Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M
Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956
The statistics of children and families experiencing military life and affected by deployment are astounding. Many children who have an uncle, aunt, brother, or other family member serving in the military live near a military duty station, but others live far from other military families. Caregivers and teachers of young children share a common…
Ebersöhn, Liesel; Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Grobler, Adri; Moen, Melanie
"Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS", demonstrates how a concurrent mixed method design assisted cross-cultural comparison and ecological descriptions of resilience in young South African children, as well as validated alternative ways to measure resilience in young children. In a longitudinal randomised control trial, which investigated psychological resilience in mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, we combined a qualitative projective story-telling technique (Düss Fable) with quantitative data (Child Behaviour Checklist). The children mostly displayed adaptive resilience-related behaviours, although maladaptive behaviours were present. Participating children use internal (resolve/agency, positive future expectations, emotional intelligence) and external protective resources (material resources, positive institutions) to mediate adaptation. Children's maladaptive behaviours were exacerbated by internal (limited problem-solving skills, negative emotions) and external risk factors (chronic and cumulative adversity). PMID:26291644
A group of 40 preschool children, ranging in age from three to five years, were required to illustrate the meaning of reversible passive sentences in which noun animacy was systematically varied. (Author/JMB)
Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; And Others
The outcomes of children's exposures to others' positive and negative emotions were examined developmentally. Twenty-four infants in three age cohorts (10, 15, and 20 months old) were studied for 9 months. Mothers reported the child's reactions to naturally occurring events in which emotions were expressed; in addition, each week mothers simulated…
Pierce, Jean W.
Addresses the issue of whether preschoolers are aware of the connection between their emotions, their performance on a task of eye-hand coordination, and their evaluation of the task and their performance. Results indicate a developmental trend that children's predictions conform more to mood congruity theory as they grow older. (Author/DST)
Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly
This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Li, Mengjiao; Bell, Martha Ann
We tested a novel multi-component emotion self-regulation construct that captured physiological (vagal tone), cognitive (reappraisal) and temperament (effortful control) aspects of emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between more stressors and greater negative/less positive affectivity (NA and PA). A socio-economically diverse sample of 151 women with young children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit (including cognitive and parent-child interaction tasks and vagal tone measurement). Women with more stressors had more NA and less PA. Furthermore, for NA only, having more stressors was substantially associated with NA but only among women with the lowest ER. This pattern was evident for the composite as well as individual indicators of ER. Results were not attributable to individual differences in executive function. Findings are discussed in light of the diathesis-stress model of stress and coping. PMID:25759238
Costigan, F Aileen; Light, Janice C; Newell, Karl M
More than 12% of preschoolers receiving special education services have complex communication needs, including increasing numbers of children who do not have significant motor impairments (e.g., children with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, etc.). In order to meet their diverse communication needs (e.g., face-to-face, written, Internet, telecommunication), these children may use mainstream technologies accessed via the mouse, yet little is known about factors that affect the mouse performance of young children. This study used a mixed factorial design to investigate the effects of age, target size, and angle of approach on accuracy and time required for accurate target selection with a mouse for 20 3-year-old and 20 4-year-old children. The 4-year-olds were generally more accurate and faster than the 3-year-olds. Target size and angle mediated differences in performance within age groups. The 3-year-olds were more accurate and faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target, were faster in selecting the large relative to the medium target, and were faster in selecting targets along the vertical relative to the diagonal angle. The 4-year-olds were faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target. Implications for improving access to AAC include the preliminary suggestion of age-related threshold target sizes that support sufficient accuracy, the possibility of efficiency benefits when target size is increased up to an age-related threshold, and identification of the potential utility of the vertical angle as a context for training navigational input device use. PMID:22670726
Although many fathers today spend more time with children than was the case in the past, physical care of young children remains primarily mothers' work. Yet some fathers claim that they do work traditionally seen as the "mother's job" every day. Using subsample data from the male respondent file of the National Survey of Family Growth 2002 (n =…
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010
Ensuring that young children have safe, secure environments in which to grow, learn, and develop healthy brains and bodies is not only good for the children themselves but also builds a strong foundation for a thriving, prosperous society. Science shows that early exposure to circumstances that produce persistent fear and chronic anxiety can have…
Heinz, Rebecca S., Comp.
