this issue is still rather controversial, mainly because of the very complex interrelations between lexical-semantic variables. Moreover, it is not clear whether the results obtained in Indo-European languages also hold in languages with a completely different structure and script, such as Chinese. The objective of the present study is to investigate this specific issue by studying the effect of word frequency, imageability, age of acquisition, visual complexity of the stimuli, grammatical class and morphological structure in word and picture naming in Chinese. The effect of these variables on naming and reading accuracy of healthy and brain-damaged individuals is evaluated using mixed-effect models, a statistical technique that allows to model both fixed and random effects; this feature substantially enhances the statistical power of the technique, so that several variables - and their complex interrelations - can be handled effectively in a unique analysis. We found that grammatical class interacts consistently across tasks with morphological structure: all participants, both healthy and brain-damaged, found simple nouns significantly easier to read and name than complex nouns, whereas simple and complex verbs were of comparable difficulty. We also found that imageability was a strong predictor in picture naming, but not in word naming, whereas the contrary held true for age of acquisition. These results are taken to indicate the existence of a morphological level of processing in the Chinese word production system, and that reading aloud may occur along a non-semantic route (either lexical or sub-lexical) in this language. PMID:22713389

  2. The role of temporal cues in word identification by younger and older adults: Effects of sentence context

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace; Fitzgibbons, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Prior investigations, using isolated words as stimuli, have shown that older listeners tend to require longer temporal cues than younger listeners to switch their percept from one word to its phonetically contrasting counterpart. The extent to which this age effect occurs in sentence contexts is investigated in the present study. The hypothesis was that perception of temporal cues differs for words presented in isolation and a sentence context and that this effect may vary between younger and older listeners. Younger and older listeners with normal-hearing and older listeners with hearing loss identified phonetically contrasting word pairs in natural speech continua that varied by a single temporal cue: voice-onset time, vowel duration, transition duration, and silent interval duration. The words were presented in isolation and in sentences. A context effect was shown for most continua, in which listeners required longer temporal cues in sentences than in isolated words. Additionally, older listeners required longer cues at the crossover points than younger listeners for most but not all continua. In general, the findings support the conclusion that older listeners tend to require longer target temporal cues than younger normal-hearing listeners in identifying phonetically contrasting word pairs in isolation and sentence contexts. PMID:19045808

  3. Factors and Trends Affecting the Identification of a Reliable Biomarker for Diesel Exhaust Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human exposures to diesel exhaust continues to be a vexing problem for specialists seeking information on the potential health effects of this ubiquitous combustion product. Exposure biomarkers have yielded a potential solution to this problem by providing a direct measure of an individual's contact with key components in the exhaust stream. Spurred by the advent of new, highly sensitive, analytical methods capable of detecting substances at very low levels, there have been numerous attempts at identifying a stable and specific biomarker. Despite these new techniques, there is currently no foolproof method for unambiguously separating diesel exhaust exposures from those arising from other combustion sources. Diesel exhaust is a highly complex mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous components whose exact composition can be affected by many variables, including engine technology, fuel composition, operating conditions, and photochemical aging. These factors together with those related to exposure methodology, epidemiological necessity, and regulatory reform can have a decided impact on the success or failure of future research aimed at identifying a suitable biomarker of exposure. The objective of this review is to examine existing information on exposure biomarkers for diesel exhaust and to identify those factors and trends that have had an impact on the successful identification of metrics for both occupational and community settings. The information will provide interested parties with a template for more thoroughly understanding those factors affecting diesel exhaust emissions and for identifying those substances and research approaches holding the greatest promise for future success. PMID:25170242

  4. Factors and Trends Affecting the Identification of a Reliable Biomarker for Diesel Exhaust Exposure.

    PubMed

    Morgott, David A

    2014-08-01

    The monitoring of human exposures to diesel exhaust continues to be a vexing problem for specialists seeking information on the potential health effects of this ubiquitous combustion product. Exposure biomarkers have yielded a potential solution to this problem by providing a direct measure of an individual's contact with key components in the exhaust stream. Spurred by the advent of new, highly sensitive, analytical methods capable of detecting substances at very low levels, there have been numerous attempts at identifying a stable and specific biomarker. Despite these new techniques, there is currently no foolproof method for unambiguously separating diesel exhaust exposures from those arising from other combustion sources. Diesel exhaust is a highly complex mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous components whose exact composition can be affected by many variables, including engine technology, fuel composition, operating conditions, and photochemical aging. These factors together with those related to exposure methodology, epidemiological necessity, and regulatory reform can have a decided impact on the success or failure of future research aimed at identifying a suitable biomarker of exposure. The objective of this review is to examine existing information on exposure biomarkers for diesel exhaust and to identify those factors and trends that have had an impact on the successful identification of metrics for both occupational and community settings. The information will provide interested parties with a template for more thoroughly understanding those factors affecting diesel exhaust emissions and for identifying those substances and research approaches holding the greatest promise for future success. PMID:25170242

  5. Patient characteristics affecting stroke identification by emergency medical service providers in Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohit; Helzner, Elizabeth; Sinert, Richard; Levine, Steven Richard; Brandler, Ethan Samuel

    2016-03-01

    Early identification of stroke should begin in the prehospital phase because the benefits of thrombolysis and clot extraction are time dependent. This study aims to identify patient characteristics that affect prehospital identification of stroke by Long Island college hospital (LICH) emergency medical services (EMS). All suspected strokes brought to LICH by LICH ambulances from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 were included in the study. We compared prehospital care report-based diagnosis against the get with the guidelines (GWTG) database. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were used to study that the effect of individual patient characteristics have on EMS providers' diagnosis. Included in the study were 10,384 patients with mean age 43.9 years. Of whom, 75 had a GWTG cerebrovascular diagnosis: 53 were ischemic strokes, 7 transient ischemic attacks, 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 12 intercerebral bleeds. LICH EMS correctly identified 44 of 75 GWTG strokes. Fifty-one patients were overcalled as stroke by the EMS. Overall EMS sensitivity was 58.7 % and specificity was 99.5 %. Dispatcher call type of altered mental status, stroke, unconsciousness, and increasing prehospital blood pressure quartile were found to be significantly predictive of a true stroke diagnosis. Patients with a past medical history and EMS providers' impression of seizures were more likely to be overcalled as a stroke in the field. More than a third of actual stroke patients were missed in the field in our study. Our results show that the patients' past medical history, dispatcher collected information and prehospital vital sign measurements are associated with a true diagnosis of stroke. PMID:26553585

  6. Intensive instruction affects brain magnetic activity associated with oral word reading in children with persistent reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Fletcher, Jack M; Sarkari, Shirin; Billingsley-Marshall, Rebecca; Denton, Carolyn A; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen children ages 7 to 9 years who had persistent reading difficulties despite adequate instruction were provided with intensive tutorial interventions. The interventions targeted deficient phonological processing and decoding skills for 8 weeks (2 hours per day) followed by an 8-week, 1-hour-per-day intervention that focused on the development of reading fluency skills. Spatiotemporal brain activation profiles were obtained at baseline and after each 8-week intervention program using magnetoencephalography during the performance of an oral sight-word reading task. Changes in brain activity were found in the posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus (Brodmann's Area [BA] 21: increased degree of activity and reduced onset latency), the lateral occipitotemporal region (BA 19/37: decreased onset latency of activation), and the premotor cortex (increased onset latency). Overall changes associated with the intervention were primarily normalizing, as indicated by (a) increased activity in a region that is typically involved in lexical--semantic processing (BA 21) and (b) a shift in the relative timing of regional activity in temporal and frontal cortices to a pattern typically seen in unimpaired readers. These findings extend previous results in demonstrating significant changes in the spatiotemporal profile of activation associated with word reading in response to reading remediation. PMID:17274546

  7. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  8. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  9. Evidence of Alphabetic Knowledge in Writing: Connections to Letter and Word Identification Skills in Preschool and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Armstrong, Natalie E.; Culver, Brittany L.; White, Jamie M.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    The writing skills of 286 children (157 female and 129 male) were studied by comparing name writing and letter writing scores from preschool to kindergarten with letter and word reading scores over the same time period. Two rubrics for scoring writing were compared to determine if scores based on multiple components (i.e., letter formation,…

  10. Repetition of Words and Non-Words in Typically Developing Children: The Role of Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundström, Simon; Samuelsson, Christina; Lyxell, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, segmental and prosodic aspects of word repetition and non-word repetition in typically developing children aged four to six years were investigated. Focus was on developmental differences, and on how tonal word accent and word length affect segment production accuracy. Prosodically controlled words and non-words were repeated by 44…

  11. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  12. Monoclonal antibody identification of subpopulations of cerebral cortical neurons affected in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C A; Rudnicka, M; Hinton, D R; Blanks, J C; Kozlowski, M

    1987-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). Given the paucity of molecular markers available for the identification of neuronal subtypes, the specificity of neuronal loss within the cerebral cortex has been difficult to evaluate. With a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) applied to central nervous system tissues from AD patients, we have immunocytochemically identified a population of vulnerable cortical neurons; a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons is recognized by mABs 3F12 and 44.1 in the hippocampus and neocortex, and clusters of multipolar neurons in the entorhinal cortex reactive with mAb 44.1 show selective degeneration. Closely adjacent stellate-like neurons in these regions, identified by mAB 6A2, show striking preservation in AD. The neurons recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1, to the best of our knowledge, do not comprise a single known neurotransmitter system. mAb 3A4 identifies a phosphorylated antigen that is undetectable in normal brain but accumulates early in the course of AD in somas of vulnerable neurons. Antigen 3A4 is distinct from material reactive with thioflavin S or antibody generated against paired helical filaments. Initially, antigen 3A4 is localized to neurons in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum, later in the association neocortex, and, ultimately in cases of long duration, in primary sensory cortical regions. mAb 3F12 recognizes multiple bands on immunoblots of homogenates of normal and AD cortical tissues, whereas mAb 3A4 does not bind to immunoblots containing neurofilament proteins or brain homogenates from AD patients. Ultrastructurally, antigen 3A4 is localized to paired helical filaments. Using these mAbs, further molecular characterization of the affected cortical neurons is now possible. Images PMID:3120196

  13. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    little adsorption to soil colloidal particles. However, other ions such as sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium also displayed significant increases in concentration in July. This can be explained by the movements of soluble salt to the surface due to evaporation and capillary rise and subsequent precipitation of the salts during high temperatures and low rainfall. Rainfall or irrigation events enhance the leaching of salts to deeper soil horizons. The most affected area is located in the west of the study area, at the lowest altitude within the study area. Depressions favour accumulation of salts, due to both runoffs from higher areas during rainfall periods and poor quality irrigation water. It is recommended to use a better quality of water, at least before the summer, in order to reduce the amount of salts in the surface layer, likely to cause stress to crops growing on the soil in question. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of anions in the soil solution is very useful for predicting where higher increases in salinity will be produced. This will allow for identification of vulnerable areas and subsequent implementation of the necessary measures to decrease the risk for sensitive crops. Acknowledgements: to "Fundación Séneca" of "Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia" for its financial support.

  14. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  15. Character Decomposition and Transposition Processes in Chinese Compound Words Modulates Attentional Blink.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongwen; Gao, Min; Yan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is the phenomenon in which the identification of the second of two targets (T2) is attenuated if it is presented less than 500 ms after the first target (T1). Although the AB is eliminated in canonical word conditions, it remains unclear whether the character order in compound words affects the magnitude of the AB. Morpheme decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words can provide an effective means to examine AB priming and to assess combinations of the component representations inherent to visual word identification. In the present study, we examined the processing of consecutive targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm using Chinese two-character compound words in which the two characters were transposed to form meaningful words or meaningless combinations (reversible, transposed, or canonical words). We found that when two Chinese characters that form a compound word, regardless of their order, are presented in an RSVP sequence, the likelihood of an AB for the second character is greatly reduced or eliminated compared to when the two characters constitute separate words rather than a compound word. Moreover, the order of the report for the two characters is more likely to be reversed when the normal order of the two characters in a compound word is reversed, especially when the interval between the presentation of the two characters is extremely short. These findings are more consistent with the cognitive strategy hypothesis than the resource-limited hypothesis during character decomposition and transposition of Chinese two-character compound words. These results suggest that compound characters are perceived as a unit, rather than two separate words. The data further suggest that readers could easily understand the text with character transpositions in compound words during Chinese reading. PMID:27379003

  16. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer’s Disease Affected Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation. Methods The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD) from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC), Hippocampus (HIP), Middle temporal gyrus (MTG), Posterior cingulate cortex (PC), Superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and visual cortex (VCX) brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets. Results We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD

  17. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  18. How Identification Processes and Inter-Community Relationships Affect Sense of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannarini, Terri; Rochira, Alessia; Talo, Cosimo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Social Identity and Social Categorization Theory framework, this study investigated how identification with the physical component of a community (i.e., the place identity), the perception of a community (i.e., the ingroup) in terms of cohesion and entitativity, and the perception of one or more territorial communities as laying…

  19. The role of selective attention in perceptual and affective priming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of perceptual priming (word identification and word fragment completion), as well as preference priming (that may rely on special affective mechanisms) were examined after participants either read or named the colors of words and nonwords at study. Participants named the colors of words more slowly than the colors of nonwords, indicating that lexical processing of the words occurred at study. Nonetheless, priming on all three tests was lower after color naming than after reading, despite evidence of lexical processing during color naming shown by slower responses to words than to nonwords. These results indicate that selective attention to (rather than the mere processing of) letter string identity at study is important for subsequent repetition priming.

  20. Sensorless Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Using an On-Line Parameter Identification Method not Affected by Position Estimation Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Akitoshi; Ichikawa, Shinji; Tomita, Mutuwo; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

    This paper presents a novel on-line parameter identification method for sensorless control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors (SynRMs). Although conventional sensorless control methods based on mathematical models usually need some complex measurements of motor parameters in advance, the proposed identification method does not require them and can be realized on-line. The proposed method identifies motor parameters under sensorless control, so rotor position and velocity can not be used to identify these parameters. However, the proposed method does not need rotor position and veocity, identified parameters are not affected by these estimation errors. The sensorless control using identified motor parameters is realized, and effective of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  1. Is Banara Really a Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…

  2. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors

    PubMed Central

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor’s identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor’s identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8–11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin’ Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  3. Positive relationship between odor identification and affective responses of negatively valenced odors.

    PubMed

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hedonic ratings of odors and olfactory preferences are influenced by a number of modulating factors, such as prior experience and knowledge about an odor's identity. The present study addresses the relationship between knowledge about an odor's identity due to prior experience, assessed by means of a test of cued odor identification, and odor pleasantness ratings in children who exhibit ongoing olfactory learning. Ninety-one children aged 8-11 years rated the pleasantness of odors in the Sniffin' Sticks test and, subsequently, took the odor identification test. A positive association between odor identification and pleasantness was found for two unpleasant food odors (garlic and fish): higher pleasantness ratings were exhibited by those participants who correctly identified these odors compared to those who failed to correctly identify them. However, we did not find a similar effect for any of the more pleasant odors. The results of this study suggest that pleasantness ratings of some odors may be modulated by the knowledge of their identity due to prior experience and that this relationship might be more evident in unpleasant odors. PMID:26029143

  4. Eye movements and word skipping during reading: Effects of word length and predictability

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J.; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which target words were predictable from prior context was varied: half of the target words were predictable and the other half were unpredictable. In addition, the length of the target word varied: the target words were short (4–6 letters), medium (7–9 letters), or long (10–12 letters). Length and predictability both yielded strong effects on the probability of skipping the target words and on the amount of time readers fixated the target words (when they were not skipped). However, there was no interaction in any of the measures examined for either skipping or fixation time. The results demonstrate that word predictability (due to contextual constraint) and word length have strong and independent influences on word skipping and fixation durations. Furthermore, since the long words extended beyond the word identification span, the data indicate that skipping can occur on the basis of partial information in relation to word identity. PMID:21463086

  5. Identification of Sub-Types of Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading and Its Implications for Chinese Word Recognition and Instructional Methods in Hong Kong Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…

  6. Locus of information in words and the right visual field effect.

    PubMed

    Bryden, M P; Mondor, T A; Loken, M; Ingleton, M A; Bergstrom, K

    1990-09-01

    The right visual field (RVF) advantage found for the identification or classification of words has usually been interpreted as evidence for left hemisphere language functions. It has more recently been explained as the result of the fact that the most informative part of the word, presumably the beginning, is in a region of better visual acuity. It is not clear from existing evidence that the beginnings of words are in fact more informative. The present study assessed the locus of information in words by deleting either the initial or terminal one or two letters. Subjects were required to generate a completion. Regardless of whether subjects were scored as correct for generating the original target word (as would be appropriate in a naming study) or for producing any legitimate word (as would be appropriate for a lexical decision study), the results indicated that most words have more information in the initial letters. Nevertheless, there are exceptions to this rule, and some words have more terminal information. Equal numbers of words with more initial information and with more terminal information were selected for two visual field studies in order to assess the effect of the locus of information on visual laterality. In neither a lexical decision study nor a naming study did locus of information affect the commonly observed right visual field superiority. Thus the distribution of information is not likely to be a major confounding variable in laterality studies employing horizontally presented words. PMID:2223044

  7. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  8. Identification of host genes that affect acquisition of an integrative and conjugative element in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Conjugation, a major type of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, involves transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient using donor-encoded conjugation machinery. Using a high throughput screen (Tn-seq), we identified genes in recipients that contribute to acquisition of the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 by Bacillus subtilis. We found that null mutations in some genes caused an increase, and others a decrease in conjugation efficiency. Some mutations affected conjugation only when present in recipients. Other mutations affected conjugation when present in donors or recipients. Most of the genes identified are known or predicted to affect the cell envelope. Several encode enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and one encodes a homolog of penicillin binding proteins. Two of the genes identified also affected conjugation of Tn916, indicating that their roles in conjugation may be general. We did not identify any genes in recipients that were essential for ICEBs1 conjugation, indicating that if there are such genes, then these are either essential for cell growth or redundant. Our results indicate that acquisition of ICEBs1, and perhaps other conjugative elements, is robust and not easily avoided by mutation and that several membrane-related functions affect the efficiency of conjugation. PMID:25069588

  9. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, and they describe the acute (short-term) toxicity ... red letters on the front panel of the product label. 2,4 Acute Oral LD 50 Inhalation LC ...

  10. Factors Affecting the Identification of Hispanic English Language Learners in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gail I.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study revealed factors affecting the overrepresentation of Hispanic English language learners (ELLs) in special education. An analysis of the lived experiences of school professionals indicate multiple causes that determine students to be disabled often in violation of state and federal guidelines. Child study…

  11. Novel Molecular Assay for Simultaneous Identification of Neglected Lungworms and Heartworms Affecting Cats

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Iorio, Raffaella; Traversa, Donato

    2015-01-01

    Feline lungworms and heartworms are stimulating the interest of the scientific community due to their clinical impact and apparent geographical expansion. Diagnosis of the infections caused by these nematodes is indeed challenging. This report describes a novel multiplex PCR able to identify simultaneously three species of lungworms (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior) and heartworms (Angiostrongylus chabaudi) affecting felids. Epidemiological and clinical perspectives are discussed. PMID:26109447

  12. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools. PMID:19088332

  13. Identification of candidate genes affecting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Marks, M. David; Tian, Li; Wenger, Jonathan P.; Omburo, Stephanie N.; Soto-Fuentes, Wilfredo; He, Ji; Gang, David R.; Weiblen, George D.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    RNA isolated from the glands of a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)-producing strain of Cannabis sativa was used to generate a cDNA library containing over 100 000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequencing of over 2000 clones from the library resulted in the identification of over 1000 unigenes. Candidate genes for almost every step in the biochemical pathways leading from primary metabolites to THCA were identified. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that many of the pathway genes are preferentially expressed in the glands. Hexanoyl-CoA, one of the metabolites required for THCA synthesis, could be made via either de novo fatty acids synthesis or via the breakdown of existing lipids. qPCR analysis supported the de novo pathway. Many of the ESTs encode transcription factors and two putative MYB genes were identified that were preferentially expressed in glands. Given the similarity of the Cannabis MYB genes to those in other species with known functions, these Cannabis MYBs may play roles in regulating gland development and THCA synthesis. Three candidates for the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene responsible for the first committed step in the pathway to THCA were characterized in more detail. One of these was identical to a previously reported chalcone synthase (CHS) and was found to have CHS activity. All three could use malonyl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as substrates, including the CHS, but reaction conditions were not identified that allowed for the production of olivetolic acid (the proposed product of the PKS activity needed for THCA synthesis). One of the PKS candidates was highly and specifically expressed in glands (relative to whole leaves) and, on the basis of these expression data, it is proposed to be the most likely PKS responsible for olivetolic acid synthesis in Cannabis glands. PMID:19581347

  14. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  15. Identification of processes affecting excess air formation during natural bank filtration and managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massmann, Gudrun; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    SummaryManaged aquifer recharge is gaining importance as a practice to bank and treat surface water for drinking water production. Neon (Ne) concentrations were analysed at four different recharge sites in and near Berlin, where groundwater is recharged directly from surface water courses, either by near-natural bank filtration, induced bank filtration or engineered basin recharge. Neon concentrations in excess of saturation (ΔNe) were used to identify excess air in the infiltrates. Excess air concentrations were around saturation at the near-natural bank filtration site, where river water infiltrates through a permeable river bed into a confined aquifer under completely saturated conditions. At two induced unconfined bank filtration sites, samples generally contained excess air (up to 60% ΔNe). Highest excess air concentrations (up to 81% ΔNe) were encountered at the engineered basin recharge site. The degree of water table fluctuations, the water saturation of the sediments in the infiltration zone and the presence of a confining layer affect the formation of excess air. Excess air can only be used to trace bank filtrate or artificially recharged water in a setting where the ambient groundwater in the near vicinity of production wells is not affected by large water-table fluctuations. Nevertheless, excess air concentrations provide valuable additional information on the type of recharge (saturated or unsaturated, degree of water table fluctuations).

  16. Identification of Regulatory Mutations in SERPINC1 Affecting Vitamin D Response Elements Associated with Antithrombin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toderici, Mara; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Antón, Ana Isabel; Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Herranz, María Teresa; Fernández, Nuria; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a crucial anticoagulant serpin whose even moderate deficiency significantly increases the risk of thrombosis. Most cases with antithrombin deficiency carried genetic defects affecting exons or flanking regions of SERPINC1.We aimed to identify regulatory mutations inSERPINC1 through sequencing the promoter, intron 1 and 2 of this gene in 23 patients with antithrombin deficiency but without known genetic defects. Three cases with moderate antithrombin deficiency (63–78%) carried potential regulatory mutations. One located 200 bp before the initiation ATG and two in intron 1. These mutations disrupted two out of five potential vitamin D receptor elements (VDRE) identified in SERPINC1 with different software. One genetic defect, c.42-1060_-1057dupTTGA, was a new low prevalent polymorphism (MAF: 0.01) with functional consequences on plasma antithrombin levels. The relevance of the vitamin D pathway on the regulation of SERPINC1 was confirmed in a cell model. Incubation of HepG2 with paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, increased dose-dependently the levels of SERPINC1transcripts and antithrombin released to the conditioned medium. This study shows further evidence of the transcriptional regulation of SERPINC1 by vitamin D and first describes the functional and pathological relevance of mutations affecting VDRE of this gene. Our study opens new perspectives in the search of new genetic defects involved in antithrombin deficiency and the risk of thrombosis as well as in the design of new antithrombotic treatments. PMID:27003919

  17. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias). PMID:27029105

  18. Words and Concepts. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Words and Concepts" is a computer software program that focuses on building oral language skills related to vocabulary, comprehension, word relationships, and other concepts in six units--vocabulary, categorization, word identification by function, word association, concept of same, and concept of different. It can be used by adults and children…

  19. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  20. Identification of molecular pathways affected by pterostilbene, a natural dimethylether analog of resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhiqiang; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Xu, Tao; Feng, Qin; Baerson, Scott R; Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M

    2008-01-01

    Background Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring phenolic compound produced by agronomically important plant genera such as Vitis and Vacciunium, is a phytoalexin exhibiting potent antifungal activity. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated several important pharmacological properties associated with pterostilbene. Despite this, a systematic study of the effects of pterostilbene on eukaryotic cells at the molecular level has not been previously reported. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the cellular pathways affected by pterostilbene by performing transcript profiling studies, employing the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods S. cerevisiae strain S288C was exposed to pterostilbene at the IC50 concentration (70 μM) for one generation (3 h). Transcript profiling experiments were performed on three biological replicate samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip Yeast Genome S98 Array. The data were analyzed using the statistical methods available in the GeneSifter microarray data analysis system. To validate the results, eleven differentially expressed genes were further examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and S. cerevisiae mutant strains with deletions in these genes were analyzed for altered sensitivity to pterostilbene. Results Transcript profiling studies revealed that pterostilbene exposure significantly down-regulated the expression of genes involved in methionine metabolism, while the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial functions, drug detoxification, and transcription factor activity were significantly up-regulated. Additional analyses revealed that a large number of genes involved in lipid metabolism were also affected by pterostilbene treatment. Conclusion Using transcript profiling, we have identified the cellular pathways targeted by pterostilbene, an analog of resveratrol. The observed response in lipid metabolism genes is consistent with its known hypolipidemic properties, and the induction of mitochondrial

  1. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  2. Identification, analysis and monitoring of risks of freezing affecting aircraft flying over the Guadarrama Mountains (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Freezing is one of the main causes of aircraft accidents registered over the last few decades. This means it is very important to be able to predict this situation so that aircraft can change their routes to avoid freezing risk areas. Also, by using satellites it is possible to observe changes in the horizontal and vertical extension of cloud cover likely to cause freezing in real time as well as microphysical changes in the clouds. The METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) makes it possible to create different red-green-blue (RGB) compositions that provide a large amount of information associated with the microphysics of clouds, in order to identify super-cooled water clouds that pose a high risk of freezing to aircraft. During the winter of 2011/12 in the Guadarrama Mountains, in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, a series of scientific flights (conducted by INTA) were organised in order to study the cloud systems that affected this region during the winter. On the flight of the 1st of February 2012, the aircraft was affected by freezing after crossing over a mountain ridge with supercooled large drops (SLD). Although freezing was not expected during that day's flight, the orography caused a series of mesoscale factors that led to the appearance of localised freezing conditions. By analysing this case, we have been able to conclude that the use of satellite images makes it possible to monitor the risk of freezing, especially under specific mesoscale circumstances. Acknowledgements S. Fernández-González acknowledges the grant supported from the FPU program (AP 2010-2093). This study was supported by the following grants: GRANIMETRO (CGL2010-15930); MICROMETEO (IPT-310000-2010-22). The authors would like to thank the INTA for its scientific flights.

  3. How language affects children's use of derivational morphology in visual word and pseudoword processing: evidence from a cross-language study

    PubMed Central

    Casalis, Séverine; Quémart, Pauline; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1) and for age (Part 2) participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English) featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+) and a suffix ending (S+) was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g., postal; R+S−: e.g., turnip; R−S+: e.g., rascal; and R-S-: e.g., bishop) and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g., pondal; R+S−: e.g., curlip; R−S+: e.g., vosnal; and R−S−: e.g., hethop). Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children's recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasize the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system. PMID:25932018

  4. Identification and reciprocal introgression of a QTL affecting body mass in mice

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Julian K; Rance, Kellie A; Knott, Sara A; Pignatelli, Pat M; Oliver, Fiona; Bünger, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a QTL in different genetic backgrounds. A QTL affecting body mass on chromosome 6 was identified in an F2 cross between two lines of mice that have been divergently selected for this trait. The effect of the QTL on mass increased between 6 and 10 weeks of age and was not sex-specific. Body composition analysis showed effects on fat-free dry body mass and fat mass. To examine the effect of this QTL in different genetic backgrounds, the high body mass sixth chromosome was introgressed into the low body mass genetic background and vice versa by repeated marker-assisted backcrossing. After three generations of backcrossing, new F2 populations were established within each of the introgression lines by crossing individuals that were heterozygous across the sixth chromosome. The estimated additive effect of the QTL on 10-week body mass was similar in both genetic backgrounds and in the original F2 population (i.e., ~0.4 phenotypic standard deviations); no evidence of epistatic interaction with the genetic background was found. The 95% confidence interval for the location of the QTL was refined to a region of approximately 7 cM between D6Mit268 and D6Mit123. PMID:15339634

  5. Words, feelings, and bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Cross-linguistic differences in emotionality of autobiographical memories were examined by eliciting memories of immigration from bilingual speakers. Forty-seven Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recount their immigration experiences in either Russian or English. Bilinguals used more emotion words when describing their immigration experiences in the second language (English) than in the first language (Russian). Bilinguals' immigration narratives contained more negative emotion words than positive emotion words. In addition, language preference (but not language proficiency) influenced results, with emotional expression amplified when speaking in the preferred language. These findings carry implications for organization of the bilingual lexicon and the special status of emotion words within it. We suggest that bilinguals' expression of emotion may vary across languages and that the linguistic and affective systems are interconnected in the bilingual cognitive architecture. PMID:19966924

  6. Identification of putative SNPs in progressive retinal atrophy affected Canis lupus familiaris using exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Bhaskar; Kelawala, Divyesh N; Shah, Tejas; Patel, Anand B; Patil, Deepak B; Parikh, Pinesh V; Patel, Namrata; Parmar, Nidhi; Mohapatra, Amit B; Singh, Krishna M; Menon, Ramesh; Pandya, Dipal; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Koringa, Prakash G; Rao, Mandava V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-12-01

    Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is one of the major causes of retinal photoreceptor cell degeneration in canines. The inheritance pattern of PRA is autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous. Here, using targeted sequencing technology, we have performed exome sequencing of 10 PRA-affected (Spitz=7, Cocker Spaniel=1, Lhasa Aphso=1 and Spitz-Labrador cross breed=1) and 6 normal (Spitz=5, Cocker Spaniel=1) dogs. The high-throughput sequencing using 454-Roche Titanium sequencer generated about 2.16 Giga bases of raw data. Initially, we have successfully identified 25,619 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed the stringent SNP calling parameters. Further, we performed association study on the cohort, and the highly significant (0.001) associations were short-listed and investigated in-depth. Out of the 171 significant SNPs, 113 were previously unreported. Interestingly, six among them were non-synonymous coding (NSC) SNPs, which includes CPPED1 A>G (p.M307V), PITRM1 T>G (p.S715A), APP G>A (p.T266M), RNF213 A>G (p.V1482A), C>A (p.V1456L), and SLC46A3 G>A (p.R168Q). On the other hand, 35 out of 113 unreported SNPs were falling in regulatory regions such as 3'-UTR, 5'-UTR, etc. In-depth bioinformatics analysis revealed that majority of NSC SNPs have damaging effect and alter protein stability. This study highlighted the genetic markers associated with PRA, which will help to develop genetic assay-based screening in effective breeding. PMID:26515695

  7. Identification of sources affecting fog formation using receptor modeling approaches and inventory estimates of sectoral emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Bhavin; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani; Tripathi, Sachchida Nand

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to identify factors affecting fog formation in Kanpur during the ISRO-GBP land campaign-II (LC-II) in December 2004. PMF predicted factors were validated by contrasting the emission strength of sources in the foggy and clear periods, using a combination of potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis and quantitative emission inventory information. A time series aerosol chemical data set of 29 days and 12 species was decomposed to identify 4-factors: Secondary species, Biomass burning, Dust and Sea salt. PMF predicted particle mass with a satisfactory goodness-of-fit (slope of 0.83 ± 0.17 and R2 of 0.8), and strong species within 11-12% relative standard deviation. Mean contributions of anthropogenic factors were significantly higher during the foggy period for secondary species (2.9 ± 0.3) and biomass burning (1.2 ± 0.09) compared to the clear period. Local sources contributing to aerosols that mediated fog events at Kanpur, based on emissions in a 200 km × 200 km area around Kanpur city were thermal power plants and transportation (SO 2) and biofuel combustion (BC and OM). Regional scale sources influencing emissions during the foggy period, in probable source regions identified by PSCF included thermal power plants, transportation, brick kilns and biofuel combustion. While biofuel combustion and transportation are distributed area sources, individual point sources include coal-fired thermal power plants located in Aligarh, Delhi, Ghaziabad, Jhansi, Kanpur, Rae Bareli and Rupnagar and brick kilns located in Allahabad, Agra, Farrukhabad, Ghaziabad, Kanpur, Ludhiana, Lucknow and Rae Bareli. Additionally, in the foggy period, large areas of probable source regions lay outside India, implying the significance of aerosol incursion from outside India.

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting body composition in a mouse intercross

    PubMed Central

    Vitarius, James A.; Sehayek, Ephraim; Breslow, Jan L.

    2006-01-01

    Gravimetric analysis and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry densitometry were used to determine lean, fat, and bone tissue traits in a F2 mouse population from a C57BL/6J and CASA/Rk intercross (B6CASAF2). These traits were used in a linkage analysis to identify quantitative trait loci that affect body composition. Linkage mapping showed that body weight (BW) loci on proximal chromosome 2 occurred in the same region as body length, lean tissue mass, and bone mineral content and on chromosome 13 in the same region as lean tissue mass, bone mineral density, and bone mineral content. Fat-related loci occurring on mid-chromosome 2 near 60 cM, proximal chromosome 6, and mid-chromosome 10 were distinct from BW, lean tissue, and bone tissue loci. In B6CASAF2 females, heterozygotes and CASA/Rk homozygotes at the chromosome 6 locus marker had higher body fat percentages, and this locus was responsible for 11% of the variance for body fat percentage. Female heterozygotes and C57BL/6J homozygotes at the chromosome 15 locus marker had higher bone mineral densities, and this locus could explain 8% of that trait's variance. A survey of the literature did not reveal any previous reports of fat-specific loci in the chromosomal 10 region near 42 cM reported in this study. The results of this study indicate that BW and BMI have limited usefulness as phenotypes in linkage or association studies when used as obesity phenotypes. PMID:17179051

  9. From word superiority to word inferiority: visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene; Starrfelt, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Visual processing and naming of individual letters and short words were investigated in four patients with pure alexia. To test processing at different levels, the same stimuli were studied across a naming task and a visual perception task. The normal word superiority effect was eliminated in both tasks for all patients, and this pattern was more pronounced in the more severely affected patients. The relationship between performance with single letters and words was, however, not straightforward: One patient performed within the normal range on the letter perception task, while being severely impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter perception. PMID:24801564

  10. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  11. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yutian; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shili; Zhang, Huiping; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI) than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn), potassium (K), copper (Ca), and sodium (Na) as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05) were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se), and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038). Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33). Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98) but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02). Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95% CI = 1

  12. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis. PMID:27593455

  13. Semantic gradients in picture-word interference tasks: is the size of interference effects affected by the degree of semantic overlap?

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, James; Damian, Markus F.

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments attempting to identify the role of semantic relatedness in picture-word interference studies. Previously published data sets have rendered results which directly contradict each other, with one study suggesting that the stronger the relation between picture and distractor, the more semantic interference is obtained, and another study suggesting the opposite pattern. We replicated the two key experiments with only minor procedural modifications, and found semantic interference effects in both. Critically, these were largely independent of the strength of semantic overlap. Additionally, we attempted to predict individual interference effects per target picture, via various measures of semantic overlap, which also failed to account for the effects. From our results it appears that semantic interference effects in picture-word tasks are similarly present for weakly and strongly overlapping combinations. Implications are discussed in the light of the recent debate on the role of competition in lexical selection. PMID:25161636

  14. Words that heal.

    PubMed

    Spurio, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The value of words in the healing process runs constant to the path of therapeutic treatment, the net of exchanges and relationships between brain chemistry and the right words in order to heal is subtle and intricate. Psychotherapy, a treatment with words, is shown to be a treatment that directly affects the brain and that is able to change it stably, even in its anatomical structure and function. According to Kandel (1999), a leading living scientist and Nobel Prize winner for medicine and physiology, American neurologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapy is a real cure, a biological treatment, as it produces behavioral changes through new words and new experiences. The article offers a brief overview of the use of the fantasy of argument, since the time of the classical rethoric of the sophists up to the new rethoric, to illustrate how the structure of the speech, and the dialectic ability of opposing different thoughts, closely resembles the way of thinking. Consequently the choice of words can be considered an instrument of great impact that is inserted in the stream of thoughts that determines the attitude of a person, and therefore, his/her actions. This happens whenever you communicate voluntarily, and not simply when interacting. The right choice of words remains a turning point in all of our relationships, not only in therapeutic situations, but in every other social relationship in life, family or friends. PMID:26417732

  15. Semantic Access to Embedded Words? Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence from Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Van Petten, Cyma; O'Rourke, Polly L.

    2012-01-01

    Many multisyllabic words contain shorter words that are not semantic units, like the CAP in HANDICAP and the DURA ("hard") in VERDURA ("vegetable"). The spaces between printed words identify word boundaries, but spurious identification of these embedded words is a potentially greater challenge for spoken language comprehension, a challenge that is…

  16. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  17. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  18. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers. PMID:24366633

  19. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    PubMed

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete. PMID:26008637

  20. An Identification of the Word Processing Skills and Knowledge Needed by Entry-Level Secretarial/Clerical Employees as Perceived by Members of the Local Business Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlan, Dolores M.

    In 1982-83, a study was conducted to investigate the technical skills and knowledge needed for employment in entry-level secretarial/clerical occupations in the business community of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and to determine the current and perceived future status of word processing approaches in local firms. A survey instrument was mailed…

  1. Word prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  2. Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

  3. Recognition of Spoken Words: Semantic Effects in Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurm, Lee H.; Vakoch, Douglas A.; Seaman, Sean R.

    2004-01-01

    Until recently most models of word recognition have assumed that semantic effects come into play only after the identification of the word in question. What little evidence exists for early semantic effects in word recognition has relied primarily on priming manipulations using the lexical decision task, and has used visual stimulus presentation.…

  4. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  5. 9 CFR 355.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meaning of words. 355.1 Section 355.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Definitions § 355.1 Meaning of words. Words used...

  6. 9 CFR 355.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meaning of words. 355.1 Section 355.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Definitions § 355.1 Meaning of words. Words used...

  7. 9 CFR 355.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meaning of words. 355.1 Section 355.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Definitions § 355.1 Meaning of words. Words used...

  8. 9 CFR 355.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words. 355.1 Section 355.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Definitions § 355.1 Meaning of words. Words used...

  9. 9 CFR 355.1 - Meaning of words.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meaning of words. 355.1 Section 355.1 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Definitions § 355.1 Meaning of words. Words used...

  10. Finite elements/Taguchi method based procedure for the identification of the geometrical parameters significantly affecting the biomechanical behavior of a lumbar disc.

    PubMed

    Cappetti, N; Naddeo, A; Naddeo, F; Solitro, G F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to show a quick and simple procedure able to identify the geometrical parameters of the intervertebral disc that strongly affect the behavior of the FEM model. First, we allocated a selection criterion for the minimum number of geometrical parameters that describe, with a good degree of approximation, a healthy human vertebra. Next, we carried out a sensitivity analysis using the 'Taguchi orthogonal array' to arrive at a quick identification of the parameters that strongly affect the behavior of the Fem model. PMID:26693883

  11. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural…

  12. Identification of critical factors for the instability of permafrost-affected rockwalls in the Turtmann valley (Swiss Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Draebing, Daniel; Dikau, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Rock slope instability, small-scale rockfalls and associated talus slopes are widespread phenomena in mountain environments. The heterogeneous spatial pattern, sediment properties and volume of talus deposits in alpine valleys reflect a complicated set of various variables governing the spatial and temporal occurrence of slope failure. However, the dynamic and non-linear interplay between environmental settings, the mechanical properties of the rock mass, its discontinuities and different weathering processes promoting rock degradation makes the identification of the dominant destabilizing factors a difficult task. In our project we studied the instability of permafrost-affected rockwalls (Nyenhuis et al., 2005) in the high alpine Turtmann Valley in the Swiss Alps (110 km2). Here, we present a combination of (i) meso-scale spatial analyses and (ii) local-scale geotechnical investigations of critical factors on rockwall instability and (iii) incorporate the results into a theoretical concept with respect to abiotic and biotic weathering processes. (i) To explain the spatial variability of talus deposits stored in 14 WE-oriented hanging valleys, a detailed geomorphological map of 220 talus slopes (Otto et al. 2009) was spatially combined with different key variables of the rockfall source area including topography, climate, lithology and rockwall morphometry. The talus slopes are strongly oriented towards north indicating reduced solar radiation. This aspect-driven trend appears to support the high significance of frost weathering processes as dominant mechanism for rock slope instability, in particular during thawing phases of rockwall permafrost. (ii) To assess the role of mechanical properties of rockwalls at local scales, field surveys of rock discontinuities were performed at selected rockwalls with and without talus slopes based on ISRM standards. Geotechnical investigations reveal discontinuity orientations and spacings that might effectively promote rock

  13. Sarbalap! Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  14. Magical Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

  15. Deafness for the meanings of number words

    PubMed Central

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. PMID:17915265

  16. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  17. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage and learning…

  18. "My Greatest Joy and My Greatest Heart Ache:" Parents' Own Words on How Having a Child in the Autism Spectrum Has Affected Their Lives and Their Families' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara J.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children in the autism spectrum wrote an open-ended answer via an online questionnaire to the question, "How has your child in the autism spectrum affected your life and your family's life?" (N = 493). Using a qualitative content analysis, 15 negative themes and 9 positive themes were identified. Themes are subsumed into five clusters:…

  19. Promiscuous words

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Promiscuity is frequently used to describe animal mating behaviour, and especially to describe multiple mating by females. Yet this use of the term is incorrect, perhaps reflecting an erroneous adoption of common language to pique reader interest. We evaluated the patterns of use and misuse of the word ‘promiscuity’ in a representative journal of animal behaviour. This survey highlights how inappropriately the term is used, and how it can conceal critical features of animal mating strategies with intriguing evolutionary significance. Further analysis of the scientific impact of papers identified by the term promiscuous or polyandrous revealed that the former were cited less frequently. We argue that using promiscuity to describe animal mating strategies is anthropomorphic, inaccurate, and potentially misleading. Consistent with other biological disciplines, the word promiscuity should be used to describe indiscriminate mating behaviour only, and that polygyny and polyandry should be used to describe male and female mating frequency respectively. PMID:24209457

  20. Effects of Word Width and Word Length on Optimal Character Size for Reading of Horizontally Scrolling Japanese Words

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Wataru; Nakazaki, Takuyuki; Sekiyama, Kaoru; Mori, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated, whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of four Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3°, 0.6°, 1.0°, and 3.0°) and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces). Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word). Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (three, four, and six character words). Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length in scrolling Japanese words. PMID:26909052

  1. How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees' Organizational Identification? A Perspective from the Group Engagement Model.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Imran; Riaz, Zahid; Arain, Ghulam A; Farooq, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The literature examines the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on employees' organizational identification without considering that such activities tend to have different targets. This study explores how perceived external CSR (efforts directed toward external stakeholders) and perceived internal CSR (efforts directed toward employees) activities influence employees' organizational identification. In so doing, it examines the alternative underlying mechanisms through which perceived external and internal CSR activities build employees' identification. Applying the taxonomy prescribed by the group engagement model, the study argues that the effects of perceived external and internal CSR flow through two competing mechanisms: perceived external prestige and perceived internal respect, respectively. Further, it is suggested that calling orientation (how employees see their work contributions) moderates the effects induced by these alternative forms of CSR. The model draws on survey data collected from a sample of 414 employees across five large multinationals in Pakistan. The results obtained using structural equation modeling support these hypotheses, reinforcing the notion that internal and external CSR operate through different mediating mechanisms and more interestingly employees' calling orientation moderates these relationships to a significant degree. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of results are discussed in detail. PMID:27303345

  2. How Do Internal and External CSR Affect Employees' Organizational Identification? A Perspective from the Group Engagement Model

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Imran; Riaz, Zahid; Arain, Ghulam A.; Farooq, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The literature examines the impact of firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on employees' organizational identification without considering that such activities tend to have different targets. This study explores how perceived external CSR (efforts directed toward external stakeholders) and perceived internal CSR (efforts directed toward employees) activities influence employees' organizational identification. In so doing, it examines the alternative underlying mechanisms through which perceived external and internal CSR activities build employees' identification. Applying the taxonomy prescribed by the group engagement model, the study argues that the effects of perceived external and internal CSR flow through two competing mechanisms: perceived external prestige and perceived internal respect, respectively. Further, it is suggested that calling orientation (how employees see their work contributions) moderates the effects induced by these alternative forms of CSR. The model draws on survey data collected from a sample of 414 employees across five large multinationals in Pakistan. The results obtained using structural equation modeling support these hypotheses, reinforcing the notion that internal and external CSR operate through different mediating mechanisms and more interestingly employees' calling orientation moderates these relationships to a significant degree. Theoretical contributions and practical implications of results are discussed in detail. PMID:27303345

  3. Visual recognition of permuted words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  4. Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, J O

    1979-10-01

    A mutation affecting alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity has been shown to be cotransducible with ilv gene cluster. The transaminase deficiency results in conditional isoleucine auxotrophy in the presence of alanine. PMID:396446

  5. Words and Melody Are Intertwined in Perception of Sung Words: EEG and Behavioral Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Schön, Daniele; Magne, Cyrille; Astésano, Corine; Besson, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target) presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word) elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music. PMID:20360991

  6. Identification of residues of SARS-CoV nsp1 that differentially affect inhibition of gene expression and antiviral signaling.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Andrew R; Savalia, Dhruti; Lowry, Virginia K; Farrell, Cara M; Wathelet, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) led to the identification of an associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV. This virus evades the host innate immune response in part through the expression of its non-structural protein (nsp) 1, which inhibits both host gene expression and virus- and interferon (IFN)-dependent signaling. Thus, nsp1 is a promising target for drugs, as inhibition of nsp1 would make SARS-CoV more susceptible to the host antiviral defenses. To gain a better understanding of nsp1 mode of action, we generated and analyzed 38 mutants of the SARS-CoV nsp1, targeting 62 solvent exposed residues out of the 180 amino acid protein. From this work, we identified six classes of mutants that abolished, attenuated or increased nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression and/or antiviral signaling. Each class of mutants clustered on SARS-CoV nsp1 surface and suggested nsp1 interacts with distinct host factors to exert its inhibitory activities. Identification of the nsp1 residues critical for its activities and the pathways involved in these activities should help in the design of drugs targeting nsp1. Significantly, several point mutants increased the inhibitory activity of nsp1, suggesting that coronaviruses could evolve a greater ability to evade the host response through mutations of such residues. PMID:23658627

  7. Identification of Residues of SARS-CoV nsp1 That Differentially Affect Inhibition of Gene Expression and Antiviral Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Andrew R.; Savalia, Dhruti; Lowry, Virginia K.; Farrell, Cara M.; Wathelet, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) led to the identification of an associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV. This virus evades the host innate immune response in part through the expression of its non-structural protein (nsp) 1, which inhibits both host gene expression and virus- and interferon (IFN)-dependent signaling. Thus, nsp1 is a promising target for drugs, as inhibition of nsp1 would make SARS-CoV more susceptible to the host antiviral defenses. To gain a better understanding of nsp1 mode of action, we generated and analyzed 38 mutants of the SARS-CoV nsp1, targeting 62 solvent exposed residues out of the 180 amino acid protein. From this work, we identified six classes of mutants that abolished, attenuated or increased nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression and/or antiviral signaling. Each class of mutants clustered on SARS-CoV nsp1 surface and suggested nsp1 interacts with distinct host factors to exert its inhibitory activities. Identification of the nsp1 residues critical for its activities and the pathways involved in these activities should help in the design of drugs targeting nsp1. Significantly, several point mutants increased the inhibitory activity of nsp1, suggesting that coronaviruses could evolve a greater ability to evade the host response through mutations of such residues. PMID:23658627

  8. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  9. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  11. Project Bank: Word Processing on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavin, Robert F.