The citations in this annotated bibliography of literature for young children cover many topics including aggression, feelings of ambivalence, anger, anxiety, loneliness, making friends, nightmares, perseverance, sibling rivalry, teasing, trust, values, and attitudes toward work. The books cited focus on aspects of children's emotional experience…
Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.
In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…
Hayden, Jacqueline; Otaala, Barnabas
This paper describes a recent study conducted jointly by the authors in the Khomas Region of Namibia. The study developed and trialled research and documentation methods regarding very young children who had been infected or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Because of the stigma attached to the disease, effective methods for assessing "real"…
Blewitt, Pamela; Rump, Keiran M.; Shealy, Stephanie E.; Cook, Samantha A.
Shared book reading, and the conversation that accompanies it, can facilitate young children's vocabulary growth. To identify the features of extratextual questions that help 3-year-olds learn unfamiliar words during shared book reading, two experiments explored the impact of cognitive demand level, placement, and an approximation to scaffolding.…
The Health and Social Care Act comes into force in April 2013. It changes the organisation of the health service and accelerates the integration of health and social care. New relationships between primary and secondary healthcare will develop and the culture of clinical and cost effectiveness will expand into social care; work on children in…
Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Descombes, Valerie
Examines whether the consistent or inconsistent use of pitch labels during instruction in pitch terminology affected French kindergarten children's identification of pitch in the two chosen classes. Finds that the children who were taught one pair of terms provided significantly more correct verbal responses than did the group who learned two…
McEvoy, Mary A.; And Others
Affection activities (such as hugging, smiling, and saying positive things) can be added to typical preschool games and songs to encourage interaction between handicapped children and nonhandicapped peers. The intervention can be adapted for use with children with diverse handicapping conditions. Typical activities, modified directions for…
Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana
There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507
Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F
Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PMID:22309696
Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A J; de Rosnay, Marc
Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children's affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another's distress. In two samples (N(study1) = 75; N(study2) = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952
"Can You Hear Me? The Right of Young Children to Participate in Decisions Affecting Them" emphasises that participation enhances children's self-esteem and confidence, promotes their overall capacities, produces better outcomes, strengthens understanding of and commitment to democratic processes and protects children more effectively.…
Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.
Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…
Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie
Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID
Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie
Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID
Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion
The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking. PMID:26508454
Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
Abdellatif, Hanaa R.; Cummings, Rhoda; Maddux, Cleborne D.
The ability to use analogical reasoning traditionally has been considered a higher-level ability characteristic of thinking of older children and adults. Such reasoning has not been thought to be accessible to younger children. However, recently, it has been suggested that younger children's ability to understand and solve analogical problems…
Schischka, Janice; Rawlinson, Catherine; Hamilton, Richard
This qualitative study examined the factors involved in school transitions for a sample of 17 children with a range of disabilities, aged from 5.25 to 6.16 years, their parents, and their Year 1 teachers. Parents and teachers were interviewed and asked for their retrospective views on how the transition process had occurred for their children in…
Rice, Kathleen Fitzgerald; Groves, Betsy McAlister
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that close to 1 million children a year are identified as victims of maltreatment. The National Clearinghouse of Child Abuse and Neglect estimates that between 3 and 10 million children a year witness the abuse of a parent or caregiver. In recent years, therapists, educators, and…
Nock, Matthew K; Kazdin, Alan E
Examined the role of affective, cognitive, and behavioral factors in the occurrence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicidal intent in child and young adolescent (N = 175, ages 6 to 13 years) psychiatric inpatients. The results indicated that (a) self-reported depressed mood, negative automatic thoughts, hopelessness about the future, and anhedonia were all significantly associated with suicide-related outcomes, and these relations remained statistically significant even after depressed mood was controlled; (b) suicidal participants (both ideators and attempters) were distinguished from nonsuicidal participants by higher scores on measures of depressed mood, negative automatic thoughts, and hopelessness; and (c) participants who reported making a suicide attempt were distinguished from those who did not by higher scores on a measure of anhedonia and a higher number of previous suicide attempts. The results demonstrate the importance of negative automatic thoughts and anhedonia, and provide support for the role of hopelessness and previous suicide attempts in the occurrence of different suicide-related outcomes in children and young adolescents. PMID:11845650
Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J.
Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields…
Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo; Trainor, Laurel J
Auditory evoked responses to a violin tone and a noise-burst stimulus were recorded from 4- to 6-year-old children in four repeated measurements over a 1-year period using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Half of the subjects participated in musical lessons throughout the year; the other half had no music lessons. Auditory evoked magnetic fields showed prominent bilateral P100m, N250m, P320m and N450m peaks. Significant change in the peak latencies of all components except P100m was observed over time. Larger P100m and N450m amplitude as well as more rapid change of N250m amplitude and latency was associated with the violin rather than the noise stimuli. Larger P100m and P320m peak amplitudes in the left hemisphere than in the right are consistent with left-lateralized cortical development in this age group. A clear musical training effect was expressed in a larger and earlier N250m peak in the left hemisphere in response to the violin sound in musically trained children compared with untrained children. This difference coincided with pronounced morphological change in a time window between 100 and 400 ms, which was observed in musically trained children in response to violin stimuli only, whereas in untrained children a similar change was present regardless of stimulus type. This transition could be related to establishing a neural network associated with sound categorization and/or involuntary attention, which can be altered by music learning experience. PMID:16959812
Assessing readiness among young children today implies undertaking a broad range of observations and activities in an atmosphere where children can feel comfortable and interested. Until recently, readiness meant readiness for reading. A mental age of six and a half was accepted as the prerequisite for beginning reading instruction. There has…
Sun, Jing; Huo, Junsheng; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Song, Pengkun; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Yin, Shian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Guansheng
This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional status and feeding practices of young children in the worst-affected areas of China two years after the Wenchuan Earthquake. The sample consisted of 1,254 children 6-23 months of age living in four selected counties from the disaster-affected provinces of Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu. Length-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and hemoglobin concentration were used to evaluate nutritional status. Interviews with selected children's caretakers collected basic demographic information, children's medical history, and child feeding practices. Stunting, underweight, and wasting prevalence rates in children 6-23 months of age were 10.8%, 4.9% and 2.8% respectively, and anemia prevalence was 52.2%. Only 12.3% of children had initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Overall, 90.9% of children had ever been breastfed, and 87% children 6-8 months of age had received solid, semi-solid or soft foods the day before the interview. The diets of 45% of children 6-23 months of age met the definition of minimum dietary diversity, and the diets of 39% of breastfed and 7.6% non- breastfed children 6-23 months of age met the criteria for minimum meal frequency. The results highlight that a substantial proportion of young children in the earthquake affected disaster areas continue to have various forms of malnutrition, with an especially high prevalence of anemia, and that most feeding practices are suboptimal. Further efforts should be made to enhance the nutritional status of these children. As part of this intervention, it may be necessary to improve child feeding practices. PMID:23353617
Gao, Shan; Wei, Yonggang; Bai, Junjie; Lin, Chongde; Li, Hong
This research investigated the development of affective decision-making (ADM) during early childhood, in particular role of difficulty in learning a gain/loss schedule. In Experiment 1, we administrated the Children's Gambling Task (CGT) to 60 Chinese children aged 3 and 4, replicating the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo [Kerr, A., & Zelazo,…
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994
This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…
Snowden, Peggy L.