    Project Bank was initiated at Triton College (Illinois) to increase student awareness of the merits of word processing as it affects their class work and related assignments; to make faculty aware of advances in word processing programs; and to increase the utilization of the college's computer laboratory. All fall 1985 incoming freshmen were…

  12. The Feeling Words Curriculum: The Missing Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Marvin

    The Feeling Words Curriculum, a curriculum that integrates the cognitive and affective domains in one course of study, is described in this paper. The opening sections explain how "feeling words," key vocabulary terms, are used to provide the missing link from one person's life to another's. Stressing the importance of helping students to develop…

  13. Semantic access to embedded words? Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence from Spanish and English.

    PubMed

    Macizo, Pedro; Van Petten, Cyma; O'Rourke, Polly L

    2012-11-01

    Many multisyllabic words contain shorter words that are not semantic units, like the CAP in HANDICAP and the DURA (hard) in VERDURA (vegetable). The spaces between printed words identify word boundaries, but spurious identification of these embedded words is a potentially greater challenge for spoken language comprehension, a challenge that is handled by different mechanisms in different models of auditory word recognition. Subphonemic acoustic differences--subtle differences in pronunciation--often differentiate embedded words from genuine words. We examined semantic access to embedded words in two languages with different phonology by presenting carrier words followed by targets related to the embedded words and recording event-related potentials and lexical decision times in 34 Spanish/English bilinguals. No evidence of embedded word access was observed in brain activity or behavior, and this could not be attributed to subphonemic acoustic factors. The data place constraints on models of speech segmentation. PMID:22925681

  14. Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which audiovisual presentation (compared to auditory-only presentation) affected isolation point (IPs, the amount of time required for the correct identification of speech stimuli using a gating paradigm) in silence and noise conditions. The study expanded on the findings of Moradi et al. (under revision), using the same stimuli, but presented in an audiovisual instead of an auditory-only manner. The results showed that noise impeded the identification of consonants and words (i.e., delayed IPs and lowered accuracy), but not the identification of final words in sentences. In comparison with the previous study by Moradi et al., it can be concluded that the provision of visual cues expedited IPs and increased the accuracy of speech stimuli identification in both silence and noise. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of models for speech understanding. PMID:23801980

  15. Glycosaminoglycan concentrations in horse plasma and serum. Differences with other animal species and identification of affecting factors.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, A M; Vinci, R; Panzera, M; Ferlazzo, A; Calatroni, A

    1991-01-01

    1. The measured values of acid glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration in plasma or in serum show significant differences between trained and untrained horses and among sedentary horses and other animal species (cattle, rabbit, sheep). 2. Diurnal variations in serum GAG levels are reported (cattle), and changes in plasma GAG concentrations after road transport (horses) and in late pregnancy (mares, cows), while sex, age and breed do not affect them. PMID:1782758

  16. Mapping of equine cerebellar abiotrophy to ECA2 and identification of a potential causative mutation affecting expression of MUTYH.

    PubMed

    Brault, Leah S; Cooper, Caitlin A; Famula, Thomas R; Murray, James D; Penedo, M Cecilia T

    2011-02-01

    Equine Cerebellar Abiotrophy (CA) is a neurological disease found in Arabian horses. CA is characterized by post-natal degeneration of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Signs of CA include ataxia, head tremors, and a lack of balance equilibrium. We have discovered a linkage of the CA phenotype to a microsatellite marker on ECA2 and identified a region of conserved homozygosity spanning approximately 142 kb. Complete sequencing of the four genes in this region identified one SNP found only in Arabian horses, located in exon 4 of TOE1 and approximately 1200 base pairs upstream of MUTYH, adjacent to a possible binding site for the transcription factor GATA2. qPCR analysis of cDNA from the cerebella of affected and unaffected horses suggested that MUTYH expression is down-regulated in affected horses. This SNP may therefore have a function effect on TOE1, or a regulatory effect on MUTYH by negatively affecting the binding affinity of GATA2. PMID:21126570

  17. Use of metabolic and molecular methods for the identification of a Bacillus strain isolated from paper affected by foxing.

    PubMed

    De Paolis, Maria Rita; Lippi, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Foxing of paper is a deterioration phenomenon occurring in the form of brown-yellowish spots, the abiotic and/or biotic causes of which are not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, microbiological infection has been recognized that may contribute to paper damage and therefore it becomes important to know the taxonomic position and the degradative activity of the potential infectious biological agents which mostly are fungi, but also bacteria and yeasts. A cellulolytic bacterial strain isolated from a foxed paper sample exhibited morphological and physiological characteristics of the Bacillus genus. To study its taxonomic position, different identification methods were used: the Biolog system, the direct amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis (DAPD-PCR) and the partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. Biolog system and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene assigned the strain to the Paenibacillus polymyxa species. DAPD-PCR analysis indicated a high similarity with Bacillus circulans, by comparing the isolated strain with some closely related Bacillus species. PMID:17686620

  18. Identification of toxicity variations in a stream affected by industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Ahn, Byeongyong; Oh, Jeong-Ju; Han, Taejun; Kim, Woo-Keun; Kim, Sanghoon; Jung, Jinho

    2013-09-15

    A comprehensive toxicity monitoring study from August to October 2011 using Daphnia magna and Ulva pertusa was conducted to identify the cause of toxicity in a stream receiving industrial effluents (IEs) from a textile and leather products manufacturing complex. Acute toxicity toward both species was observed consistently in IE, which influenced toxicity of downstream (DS) water. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) confirmed that both Cu and Zn were key toxicants in the IE, and that the calculated toxicity based on Cu and Zn concentrations well simulated the variation in the observed toxicity (r(2)=0.9216 and 0.7256 for D. magna and U. pertusa, respectively). In particular, U. pertusa was sensitive enough to detect acute toxicity in DS and was useful to identify Zn as a key toxicant. Activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and malondialdehyde were induced significantly in D. magna, although acute toxicity was not observed. In addition, higher levels of antioxidant enzymes were expressed in DS than upstream waters, likely due to the Cu and Zn from IE. Overall, TIE procedures with a battery of bioassays were effective for identifying the cause of lethal and sub-lethal toxicity in effluent and stream water. PMID:23892313

  19. Natural Radiation for Identification and Evaluation of Risk Zones for Affectation of Activated Faults in Aquifer Overexploited.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Leal, J.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Carbajal-Perez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In basins as Mexico, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Queretaro, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi, the existence of faults and fractures have affected the urban infrastructure, lines of conduction of drinkable water, pipelines, etc., that when not being identified and considered, they don't reflect the real impact that these cause also to the aquifer system, modifying the permeability of the means and in occasions they work as preferential conduits that communicate hydraulically potentially to the aquifer with substances pollutants (metals, fertilizers, hydrocarbons, waste waters, etc.) located in the surface. In the Valley of San Luis Potosi, Villa of Reyes, Arista, Ahualulco and recently The Huizache-Matehuala is being strongly affected by faulting and supposedly due cracking to subsidence, however, the regional tectonic could also be the origin of this phenomenon. To know the origin of the faults and affectation to the vulnerability of the aquifer few works they have been carried out in the area. A preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible that a tectonic component is affecting the area and that the vulnerability of the aquifer in that area you this increasing. Before such a situation, it is necessary to carry out the isotopic study of the same one, for this way to know among other things, isotopic characterization, recharge places and addresses of flow of the groundwater; quality of waters and the behavior hydrochemistry with relationship to the faults. High radon values were measured in San Luis Potosi Valley, the natural source of radon could be the riolites and however, these are located to almost a once thousand meters deep for what the migration of the gas is not very probable. The anomalies radiometrics was not correlation with the faults in this case. In some areas like the Valley of Celaya, the origin of the structures and the tectonic activity in the area was confirmed, identifying the structural arrangement of the faulting, the space relationships

  20. Effects of audio-visual presentation of target words in word translation training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Komaki, Ryo; Kubo, Rieko

    2001-05-01

    Komaki and Akahane-Yamada (Proc. ICA2004) used 2AFC translation task in vocabulary training, in which the target word is presented visually in orthographic form of one language, and the appropriate meaning in another language has to be chosen between two choices. Present paper examined the effect of audio-visual presentation of target word when native speakers of Japanese learn to translate English words into Japanese. Pairs of English words contrasted in several phonemic distinctions (e.g., /r/-/l/, /b/-/v/, etc.) were used as word materials, and presented in three conditions; visual-only (V), audio-only (A), and audio-visual (AV) presentations. Identification accuracy of those words produced by two talkers was also assessed. During pretest, the accuracy for A stimuli was lowest, implying that insufficient translation ability and listening ability interact with each other when aurally presented word has to be translated. However, there was no difference in accuracy between V and AV stimuli, suggesting that participants translate the words depending on visual information only. The effect of translation training using AV stimuli did not transfer to identification ability, showing that additional audio information during translation does not help improve speech perception. Further examination is necessary to determine the effective L2 training method. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  1. Affective Primacy vs. Cognitive Primacy: Dissolving the Debate

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    When people see a snake, they are likely to activate both affective information (e.g., dangerous) and non-affective information about its ontological category (e.g., animal). According to the Affective Primacy Hypothesis, the affective information has priority, and its activation can precede identification of the ontological category of a stimulus. Alternatively, according to the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, perceivers must know what they are looking at before they can make an affective judgment about it. We propose that neither hypothesis holds at all times. Here we show that the relative speed with which affective and non-affective information gets activated by pictures and words depends upon the contexts in which stimuli are processed. Results illustrate that the question of whether affective information has processing priority over ontological information (or vice versa) is ill-posed. Rather than seeking to resolve the debate over Cognitive vs. Affective Primacy in favor of one hypothesis or the other, a more productive goal may be to determine the factors that cause affective information to have processing priority in some circumstances and ontological information in others. Our findings support a view of the mind according to which words and pictures activate different neurocognitive representations every time they are processed, the specifics of which are co-determined by the stimuli themselves and the contexts in which they occur. PMID:22822403

  2. A novel papillation assay for the identification of genes affecting mutation rate in Pseudomonas putida and other pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Tagel, Mari; Tavita, Kairi; Hõrak, Rita; Kivisaar, Maia; Ilves, Heili

    2016-08-01

    Formation of microcolonies (papillae) permits easy visual screening of mutational events occurring in single colonies of bacteria. In this study, we have established a novel papillation assay employable in a wide range of pseudomonads including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida for monitoring mutation frequency in distinct colonies. With the aid of this assay, we conducted a genome-wide search for the factors affecting mutation frequency in P. putida. Screening ∼27,000 transposon mutants for increased mutation frequency allowed us to identify 34 repeatedly targeted genes. In addition to genes involved in DNA replication and repair, we identified genes participating in metabolism and transport of secondary metabolites, cell motility, and cell wall synthesis. The highest effect on mutant frequency was observed when truA (tRNA pseudouridine synthase), mpl (UDP-N-acetylmuramate-alanine ligase) or gacS (multi-sensor hybrid histidine kinase) were inactivated. Inactivation of truA elevated the mutant frequency only in growing cells, while the deficiency of gacS affected mainly stationary-phase mutagenesis. Thus, our results demonstrate the feasibility of the assay for isolating mutants with elevated mutagenesis in growing as well as stationary-phase bacteria. PMID:27447898

  3. Does Hearing Several Speakers Reduce Foreign Word Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludington, Jason Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Learning spoken word forms is a vital part of second language learning, and CALL lends itself well to this training. Not enough is known, however, about how auditory variation across speech tokens may affect receptive word learning. To find out, 144 Thai university students with no knowledge of the Patani Malay language learned 24 foreign words in…

  4. Impaired production priming and intact identification priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Monti, L A; Dwornik, L M; Moro, T T; Bennett, D A; Gabrieli, J D

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the distinction between identification and production processes in repetition priming for 16 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 16 healthy old control participants (NC). Words were read in three study phases. In three test phases, participants (1) reread studied words, along with unstudied words, in a word-naming task (identification priming); (2) completed 3-letter stems of studied and unstudied words into words in a word-stem completion task (production priming); and (3) answered yes or no to having read studied and unstudied words in a recognition task (explicit memory). Explicit memory and word-stem completion priming were impaired in the AD group compared to the NC group. After correcting for baseline slowing, word-naming priming magnitude did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that the distinction between production and identification processes has promise for explaining the pattern of preservation and failure of repetition priming in AD. PMID:11771621

  5. Words, Kids, and Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet, Jean Wallace; Kita, M. Jane

    The word sort is a technique which capitalizes upon a child's natural feature analysis abilities. In a word sort the learner physically arranges words printed on small cards into groups. This technique can be used in many ways to help children draw conclusions about how words are related. There are two types of sorts: in "closed sorts" the…

  6. Transfer of Word Meanings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Nancy E.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the degree to which the content of initial learning of a word facilitated transfer of the word meaning to other representations that were near or far, relative to the originally learned form of the word. Subjects in the first study were 40 undergraduate students, who were tested on a list of 13 uncommon words. Results…

  7. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  8. Unstressed Words in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hualde, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the prosodic nature of unstressed function words in Spanish. I defend the hypothesis that these words, like all other words in the language, have a syllable that is lexically designated as stressed. I suggest that the essential property of these words is that they are subject to a rule of prosodic merger with following…

  9. Identification of multiple cellular uptake pathways of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting the uptake: relevance for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles may address challenges by human diseases through improving diagnosis, vaccination and treatment. The uptake mechanism regulates the type of threat a particle poses on the host cells and how a cell responds to it. Hence, understanding the uptake mechanisms and cellular interactions of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular level is a prerequisite for their effective biomedical applications. The present study shows the uptake mechanisms of polystyrene nanoparticles and factors affecting their uptake in bone marrow-derived macrophages, 293T kidney epithelial cells and L929 fibroblasts. Labeling with the endocytic marker FM4-64 and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the nanoparticles were internalized rapidly via endocytosis and accumulated in intracellular vesicles. Soon after their internalizations, nanoparticles trafficked to organelles with acidic pH. Analysis of the ultrastructural morphology of the plasma membrane invaginations or extravasations provides clear evidence for the involvement of several uptake routes in parallel to internalize a given type of nanoparticles by mammalian cells, highlighting the complexity of the nanoparticle-cell interactions. Blocking the specific endocytic pathways by different pharmacological inhibitors shows similar outcomes. The potential to take up nanoparticles varies highly among different cell types in a particle sizes-, time- and energy-dependent manner. Furthermore, infection and the activation status of bone marrow-derived macrophages significantly affect the uptake potential of the cells, indicating the need to understand the diseases' pathogenesis to establish effective and rational drug-delivery systems. This study enhances our understanding of the application of nanotechnology in biomedical sciences. PMID:25224362

  10. Identification of the Key Weather Factors Affecting Overwintering Success of Apolygus lucorum Eggs in Dead Host Tree Branches

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009–2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer. PMID

  11. Phonological Variation and Its Consequences for the Word Recognition System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2001-01-01

    Examines possible solutions to the problem of form variation in the perception of speech. Asks whether sentential context can influence the identification of potentially assimilated forms of words. (Author/VWL)

  12. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural speech is replete with variability, only some of which is determines the meaning of a word, it remains unclear how infants might ever overcome the effects of surface variability without appealing to meaning. In the current set of experiments, consequences of high and low variability are examined in preverbal infants. The source of variability, vocal affect, is a common property of infant-directed speech with which young learners have to contend. Across a series of four experiments, infants' abilities to recognize repeated encounters of words, as well as to reject similar-sounding words, are investigated in the context of high and low affective variation. Results point to positive consequences of affective variation, both in creating generalizable memory representations for words, but also in establishing phonologically precise memories for words. Conversely, low variability appears to degrade word recognition on both fronts, compromising infants' abilities to generalize across different affective forms of a word and to detect similar-sounding items. Findings are discussed in the context of principles of categorization, both of a linguistic and non-linguistic variety, which may potentiate the early growth of a lexicon. PMID:17586482

  13. The word class effect in the picture–word interference paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Niels; Melinger, Alissa; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Finkbeiner, Matthew; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The word class effect in the picture–word interference paradigm is a highly influential finding that has provided some of the most compelling support for word class constraints on lexical selection. However, methodological concerns called for a replication of the most convincing of those effects. Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Pechmann and Zerbst (2002; Experiment 4). Participants named pictures of objects in the context of noun and adverb distractors. Naming took place in bare noun and sentence frame contexts. A word class effect emerged in both bare noun and sentence frame naming conditions, suggesting a semantic origin of the effect. In Experiment 2, participants named objects in the context of noun and verb distractors whose word class relationship to the target and imageability were orthogonally manipulated. As before, naming took place in bare noun and sentence frame naming contexts. In both naming contexts, distractor imageability but not word class affected picture naming latencies. These findings confirm the sensitivity of the picture–word interference paradigm to distractor imageability and suggest the paradigm is not sensitive to distractor word class. The results undermine the use of the word class effect in the picture–word interference paradigm as supportive of word class constraints during lexical selection. PMID:19998070

  14. Identification and secondary structure analysis of a region affecting electrophoretic mobility of the STR locus SE33.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dennis Y; Green, Robert L; Lagacé, Robert E; Oldroyd, Nicola J; Hennessy, Lori K; Mulero, Julio J

    2012-05-01

    SE33 is one of the most informative markers in forensic use due to its high power of discrimination. During the course of developing the AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit several SE33 primer designs were screened with one primer pair yielding a high frequency of discordant alleles when compared to the AmpFℓSTR(®) SEfiler Plus™ PCR Amplification Kit. This discordance was mostly specific to samples of African descent with an estimated frequency of 5.1% and was a result of a mobility shift of approximately +0.84nt. The sequence analysis of the affected alleles revealed that the only difference from the wild type sequence was a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) outside of the SE33 repeat but within the amplicon of this particular set of experimental primers. In total, we identified three different SNPs all within 9nt of each other, each of which could cause the mobility shift individually. Further characterization of this region via site directed mutagenesis and thermostability measurements strongly suggests that this polymorphic region contains a secondary structure that, when disrupted due to the presence of a variant SNP, results in a mobility shift relative to the wild type sequence. To overcome this problem, the SE33 primers used in the final configuration of the NGM SElect™ Kit avoided the amplification of this polymorphic region yielding in turn results highly concordant with the SEfiler Plus™ Kit. PMID:21757416

  15. Seeing Stems Everywhere: Position-Independent Identification of Stem Morphemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    There is broad consensus that printed complex words are identified on the basis of their constituent morphemes. This fact raises the issue of how the word identification system codes for morpheme position, hence allowing it to distinguish between words like "overhang" and "hangover", and to recognize that "preheat" is a word, whereas "heatpre" is…

  16. Lexical competition in young children’s word learning

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, 1.5 year olds were taught novel words whose sound patterns were phonologically similar to familiar words (novel neighbors) or were not (novel nonneighbors). Learning was tested using a picture fixation task. In both experiments, children learned the novel nonneighbors but not the novel neighbors. In addition, exposure to the novel neighbors impaired recognition performance on familiar neighbors. Finally, children did not spontaneously use phonological differences to infer that a novel word referred to a novel object. Thus, lexical competition—inhibitory interaction among words in speech comprehension—can prevent children from using their full phonological sensitivity in judging words as novel. These results suggest that word learning in young children, as in adults, relies not only on the discrimination and identification of phonetic categories, but also on evaluating the likelihood that an utterance conveys a new word. PMID:17054932

  17. The Effect of Sign Language Structure on Complex Word Reading in Chinese Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age. PMID:25799066

  18. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  19. Word generalization by a dog (Canis familiaris): is shape important?

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  20. Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?

    PubMed Central

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  1. Examining assortativity in the mental lexicon: Evidence from word associations.

    PubMed

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Words are characterized by a variety of lexical and psychological properties, such as their part of speech, word-frequency, concreteness, or affectivity. In this study, we examine how these properties relate to a word's connectivity in the mental lexicon, the structure containing a person's knowledge of words. In particular, we examine the extent to which these properties display assortative mixing, that is, the extent to which words in the lexicon are more likely to be connected to words that share these properties. We investigated three types of word properties: 1) subjective word covariates: valence, dominance, arousal, and concreteness; 2) lexical information: part of speech; and 3) distributional word properties: age-of-acquisition, word frequency, and contextual diversity. We assessed which of these factors exhibit assortativity using a word association task, where the probability of producing a certain response to a cue is a measure of the associative strength between the cue and response in the mental lexicon. Our results show that the extent to which these aspects exhibit assortativity varies considerably, with a high cue-response correspondence on valence, dominance, arousal, concreteness, and part of speech, indicating that these factors correspond to the words people deem as related. In contrast, we find that cues and responses show only little correspondence on word frequency, contextual diversity, and age-of-acquisition, indicating that, compared to subjective and lexical word covariates, distributional properties exhibit only little assortativity in the mental lexicon. Possible theoretical accounts and implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25893712

  2. Predictability Effects on Durations of Content and Function Words in Conversational English

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Alan; Brenier, Jason; Gregory, Michelle L.; girand, cynthia; Jurafsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Content and function word duration are affected differently by their frequency and predictability. Regression analyses of conversational speech show that content words are shorter when they are more frequent, but function words are not. Repeated content words are shorter, but function words are not. Furthermore, function words have shorter pronunciations, after controlling for frequency and predictability. both content and function words are strongly affected by predictability from the word following them, and only very frequent function words show sensitivity to predictability from the preceding word. The results support the view that content and function words are accessed by different production mechanisms. We argue that words’ form differences due to frequency or repetition stem from their faster or slower lexical access, mediated by a general mechanism that coordinates the pace of higher-level planning and the execution of the articulatory plan.