National trends and issues that concern gifted education are considered, focusing on the relationships among regular education, early childhood education, and education of young children who are gifted. Specific topics include: whole language and emergent literacy, whole group instruction and flexible grouping, cooperative learning, and…
Oliveri, M B; Wittich, A; Mautalen, C; Chaperon, A; Kizlansky, A
Low vitamin D levels in elderly people are associated with reduced bone mass, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and increased fracture risk. Its effect on the growing skeleton is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of chronic winter vitamin D deficiency and higher winter parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels on bone mass in prepubertal children and young adults. The study was carried out in male and female Caucasian subjects. A total of 163 prepubertal children (X age +/- 1 SD: 8.9 +/- 0.7 years) and 234 young adults (22.9 +/- 3.6 years) who had never received vitamin D supplementation were recruited from two areas in Argentina: (1)Ushuaia (55 degrees South latitude), where the population is known to have low winter 25OHD levels and higher levels of PTH in winter than in summer, and (2)Buenos Aires (34 degrees S), where ultraviolet (UV) radiation and vitamin D nutritional status in the population are adequate all year round. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the ultradistal and distal radius were measured in the young adults. Only distal radius measurements were taken in the children. Similar results were obtained in age-sex matched groups from both areas. The only results showing significant difference corresponded to comparison among the Ushuaian women: those whose calcium (Ca) intake was below 800 mg/day presented lower BMD and BMC values than those whose Ca intake was above that level (0.469 +/- 0.046 versus 0.498 +/- 0.041 g/cm(2), P < 0.02; 3.131 +/- 0.367 versus 3.339 +/- 0.386 g, P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, peripheral BMD and BMC were similar in children and young adults from Ushuaia and Buenos Aires in spite of the previously documented difference between both areas regarding UV radiation and winter vitamin D status. BMD of axial skeletal areas as well the concomitant effect of a low Ca diet and vitamin D deficiency on the growing skeleton should be studied further. PMID:10954776
Skelton, Sarah C.; Hamilton, Anne C.
This paper examines aspects of the use of puppets with young children and provides guidelines on proper times for puppet use, basic movements, and patterns. The use of puppetry in dramatic play provides young children with opportunities for refining communication skills and defining self. Puppetry provides a means for children to explore their…
Richter, Linda; Louw, Julia; Naicker, Sara
Many programs to support young children and families affected by HIV and AIDS depend substantially on a model of cascaded training from international nongovernmental organizations, through in-country groups and organizations to services on the ground. In this paper, we describe the training and capacity building – as described in proposals, progress reports, and individualized questionnaires – offered by 10 international organizations funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation to provide supportive services for young children and their families in five southern and eastern African countries. We related the findings to effective features of training described in the literature. Training and capacity development were found to be the most substantial activities in rendering services to children and families, both in terms of effort and human and financial resources. A total of 67 trainings were conducted over a period of 18 months. Almost all trainings combine lecture-based instruction, group work/discussions, and role play, but only half of the trainings report some form of mentoring, supervision or coaching following the training. Drawing on the literature, it is likely that more purposeful planning is required in terms of the selection of trainees, local adaptation and development of materials, participatory training approaches, and techniques to develop and sustain skills as well as knowledge. Demonstration and mentorship in the field together with quality assurance procedures, pre-and post-assessment to evaluate training, processes to transfer learning into subsequent practice, as well as certification, are all fundamental steps to ensure that training plays a supportive role in the behavior changes necessary to support young children affected by HIV and AIDS and their families. PMID:26430466
Argues that young children learn LOGO programing language more effectively through guided discovery using games and techniques that encourage exploration of the software. Specific examples of games, drawings and accomplishments of Australian children are included. (EA)
Levin, Diane E.; Linn, Susan; Poussaint, Alvin F.; Cantor, Joanne; Cartwright, Sally
Contains four presentations from workshop on media culture and young children: (1) "Changing Needs, Changing Responses: Rethinking How We Teach Children" (Levin); (2) "Watching Television: What Are Children Learning about Race and Ethnicity?" (Linn and Poussaint); (3) "Empowering Parents and Teachers To Protect Children" (Cantor); and (4) "Helping…
Barry, Robin A.; Kochanska, Grazyna
We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital quality when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influence of the partner’s emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent’s interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents’ emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child’s development, and declined thereafter. Children’s anger was highest at 15 months, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one’s positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one’s anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents’ neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships. PMID:20364900
Chalufour, Ingrid; Worth, Karen
Young children's curiosity about nature and their need to make sense of the world presents an opportunity to incorporate science as a natural and critical part of children's early learning. This guide, part of a preschool science curriculum, uses an inquiry approach to encourage young naturalists to observe life more closely, build an…
This paper examines shyness--its causes and its impact on children--and presents several strategies based on social learning theory for parents and teachers to help young children overcome shyness. The paper also describes a personal application of these strategies on a young girl. The strategies presented for parents and teachers are: (1) tell…
Hanson, Sandra L.; Sloane, Douglas M.
Used data from General Social Surveys to examine effect of young children on job satisfaction of men and women. Findings suggest that young children have no effect on job satisfaction of male or female workers regardless of time period, work status, or marital status. This was true for women working in labor market as well as in home. (Author/NB)
Vygotsky (1986) draws attention to the interrelationship between thought and language and other aspects of mind. Although not widely acknowledged, Vygotsky (1999) also drew attention to the search for the relations between cognition and emotions. This paper discusses the findings of a study which examined imaginary scientific situations within the early years. The central research questions examined: What is the emotional nature of scientific learning? and How does affective imagination support early childhood science learning? Video observations were made of the teaching of science from one site in a south-eastern community in Australia (232 h of video observations). The teachers used fairy tales and Slowmation as cultural devices to support the concept formation of 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 53; range of 3.3 to 4.4; mean of 3.8 years). The findings of this under-researched area (e.g. Roth, Mind, Culture, and Activity 15:2-7, 2008) make a contribution to understanding how affective imagination can work in science education in the early years.
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…
Jessee, Peggy O.; Wilson, Heidi; Morgan, Dee
Discusses young children's emotional responses during medical examinations and procedures, developmental changes in how they conceptualize illness causation, and the role of play to reduce stress. Describes how teachers can best facilitate structured dramatic medical play therapeutically. (KB)
Wood, Frances B.
In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.
Presents suggestions for teaching chess to young children as part of the problem-solving component of a kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Discusses the introduction of pairs of chess characters, playing challenge games with teachers to enhance skill development, and writing down the rules of the game. Notes that children's problem-solving and…
Describes how the young children of the Early Learning Center in the Chelsea (Massachusetts) school district learned about Igor Stravinsky's ballet suite, "The Firebird." Explains that children in three kindergarten classes depicted the ballet's characters in a participatory performance. Highlights some qualitative observations. (CMK)
Vinson, R P; Gelinas-Sorell, D F
Head banging is a rhythmic motor activity that may occur in normal infants and young children, as well as in children with underlying psychiatric or neurologic disease. Once underlying pathology has been excluded, parents should be reassured about the benign nature of the activity. PMID:2021098
Krause, Christina Miles
Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…
The purpose of this study was to examine young children's views about shadows. Young children hear references to or are involved in many scientific experiences in their everyday lives, and shadows are a part of children's everyday experiences. Young children may have constructed their knowledge about shadows through their daily experiences.…
Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda
This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…
This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…
Nesselroad, Joanna Strosnider
This study identifies factors that affect school refusal among preschool children in public schools of an Appalachian state. School refusal is defined as behavior through which children refuse school by active protest, inactive protest, or denial. A random sample of 198 preschool teachers representing 6,309 children provided the data for the…
Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken
School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
MacNaughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick; Smith, Kylie
There is a growing belief that young children should be involved in decisions that affect them. This belief has its foundations in a new model of the young child, in a new concern with young children's rights as citizens and in new knowledge about the significance of young children's early experiences. This article examines the increasing interest…
Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)
Koblinsky, Sally; And Others
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…
Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.
This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…
WINSOR, CHARLOTTE B.
IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE CONCEPTS OF THE WORLD MUST BE PRESENTED TO YOUNG CHILDREN IN A DYNAMIC AND TANGIBLE WAY. THE WRITER SPEAKS OF THE SCHOOL AS A COMMUNITY OF MEN IN MICROCOSM. THE ACQUISITION OF THE TOOLS OF LEARNING, THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SYMBOLISM IN OUR CULTURE, THE PROCESSES OF ABSTRACT LEARNING AND MEANING, AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF…
Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie
The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…
Honig, Alice Sterling
This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…
Coates, Elizabeth; Coates, Andrew
Research related to how young children's drawings change and develop is well documented and an extensive literature on this area can be traced back to the nineteenth century. Most of this literature, however, focuses on developmental aspects and largely fails to explore what would seem to be an essential ingredient in each drawings…
Kuchner, Joan F.