  3. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  4. Scientific Word Processors Proliferate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes most of the currently available scientific word processing software packages. Unless noted, these products (including Molecular Presentation Graphics, ProofWriter, Spellbinder Scientific, Volkswriter Scientific, and WordMARC) run on the IBM PC family of microcomputers. (JN)

  5. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  6. Parallel and Serial Reading Processes in Children's Word and Nonword Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluent reading is characterized by rapid and accurate identification of words. It is commonly accepted that such identification relies on the availability of orthographic knowledge. However, whether this orthographic knowledge should be seen as an accumulation of word-specific knowledge in a lexicon acquired through decoding or as a well-developed…

  7. Nonliteral understanding of number words

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Justine T.; Wu, Jean Y.; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans’ interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally. PMID:25092304

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ is a Sensitive Target for Oil Sands Process-Affected Water: Effects on Adipogenesis and Identification of Ligands.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Jianxian; Alharbi, Hattan A; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve

    2016-07-19

    Identification of toxic components of complex mixtures is a challenge. Here, oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) was used as a case study to identify those toxic components with a known protein target. Organic chemicals in OSPW exhibited dose-dependent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at concentrations less than those currently in the environment (0.025× equivalent of full-strength OSPW), by use of a luciferase reporter gene assay. Activation of PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis by OSPW was confirmed in 3T3L1 preadipocytes, as evidenced by accumulation of lipids and up-regulation of AP2, LPL, and PPARγ gene expression after exposure to polar fractions of OSPW. Unexpectedly, the nonpolar fractions of OSPW inhibited differentiation of preadipocytes via activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Organic chemicals in OSPW that were ligands of PPARγ were identified by use of a pull-down system combined with untargeted chemical analysis (PUCA), with a recombinant PPARγ protein. Thirty ligands of PPARγ were identified by use of the PUCA assay. High resolution MS(1) and MS(2) spectra were combined to predict the formulas or structures of a subset of ligands, and polyoxygenated or heteroatomic chemicals, especially hydroxylated carboxylic/sulfonic acids, were the major ligands of PPARγ. PMID:27340905

  9. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  10. New word needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    I wish to report and protest the theft of a word. The numerical modelers have stolen the word “data” from the experimentalists and are using it for purposes for which it was never intended. They should give it back and go find or invent their own word.

  11. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  12. Infants Generalize Representations of Statistically Segmented Words

    PubMed Central

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of non-phonemic surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation. PMID:23112788

  13. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects. PMID:26340587

  14. Which Words Shall They Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Cheryl L.; Feinburg, Phil

    To devise a list of functional sight vocabulary words, a search was made of numerous curriculum guides and books, school district curricula, and several commercial materials purporting to teach such words. This search provided 16 word lists with a total of 466 different words and symbols. The word lists ranged from as few as five words to as many…

  15. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in Int J Billing 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in Am J Psychol, in press), and rapid serial visual processing (Knickerbocker and Altarriba in Vis Cogn 21(5):599-627, 2013). Each of these studies has found significant differences in emotion and emotion-laden word processing. The current study investigated this word type distinction using a bilingual sample, to assess emotion and emotion-laden word processing in a bilingual's two languages. Sixty Spanish-English bilinguals performed a masked LDT with positive and negative emotion and emotion-laden word pairs, in either Spanish or English. Overall, the four-way interaction of relatedness, word type, valence, and language was significant. Response times (RTs) to emotion words were significantly faster than RTs to emotion-laden words, but only in English. These results indicate that the emotion/emotion-laden word type distinction may be the most robust in a person's dominant language. PMID:25732384

  16. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  17. Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1α Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

  18. Tracking word frequency effects through 130 years of sound change.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jennifer B; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Walker, Abby J; LaShell, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary New Zealand English has distinctive pronunciations of three characteristic vowels. Did the evolution of these distinctive pronunciations occur in all words at the same time or were different words affected differently? We analyze the changing pronunciation of New Zealand English in a large set of recordings of speakers born over a 130 year period. We show that low frequency words were at the forefront of these changes and higher frequency words lagged behind. A long-standing debate exists between authors claiming that high frequency words lead regular sound change and others claiming that there are no frequency effects. The leading role of low frequency words is surprising in this context. It can be elucidated in models of lexical processing that include detailed word-specific memories. PMID:25813345

  19. Homographs: Classification and Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacak, M.; Henisz, Bozena

    1968-01-01

    Homographs are defined in this study as sets of word forms which are spelled alike but which have entirely or partially different meanings and which may have different syntactic functions (that is, they belong to more than one form class or to more than one subclass of a form class). This report deals with the classification and identification of…

  20. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Main, Keith L.; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Word familiarity may affect magnocellular processes of word recognition. To explore this idea, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed-discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rate, but only for words, not for pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlation between contrast sensitivity and reading rate and no correlation between speed discrimination thresholds WASI subtest scores. These findings support the position that reading rate is influenced by magnocellular circuitry attuned to the recognition of familiar word-forms. PMID:25278418

  1. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research. PMID:18437803

  2. Dependence, independence, and emergence of word features.

    PubMed

    Oden, G C

    1984-06-01

    The degree to which a letter is perceived to be an e rather than a c is a function of the central, horizontal bar, which can be made to be more or less present in any given stimulus. By this means, word-form stimuli were produced through the independent, continuous manipulation of e versus c and of r versus h in two word frames (wat-- and --ase) yielding stimuli that ranged between water and watch in the former instance and between erase and chase in the latter. The identification probabilities for these stimuli were well accounted for in each case by a version of a fuzzy propositional model that is based on the assumption of independent features, indicating that the manipulated features within each word frame were not perceptually interdependent. However, the probabilities differed systematically between the two stimulus matrices; this means that there must be some other kind of higher order effect involved in identification. The hypothesis that the interaction was due to an emergent word envelope feature was rejected on the basis of the model analysis. PMID:6242414

  3. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination and talker identification

    PubMed Central

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to utilize residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the non-implanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Design Four pitch-related tasks were used: Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. Talker identification using vowels spoken by ten different talkers (three male, three female, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and thirteen bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. Results There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak

  4. The development of a temporal-BRDF model-based approach to change detection, an application to the identification and delineation of fire affected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, Lisa-Maria

    Although large quantities of southern Africa burn every year, minimal information is available relating to the fire regimes of this area. This study develops a new, generic approach to change detection, applicable to the identification of land cover change from high temporal and moderate spatial resolution satellite data. Traditional change detection techniques have several key limitations which are identified and addressed in this work. In particular these approaches fail to account for directional effects in the remote sensing signal introduced by variations in the solar and sensing geometry, and are sensitive to underlying phenological changes in the surface as well as noise in the data due to cloud or atmospheric contamination. This research develops a bi-directional, model-based change detection algorithm. An empirical temporal component is incorporated into a semi-empirical linear BRDF model. This may be fitted to a long time series of reflectance with less sensitivity to the presence of underlying phenological change. Outliers are identified based on an estimation of noise in the data and the calculation of uncertainty in the model parameters and are removed from the sequence. A "step function kernel" is incorporated into the formulation in order to detect explicitly sudden step-like changes in the surface reflectance induced by burning. The change detection model is applied to the problem of locating and mapping fire affected areas from daily moderate spatial resolution satellite data, and an indicator of burn severity is introduced. Monthly burned area datasets for a 2400km by 1200km area of southern Africa detailing the day and severity of burning are created for a five year period (2000-2004). These data are analysed and the fire regimes of southern African ecosystems during this time are characterised. The results highlight the extent of the burning which is taking place within southern Africa, with between 27-32% of the study area burning during each

  5. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding—the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery—does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration—the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration—did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  6. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  7. Dynamic versus Static Dictionary with and without Printed Focal Words in e-Book Reading as Facilitator for Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Ben-Shabt, Anat; Shneor, Dafna; Bokovza, Limor

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a dictionary embedded in an e-book with static or dynamic visuals with and without printed focal words affects word learning. A pretest-posttest design was used to measure gains of expressive words' meaning and their spelling. The participants included 250 Hebrew-speaking second graders from…

  8. The Effects of Word Box Instruction on Acquisition, Generalization, and Maintenance of Decoding and Spelling Skills for First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Kanotz, Brittany; Rouse, Christina A.; Sawyer, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implementing word boxes as a supplemental instruction method on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of word identification and spelling. Word box intervention consists of using manipulatives to learn phonological decoding skills. The participants were three African-American urban first graders…

  9. The Last Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Go look it up. That is what students who have questions about words are often told. But where should they go? Depending on the question, some resources are better than others, and some are not very good at all, no matter what the question. Finding the most helpful word resource for students can be a challenge, especially now that search engines…

  10. The Power of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes "The Power of Words," a free, online curriculum that explores common labels for ethnic groups, women and sexual minorities. From an activity exploring the roots of slang for immigrants to a lesson on recent attempts by marginalized groups to reclaim pejorative words, the curriculum's 10 lesson plans support content standards…

  11. Chippy's Computer Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willing, Kathlene R.; Girard, Suzanne

    Intended for young children just becoming familiar with computers, this naming book introduces and reinforces new computer vocabulary and concepts. The 20 words are presented alphabetically, along with illustrations, providing room for different activities in which children can match and name the pictures and words. The 20 vocabulary items are…

  12. Words That Encourage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  13. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

  14. Eye Movements and the Use of Parafoveal Word Length Information in Reading

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Barbara J.; White, Sarah J.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Rayner, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored in 4 experiments that explored the role of parafoveal word length in reading. The experiments employed a type of compound word where the deletion of a letter results in 2 short words (e.g., backhand, back and). The boundary technique (K. Rayner, 1975) was employed to manipulate word length information in the parafovea. Accuracy of the parafoveal word length preview significantly affected landing positions and fixation durations. This disruption was larger for 2-word targets, but the results demonstrated that this interaction was not due to the morphological status of the target words. Manipulation of sentence context also demonstrated that parafoveal word length information can be used in combination with sentence context to narrow down lexical candidates. The 4 experiments converge in demonstrating that an important role of parafoveal word length information is to direct the eyes to the center of the parafoveal word. PMID:19045993

  15. Can colours be used to segment words when reading?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Tejero, Pilar; Winskel, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Rayner, Fischer, and Pollatsek (1998, Vision Research) demonstrated that reading unspaced text in Indo-European languages produces a substantial reading cost in word identification (as deduced from an increased word-frequency effect on target words embedded in the unspaced vs. spaced sentences) and in eye movement guidance (as deduced from landing sites closer to the beginning of the words in unspaced sentences). However, the addition of spaces between words comes with a cost: nearby words may fall outside high-acuity central vision, thus reducing the potential benefits of parafoveal processing. In the present experiment, we introduced a salient visual cue intended to facilitate the process of word segmentation without compromising visual acuity: each alternating word was printed in a different colour (i.e., ). Results only revealed a small reading cost of unspaced alternating colour sentences relative to the spaced sentences. Thus, present data are a demonstration that colour can be useful to segment words for readers of spaced orthographies. PMID:26002618

  16. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  17. Distributional Effects of Word Frequency on Eye Fixation Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian; White, Sarah J.; Drieghe, Denis; Hollway, Elizabeth C.; Rayner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Recent research using word recognition paradigms, such as lexical decision and speeded pronunciation, has investigated how a range of variables affect the location and shape of response time distributions, using both parametric and non-parametric techniques. In this article, we explore the distributional effects of a word frequency manipulation on…

  18. Word centre is misperceived.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M H

    2000-01-01

    Normal readers were asked to mark the middle of visually presented words. They made systematic errors toward the left, indicating an overestimation of the length of the beginning of a word. The number of characters determines the size of this error. The bias extended to pseudowords, letter strings, and symbols, but not to blocks, dashes, and lines. Finally, the bias was sensitive to typographical errors but not to colour cuing. These findings suggest that special cognitive operations determine the perceived spatial extent of words. Implications for our understanding of perceptual and cognitive processes in reading are discussed. PMID:10889943

  19. Effects of targets embedded within words in a visual search task

    PubMed Central

    Grabbe, Jeremy W.

    2014-01-01

    Visual search performance can be negatively affected when both targets and distracters share a dimension relevant to the task. This study examined if visual search performance would be influenced by distracters that affect a dimension irrelevant from the task. In Experiment 1 within the letter string of a letter search task, target letters were embedded within a word. Experiment 2 compared targets embedded in words to targets embedded in nonwords. Experiment 3 compared targets embedded in words to a condition in which a word was present in a letter string, but the target letter, although in the letter string, was not embedded within the word. The results showed that visual search performance was negatively affected when a target appeared within a high frequency word. These results suggest that the interaction and effectiveness of distracters is not merely dependent upon common features of the target and distracters, but can be affected by word frequency (a dimension not related to the task demands). PMID:24855497

  20. Finding Words in a Language that Allows Words without Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…

  1. Word Superiority and Word Shape Effects in Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feitelson, Dina; Razel, Micha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the notion that words are sometimes perceived with greater ease than letters and that word shape sometimes plays a role in the perception of words. The data collected from 40 Israeli kindergarteners revealed that beginning readers found it easier to identify single letters than whole words, thus refuting the above notion. (Author/AS)

  2. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed. PMID:27322885

  3. The word-superiority effect and phonological recoding.

    PubMed

    Krueger, L E

    1992-11-01

    Previous work indicates that the locus of the word-superiority effect in letter detection is nonvisual and that letter names, but not letter shapes, are more accessible in words than in nonwords, that is, scrambled collections of letters (e.g., Krueger & Shapiro, 1979; Krueger & Stadtlander, 1991; Massaro, 1979). The nonvisual (verbal or lexical) coding may be phonological, or it may be more abstract. In the present study, a word advantage in the speed of letter detection was found even when the target letter was silent in the six-letter test word (e.g., s in island). Other test words varied in their frequency of occurrence in English and number of syllables (1, 2, or 3). The word advantage was larger for higher frequency words but was not affected by syllable length. The presence of unpronounceable nonwords and silent letters in the words discouraged reliance upon the phonological code but did not thereby eliminate the word advantage. Thus, the word-superiority effect with free viewing is not based entirely upon phonological recoding. PMID:1435271

  4. Lexicon-based word recognition without word segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.K.; Chen, C.H.

    1994-12-31

    We present a word recognition approach that does not rely on explicit word segmentation. It treats the character recognition output as a continuous string of characters instead of first dividing it into words before word-level contextual knowledge is applied. This technique is useful in degraded document images, in which isolation of individual words by purely image- or character-based means is difficult or unreliable. We use a hypothesis generation and verification approach, in which word identities and their positions are hypothesized based on {open_quotes}seed features{close_quotes} (character substrings) extracted from the output of the character recognizer. Verification of the hypotheses consists of comparing the characters in the hypothesized word with candidate characters near the position of the seed feature in the text, and selecting the set of consecutive word hypotheses that are the most mutually consistent. Hence, word segmentation and word recognition are effectively performed in parallel.

  5. Visual Presentation Effects on Identification of Multiple Environmental Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Masakura, Yuko; Ichikawa, Makoto; Shimono, Koichi; Nakatsuka, Reio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the contents and timing of a visual stimulus affect the identification of mixed sounds recorded in a daily life environment. For experiments, we presented four environment sounds as auditory stimuli for 5 s along with a picture or a written word as a visual stimulus that might or might not denote the source of one of the four sounds. Three conditions of temporal relations between the visual stimuli and sounds were used. The visual stimulus was presented either: (a) for 5 s simultaneously with the sound; (b) for 5 s, 1 s before the sound (SOA between the audio and visual stimuli was 6 s); or (c) for 33 ms, 1 s before the sound (SOA was 1033 ms). Participants reported all identifiable sounds for those audio–visual stimuli. To characterize the effects of visual stimuli on sound identification, the following were used: the identification rates of sounds for which the visual stimulus denoted its sound source, the rates of other sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source, and the frequency of false hearing of a sound that was not presented for each sound set. Results of the four experiments demonstrated that a picture or a written word promoted identification of the sound when it was related to the sound, particularly when the visual stimulus was presented for 5 s simultaneously with the sounds. However, a visual stimulus preceding the sounds had a benefit only for the picture, not for the written word. Furthermore, presentation with a picture denoting a sound simultaneously with the sound reduced the frequency of false hearing. These results suggest three ways that presenting a visual stimulus affects identification of the auditory stimulus. First, activation of the visual representation extracted directly from the picture promotes identification of the denoted sound and suppresses the processing of sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source. Second, effects based on processing of the

  6. Visual Presentation Effects on Identification of Multiple Environmental Sounds.

    PubMed

    Masakura, Yuko; Ichikawa, Makoto; Shimono, Koichi; Nakatsuka, Reio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the contents and timing of a visual stimulus affect the identification of mixed sounds recorded in a daily life environment. For experiments, we presented four environment sounds as auditory stimuli for 5 s along with a picture or a written word as a visual stimulus that might or might not denote the source of one of the four sounds. Three conditions of temporal relations between the visual stimuli and sounds were used. The visual stimulus was presented either: (a) for 5 s simultaneously with the sound; (b) for 5 s, 1 s before the sound (SOA between the audio and visual stimuli was 6 s); or (c) for 33 ms, 1 s before the sound (SOA was 1033 ms). Participants reported all identifiable sounds for those audio-visual stimuli. To characterize the effects of visual stimuli on sound identification, the following were used: the identification rates of sounds for which the visual stimulus denoted its sound source, the rates of other sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source, and the frequency of false hearing of a sound that was not presented for each sound set. Results of the four experiments demonstrated that a picture or a written word promoted identification of the sound when it was related to the sound, particularly when the visual stimulus was presented for 5 s simultaneously with the sounds. However, a visual stimulus preceding the sounds had a benefit only for the picture, not for the written word. Furthermore, presentation with a picture denoting a sound simultaneously with the sound reduced the frequency of false hearing. These results suggest three ways that presenting a visual stimulus affects identification of the auditory stimulus. First, activation of the visual representation extracted directly from the picture promotes identification of the denoted sound and suppresses the processing of sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source. Second, effects based on processing of the conceptual

  7. Solving Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  8. Word Repetition, Masked Orthographic Priming, and Language Switching: Bilingual Studies and BIA+ Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton

    2010-01-01

    Daily conversations contain many repetitions of identical and similar word forms. For bilinguals, the words can even come from the same or different languages. How do such repetitions affect the human word recognition system? The Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (BIA+) model provides a theoretical and computational framework for understanding…

  9. Retention of New Words: Quantity of Encounters, Quality of Task, and Degree of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Rozovski-Roitblat, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We examined how learning new second language (L2) words was affected by three "task type" conditions (reading only, reading with a dictionary, reading and word focused exercises), three "number of encounters" conditions and their combinations. Three groups of L2 learners (n = 185) were exposed to 30 target words (one group in…

  10. Cognate and Word Class Ambiguity Effects in Noun and Verb Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how noun and verb processing in bilingual visual word recognition are affected by within and between-language overlap. We investigated how word class ambiguous noun and verb cognates are processed by bilinguals, to see if co-activation of overlapping word forms between languages benefits from additional overlap within a…

  11. Developing WordSmith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mike

    2008-01-01

    WordSmith Tools, since its launch in 1996, has had a rather unusual history and the aim of this paper is to record some of the chief influences on its development. The paper thus presents and discusses the history of WordSmith Tools and its predecessors going back to the early 1980s when processors were much slower, memory very limited and disk…

  12. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  13. Decorporation: officially a word.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition. PMID:10772031

  14. Decorporation: Officially a word

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R. )

    1999-12-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  15. Word Production Deficits in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Schwartz, Barbara L.; Isaacs, Keren L.

    2004-01-01

    Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is implicated in word production. Data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in word "search," whereas the prefrontal cortex underlies the "selection" of words from among competing alternatives. We explored the role of search and selection processes in word production deficits in schizophrenia patients. In Experiment…

  16. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  17. Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  18. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  19. The word without the tachistoscope.

    PubMed

    Prinzmetal, W; Silvers, B

    1994-03-01

    In experiments with an unlimited viewing time, we were able to isolate specific stimulus factors that lead to the word-superiority effect. We discovered that advantages of words over nonwords, and words over single letters, are caused by different factors. The word-nonword effect was found in a variety of circumstances, such as with small type, low contrast, or a simultaneously present mask. The advantage of words over single letters occurs only when the stimuli are embedded in a mask making it difficult to find a single letter. In addition, we obtained a word-detection effect without a brief exposure: Subjects were more accurate detecting the presence of words than nonwords. However, this effect only occurred when subjects were required to discriminate letters from nonletters. Thus, the word-superiority (word-nonword difference) and word-detection effects both involve letter discrimination and can be explained by similar mechanisms. PMID:8036111

  20. The influence of amplitude envelope information on resolving lexically ambiguous spoken words.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Christine M; Pitt, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies exploring the contribution of amplitude envelope information to spoken word recognition are mixed with regard to the question of whether amplitude envelope alone, without spectral detail, can aid isolated word recognition. Three experiments show that the amplitude envelope will aid word identification only if two conditions are met: (1) It is not the only information available to the listener and (2) lexical ambiguity is not present. Implications for lexical processing are discussed. PMID:25324106

  1. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  2. Name that Word: Using Song Lyrics to Improve the Decoding Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, especially those with learning disabilities, lack basic word identification skills. Finding motivating instructional techniques to improve word-level reading skills is increasingly difficult as students move through the grades. One technique that holds promise in motivating adolescents involves using song lyrics from their…

  3. Bilingual Word Recognition beyond Orthography: On Meaning, Linguistic Context and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Central questions in psycholinguistic studies on bilingualism are how bilinguals access words in their two languages, and how they control their language systems and solve the problem of cross-language competition. In their excellent paper "The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision", Dijkstra and…

  4. The Effects of Two Sight Word Teaching Methods on Featural Attention of Children Beginning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.

    Designed to add to the existing knowledge base concerning the saliency of features used by children to identify isolated words, a study examined whether the method of instruction influences the extent to which various features are used for word identification and recall. Subjects, 117 kindergarten students from a suburban Buffalo, New York, school…

  5. How Early Does the Brain Distinguish between Regular Words, Irregular Words, and Pseudowords during the Reading Process? Evidence from Neurochronometric TMS.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Devlin, Joseph T; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Morais, José; Goldman, Serge; Kolinsky, Régine

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive theories on reading propose that the characteristics of written stimuli determine how they are processed in the brain. However, whether the brain distinguishes between regular words, irregular words, and pseudowords already at an early stage of the reading process is still subject to debate. Here we used chronometric TMS to address this issue. During the first 140 msec of regular word, irregular word, and pseudoword reading, TMS was used to disrupt the function of the ventral occipitotemporal, posterior middle temporal, and supramarginal gyri, which are key areas involved in orthographic, semantic, and phonological processing, respectively. Early TMS stimulation delivered on posterior middle temporal and supramarginal gyri affected regular and irregular word, but not pseudoword, reading. In contrast, ventral occipitotemporal disruption affected both word and pseudoword reading. We thus found evidence for an early distinction between word and pseudoword processing in the semantic and phonological systems, but not in the orthographic system. PMID:25603024

  6. Lexical embeddings produce interference when they are morphologically unrelated to the words in which they are contained: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, Kristin M; Juhasz, Barbara J; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Many words in the English language contain semantically and morphologically unrelated smaller words (e.g., room in groom). Recent findings indicate that a high frequency embedded word produces interference during visual word identification (e.g., Bowers, Davis, & Hanley, 2005; Davis, Perea, & Acha, 2009; Davis & Taft, 2005). In an eye movement experiment we examined whether lexical embeddings produce interference even when explicit judgments about lexicality or category membership are not solicited. Participants silently read sentences that each contained a target word with a lexical embedding. Fixation times were longer on target words that contained a higher frequency embedding compared to those that contained a lower frequency embedding. This finding indicates that a high frequency embedding interferes with word identification during silent reading and adds to a growing body of evidence that a word's orthographic neighborhood includes embedded words. PMID:22900139

  7. On the Nature of Talker Variability Effects on Recall of Spoken Word Lists

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Stephen D.; Pisoni, David B.; Logan, John S.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Martin, Mullennix, Pisoni, and Summers (1989) reported that subjects’ accuracy in recalling lists of spoken words was better for words in early list positions when the words were spoken by a single talker than when they were spoken by multiple talkers. The present study was conducted to examine the nature of these effects in further detail. Accuracy of serial-ordered recall was examined for lists of words spoken by either a single talker or by multiple talkers. Half the lists contained easily recognizable words, and half contained more difficult words, according to a combined metric of word frequency, lexical neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. Rate of presentation was manipulated to assess the effects of both variables on rehearsal and perceptual encoding. A strong interaction was obtained between talker variability and rate of presentation. Recall of multiple-talker lists was affected much more than single-talker lists by changes in presentation rate. At slow presentation rates, words in early serial positions produced by multiple talkers were actually recalled more accurately than words produced by a single talker. No interaction was observed for word confusability and rate of presentation. The data provide support for the proposal that talker variability affects the accuracy of recall of spoken words not only by increasing the processing demands for early perceptual encoding of the words, but also by affecting the efficiency of the rehearsal process itself. PMID:1826729

  8. Annotating Large Genomes With Exact Word Matches

    PubMed Central

    Healy, John; Thomas, Elizabeth E.; Schwartz, Jacob T.; Wigler, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a tool for rapidly determining the number of exact matches of any word within large, internally repetitive genomes or sets of genomes. Thus we can readily annotate any sequence, including the entire human genome, with the counts of its constituent words. We create a Burrows-Wheeler transform of the genome, which together with auxiliary data structures facilitating counting, can reside in about one gigabyte of RAM. Our original interest was motivated by oligonucleotide probe design, and we describe a general protocol for defining unique hybridization probes. But our method also has applications for the analysis of genome structure and assembly. We demonstrate the identification of chromosome-specific repeats, and outline a general procedure for finding undiscovered repeats. We also illustrate the changing contents of the human genome assemblies by comparing the annotations built from different genome freezes. PMID:12975312

  9. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate…

  10. Single-Word Intelligibility in Speakers with Repaired Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehill, Tara; Chau, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Many speakers with repaired cleft palate have reduced intelligibility, but there are limitations with current procedures for assessing intelligibility. The aim of this study was to construct a single-word intelligibility test for speakers with cleft palate. The test used a multiple-choice identification format, and was based on phonetic contrasts…

  11. In the Beginning Was the Word: Basic Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis F.

    1981-01-01

    The articles in this section describe research on reading in areas of visual persistence, letter identification, letter probability, word superiority effect, proofreader errors and order effects. This review challenges fellow basic researchers to become more aware of the components of reading before adding new data purporting to delineate the…

  12. Effects of tone training on Cantonese tone-word learning.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Angela; Wang, Yue

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of improving lexical tone identification abilities on Cantonese tone-word learning. Native English non-musicians received training on Cantonese tones before learning the meanings of words distinguished by these tones. Their results were compared to English non-musicians and musicians who received no tone training. The tone-trainees obtained a similar level of word identification proficiency as musicians by the end of training and were significantly better than non-tone trained non-musicians. These results lend support for phonetic-phonological-lexical continuity in learning because enhancing listeners' perception of lower-level tonal information significantly contributed to success in a higher-level linguistic task. PMID:23927215

  13. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering-Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient—a measure derived from the new science of networks—refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words bat, hat, and can, all of which are neighbors of the word cat; the words bat and hat are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual identification task, words with a low clustering coefficient (i.e., few neighbors are neighbors of each other) were more accurately identified than words with a high clustering coefficient (i.e., many neighbors are neighbors of each other). In a lexical decision task, words with a low clustering coefficient were responded to more quickly than words with a high clustering coefficient. These findings suggest that the structure of the lexicon, that is the similarity relationships among neighbors of the target word measured by clustering coefficient, influences lexical access in spoken word recognition. Simulations of the TRACE and Shortlist models of spoken word recognition failed to account for the present findings. A framework for a new model of spoken word recognition is proposed. PMID:19968444

  14. Learning to See Words

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Skilled reading requires recognizing written words rapidly; functional neuroimaging research has clarified how the written word initiates a series of responses in visual cortex. These responses are communicated to circuits in ventral occipitotemporal (VOT) cortex that learn to identify words rapidly. Structural neuroimaging has further clarified aspects of the white matter pathways that communicate reading signals between VOT and language systems. We review this circuitry, its development, and its deficiencies in poor readers. This review emphasizes data that measure the cortical responses and white matter pathways in individual subjects rather than group differences. Such methods have the potential to clarify why a child has difficulty learning to read and to offer guidance about the interventions that may be useful for that child. PMID:21801018

  15. Words are not things

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  16. Identification of some factors affecting pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) removal in real wastewater. Case study of fungal treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Gros, Meritxell; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Many technologies are being developed for the efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater and, among them, fungal degradation is one of the possible alternative biological treatments. In this article, some factors that might affect pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) removal in a fungal treatment of real wastewater were identified in batch bioreactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). We found that degradation of PhACs by Trametes versicolor was enhanced by addition of external nutrients (global removal of 44%). Moreover, our results point out that high aeration might be involved in the increase in the concentration of some PhACs. In fact, conjugation and deconjugation processes (among others) affect the removal assessment of emerging contaminants when working with real concentrations in comparison to experiments with spiked samples. Moreover, factors that could affect the quantification of micropollutants at lab-scale experiments were studied. PMID:25464308

  17. Emotion Word Processing: Effects of Word Type and Valence in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanas, Stephanie A.; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies comparing emotion and emotion-laden word processing have used various cognitive tasks, including an Affective Simon Task (Altarriba and Basnight-Brown in "Int J Billing" 15(3):310-328, 2011), lexical decision task (LDT; Kazanas and Altarriba in "Am J Psychol", in press), and rapid serial visual processing…

  18. The distinct contributions of age of acquisition and word frequency in auditory word perception.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip T; Turner, Judy E; Brown, Penelope A; Henry, Lucy A

    2006-12-01

    We report two studies of the distinct effects that a word's age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency have on the mental lexicon. In the first study, a purely statistical analysis, we show that AoA and frequency are related in different ways to the phonological form and imageability of different words. In the second study, three groups of participants (34 seven-year-olds, 30 ten-year-olds, and 17 adults) took part in an auditory lexical decision task, with stimuli varying in AoA, frequency, length, neighbourhood density, and imageability. The principal result is that the influence of these different variables changes as a function of AoA: Neighbourhood density effects are apparent for early and late AoA words, but not for intermediate AoA, whereas imageability effects are apparent for intermediate AoA words but not for early or late AoA. These results are discussed from the perspective that AoA affects a word's representation, but frequency affects processing biases. PMID:17095491

  19. Identification of the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the independent impact of the affected upper and lower limb, trunk, and unaffected side motor functions on activities of daily living in stroke patients using partial correlation analysis. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 77 stroke patients. Motor functions were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set, and the activities of daily living performance was assessed using the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. Further, simple and partial correlation analyses were conducted between each motor function and activities of daily living parameter. [Results] Simple correlation analysis identified significant positive correlations for each pair. In contrast, partial correlation analysis only identified significant positive correlations between the affected lower limb or unaffected side functions and the Barthel index or Functional Independence Measure. This discrepancy between the two tests was explained by the significant interaction between the affected upper and lower limb functions and between the trunk and unaffected side functions. [Conclusion] The present study identified the affected lower limb and unaffected side motor functions as the major determinants of activities of daily living performance in stroke patients. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs can be improved by targeting these areas. PMID:26311957

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  1. Cross-situational statistical word learning in young children.

    PubMed

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Mugwanya, Nassali; Namy, Laura L

    2014-10-01

    Recent empirical work has highlighted the potential role of cross-situational statistical word learning in children's early vocabulary development. In the current study, we tested 5- to 7-year-old children's cross-situational learning by presenting children with a series of ambiguous naming events containing multiple words and multiple referents. Children rapidly learned word-to-object mappings by attending to the co-occurrence regularities across these ambiguous naming events. The current study begins to address the mechanisms underlying children's learning by demonstrating that the diversity of learning contexts affects performance. The implications of the current findings for the role of cross-situational word learning at different points in development are discussed along with the methodological implications of employing school-aged children to test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms supporting early word learning. PMID:25015421

  2. Word Links: A Strategy for Developing Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen

    2007-01-01

    Word Links, an effective strategy for developing students' vocabulary, is based on four principles. It provides contextual and definitional information; offers repeated exposure to words and opportunities to practice them; encourages students to think about relationships among word meanings; and involves active engagement in learning tasks. Yopp…

  3. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  4. WordSeeker: concurrent bioinformatics software for discovering genome-wide patterns and word-based genomic signatures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of genomic science is the discovery and characterization of all functional elements within genomes. In silico methods are used in genome studies to discover putative regulatory genomic elements (called words or motifs). Although a number of methods have been developed for motif discovery, most of them lack the scalability needed to analyze large genomic data sets. Methods This manuscript presents WordSeeker, an enumerative motif discovery toolkit that utilizes multi-core and distributed computational platforms to enable scalable analysis of genomic data. A controller task coordinates activities of worker nodes, each of which (1) enumerates a subset of the DNA word space and (2) scores words with a distributed Markov chain model. Results A comprehensive suite of performance tests was conducted to demonstrate the performance, speedup and efficiency of WordSeeker. The scalability of the toolkit enabled the analysis of the entire genome of Arabidopsis thaliana; the results of the analysis were integrated into The Arabidopsis Gene Regulatory Information Server (AGRIS). A public version of WordSeeker was deployed on the Glenn cluster at the Ohio Supercomputer Center. Conclusion WordSeeker effectively utilizes concurrent computing platforms to enable the identification of putative functional elements in genomic data sets. This capability facilitates the analysis of the large quantity of sequenced genomic data. PMID:21210985

  5. Sparkling and Spinning Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    1964-01-01

    Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…

  6. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  7. Have Words, Will Understand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  8. Word Problem Wizardry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  9. Word Attack Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A limited analysis of alternative approaches to phonemic-level word attack instruction is provided in this document. The instruction segment begins with training in letter-sound correspondences for which mastery of certain skills is assumed. Instruction ends with the decoding of novel items having a consonant-vowel-consonant construction. Contents…

  10. Four-Letter Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Robert G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a computer program (for Apple II) that tests knowledge of four-letter words. The program, which includes four games and a dictionary, can be used in one of two modes (inquiry or game) by students at any level depending on version of dictionary selected. Dictionary operations and classroom applications are discussed. (JN)

  11. From Visuals to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewig, John Warren

    This speech indicates how teachers can use visual materials in classrooms to promote writing by children in primary school. Five classroom tested motivating experiences discussed are: (1) adding words to wordless picture books, (2) writing about artist's paintings, (3) writing story lines from films, (4) comparing variant editions of the same…

  12. They Love Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Adel G.; Bayer, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Describes how teachers implement a spelling decoding strategy within a first-grade language arts curriculum. Considers how the investigation of one spelling-decoding instructional strategy was a coming-to-know process that led the authors to value intentional word study that was connected to but not necessarily embedded in authentic contexts. (SG)

  13. Lost for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Britain remains well and truly in the slow lane when it comes to learning languages--despite the repeated commitment of politicians to reversing this historical trend. But, as the author proves, even the least able linguist can learn the few words of a foreign language which can make all the difference when traveling abroad. In its recent briefing…

  14. Working on Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSciver, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Every assessment is a literacy test. It matters not whether the content is science, social studies, or mathematics; if students are not able to make sense of the words, their ability to decipher the meaning of the assessment questions is suspect. Comprehending the language of a task becomes even more important as educators strive to move the…

  15. Stuck for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Carol; Sharp, John

    2011-01-01

    What are children trying to tell when they can't find the words that they need? Children's gestures are valuable in informing teaching practice and how one goes about assessing children's work in science. These children's gestures may have more meaning attached to it than is at first apparent. Use such gesturing to learn what children know and can…

  16. Developing Word Analysis Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Arthur W.

    The importance of word analysis skills to reading ability is discussed, and methodologies for teaching such skills are examined. It is stated that a child cannot become proficient in reading if he does not master the skill of associating printed letter symbols with the sounds they represent. Instructional procedures which augment the alphabet with…

  17. Semantic information mediates visual attention during spoken word recognition in Chinese: Evidence from the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Li, Xingshan

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the activation of semantic information during spoken word recognition can mediate visual attention's deployment to printed Chinese words. We used a visual-world paradigm with printed words, in which participants listened to a spoken target word embedded in a neutral spoken sentence while looking at a visual display of printed words. We examined whether a semantic competitor effect could be observed in the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. In Experiment 1, the relationship between the spoken target words and the printed words was manipulated so that they were semantically related (a semantic competitor), phonologically related (a phonological competitor), or unrelated (distractors). We found that the probability of fixations on semantic competitors was significantly higher than that of fixations on the distractors. In Experiment 2, the orthographic similarity between the spoken target words and their semantic competitors was manipulated to further examine whether the semantic competitor effect was modulated by orthographic similarity. We found significant semantic competitor effects regardless of orthographic similarity. Our study not only reveals that semantic information can affect visual attention, it also provides important new insights into the methodology employed to investigate the semantic processing of spoken words during spoken word recognition using the printed-word version of the visual-world paradigm. PMID:26993126

  18. Identification of entomopathogenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides essential assistance for the identification of the most important genera (and main species) of fungal pathogens affecting insects, mites, and spiders. The key allows identifications regardless of which major spore types might be present with the specimen. The phylogenetic affi...

  19. Identification of Genetic Loci Affecting the Severity of Symptoms of Hirschsprung Disease in Rats Carrying Ednrbsl Mutations by Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Torigoe, Daisuke; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Sasaki, Nobuya; Wang, Jinxi; Agui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease in neonates characterized by the absence of the enteric ganglia in a variable length of the distal colon. This disease results from multiple genetic interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate developing gut. We previously reported that three rat strains with different backgrounds (susceptible AGH-Ednrbsl/sl, resistant F344-Ednrbsl/sl, and LEH-Ednrbsl/sl) but the same null mutation of Ednrb show varying severity degrees of aganglionosis. This finding suggests that strain-specific genetic factors affect the severity of HSCR. Consistent with this finding, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the severity of HSCR on chromosome (Chr) 2 was identified using an F2 intercross between AGH and F344 strains. In the present study, we performed QTL analysis using an F2 intercross between the susceptible AGH and resistant LEH strains to identify the modifier/resistant loci for HSCR in Ednrb-deficient rats. A significant locus affecting the severity of HSCR was also detected within the Chr 2 region. These findings strongly suggest that a modifier gene of aganglionosis exists on Chr 2. In addition, two potentially causative SNPs (or mutations) were detected upstream of a known HSCR susceptibility gene, Gdnf. These SNPs were possibly responsible for the varied length of gut affected by aganglionosis. PMID:25790447

  20. Deployment of spatial attention to words in central and peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Stéphanie; Grainger, Jonathan

    2007-05-01

    Four perceptual identification experiments examined the influence of spatial cues on the recognition of words presented in central vision (with fixation on either the first or last letter of the target word) and in peripheral vision (displaced left or right of a central fixation point). Stimulus location had a strong effect on word identification accuracy in both central and peripheral vision, showing a strong right visual field superiority that did not depend on eccentricity. Valid spatial cues improved word identification for peripherally presented targets but were largely ineffective for centrally presented targets. Effects of spatial cuing interacted with visual field effects in Experiment 1, with valid cues reducing the right visual field superiority for peripherally located targets, but this interaction was shown to depend on the type of neutral cue. These results provide further support for the role of attentional factors in visual field asymmetries obtained with targets in peripheral vision but not with centrally presented targets. PMID:17727111

  1. Storing and Retrieving Word Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, F. J.; Devine, K.

    1985-01-01

    Zipfian laws for frequency distributions of word pairs and longer phrases are derived from text sample analysis. From crossing of Zipfian curves, it is deduced that number of multi-word phrases that occur frequently in text is surprisingly small, of same order of magnitude as number of individual word-types. (8 references) (EJS)

  2. Word Learning as Bayesian Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…

  3. Jail Participants Actively Study Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Donita Massengill; Berg, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of a word study literacy approach on the spelling ability and self-efficacy of adults in a county jail. Forty-four inmates participated in the word study intervention that provided them with hands-on learning. The word study intervention was conducted in four separate sessions (September,…

  4. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  5. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory. PMID:27445893

  6. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory. PMID:27445893

  7. Lexical embeddings produce interference when they are morphologically unrelated to the words in which they are contained: Evidence from eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Weingartner, Kristin M.; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Many words in the English language contain semantically and morphologically unrelated smaller words (e.g., room in groom). Recent findings indicate that a high frequency embedded word produces interference during visual word identification (e.g., Bowers, Davis, & Hanley, 2005; Davis, Perea, & Acha, 2009; Davis & Taft, 2005). In an eye movement experiment we examined whether lexical embeddings produce interference even when explicit judgments about lexicality or category membership are not solicited. Participants silently read sentences that each contained a target word with a lexical embedding. Fixation times were longer on target words that contained a higher frequency embedding compared to those that contained a lower frequency embedding. This finding indicates that a high frequency embedding interferes with word identification during silent reading and adds to a growing body of evidence that a word’s orthographic neighborhood includes embedded words. PMID:22900139

  8. Affective biases in English are bi-dimensional.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Amy Beth; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing observation about the interface between emotion and language is that positive words are used more frequently than negative ones, leading to the Pollyanna hypothesis which alleges a predominantly optimistic outlook in humans. This paper uses the largest available collection of affective ratings as well as insights from linguistics to revisit the Pollyanna hypothesis as it relates to two dimensions of emotion: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity). We identified systematic patterns in the distribution of words over a bi-dimensional affective space, which (1) run counter to and supersede most prior accounts, and (2) differ drastically between word types (unique, distinct words in the lexicon) and word tokens (number of occurrences of available words in the lexicon). We argue for two factors that shape affect in language and society: a pro-social benevolent communication strategy with its emphasis on useful and dangerous phenomena, and the structure of human subjective perception of affect. PMID:25313685

  9. 'I'm a consumer, I'm not a scientist': Cultivating Student Domain Identification, Agency, and Affect through Engagement in Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalone, Giovanna

    This study investigates the potential benefits of redesigning hands-on, commercial inquiry science kits for fifth grade that afford agency and the development of science identities by leveraging youth's interests, personal or shared concerns, challenges or desires. Science identification is considered in relation to learning processes of being, becoming, knowing and doing. As identities are constructed dialogically through engagement, emotion, intentionality, innovation, and solidarity, students' agency is mediated and conceptualized as it develops in practice. The study is introduced in Chapter 1 by acknowledging how agency and identity are constructed from an ideological frame, thus problematizing the current neo-liberal policies undergirding educational reform. The conceptual argument in Chapter 2 outlines a theoretical synthesis of agency and learning. Subsequently, I leveraged a theory of semiosis to highlight how these perspectives on agency and identity contribute to the meaning-making processes of language, culture, and mind. Finally, conceptualizations of agency and identity are mapped to the sociology of scientific knowledge perspective. Chapter 3 situates the study context within a design-based implementation research model where the existing science curriculum units serve as comparisons (Inquiry group) to the experimental units (Agency group). The findings first demonstrate how student and teacher positioning are revealed during the turns of exchange by using functional grammar as a method to analyze how discourse works to construe experience and enact social relationships. Secondly, I analyze youth positioning across conditions highlighting the importance of raising student consciousness to the variegated ways scientists practice science and inducts students into how scientists intentionally and purposefully employ genres to engage in scientific ways of communicating. Student's perspectives, positioning, and emotional investments are then analyzed

  10. Learning word meanings by instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K.

    1996-12-31

    We develop techniques for learning the meanings of unknown words in context. Working within a compositional semantics framework, we write down equations in which a sentence`s meaning is some combination function of the meaning of its words. When one of the words is unknown, we ask for a paraphrase of the sentence. We then compute the meaning of the unknown word by inverting parts of the semantic combination function. This technique can be used to learn word-concept mappings, decomposed meanings, and mappings between syntactic and semantic roles. It works for all parts of speech.

  11. The Effect of Word Frequency on Judgments of Learning: Contributions of Beliefs and Processing Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Ping; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuchi; Cao, Wei; Cao, Liren; Li, Weijian

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that word frequency affects judgments of learning (JOLs). Specifically, people give higher JOLs for high-frequency (HF) words than for low-frequency (LF) words. However, the exact mechanism underlying this effect is largely unknown. The present study replicated and extended previous work by exploring the contributions of processing fluency and beliefs to the word frequency effect. In Experiment 1, participants studied HF and LF words and made immediate JOLs. The findings showed that participants gave higher JOLs for HF words than for LF ones, reflecting the word frequency effect. In Experiment 2a (measuring the encoding fluency by using self-paced study time) and Experiment 2b (disrupting perceptual fluency by presenting words in an easy or difficult font style), we evaluated the contribution of processing fluency. The findings of Experiment 2a revealed no significant difference in self-paced study time between HF and LF words. The findings of Experiment 2b showed that the size of word frequency effect did not decrease or disappear even when presenting words in a difficult font style. In Experiment 3a (a questionnaire-based study) and Experiment 3b (making pre-study JOLs), we evaluated the role of beliefs in this word frequency effect. The results of Experiment 3a showed that participants gave higher estimates for HF as compared to LF words. That is, they estimated that hypothetical participants would better remember the HF words. The results of Experiment 3b showed that participants gave higher pre-study JOLs for HF than for LF words. These results across experiments suggested that people’s beliefs, not processing fluency, contribute substantially to the word frequency effect on JOLs. However, considering the validation of the indexes reflecting the processing fluency in the current study, we cannot entirely rule out the possible contribution of processing fluency. The relative contribution of processing fluency and beliefs to word

  12. Preschoolers Use Emotion in Speech to Learn New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jared M. J.; Graham, Susan A.; Callaway, Dallas; Chambers, Craig G.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined 4- and 5-year-olds' use of vocal affect to learn new words. In Experiment 1 (n = 48), children were presented with two unfamiliar objects, first in their original state and then in an altered state (broken or enhanced). An instruction produced with negative, neutral, or positive affect, directed children to find the…

  13. Identification of Analytical Factors Affecting Complex Proteomics Profiles Acquired in a Factorial Design Study with Analysis of Variance: Simultaneous Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Vikram; Govorukhina, Natalia; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Hoefsloot, Huub; Westra, Inge; Smilde, Age; Reijmers, Theo; van der Zee, Ate G J; Suits, Frank; Bischoff, Rainer; Horvatovich, Péter

    2016-04-19

    Complex shotgun proteomics peptide profiles obtained in quantitative differential protein expression studies, such as in biomarker discovery, may be affected by multiple experimental factors. These preanalytical factors may affect the measured protein abundances which in turn influence the outcome of the associated statistical analysis and validation. It is therefore important to determine which factors influence the abundance of peptides in a complex proteomics experiment and to identify those peptides that are most influenced by these factors. In the current study we analyzed depleted human serum samples to evaluate experimental factors that may influence the resulting peptide profile such as the residence time in the autosampler at 4 °C, stopping or not stopping the trypsin digestion with acid, the type of blood collection tube, different hemolysis levels, differences in clotting times, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and different trypsin/protein ratios. To this end we used a two-level fractional factorial design of resolution IV (2(IV)(7-3)). The design required analysis of 16 samples in which the main effects were not confounded by two-factor interactions. Data preprocessing using the Threshold Avoiding Proteomics Pipeline (Suits, F.; Hoekman, B.; Rosenling, T.; Bischoff, R.; Horvatovich, P. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 7786-7794, ref 1) produced a data-matrix containing quantitative information on 2,559 peaks. The intensity of the peaks was log-transformed, and peaks having intensities of a low t-test significance (p-value > 0.05) and a low absolute fold ratio (<2) between the two levels of each factor were removed. The remaining peaks were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA)-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Permutation tests were used to identify which of the preanalytical factors influenced the abundance of the measured peptides most significantly. The most important preanalytical factors affecting peptide intensity were (1) the hemolysis level