This paper explores the development of humor, the positive potential of young children's humor, and resources for harnessing the energy of humor. The literature on humor is dominated by two theoretical streams: psychoanalytic theory, which recognizes humor as a vehicle for expressing emotions, particularly unacceptable emotions; and cognitive…
James, Julia Carol; Tanner, C. Kenneth
Examines the desirability of standardized testing during early childhood education. The paper raises questions concerning the dangers of testing at too early an age. It is recommended that measures and procedures for developmentally appropriate assessment be developed to avoid unnecessary punishment of young children. (GLR)
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…
English, Lyn D.
Fifty children, ranging in age from 4 to 10, were individually administered a series of tasks involving different combinations of 2 items selected from a discrete set of items. Analyses of their performances revealed a series of six, increasingly sophisticated, solution strategies ranging from random number selection of items to a systematic…
Kirkorian, Heather L; Wartella, Ellen A; Anderson, Daniel R
Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the positive effects of media and minimizing the negative effects. One focus of the authors is the seemingly unique effect of television on children under age two. Although research clearly demonstrates that well-designed, age-appropriate, educational television can be beneficial to children of preschool age, studies on infants and toddlers suggest that these young children may better understand and learn from real-life experiences than they do from video. Moreover, some research suggests that exposure to television during the first few years of life may be associated with poorer cognitive development. With respect to children over two, the authors emphasize the importance of content in mediating the effect of television on cognitive skills and academic achievement. Early exposure to age-appropriate programs designed around an educational curriculum is associated with cognitive and academic enhancement, whereas exposure to pure entertainment, and violent content in particular, is associated with poorer cognitive development and lower academic achievement. The authors point out that producers and parents can take steps to maximize the positive effects of media and minimize the negative effects. They note that research on children's television viewing can inform guidelines for producers of children's media to enhance learning. Parents can select well-designed, age-appropriate programs and view the programs with their children to maximize the positive effects of educational media. The authors' aim is to inform policymakers, educators, parents, and others who work with young children about the impact of media, particularly
Proctor, Laura J.; Fauchier, Angele; Oliver, Pamella H.; Ramos, Michelle C.; Rios, Martha A.; Margolin, Gayla
Background: Family context can affect children's vulnerability to various stresses, but little is known regarding the role of family variables on children's reactions to natural disaster. This prospective study examined the influence of predisaster observed parenting behaviors and postdisaster parental stress on young children's distress following…
Birckmayer, Jennifer; And Others
Group leaders of 10- to 13-year-olds may use this program guide to help the preteens interact with young children through six discussion meetings and five visits with a preschool child at home. Discussion topics concern (1) the family environment of young children, (2) children's play; (3) children's play areas at home, (4) safety at home, (5)…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia
Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883
Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C
Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768
Li, Jiali; Bennett, Neil
The highlights of this statistical update include a new profile of the extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; the use of an alternative measure of young child poverty that provides new insights into the impact of programs and policies on the economic well-being of young children; and a brief examination of why the…
Hale, Judy Ann
Helping young children to cope with stress plays a vital role in today's classroom. It is normal for children to experience stress, which comes from pressures such as family, friends, and school. Some of the indicators of stress in young children are behavioral changes (e.g., mood swings, changes in sleep patterns, and incontinence) and physical…
Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.
Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…
Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane
The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…
Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna
Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…
Curtis, W John; Cicchetti, Dante
This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of facial affect processing in maltreated and nonmaltreated children at 42 months of age. ERPs elicited while children passively viewed standardized pictures of female models posing angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions were examined, and differences between maltreated (N = 46) and nonmaltreated (N = 25) children were reported. Three occipital components (P1, N170, and P400) and four frontal-central components (N150, P240, Nc, and a positive slow wave [PSW]) were identified. Findings revealed that maltreated children had greater P1 and P400 amplitude in response to angry facial affect compared to other emotions, and compared to nonmaltreated children. N170 amplitude was greater in response to happy compared to angry in the maltreated group. For the P240 component, maltreated children had greater amplitude in response to angry facial expressions relative to happy, whereas children in the nonmaltreated group had greater P240 amplitude in response to happy relative to angry facial affect. Further, the nonmaltreated group had greater PSW amplitude in response to angry facial affect, whereas those in the maltreated group showed greater PSW amplitude to happy facial expressions. The results provided further support for the hypothesis that the experience of maltreatment and the predominantly negative emotional tone in maltreating families alters the functioning of neural systems associated with the identification and processing of facial emotion. These results exemplify the importance of early preventive interventions focused on emotion for children who have experienced maltreatment early in life. PMID:23786684
Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A.