  14. Recipes: beyond the words.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made. PMID:21591315

  15. What Homophones Say about Words.

    PubMed

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    The number of potential meanings for a new word is astronomic. To make the word-learning problem tractable, one must restrict the hypothesis space. To do so, current word learning accounts often incorporate constraints about cognition or about the mature lexicon directly in the learning device. We are concerned with the convexity constraint, which holds that concepts (privileged sets of entities that we think of as "coherent") do not have gaps (if A and B belong to a concept, so does any entity "between" A and B). To leverage from it a linguistic constraint, learning algorithms have percolated this constraint from concepts, to word forms: some algorithms rely on the possibility that word forms are associated with convex sets of objects. Yet this does have to be the case: homophones are word forms associated with two separate words and meanings. Two sets of experiments show that when evidence suggests that a novel label is associated with a disjoint (non-convex) set of objects, either a) because there is a gap in conceptual space between the learning exemplars for a given word or b) because of the intervention of other lexical items in that gap, adults prefer to postulate homophony, where a single word form is associated with two separate words and meanings, rather than inferring that the word could have a disjunctive, discontinuous meaning. These results about homophony must be integrated to current word learning algorithms. We conclude by arguing for a weaker specialization of word learning algorithms, which too often could miss important constraints by focusing on a restricted empirical basis (e.g., non-homophonous content words). PMID:27583384

  16. An omic approach for the identification of oil sands process-affected water compounds using multivariate statistical analysis of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry datasets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Perez-Estrada, Leonidas; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a major environmental issue due to its acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic life. Advanced oxidation processes are promising treatments to successfully degrade toxic OSPW compounds. This study applied high resolution mass spectrometry to detect over 1000 compounds in OSPW samples after treatments including general ozonation, and ozone with carbonate, tert-butyl-alcohol, carbonate/tert-butyl-alcohol, tetranitromethane, or iron. Hierarchal clustering analysis showed that samples clustered based on sampling time and principal component analysis corroborated these results while also providing information on significant markers responsible for the clustering. Some markers were uniquely present in certain treatment conditions, while others showed variable behaviors in two or more treatments due to the presence of scavengers/catalysts. This advanced approach to monitoring significant changes of markers by using multivariate analysis can be invaluable for future work on OSPW treatment by-products and their potential toxicity to receiving environment organisms. PMID:25546461

  17. Partial word knowledge in the absence of recall.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Burrows, Christopher N; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2013-10-01

    Attributes of words can be known even when the words are not currently retrievable. Although repeatedly demonstrated for semantic and contextual dimensions, the evidence is ambiguous for structural characteristics. The present research demonstrates significant above-chance first-letter knowledge across four ordinal levels of retrieval confidence for nonretrieved words--tip of the tongue (TOT), high familiar, low familiar, unfamiliar. Contrary to prior research, there was minimal evidence for syllable number knowledge, even at highest confidence levels. Initial letter recognition in the absence of retrieval resembles the recognition without identification in episodic memory (Cleary, Current Directions in Psychological Science 17: 353-357, 2008), and such implicit familiarity may contribute more generally to confidence assessments of word knowledge in both semantic and episodic memory domains. Furthermore, this outcome suggests that word feature priming in the form of partial phonological activation may occur to some extent for all words during a retrieval attempt, and even for ones that are judged to be unknown. PMID:23645392

  18. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  19. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800–2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis. PMID:22423321

  20. The Automatic Activation of Emotion and Emotion-Laden Words: Evidence from a Masked and Unmasked Priming Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kazanas, Stephanie A; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    A primed lexical decision task (LDT) was used to determine whether emotion (e.g., love, fear) and emotion-laden (e.g., puppy, hospital) word processing differs, both explicitly and implicitly. Previous experiments have investigated how emotion word processing differs from both abstract and concrete word processing (Altarriba & Bauer, 2004; Altarriba, Bauer, & Benvenuto, 1999). To assess for differences between emotion and emotion-laden word processing, 2 experiments were conducted, the first assessing explicit processing (using an unmasked LDT) and the second assessing automatic processing (using a masked LDT). The prediction that semantic priming would differ between emotion word pairs and emotion-laden word pairs was confirmed in both experiments, with shorter response times for emotion targets and greater priming effects for emotion word pairs than for emotion-laden word pairs. The role of valence is discussed, emphasizing the ways valence affects the speed with which these words are accessed and processed. PMID:26442339

  1. Reading Disabilities of Chinese Elementary School Students: Beyond the Phonological Deficits of Single-Character Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hua; Lin, Dan; Zhang, Dake; Wen, Hongbo; Zhu, Huohong; He, Xianyou; Mo, Lei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of single-word identification and compound word categorization to Chinese students' reading achievement among 31 students with reading difficulties and 20 students without reading difficulties. The results suggested that, deficiency in single characters identification is not the primarily reason for…

  2. From switch-words to stitch-words.

    PubMed

    Litowitz, Bonnie

    2014-02-01

    During the course of treatment with some patients a word or phrase reappears that functions to connect layers of fantasies and to identify a history of conflicts and defenses. These stitch-words are compared to the switch-words proposed by Freud as points of condensation in dreams, as well as to other forms of idiolectic evidence (e.g. metaphors) that inform therapeutic listening. Stitch-words expand on Freud's concept by taking into account syntactic aspects of language that function to hold together layers of unconscious fantasies. A description of the grammatical type of words (syncategorematic) best suited to function as stitch-words is presented and illustrated by their use in two clinical examples ('normal', 'fair'). The therapeutic value of listening to, as well as through, the surface of patients' language is discussed. PMID:24628221

  3. Identification of detoxification pathways in plants that are regulated in response to treatment with organic compounds isolated from oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Widdup, Ellen E; Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Henry, Darren; Chua, Gordon; Samuel, Marcus A; Muench, Douglas G

    2015-11-01

    Bitumen mining in the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta results in the accumulation of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). The acid-extractable organic (AEO) fraction of OSPW contains a variety of compounds, including naphthenic acids, aromatics, and sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds that are toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. We have studied the effect of AEO treatment on the transcriptome of root and shoot tissues in seedlings of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Several genes encoding enzymes involved in the xenobiotic detoxification pathway were upregulated, including cytochrome P450s (CYPs), UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and membrane transporters. In addition, gene products involved in oxidative stress, β-oxidation, and glucosinolate degradation were also upregulated, indicating other potential mechanisms of the adaptive response to AEO exposure. These results provide insight into the pathways that plants use to detoxify the organic acid component of OSPW. Moreover, this study advances our understanding of genes that could be exploited to potentially develop phytoremediation and biosensing strategies for AEO contaminants resulting from oil sands mining. PMID:26052061

  4. Proteome-Wide Overexpression of Host Proteins for Identification of Factors Affecting Tombusvirus RNA Replication: an Inhibitory Role of Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Shah Nawaz-ul-Rehman, Muhammad; Martinez-Ochoa, Natalia; Pascal, Helene; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Herbst, Christin; Xu, Kai; Baker, Jannine; Sharma, Monika; Herbst, Alan

    2012-01-01

    To identify host genes affecting replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a small model positive-stranded RNA virus, we overexpressed 5,500 yeast proteins individually in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which supports TBSV replication. In total, we identified 141 host proteins, and overexpression of 40 of those increased and the remainder decreased the accumulation of a TBSV replicon RNA. Interestingly, 36 yeast proteins were identified previously by various screens, greatly strengthening the relevance of these host proteins in TBSV replication. To validate the results from the screen, we studied the effect of protein kinase C1 (Pkc1), a conserved host kinase involved in many cellular processes, which inhibited TBSV replication when overexpressed. Using a temperature-sensitive mutant of Pkc1p revealed a high level of TBSV replication at a semipermissive temperature, further supporting the idea that Pkc1p is an inhibitor of TBSV RNA replication. A direct inhibitory effect of Pkc1p was shown in a cell-free yeast extract-based TBSV replication assay, in which Pkc1p likely phosphorylates viral replication proteins, decreasing their abilities to bind to the viral RNA. We also show that cercosporamide, a specific inhibitor of Pkc-like kinases, leads to increased TBSV replication in yeast, in plant single cells, and in whole plants, suggesting that Pkc-related pathways are potent inhibitors of TBSV in several hosts. PMID:22718827

  5. Identification of the MmeHairy gene and expression analysis affected by two SNPs in the 3'-untranslated region in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing; Yue, Xin; Liu, Baozhong

    2016-04-01

    As a bHLH transcriptional repressor, Hairy-related proteins can bind to DNA sites in target gene promoters and negatively regulate gene transcription. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Hairy was obtained from the clam Meretrix meretrix (MmeHairy), and two SNPs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of this gene, SNP1066 and 1067, were identified and characterized. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that MmeHairy belongs to the Hairy protein subfamily. Analysis of tissue expression patterns showed that the mRNA of MmeHairy had the highest expression level in the hepatopancreas. The expression levels of MmeHairy were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas after Vibrio challenge. Genotyping and quantitative analysis showed that the mRNA levels of MmeHairy were significantly different among individual clams with different genotypes at SNP1066 and 1067 (P < 0.05), which indicated that these two SNP loci may affect the expression of MmeHairy and could be used as candidate markers for future selection in M. meretrix breeding programs. PMID:26873874

  6. The Lasting Effect of Words on Feelings: Words May Facilitate Exposure Effects to Threatening Images

    PubMed Central

    Tabibnia, Golnaz; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mere words, particularly affective words, can dampen emotional responses. However, the effect of affective labels on emotional responding in the long term is unknown. The authors examined whether repeated exposure to aversive images would lead to more reduction in autonomic reactivity a week later if the images were exposed with single-word labels than without labels. In Experiment 1, healthy individuals were exposed to pictures of disturbing scenes with or without labels on Day 1. On Day 8, the same pictures from the previous week were exposed, this time without labels. In Experiment 2, participants were spider fearful and were exposed to pictures of spiders. In both experiments, although repeated exposure to aversive images (without labels) led to long-term attenuation of autonomic reactivity, exposure plus affective labels, but not nonaffective labels, led to more attenuation than exposure alone. Thus, affective labels may help dampen emotional reactivity in both the short and long terms. Implications for exposure therapy and translational studies are discussed. PMID:18540747

  7. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed. PMID:24092359

  8. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use. PMID:25893450

  9. Identification of the Bile Acid Transporter Slco1a6 as a Candidate Gene That Broadly Affects Gene Expression in Mouse Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianan; Keller, Mark P; Oler, Angie T; Rabaglia, Mary E; Schueler, Kathryn L; Stapleton, Donald S; Broman, Aimee Teo; Zhao, Wen; Kendziorski, Christina; Yandell, Brian S; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Broman, Karl W; Attie, Alan D

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed gene expression in six tissues in an F2 intercross between mouse strains C57BL/6J (abbreviated B6) and BTBR T(+) tf/J (abbreviated BTBR) made genetically obese with the Leptin(ob) mutation. We identified a number of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) affecting the expression of numerous genes distal to the locus, called trans-eQTL hotspots. Some of these trans-eQTL hotspots showed effects in multiple tissues, whereas some were specific to a single tissue. An unusually large number of transcripts (∼8% of genes) mapped in trans to a hotspot on chromosome 6, specifically in pancreatic islets. By considering the first two principal components of the expression of genes mapping to this region, we were able to convert the multivariate phenotype into a simple Mendelian trait. Fine mapping the locus by traditional methods reduced the QTL interval to a 298-kb region containing only three genes, including Slco1a6, one member of a large family of organic anion transporters. Direct genomic sequencing of all Slco1a6 exons identified a nonsynonymous coding SNP that converts a highly conserved proline residue at amino acid position 564 to serine. Molecular modeling suggests that Pro564 faces an aqueous pore within this 12-transmembrane domain-spanning protein. When transiently overexpressed in HEK293 cells, BTBR organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1A6-mediated cellular uptake of the bile acid taurocholic acid (TCA) was enhanced compared to B6 OATP1A6. Our results suggest that genetic variation in Slco1a6 leads to altered transport of TCA (and potentially other bile acids) by pancreatic islets, resulting in broad gene regulation. PMID:26385979

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, M V B; Sonstegard, T S; Hanotte, O; Mugambi, J M; Garcia, J F; Nagda, S; Gibson, J P; Iraqi, F A; McClintock, A E; Kemp, S J; Boettcher, P J; Malek, M; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L

    2012-02-01

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F(1) rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AVPCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cm) were scored and corrected by Genoprob prior to qxpak analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL. PMID:22221026

  11. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C.; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  12. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  13. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  14. Sustained gamma-band EEG following negative words in depression and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Greg J.; Condray, Ruth; Thase, Michael E.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Steinhauer, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sustained and elaborative emotional information processing in depression and decreased affective elaboration in schizophrenia are considered hallmarks of these disorders but have not been directly measured. Gamma-band (35–45 Hz) EEG, has been associated with semantic functions such as feature binding and may index these elaborative processing. This study examined whether there were group differences in baseline and sustained gamma-band EEG following emotional stimuli in healthy adults as well as adults with depression and schizophrenia. Methods 24 never-depressed healthy controls, 14 patients with DSM-IV unipolar major depressive disorder, and 15 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia completed a lexical emotion identification task during EEG assessment. Gamma band EEG (35–45 Hz) in response to negative words was the primary dependent measure. Results As predicted, depressed individuals displayed sustained and increased gamma-band EEG throughout the task, and particularly in the seconds following negative words. Individuals with schizophrenia displayed decreased gamma-band activity throughout the task. Conclusions These data suggest that gamma-band EEG, measured over several seconds, may serve as a useful index of sustained semantic information processing. Depressed individuals appear to engage in sustained elaboration following emotional stimuli, whereas individuals with schizophrenia are not as prone to this type of elaborative processing. PMID:20005267

  15. Ultra-rapid access to words in the brain

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Lucy J; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; van Casteren, Maarten; Shtyrov, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Rapid information processing in the human brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key tool humans use to exchange information is spoken language, but the exact speed of the neuronal mechanisms underpinning speech comprehension is still unknown. Here we investigate the time course of neuro-lexical processing by analysing neuromagnetic brain activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically and acoustically matched groups of words and pseudowords. We show an ultra-early dissociation in cortical activation elicited by these stimulus types, emerging ~50 ms after acoustic information required for word identification first becomes available. This dissociation is the earliest brain signature of lexical processing of words so far reported, and may help explain the evolutionary advantage of human spoken language. PMID:22426232

  16. Word learning under infinite uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny

    2016-06-01

    Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. PMID:26927884

  17. Soil-Gas Identification of Environmental Factors Affecting CO2 Concentrations Beneath a Playa Wetland: Implications for Soil-Gas Monitoring at Carbon Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanak, K.; Bennett, P.

    2009-12-01

    support significant carbonate dissolution resulting from reaction of CO2 with infiltrating water and soil carbonate. Results of the study show that the degree of carbon reactivity within a near-surface environment limits the effectiveness of shallow subsurface and surface-flux soil-gas monitoring at engineered carbon repositories. When carbon reactivity is at a maximum, CO2 cycling is complex and input of exogenous CO2 into the system is difficult to constrain and quantify. A summary of the factors that define carbon reactivity and their affects on near-surface soil-gas monitoring at geologic carbon storage sites is presented, along with recommendations for site evaluation with regard to near-surface monitoring.

  18. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  19. It’s Not That Simple: Tobacco Use Identification and Documentation in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patricia M.; Cobb, Nancy; Corso, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This environmental telephone interview scan was designed to identify: (1) how hospitals in one Canadian province incorporated tobacco use identification/documentation systems into practice; and, (2) challenges/issues with tobacco identification/documentation. Participants included 36/139 hospitals previously identified to offer cessation services. Results showed hospitals aided by researchers monitored and tracked tobacco use; those not aligned with researchers did not. The wording of tobacco items most commonly included use within the last 6-months (42%), 30-days (39%), or 7-days (33%), or use without reference to time (e.g., “Do you smoke?”; 39%); wording sometimes depended on admitting form space limitations. The admission process determined where the tobacco item appeared, which differed by hospital—75% included it on an admitting form (75%) and/or nursing assessment (56%); the item sometimes varied by unit. There were also different processes by which the item triggered delivery of cessation interventions; most frequently (69%), staff nurses were triggered to provide an intervention. The findings suggest that adding a tobacco use question to a hospital’s admitting process is potentially not that simple. Deciding on the purpose of the question, when it will be asked and by whom, space allotted on the form, and how it will trigger an intervention are important considerations that can affect the question wording, form/location, systems required, data extraction, and resources. PMID:23698699

  20. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: The Effects of Task Type, Word Occurrence and Their Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Rozovski-Roitblat, Bella

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how long-term retention of new words was affected by task type, number of word occurrences in the teaching materials and the combination of the two factors. The tasks were: reading a text with occasional Focus on Form when learners used dictionaries (T+F), or reading a text with Focus on Forms, i.e. word focused exercises (T+Fs).…

  1. Embodied simulation of emotional valence: Facial muscle responses to abstract and concrete words.

    PubMed

    Künecke, Janina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin; Palazova, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Semantic knowledge is thought to be at least partially grounded in sensory, motor, and affective information, acquired through experiences in our inner and outer world. The reactivation of experience-related information during meaning access is called simulation. In the affective simulation account, it is assumed that the grounding information depends on the concepts' concreteness. Whereas abstract concepts are thought to be mainly represented through affective experiential information, concrete words rely more on sensory-motor experiential information. To test this hypothesis, we measured facial muscle activity as an indicator of affective simulation during visual word recognition. Words varied on the dimensions of concreteness and valence. Behavioral and electromyographic data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models with maximal random effect structure to optimize generalization over participants and word samples. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found a valence effect in the m. corrugator supercilii only in response to concrete but not to abstract words. Our data show that affective simulation as measured with facial muscle activity occurs in response to concrete rather than to abstract words. More concrete words are supposed to have higher context availability and richer visual imagery, which might promote affective simulation on the expressive level of facial muscle activity. The results are in line with embodied accounts of semantic representation but speak against its predominant role for representing affective information in abstract concepts. PMID:26437895

  2. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  3. Ten Important Words Plus: A Strategy for Building Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen; Yopp, Hallie Kay

    2007-01-01

    In this strategy, students individually select and record 10 important words on self-adhesive notes as they read a text. Then students build a group bar graph displaying their choices, write a sentence that summarizes the content, and then respond to prompts that ask them to think about words in powerful ways. Several prompts are suggested, each…

  4. Yup'ik Eskimo Word Chooser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.; Jacobson, Anna W.

    This word list is designed for students of Yup'ik Eskimo to assist them in choosing the appropriate word when there are several Yup'ik words that correspond to a single English word. This alphabetical list contains 77 English words that might cause confusion, and includes simple examples of usage to clarify the meanings of the various…

  5. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  6. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

  7. How the Clustering of Phonological Neighbors Affects Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a new scientific field known as network science has been emerging. Network science is concerned with understanding the structure and properties of networks. One concept that is commonly used in describing a network is how the nodes in the network cluster together. The current research applied the idea of clustering to the study of…

  8. Word-Superiority Effect as a Function of Semantic Transparency of Chinese Bimorphemic Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Leh Woon

    2009-01-01

    The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…

  9. Effects of Word and Morpheme Familiarity on Reading of Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Katz, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence students' reading of derived words. Recent research suggests that the lexical quality of a derived word depends on the familiarity of the word, its morphemic constituents (i.e., base word and affixes), and the frequency with which the base word appears in other words (i.e., members of…

  10. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  11. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  12. Children's Word-Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Terry Kit-Fong

    1985-01-01

    Two studies were performed to determine the process used by young children to figure out the meaning of a new word. It was hypothesized that the children would use one of two strategies: (1) ignore the word and wait for more information, or learn only what is unambiguous about it, or (2) make a reasonable but uncertain guess, quickly setting up…

  13. Word Knowledge Influences on Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Mary E.; And Others

    Two studies examined the relationship between word knowledge and reading comprehension. Subjects were college undergraduates with high and low verbal abilities as indicated by a standardized verbal aptitude test. The first study involved a multiple choice vocabulary test from which words that both groups defined correctly were selected. The…

  14. Antecedents and Consequences of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, A. Charles

    2006-01-01

    As instances of behavior, words interact with environments. But they also interact with each other and with other kinds of behavior. Because of the interlocking nature of the contingencies into which words enter, their behavioral properties may become increasingly removed from nonverbal contingencies, and their relationship to those contingencies…

  15. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  16. How words can and cannot be learned by observation.

    PubMed

    Medina, Tamara Nicol; Snedeker, Jesse; Trueswell, John C; Gleitman, Lila R

    2011-05-31

    Three experiments explored how words are learned from hearing them across contexts. Adults watched 40-s videotaped vignettes of parents uttering target words (in sentences) to their infants. Videos were muted except for a beep or nonsense word inserted where each "mystery word" was uttered. Participants were to identify the word. Exp. 1 demonstrated that most (90%) of these natural learning instances are quite uninformative, whereas a small minority (7%) are highly informative, as indexed by participants' identification accuracy. Preschoolers showed similar information sensitivity in a shorter experimental version. Two further experiments explored how cross-situational information helps, by manipulating the serial ordering of highly informative vignettes in five contexts. Response patterns revealed a learning procedure in which only a single meaning is hypothesized and retained across learning instances, unless disconfirmed. Neither alternative hypothesized meanings nor details of past learning situations were retained. These findings challenge current models of cross-situational learning which assert that multiple meaning hypotheses are stored and cross-tabulated via statistical procedures. Learners appear to use a one-trial "fast-mapping" procedure, even under conditions of referential uncertainty. PMID:21576483

  17. Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

    Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

  18. An Adaptive Resonance Theory account of the implicit learning of orthographic word forms.

    PubMed

    Glotin, H; Warnier, P; Dandurand, F; Dufau, S; Lété, B; Touzet, C; Ziegler, J C; Grainger, J

    2010-01-01

    An Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) network was trained to identify unique orthographic word forms. Each word input to the model was represented as an unordered set of ordered letter pairs (open bigrams) that implement a flexible prelexical orthographic code. The network learned to map this prelexical orthographic code onto unique word representations (orthographic word forms). The network was trained on a realistic corpus of reading textbooks used in French primary schools. The amount of training was strictly identical to children's exposure to reading material from grade 1 to grade 5. Network performance was examined at each grade level. Adjustment of the learning and vigilance parameters of the network allowed us to reproduce the developmental growth of word identification performance seen in children. The network exhibited a word frequency effect and was found to be sensitive to the order of presentation of word inputs, particularly with low frequency words. These words were better learned with a randomized presentation order compared with the order of presentation in the school books. These results open up interesting perspectives for the application of ART networks in the study of the dynamics of learning to read. PMID:19903528

  19. Zipf’s Law for Word Frequencies: Word Forms versus Lemmas in Long Texts

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Álvaro; Boleda, Gemma; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Zipf’s law is a fundamental paradigm in the statistics of written and spoken natural language as well as in other communication systems. We raise the question of the elementary units for which Zipf’s law should hold in the most natural way, studying its validity for plain word forms and for the corresponding lemma forms. We analyze several long literary texts comprising four languages, with different levels of morphological complexity. In all cases Zipf’s law is fulfilled, in the sense that a power-law distribution of word or lemma frequencies is valid for several orders of magnitude. We investigate the extent to which the word-lemma transformation preserves two parameters of Zipf’s law: the exponent and the low-frequency cut-off. We are not able to demonstrate a strict invariance of the tail, as for a few texts both exponents deviate significantly, but we conclude that the exponents are very similar, despite the remarkable transformation that going from words to lemmas represents, considerably affecting all ranges of frequencies. In contrast, the low-frequency cut-offs are less stable, tending to increase substantially after the transformation. PMID:26158787

  20. Zipf's Law for Word Frequencies: Word Forms versus Lemmas in Long Texts.

    PubMed

    Corral, Álvaro; Boleda, Gemma; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is a fundamental paradigm in the statistics of written and spoken natural language as well as in other communication systems. We raise the question of the elementary units for which Zipf's law should hold in the most natural way, studying its validity for plain word forms and for the corresponding lemma forms. We analyze several long literary texts comprising four languages, with different levels of morphological complexity. In all cases Zipf's law is fulfilled, in the sense that a power-law distribution of word or lemma frequencies is valid for several orders of magnitude. We investigate the extent to which the word-lemma transformation preserves two parameters of Zipf's law: the exponent and the low-frequency cut-off. We are not able to demonstrate a strict invariance of the tail, as for a few texts both exponents deviate significantly, but we conclude that the exponents are very similar, despite the remarkable transformation that going from words to lemmas represents, considerably affecting all ranges of frequencies. In contrast, the low-frequency cut-offs are less stable, tending to increase substantially after the transformation. PMID:26158787

  1. Testing a word is not a test of word learning.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

    2013-10-01

    Although vocabulary acquisition requires children learn names for multiple things, many investigations of word learning mechanisms teach children the name for only one of the objects presented. This is problematic because it is unclear whether children's performance reflects recall of the correct name-object association or simply selection of the only object that was singled out by being the only object named. Children introduced to one novel name may perform at ceiling as they are not required to discriminate on the basis of the name per se, and appear to rapidly learn words following minimal exposure to a single word. We introduced children to four novel objects. For half the children, only one of the objects was named and for the other children, all four objects were named. Only children introduced to one word reliably selected the target object at test. This demonstration highlights the over-simplicity of one-word learning paradigms and the need for a shift in word learning paradigms where more than one word is taught to ensure children disambiguate objects on the basis of their names rather than their degree of salience. PMID:23928497

  2. The effect of high- and low-frequency previews and sentential fit on word skipping during reading

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Bernhard; Laishley, Abby; Rayner, Keith; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous gaze-contingent boundary experiment, Angele and Rayner (2012) found that readers are likely to skip a word that appears to be the definite article the even when syntactic constraints do not allow for articles to occur in that position. In the present study, we investigated whether the word frequency of the preview of a three-letter target word influences a reader’s decision to fixate or skip that word. We found that the word frequency rather than the felicitousness (syntactic fit) of the preview affected how often the upcoming word was skipped. These results indicate that visual information about the upcoming word trumps information from the sentence context when it comes to making a skipping decision. Skipping parafoveal instances of the therefore may simply be an extreme case of skipping high-frequency words. PMID:24707791

  3. The effect of high- and low-frequency previews and sentential fit on word skipping during reading.

    PubMed

    Angele, Bernhard; Laishley, Abby E; Rayner, Keith; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-07-01

    In a previous gaze-contingent boundary experiment, Angele and Rayner (2013) found that readers are likely to skip a word that appears to be the definite article the even when syntactic constraints do not allow for articles to occur in that position. In the present study, we investigated whether the word frequency of the preview of a 3-letter target word influences a reader's decision to fixate or skip that word. We found that the word frequency rather than the felicitousness (syntactic fit) of the preview affected how often the upcoming word was skipped. These results indicate that visual information about the upcoming word trumps information from the sentence context when it comes to making a skipping decision. Skipping parafoveal instances of the therefore may simply be an extreme case of skipping high-frequency words. PMID:24707791

  4. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  5. Overcoming the Effects of Variation in Infant Speech Segmentation: Influences of Word Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Nestor, Sarah S.; Bortfeld, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that 7.5-month-olds can track and encode words in fluent speech, but they fail to equate instances of a word that contrast in talker gender, vocal affect, and fundamental frequency. By 10.5 months, they succeed at generalizing across such variability, marking a clear transition period during which infants' word…

  6. Effects of Training on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Using Lexically Hard Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Matthew H.; Humes, Larry E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how repeated presentations of lexically difficult words within a background noise affect a listener's ability to understand both trained (lexically difficult) and untrained (lexically easy) words in isolation and within sentences. Method: In the 1st experiment, 9 young listeners with normal hearing completed a…

  7. Disambiguation and Mapping of New Word Meanings by Individuals with Intellectual/ Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.

    2005-01-01

    Wilkinson and Green (1998) reported that differences in the procedure by which new words were introduced to learners with cognitive impairments significantly affected their accuracy in later tests of receptive understanding of word meanings. However, a limited sample and no control group rendered the data preliminary. Here, I replicated and…

  8. Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

  9. Evidence for an Activation Locus of the Word-Frequency Effect in Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip A.; Smith, Albert F.; Lien, Mei-Ching; Grabbe, Jeremy; Murphy, Martin D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors report a lexical decision experiment designed to determine whether activation is the locus of the word-frequency effect. K. R. Paap and L. S. Johansen (1994) reported that word frequency did not affect lexical decisions when exposure durations were brief; they accounted for this by proposing that data-limited conditions prevented…

  10. Word Misperception, the Neighbor Frequency Effect, and the Role of Sentence Context: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    An eye movement experiment was conducted to investigate whether the processing of a word can be affected by its higher frequency neighbor (HFN). Target words with an HFN (birch) or without one (spruce) were embedded into 2 types of sentence frames: 1 in which the HFN (birth) could fit given the prior sentence context, and 1 in which it could not.…

  11. The KEY to the ROCK: Near-Homophony in Nonnative Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that native language (L1) phonology can affect the lexical representations of nonnative words, a visual semantic-relatedness decision task in English was given to native speakers and nonnative speakers whose L1 was Japanese or Arabic. In the critical conditions, the word pair contained a homophone or near-homophone of a…

  12. See before You Jump: Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Peter C.; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

    2013-01-01

    Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through…

  13. Revisiting Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Spanish Visual Word Recognition: The Role of Item Imageability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Cuetos, Fernando; Davies, Rob; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Word age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects reading. The mapping hypothesis predicts AoA effects when input--output mappings are arbitrary. In Spanish, the orthography-to-phonology mappings required for word naming are consistent; therefore, no AoA effects are expected. Nevertheless, AoA effects have been found, motivating the present investigation of…

  14. Using Word Prediction Software to Increase Typing Fluency with Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumlin, Jennifer; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of word prediction software to increase typing speed and decrease spelling errors for students who have physical disabilities that affect hand use. Student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of word prediction was examined as well as their typing rates and spelling accuracy. Four students with…

  15. The Effects of Word Frequency and Context Variability in Cued Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Aue, William R.; Smith, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Normative word frequency and context variability affect memory in a range of episodic memory tasks and place constraints on theoretical development. In four experiments, we independently manipulated the word frequency and context variability of the targets (to-be-generated items) and cues in a cued recall paradigm. We found that high frequency…

  16. Variability in Word Duration as a Function of Probability, Speech Style, and Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rachel E.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how probability (lexical frequency and previous mention), speech style, and prosody affect word duration, and how these factors interact. Participants read controlled materials in clear and plain speech styles. As expected, more probable words (higher frequencies and second mentions) were significantly shorter than less…

  17. Postidentification Feedback Affects Subsequent Eyewitness Identification Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Matthew A.; Brewer, Neil; Weber, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Eyewitnesses sometimes view more than one lineup during an investigation. We investigated the effects of postidentification feedback following one lineup on responses to a second lineup. Witnesses (N = 621) viewed a mock crime and, later, attempted to identify the culprit from an initial (target-absent) lineup and a second (target-present or…

  18. Seeing and Hearing a Word: Combining Eye and Ear Is More Efficient than Combining the Parts of a Word

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Matthieu; Poeppel, David; Pelli, Denis G.

    2013-01-01

    To understand why human sensitivity for complex objects is so low, we study how word identification combines eye and ear or parts of a word (features, letters, syllables). Our observers identify printed and spoken words presented concurrently or separately. When researchers measure threshold (energy of the faintest visible or audible signal) they may report either sensitivity (one over the human threshold) or efficiency (ratio of the best possible threshold to the human threshold). When the best possible algorithm identifies an object (like a word) in noise, its threshold is independent of how many parts the object has. But, with human observers, efficiency depends on the task. In some tasks, human observers combine parts efficiently, needing hardly more energy to identify an object with more parts. In other tasks, they combine inefficiently, needing energy nearly proportional to the number of parts, over a 60∶1 range. Whether presented to eye or ear, efficiency for detecting a short sinusoid (tone or grating) with few features is a substantial 20%, while efficiency for identifying a word with many features is merely 1%. Why? We show that the low human sensitivity for words is a cost of combining their many parts. We report a dichotomy between inefficient combining of adjacent features and efficient combining across senses. Joining our results with a survey of the cue-combination literature reveals that cues combine efficiently only if they are perceived as aspects of the same object. Observers give different names to adjacent letters in a word, and combine them inefficiently. Observers give the same name to a word’s image and sound, and combine them efficiently. The brain’s machinery optimally combines only cues that are perceived as originating from the same object. Presumably such cues each find their own way through the brain to arrive at the same object representation. PMID:23734220

  19. Distinguishing Target From Distractor in Stroop, Picture-Word, and Word-Word Interference Tasks.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Xenia; Treccani, Barbara; Mulatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Lexical selection-both during reading aloud and speech production-involves selecting an intended word, while ignoring irrelevant lexical activation. This process has been studied by the use of interference tasks. Examples are the Stroop task, where participants ignore the written color word and name the color of the ink, picture-word interference tasks, where participants name a picture while ignoring a super-imposed written word, or word-word interference (WWI) tasks, where two words are presented and the participants need to respond to only one, based on an pre-determined visual feature (e.g., color, position). Here, we focus on the WWI task: it is theoretically impossible for existing models to explain how the cognitive system can respond to one stimulus and block the other, when they are presented by the same modality (i.e., they are both words). We describe a solution that can explain performance on the WWI task: drawing on the literature on visual attention, we propose that the system creates an object file for each perceived object, which is continuously updated with increasingly complete information about the stimulus, such as the task-relevant visual feature. Such a model can account for performance on all three tasks. PMID:26696927

  20. Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

  1. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  2. Talker variation and word learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollich, George; Jusczyk, Peter; Brent, Michael

    2002-05-01

    While infants must go beyond talker-specific information in recognizing a given word, regardless of the talker, they must also process talker-specific information in order to extract meaning from a particular sound source. Otherwise, for example, they could never recognize whether [hct] referred to a talker's pronunciation of hot, hut, or even hat. This poster suggests that not only do infants process talker-specific information, but they also make use of it both to extract invariant properties in learning a new word and in recognizing talker-specific tokens faster. Using the splitscreen preferential looking paradigm, two studies were conducted that examined how talker-specific properties and variation among talkers could facilitate word learning. Results of study 1 indicated that word learning was facilitated in the case where infants heard different talkers. Thus, talker variation is critical for the extraction of invariant properties of a word. However, the results of study 2 indicated that talker-specific properties were encoded and used to help these infants recognize and learn the referents of these words. Given this evidence, it is suggested that infants appear to be using talker-specific information to form abstract representations of the invariant properties of words.

  3. Word Length and Lexical Activation: Longer Is Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Mark A.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Many models of spoken word recognition posit the existence of lexical and sublexical representations, with excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms used to affect the activation levels of such representations. Bottom-up evidence provides excitatory input, and inhibition from phonetically similar representations leads to lexical competition. In such a…

  4. Within-Word Prosodic Constraint on Coarticulation in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Yuko

    2006-01-01

    The present study addresses the question of how within-word prosodic constituent boundaries constrain V-to-V coarticulation in Japanese. The smallest prosodic unit that might affect V-to-V coarticulation is the bimoraic foot. The effect of the foot boundary is observed in the present study: the bimoraic foot constrains the extent of V-to-V…

  5. Cortical dynamics of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Mainy, Nelly; Jung, Julien; Baciu, Monica; Kahane, Philippe; Schoendorff, Benjamin; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffmann, Dominique; Bertrand, Olivier; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2008-11-01

    While functional neuroimaging studies have helped elucidate major regions implicated in word recognition, much less is known about the dynamics of the associated activations or the actual neural processes of their functional network. We used intracerebral electroencephalography recordings in 10 patients with epilepsy to directly measure neural activity in the temporal and frontal lobes during written words' recognition, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The patients were presented visually with consonant strings, pseudo-words, and words and performed a hierarchical paradigm contrasting semantic processes (living vs. nonliving word categorization task), phonological processes (rhyme decision task on pseudo-words), and visual processes (visual analysis of consonant strings). Stimuli triggered a cascade of modulations in the gamma-band (>40 Hz) with reproducible timing and task-sensitivity throughout the functional reading network: the earliest gamma-band activations were observed for all stimuli in the mesial basal temporal lobe at 150 ms, reaching the word form area in the mid fusiform gyrus at 200 ms, evidencing a superiority effect for word-like stimuli. Peaks of gamma-band activations were then observed for word-like stimuli after 400 ms in the anterior and middle portion of the superior temporal gyrus (BA 38 and BA 22 respectively), in the pars triangularis of Broca's area for the semantic task (BAs 45 and 47), and in the pars opercularis for the phonological task (BA 44). Concurrently, we observed a two-pronged effect in the prefrontal cortex (BAs 9 and 46), with nonspecific sustained dorsal activation related to sustained attention and, more ventrally, a strong reflex deactivation around 500 ms, possibly due to semantic working memory reset. PMID:17712785

  6. Online identification of viruses.

    PubMed

    Kolaskar, A S; Naik, P S

    2000-06-01

    A computerized animal virus information system is developed in the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) format. This database is available on the Word Wide Web (WWW) at the site http://bioinfo.ernet.in/www/avis/avis++ +.html. The database has been used to generate large number of identification matrices for each family. The software is developed in C. Unix shell scripts and Hypertext Marked-up Language (HTML) to assign the family to an unknown virus deterministically and to identify the virus probabilistically. It has been shown that such web based virus identification approach provides results with high confidence in those cases where identification matrix uses large number of independent characters. Protein sequence data for animal viruses have been analyzed and oligopeptides specific to each virus family and also specific to each virus species are identified for several viruses. These peptides thus could be used to identify the virus and to assign the virus family with high confidence showing the usefulness of sequence data in virus identification. PMID:10917875

  7. Preschoolers use emotion in speech to learn new words.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jared M J; Graham, Susan A; Callaway, Dallas; Chambers, Craig G

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined 4- and 5-year-olds' use of vocal affect to learn new words. In Experiment 1 (n = 48), children were presented with two unfamiliar objects, first in their original state and then in an altered state (broken or enhanced). An instruction produced with negative, neutral, or positive affect, directed children to find the referent of a novel word. During the novel noun, eye gaze measures indicated that both 4- and 5-year-olds were more likely to consider an object congruent with vocal affect cues. In Experiment 2, 5-year-olds (n = 15) were asked to extend and generalize their initial mapping to new exemplars. Here, 5-year-olds generalized these newly mapped labels but only when presented with negative vocal affect. PMID:23438582

  8. The role of emotionality in the acquisition of new concrete and abstract words

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Pilar; Ventura, David; Comesaña, Montserrat; Fraga, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words’ concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). PMID:26217289

  9. Revealing Word Order: Using Serial Position in Binomials to Predict Properties of the Speaker.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Smirnova, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Three studies test the link between word order in binomials and psychological and demographic characteristics of a speaker. While linguists have already suggested that psychological, cultural and societal factors are important in choosing word order in binomials, the vast majority of relevant research was focused on general factors and on broadly shared cultural conventions. In contrast, in this work we are interested in what word order can tell us about the particular speaker. More specifically, we test the degree to which word order is affected by factors such as gender, race, geographic location, religion, political orientation, and consumer preferences. Using a variety of methodologies and different data sources, we find converging evidence that word order is linked to a broad set of features associated with the speaker. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and the potential to use word order as a tool for analyzing large text corpora and data on the web. PMID:25466911

  10. Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition: the consistency effect in semantic and gender categorization tasks.

    PubMed

    Peereman, Ronald; Dufour, Sophie; Burt, Jennifer S

    2009-04-01

    According to current models, spoken word recognition is driven by the phonological properties of the speech signal. However, several studies have suggested that orthographic information also influences recognition in adult listeners. In particular, it has been repeatedly shown that, in the lexical decision task, words that include rimes with inconsistent spellings (e.g., /-ip/ spelled -eap or -eep) are disadvantaged, as compared with words with consistent rime spelling. In the present study, we explored whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to tasks requiring people to process words beyond simple lexical access. Two different tasks were used: semantic and gender categorization. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects. The data are discussed as suggesting that orthographic codes are activated during word recognition, or that the organization of phonological representations of words is affected by orthography during literacy acquisition. PMID:19293108

  11. Effects of word length on eye movement control: The evidence from Arabic.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A; McGowan, Victoria A; White, Sarah J; Jordan, Timothy R

    2015-10-01

    The finding that word length plays a fundamental role in determining where and for how long readers fixate within a line of text has been central to the development of sophisticated models of eye movement control. However, research in this area is dominated by the use of Latinate languages (e.g., English, French, German), and little is known about eye movement control for alphabetic languages with very different visual characteristics. To address this issue, the present experiment undertook a novel investigation of the influence of word length on eye movement behavior when reading Arabic. Arabic is an alphabetic language that not only is read from right to left but has visual characteristics fundamentally different from Latinate languages, and so is ideally suited to testing the generality of mechanisms of eye movement control. The findings reveal that readers were more likely to fixate and refixate longer words, and also that longer words tended to be fixated for longer. In addition, word length influenced the landing positions of initial fixations on words, with the effect that readers fixated the center of short words and fixated closer to the beginning letters for longer words, and the location of landing positions affected both the duration of the first fixation and probability of refixating the word. The indication now, therefore, is that effects of word length are a widespread and fundamental component of reading and play a central role in guiding eye-movement behavior across a range of very different alphabetic systems. PMID:25690581

  12. Words in a sea of sounds: the output of infant statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Saffran, J R

    2001-09-01

    One of the first problems confronting infant language learners is word segmentation: discovering the boundaries between words. Prior research suggests that 8-month-old infants can detect the statistical patterns that serve as a cue to word boundaries. However, the representational structure of the output of this learning process is unknown. This research assessed the extent to which statistical learning generates novel word-like units, rather than probabilistically-related strings of sounds. Eight-month-old infants were familiarized with a continuous stream of nonsense words with no acoustic cues to word boundaries. A post-familiarization test compared the infants' responses to words versus part-words (sequences spanning a word boundary) embedded either in simple English contexts familiar to the infants (e.g. "I like my tibudo"), or in matched nonsense frames (e.g. "zy fike ny tibudo"). Listening preferences were affected by the context (English versus nonsense) in which the items from the familiarization phase were embedded during testing. A second experiment confirmed that infants can discriminate the simple English contexts and the matched nonsense frames used in Experiment 1. The third experiment replicated the results of Experiment 1 by contrasting the English test frames with non-linguistic frames generated from tone sequences. The results support the hypothesis that statistical learning mechanisms generate word-like units with some status relative to the native language. PMID:11376640

  13. Age differences in hypermnesia: word gain versus word loss.

    PubMed

    Finkel, D; Fox, P W; McGue, M

    1995-01-01

    A hypermnesic task was administered to 82 younger adults (ages 27-39), 63 middle-aged adults (ages 40-59), and 119 older adults (ages 60-87). Previous research suggests that relational encoding prevents loss of items and item-specific encoding promotes item gains in a hypermnesic task (Klein et al., 1989) and that there are age differences in relational but not item-specific encoding (Luszcz et al., 1990). This information provided the basis for three predictions: (a) There are age differences in hypermnesia, (b) there are age differences in word losses in a hypermnesic task, and (c) there are no age differences in word gains in a hypermnesic task. In order to manipulate type of encoding, a list of words with high association strength (to evoke relational encoding) and words with low association strength (to evoke item-specific encoding) was constructed. The results of this investigation provide support for the encoding manipulation and for all three predictions. In addition, the nature of the age differences in word loss observed suggests that although older adults may be capable of relational encoding, this form of encoding is not as effective at preventing word loss for them as it is for younger adults. PMID:7744169

  14. Learning about Sounds Contributes to Learning about Words: Effects of Prosody and Phonotactics on Infant Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Bowen, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how early learning about native language sound structure affects how infants associate sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (19-month-olds) were presented with bisyllabic labels with high or low phonotactic probability (i.e., sequences of frequent or infrequent phonemes in English). The labels were produced…

  15. Words to Know (Alzheimer's Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Institute on Aging Words to Know Aggression (uh-GRESH-un). When a person lashes out ... AD feel. Agitation may cause pacing, sleeplessness, or aggression. Alzheimer's disease (AD) (ALlz-high-merz duh-ZEEZ). ...

  16. Acquiring a Single New Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Bartlett, Elsa

    Twenty children aged 3;0 to 3;10 were studied for behavior related to the acquisition of a single new word ("chromium," which was presented as designating the color olive green). The research was conducted in three cycles: prior to exposure to "chromium," at the time of a single encounter with that word, and about a week after the first encounter.…

  17. Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Shao-lan; Ge, Guang-chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based lexical study of the most frequently used medical academic vocabulary in medical research articles (RAs). A Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), a word list of the most frequently used medical academic words in medical RAs, was compiled from a corpus containing 1 093 011 running words of medical RAs from online…

  18. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  19. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

  20. Word Processing. A Handbook for Business Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey R., Jr., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to help teachers keep abreast of changes in word processing and to develop necessary teaching skills. The handbook is divided into two main parts: understanding word processing and teaching word processing skills. In the introduction the part word processing plays in the business scheme of a company…

  1. Learning about Word Parts with Kidspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sharon Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Knowing the meanings of common root words, prefixes, and suffixes may help students read and spell the longer words they begin to run into in the upper elementary grades. This article describes how students can use the Kidspiration computer program to quickly and easily create word webs that illustrate the meanings of common root words and…

  2. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  3. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability. PMID:24211792

  4. Identification of Acoustically Similar and Dissimilar Vowels in Profoundly Deaf Adults Who Use Hearing Aids and/or Cochlear Implants: Some Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Peterson, Nathaniel R.; Rosado, Christian A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the effects of aging and residual hearing on the identification of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels in adults with postlingual deafness who use hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Method The authors used two groups of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels to assess vowel identification. Also, the Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant Word Recognition Test (Peterson & Lehiste, 1962) and sentences from the Hearing in Noise Test (Nilsson, Soli, & Sullivan, 1994) were administered. Forty CI recipients with postlingual deafness (ages 31–81 years) participated in the study. Results Acoustically similar vowels were more difficult to identify than acoustically dissimilar vowels. With increasing age, performance deteriorated when identifying acoustically similar vowels. Vowel identification was also affected by the use of a contralateral HA and the degree of residual hearing prior to implantation. Moderate correlations were found between speech perception and vowel identification performance. Conclusions Identification performance was affected by the acoustic similarity of the vowels. Older adults experienced more difficulty identifying acoustically similar confusable vowels than did younger adults. The findings might lend support to the ease of language understanding model (Ronnberg, Rudner, Foo, & Lunner, 2008), which proposes that the quality and perceptual robustness of acoustic input affects speech perception. PMID:23824440

  5. Influence of emotional context on concreteness effects in words processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Jiao, Lihua; Cui, Lixia

    2014-06-18

    The phenomenon that concrete words are easier to process than abstract words is referred to as the word concreteness effect. Previous research has investigated influences of semantic context and word emotionality on concreteness effects. It is still unclear whether word concreteness effects might be influenced by emotional context for individuals with different cognitive styles. The present study showed how affective congruency between picture context and word target impacts concreteness effects in the word processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals using event-related potential measures. The participants evaluated pleasantness of the target word following the presentation of an affective picture. Concrete words were associated with a larger N400 and a smaller late positive component (LPC) than abstract words. Moreover, the LPC concreteness effect occurred only in the affectively incongruent context for field-dependent participants. These findings suggest that emotional context and concreteness modulate the N400 independently, but the LPC concreteness effect is influenced by emotional context and cognitive style. PMID:24709915

  6. The last words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylhmas, V. M.

    Much of what I'm going to say can be subsumed under the title: the meaning of merging or reconnection. When I look back at the controversy which has surrounded the concept for the past thirty years and try to understand historically how it arose, I find it rather remarkable that there has been that much controversy. The word reconnection becomes in some cases almost an emotional symbol, and some people seem to object merely to the name. One can find papers where the concept is violently objected to, but if one examines what the author is doing, one finds he is doing essentially the same physics; he is only absolutely refusing to use that name and insisting that anyone who uses it is wrong. So I would like to, so to speak, demythologize that and discuss what it is we really talk about when we talk about reconnection or merging. Leaving aside the precise legal definitions, I think what we are talking about is very simple. It's a system with a complex magnetic topology, where we have a plasma flow in it of some sort: plasma flow in a complex topology. In the case of the earth, initially there may have been some argument as to whether the topology is really complex or whether all the field lines are just nicely contained in one volume—there was a big battle about that some 15 years ago—but today I think it's generally accepted that the magnetosphere is open; so we do have a complex topology, and of course we know that the solar wind is flowing.

  7. Identifying Trends in Word Frequency Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Whichard, Zakary L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2013-04-01

    The word-stock of a language is a complex dynamical system in which words can be created, evolve, and become extinct. Even more dynamic are the short-term fluctuations in word usage by individuals in a population. Building on the recent demonstration that word niche is a strong determinant of future rise or fall in word frequency, here we introduce a model that allows us to distinguish persistent from temporary increases in frequency. Our model is illustrated using a 108-word database from an online discussion group and a 1011-word collection of digitized books. The model reveals a strong relation between changes in word dissemination and changes in frequency. Aside from their implications for short-term word frequency dynamics, these observations are potentially important for language evolution as new words must survive in the short term in order to survive in the long term.

  8. Clusters of Word Properties as Predictors of Elementary School Children's Performance on Two Word Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…

  9. Word Meaning in Academic English: Homography in the Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000) consists of 570 word families that are frequent and wide ranging in academic texts. It was created by counting the frequency, range, and evenness of spread of word forms in a specially constructed academic corpus. This study examines the words in the Academic Word List (AWL) to see if the existence of…

  10. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the two most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the/hi/∼/∫i/continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time-course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

  11. Integration of pragmatic and phonetic cues in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2012-07-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the 2 most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the /hi/∼/∫i/ continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

  12. On the naming of color words and color patches.

    PubMed

    Seifert, L S; Johnson, N F

    1994-03-01

    Subjects can name color words faster than they can name color patches. To account for that effect, a generic model of naming is described which assumes that words access the mental lexicon directly, whereas color patches do so only indirectly via an initial imaginal or semantic representation. However, Lund (1927) reported that the naming advantage for words disappeared when all the items to be named on a page were the same (i.e., they were blocked). In the present study, three experiments are reported that were designed to provide a clearer empirical definition of Lund's blocking effect and to ascertain the extent to which it requires a modification of the generic model. The blocked lists had 50 items arranged into 10 blocks, with each block homogeneous with respect to color. The block lengths were either all a predictable length of 5 items or they varied randomly from 1 to 9 items. The data indicated the following: (1) The blocking effect occurred even when the task required a full identification of each item, and (2) the blocking effect was confined to within-block transitions. Blocking seemed to eliminate the word advantage by allowing the subject to re-use the lexical entry used for the immediately prior items, which is consistent with the generic model. PMID:8035693

  13. The role of letter features in visual-word recognition: Evidence from a delayed segment technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Eva; Perea, Manuel; Enneson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Do all visual features in a word's constituent letters have the same importance during lexical access? Here we examined whether some components of a word's letters (midsegments, junctions, terminals) are more important than others. To that end, we conducted two lexical decision experiments using a delayed segment technique with lowercase stimuli. In this technique a partial preview appears for 50ms and is immediately followed by the target item. In Experiment 1, the partial preview was composed of terminals+junctions, midsegments+junctions, or midsegments+terminals - a whole preview condition was used as a control. Results only revealed an advantage of the whole preview condition over the other three conditions. In Experiment 2, the partial preview was composed of the whole word except for the deletion of midsegments, junctions, or terminals - we again employed a whole preview condition as a control. Results showed the following pattern in the latency data: whole preview=delay of terminalsword's constituent letters are more critical for word identification than others. We examine how the present findings help adjust current models of visual word identification or develop new ones. PMID:27289422

  14. Seeing stems everywhere: position-independent identification of stem morphemes.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Colin J; Lupker, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    There is broad consensus that printed complex words are identified on the basis of their constituent morphemes. This fact raises the issue of how the word identification system codes for morpheme position, hence allowing it to distinguish between words like overhang and hangover, and to recognize that preheat is a word, whereas heatpre is not. Recent data have shown that suffixes are identified as morphemes only when they occur at the end of letter strings (Crepaldi, Rastle, & Davis, 2010, "Morphemes in Their Place: Evidence for Position-Specific Identification of Suffixes," Memory & Cognition, 38, 312-321), which supports the general proposal that the word identification system is sensitive to morpheme positional constraints. This proposal leads to the prediction that the identification of free stems should occur in a position-independent fashion, given that free stems can occur anywhere within complex words (e.g., overdress and dresser). In Experiment 1, we show that the rejection time of transposed-constituent pseudocompounds (e.g., moonhoney) is longer than that of matched control nonwords (e.g., moonbasin), suggesting that honey and moon are identified within moonhoney, and that these morpheme representations activate the representation for the word honeymoon. In Experiments 2 and 3, we demonstrate that the masked presentation of transposed-constituent pseudocompounds (e.g., moonhoney) facilitates the identification of compound words (honeymoon). In contrast, monomorphemic control pairs do not produce a similar pattern (i.e., rickmave did not prime maverick), indicating that the effect for moonhoney pairs is genuinely morphological in nature. These results demonstrate that stem representations differ from affix representations in terms of their positional constraints, providing a challenge to all existing theories of morphological processing. PMID:22905908

  15. Naming of short words is (almost) the same as naming of alphanumeric symbols: Evidence from two orthographies.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; Georgiou, George K; de Jong, Peter F

    2016-04-01

    Throughout reading development, a gradual shift is seen in the processes underlying word identification from serial decoding toward parallel processing or sight word reading. It has been argued that this shift can be detected in the correlations between serial and discrete naming of alphanumeric symbols (digits and letters) and words. In the current study, we examined the relations between alphanumeric symbol naming and reading of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words and nonwords in two languages that differ in orthographic consistency: English and Dutch. A sample of 92 English-speaking Canadian children and 101 Dutch children, all in Grade 5, were assessed on discrete and serial naming of digits and letters and on serial and discrete naming of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words and nonwords. Results showed that discrete naming of alphanumeric symbols closely resembled discrete reading of monosyllabic words, suggesting that these words are processed in parallel in both languages. Both serial and parallel reading processes were found to underlie identification of multisyllabic words as well as monosyllabic nonwords. However, differences between the two languages emerged when processing multisyllabic nonwords. Whereas English-speaking children relied more on parallel reading processes to read multisyllabic nonwords, Dutch-speaking children processed these items serially. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26741859

  16. Rapid word-learning in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, A. L.; Lewis, D. E.; Hoover, B. M.; Stelmachowicz, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study examined rapid word learning in 5- to 14-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. The effects of age and receptive vocabulary were examined as well as those of high-frequency amplification. Novel words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz (typical of current amplification devices) and at 9 kHz. It was hypothesized that: 1) the children with normal hearing would learn more words than the children with hearing loss, 2) word learning would increase with age and receptive vocabulary for both groups, and 3) both groups would benefit from a broader frequency bandwidth. Design Sixty children with normal hearing and 37 children with moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated in this study. Each child viewed a 4-minute animated slideshow containing 8 nonsense words created using the 24 English consonant phonemes (3 consonants per word). Each word was repeated 3 times. Half of the 8 words were low-pass filtered at 4 kHz and half were filtered at 9 kHz. After viewing the story twice, each child was asked to identify the words from among pictures in the slide show. Prior to testing, a measure of current receptive vocabulary was obtained using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III). Results The PPVT-III scores of the hearing-impaired children were consistently poorer than those of the normal-hearing children across the age range tested. A similar pattern of results was observed for word-learning in that the performance of the hearing-impaired children was significantly poorer than that of the normal-hearing children. Further analysis of the PPVT and word learning scores suggested that although word learning was delayed in the hearing-impaired children, their performance was consistent with their receptive vocabularies. Additionally, no correlation was found between overall performance and the age of identification, age of amplification, or years of amplification in the children with hearing loss. Results also revealed a small increase

  17. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory information, to investigate how sensitive Dutch speakers are to sound-symbolism in Japanese in a learning task. Participants were taught 2 sets of Japanese ideophones; 1 set with the ideophones' real meanings in Dutch, the other set with their opposite meanings. In Experiment 1, participants learned the ideophones and their real meanings much better than the ideophones with their opposite meanings. Moreover, despite the learning rounds, participants were still able to guess the real meanings of the ideophones in a 2-alternative forced-choice test after they were informed of the manipulation. This shows that natural language sound-symbolism is robust beyond 2-alternative forced-choice paradigms and affects broader language processes such as word learning. In Experiment 2, participants learned regular Japanese adjectives with the same manipulation, and there was no difference between real and opposite conditions. This shows that natural language sound-symbolism is especially strong in ideophones, and that people learn words better when form and meaning match. The highlights of this study are as follows: (a) Dutch speakers learn real meanings of Japanese ideophones better than opposite meanings, (b) Dutch speakers accurately guess meanings of Japanese ideophones, (c) this sensitivity happens despite learning some opposite pairings, (d) no such learning effect exists for regular Japanese adjectives, and (e) this shows the importance of sound-symbolism in scaffolding language learning. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844577

  18. Bilingualism and Inhibitory Control Influence Statistical Learning of Novel Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica; Schroeder, Scott R.; Shook, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of bilingual experience and inhibitory control on the ability to learn a novel language. Using a statistical learning paradigm, participants learned words in two novel languages that were based on the International Morse Code. First, participants listened to a continuous stream of words in a Morse code language to test their ability to segment words from continuous speech. Since Morse code does not overlap in form with natural languages, interference from known languages was minimized. Next, participants listened to another Morse code language composed of new words that conflicted with the first Morse code language. Interference in this second language was high due to conflict between languages and due to the presence of two colliding cues (compressed pauses between words and statistical regularities) that competed to define word boundaries. Results suggest that bilingual experience can improve word learning when interference from other languages is low, while inhibitory control ability can improve word learning when interference from other languages is high. We conclude that the ability to extract novel words from continuous speech is a skill that is affected both by linguistic factors, such as bilingual experience, and by cognitive abilities, such as inhibitory control. PMID:22131981

  19. Non-linear processing of a linear speech stream: The influence of morphological structure on the recognition of spoken Arabic words.

    PubMed

    Gwilliams, L; Marantz, A

    2015-08-01

    Although the significance of morphological structure is established in visual word processing, its role in auditory processing remains unclear. Using magnetoencephalography we probe the significance of the root morpheme for spoken Arabic words with two experimental manipulations. First we compare a model of auditory processing that calculates probable lexical outcomes based on whole-word competitors, versus a model that only considers the root as relevant to lexical identification. Second, we assess violations to the root-specific Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP), which disallows root-initial consonant gemination. Our results show root prediction to significantly correlate with neural activity in superior temporal regions, independent of predictions based on whole-word competitors. Furthermore, words that violated the OCP constraint were significantly easier to dismiss as valid words than probability-matched counterparts. The findings suggest that lexical auditory processing is dependent upon morphological structure, and that the root forms a principal unit through which spoken words are recognised. PMID:25997171

  20. Word Calling in 3rd and 4th Graders: Exploring Student and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Lindsay Starr

    2013-01-01

    Reading difficulties in elementary school-aged children may occur when two components of reading--word identification, comprehension, or both of these skills--are weak or underdeveloped (Gough, 1972; Hoover & Gough, 1990; Joshi & Aaron, 2000; Savage, 2001). One type of reading difficulty that is frequently identified by teachers is known…

  1. Word Recognition and Basic Cognitive Processes among Reading-Disabled and Normal Readers in Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Share, David; Mansour, Maysaloon Said

    2003-01-01

    Investigates word identification in Arabic and basic cognitive processes in reading-disabled (RD) and normal level readers of the same chronological age, and in younger normal readers at the same reading level. Indicates significant deficiencies in morphology, working memory, and syntactic and visual processing, with the most severe deficiencies…

  2. The Effects of Teaching Precurrent Behaviors on Children's Solution of Multiplication and Division Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levingston, Heather B.; Neef, Nancy A.; Cihon, Traci M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of teaching overt precurrent behaviors on the current operant of solving multiplication and division word problems. Two students were taught four precurrent behaviors (identification of label, operation, larger numbers, and smaller numbers) in a different order, in the context of a multiple baseline design. After meeting…

  3. Investigating Hemispheric Specialization in a Novel Face--Word Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anes, Michael D.; Kruer, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined hemispheric specialization in a lateralized Stroop facial identification task. A 2 (presentation side: left or right visual field [LVF or RVF])x2 (picture emotion: happy or angry)x3 (emotion of distractor word: happy, angry, or blank) factorial design placed the right hemispheric specialization for emotional expression processing and…

  4. The Penefit of Salience: Salient Accented, but Not Unaccented Words Reveal Accent Adaptation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Grohe, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments, the effects of salience in accent training and speech accentedness on spoken-word recognition were investigated. Salience was expected to increase a stimulus' prominence and therefore promote learning. A training-test paradigm was used on native German participants utilizing an artificial German accent. Salience was elicited by two different criteria: production and listening training as a subjective criterion and accented (Experiment 1) and canonical test words (Experiment 2) as an objective criterion. During training in Experiment 1, participants either read single German words out loud and deliberately devoiced initial voiced stop consonants (e.g., Balken—“beam” pronounced as *Palken), or they listened to pre-recorded words with the same accent. In a subsequent eye-tracking experiment, looks to auditorily presented target words with the accent were analyzed. Participants from both training conditions fixated accented target words more often than a control group without training. Training was identical in Experiment 2, but during test, canonical German words that overlapped in onset with the accented words from training were presented as target words (e.g., Palme—“palm tree” overlapped in onset with the training word *Palken) rather than accented words. This time, no training effect was observed; recognition of canonical word forms was not affected by having learned the accent. Therefore, accent learning was only visible when the accented test tokens in Experiment 1, which were not included in the test of Experiment 2, possessed sufficient salience based on the objective criterion “accent.” These effects were not modified by the subjective criterion of salience from the training modality. PMID:27375540

  5. Semantic Effects in Naming Perceptual Identification but Not in Delayed Naming: Implications for Models and Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurm, Lee H.; Seaman, Sean R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the subjective danger and usefulness of words affect lexical decision times. Usually, an interaction is found: Increasing danger predicts faster reaction times (RTs) for words low on usefulness, but increasing danger predicts slower RTs for words high on usefulness. The authors show the same interaction with…

  6. Flexibility in Statistical Word Segmentation: Finding Words in Foreign Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Bastos, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments investigated the flexibility of statistical word segmentation. There is ample evidence that infants can use statistical cues (e.g., syllable transitional probabilities) to segment fluent speech. However, it is unclear how effectively infants track these patterns in unfamiliar phonological systems. We examined whether…

  7. Word-Level Stress Patterns in the Academic Word List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John; Kandil, Magdi

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses teachers and researchers of English as a second or foreign language who are interested in speech intelligibility training and/or vocabulary acquisition. The study reports a stress-pattern analysis of the Academic Word List (AWL) as made available by Coxhead [TESOL Quarterly 34 (2000) 213]. To examine the AWL in a new way, we…

  8. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  9. Word Frequency, Function Words and the Second Gavagai Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochmann, Jean-Remy

    2013-01-01

    The classic gavagai problem exemplifies the difficulty to identify the referent of a novel word uttered in a foreign language. Here, we consider the reverse problem: identifying the referential part of a label. Assuming "gavagai" indicates a rabbit in a foreign language, it may very well mean ""a" rabbit" or ""that" rabbit". How can a learner know…

  10. What do pauses in narrative production reveal about the nature of word retrieval deficits in PPA?

    PubMed

    Mack, Jennifer E; Chandler, Sarah D; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Rogalski, Emily; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2015-10-01

    Naming and word-retrieval deficits, which are common characteristics of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), differentially affect production across word classes (e.g., nouns, verbs) in some patients. Individuals with the agrammatic variant (PPA-G) often show greater difficulty producing verbs whereas those with the semantic variant (PPA-S) show greater noun deficits and those with logopenic PPA (PPA-L) evince no clear-cut differences in production of the two word classes. To determine the source of these production patterns, the present study examined word-finding pauses as conditioned by lexical variables (i.e., word class, frequency, length) in narrative speech samples of individuals with PPA-S (n=12), PPA-G (n=12), PPA-L (n=11), and cognitively healthy controls (n=12). We also examined the relation between pause distribution and cortical atrophy (i.e., cortical thickness) in nine left hemisphere regions of interest (ROIs) linked to word production. Results showed higher overall pause rates for PPA compared to unimpaired controls; however, greater naming severity was not associated with increased pause rate. Across all groups, more pauses were produced before lower vs. higher frequency words, with no independent effects of word length after controlling for frequency. With regard to word class, the PPA-L group showed a higher rate of pauses prior to production of nouns compared to verbs, consistent with noun-retrieval deficits arising at the lemma level of word production. Those with PPA-G and PPA-S, like controls, produced similar pause rates across word classes; however, lexical simplification (i.e., production of higher-frequency and/or shorter words) was evident in the more-impaired word class: nouns for PPA-S and verbs for PPA-G. These patterns are consistent with conceptual and/or lemma-level impairments for PPA-S, predominantly affecting objects/nouns, and a lemma-level verb-retrieval deficit for PPA-G, with a concomitant impairment in phonological encoding

  11. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

  12. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    PubMed

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research. PMID:25987305

  13. Identifying words that emerge into consciousness: Effects of word valence and unconscious previewing.

    PubMed

    Prioli, Simone C; Kahan, Todd A

    2015-09-01

    Words with negative valence capture attention and this increase in attentional resources typically enhances perceptual processing. Recently, data using continuous flash suppression (CFS) appear to contradict this. In prior research when Chinese words were unconsciously presented in CFS and contrast was raised until the word was identified, RTs to identify words with negative valence were slower than RTs to words with neutral valence. This result might be limited to situations where a logographic writing system is used and could reflect a type of cognitive aftereffect where previewing the word causes habituation. Data (N=60) indicate that results generalize from a logographic (Chinese) to an orthographic writing system (English). In addition, when words were previewed in CFS RTs were slowed for words with negative valence relative to words with neutral valence and this was reversed when words were shown binocularly. Implications for theories of unconscious word processing and cognitive aftereffects are discussed. PMID:25982055

  14. Spotting words in handwritten Arabic documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish; Babu, Pavithra; Bhole, Chetan

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a system for spotting handwritten Arabic words in scanned document images is presented. Three main components of the system are a word segmenter, a shape based matcher for words and a search interface. The user types in a query in English within a search window, the system finds the equivalent Arabic word, e.g., by dictionary look-up, locates word images in an indexed (segmented) set of documents. A two-step approach is employed in performing the search: (1) prototype selection: the query is used to obtain a set of handwritten samples of that word from a known set of writers (these are the prototypes), and (2) word matching: the prototypes are used to spot each occurrence of those words in the indexed document database. A ranking is performed on the entire set of test word images-- where the ranking criterion is a similarity score between each prototype word and the candidate words based on global word shape features. A database of 20,000 word images contained in 100 scanned handwritten Arabic documents written by 10 different writers was used to study retrieval performance. Using five writers for providing prototypes and the other five for testing, using manually segmented documents, 55% precision is obtained at 50% recall. Performance increases as more writers are used for training.

  15. Emotion word recognition: discrete information effects first, continuous later?

    PubMed

    Briesemeister, Benny B; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-05-20

    Manipulations of either discrete emotions (e.g. happiness) or affective dimensions (e.g. positivity) have a long tradition in emotion research, but interactive effects have never been studied, based on the assumption that the two underlying theories are incompatible. Recent theorizing suggests, however, that the human brain relies on two affective processing systems, one working on the basis of discrete emotion categories, and the other working along affective dimensions. Presenting participants with an orthogonal manipulation of happiness and positivity in a lexical decision task, the present study meant to test the appropriateness of this assumption in emotion word recognition. Behavioral and electroencephalographic data revealed independent effects for both variables, with happiness affecting the early visual N1 component, while positivity affected an N400-like component and the late positive complex. These results are interpreted as evidence for a sequential processing of affective information, with discrete emotions being the basis for later dimensional appraisal processes. PMID:24713350

  16. Detailed behavioral analysis as a window into cross-situational word learning.

    PubMed

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Namy, Laura L

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that word learners can determine word-referent mappings by tracking co-occurrences across multiple ambiguous naming events. The current study addresses the mechanisms underlying this capacity to learn words cross-situationally. This replication and extension of Yu and Smith (2007) investigates the factors influencing both successful cross-situational word learning and mis-mappings. Item analysis and error patterns revealed that the co-occurrence structure of the learning environment as well as the context of the testing environment jointly affected learning across observations. Learners also adopted an exclusion strategy, which contributed conjointly with statistical tracking to performance. Implications for our understanding of the processes underlying cross-situational word learning are discussed. PMID:22257004

  17. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  18. Quality is not a dirty word

    SciTech Connect

    Coston, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    There is a great deal of emphasis today on management's commitment to quality. Yet with all the hue and cry about this commitment do we find much more happening than just lip service. Are quality professionals aiding and abetting the nonacceptance of quality organizations, resulting in their exclusion from the management. Quality professionals must recognize they cannot divorce themselves from cost and schedule. They must recognize they are not policemen with omnipotent authority. Self-recognition must occur and be acted upon for changes in attitudes and opinions of others to be affected. There are, of course, other factors involved. But in searching for the root cause of the problem, does the evidence of those other factors again point back to the Quality professionals. Quality is not a dirty word. We must convince ourselves before we can convince others.

  19. Cascadedness in Chinese written word production

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F.

    2015-01-01

    In written word production, is activation transmitted from lexical-semantic selection to orthographic encoding in a serial or cascaded fashion? Very few previous studies have addressed this issue, and the existing evidence comes from languages with alphabetic orthographic systems. We report a study in which Chinese participants were presented with colored line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the color while attempting to ignore the object. Significant priming was found when on a trial, the written response shared an orthographic radical with the written name of the object. This finding constitutes clear evidence that task-irrelevant lexical codes activate their corresponding orthographic representation, and hence suggests that activation flows in a cascaded fashion within the written production system. Additionally, the results speak to how the time interval between processing of target and distractor dimensions affects and modulates the emergence of orthographic facilitation effects. PMID:26379595

  20. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…