Background Acculturation status is associated with overweight and obesity among Latino adults, but the relationship between maternal acculturation and overweight in Latino children is inconsistent and has not been adequately studied. Methods We analyzed 3-year follow-up data from 185 Latina mothers and children who were recruited at San Francisco General Hospital. Outcome measure was the child’s body mass index at age 3 years, adjusted for age and sex and categorized as healthy (<85%) or overweight (≥85%). Independent variables were maternal acculturation status, child health status, and child nutritional factors. Results At age 3 years, 43% of children were overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, childhood overweight was associated with maternal acculturation status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.07–3.69) and maternal obesity (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.40–9.84). Childhood overweight was also more likely among children who were reported to eat well or very well (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.46–7.58) and children whose weight was perceived as too high (OR 11.88, 95% CI 2.37–59.60), as compared to children who were reported to eat poorly/not well and children whose weight was perceived as normal, respectively. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the high rates of overweight among young Latino children should address the importance of maternal acculturation and obesity as well as maternal perceptions of children’s weight and eating habits. PMID:18514096
Isabelle, Mia; Chan, Pauline
The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indonesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strategies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar. PMID:21393122
Fidler, Debbie J; Hepburn, Susan L; Most, David E; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J
The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of Repacholi and Gopnik's (1997) "Yummy-Yucky" task. Results show that children with Williams syndrome were more likely to mimic and/or imitate facial affect and vocalizations than children in the mixed comparison group. Yet, this increased emotional responsivity did not substantially improve decision-making based on the affective display; children with Williams syndrome were more likely to attempt to convince the experimenter that the disliked food was likable. Implications of a social profile that includes enhanced emotional responsivity paired with impaired perspective taking are discussed. PMID:17542656
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Wyman, Peter A.; And Others
Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…
This paper describes a cross-agency model of training and technical assistance which prepares preschool teachers, therapists, social workers, drug treatment providers, parents, administrators, service coordinators, and bureaucrats to work with and understand children and families affected by alcohol and other drugs. Presented first is a brief…
Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Goldman, Sylvie
This study examined the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to detect affective correspondences between facial and vocal expressions of emotion using an intermodal matching paradigm. Four-year-old children with ASD (n = 18) and their age-matched normally developing peers (n = 18) were presented pairs of videotaped facial…
This book is one of a series of four in which issues affecting the organization and work of the British Infant School are considered. The series, "Young Children Learning," is designed to express current educational theory in terms of the practical work of teachers and children in infant schools. The books include recent research into the ways in…
Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.
Virtual worlds for children are becoming increasingly popular, and yet there are few accounts of children's use of these worlds. Young children are spending increasing amounts of time online as technology continues to create significant changes in social and cultural practices in the 21st century. Some of children's online interactions can be…
Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.
Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…
Liu, Karen Chia-Yu; Blila, Susan
Young children from five ethnic groups completed surveys about self-concept, self-esteem, racial awareness, and knowledge of racial terms, attitudes, and preference. Anglo-American children had a viable self-concept. Most children were highly aware of distinct ethnic differences and liked all colors. Most minority children chose friends outside…
Finegan, Colleen; Austin, Nancy Jo
Is computer usage appropriate for young children? The manner in which the computer is used can benefit the child, have no effect whatsoever, or actually be detrimental to the child's academic and personal growth. Specific conditions can be instituted to assure that young children benefit from their exposure to or interaction with technology. How…
Gaut, Berys; Gaut, Morag
Co-written by a professor of philosophy and a practising primary school teacher, "Philosophy for Young Children" is a concise, practical guide for teachers. It contains detailed session plans for 36 philosophical enquiries--enough for a year's work--that have all been successfully tried, tested and enjoyed with young children from the age of three…
Using works of art with young children is a perfect way to bridge the gap between art activities that are too open or too closed. Teachers of young children sometimes try to find a middle ground by allowing free painting time at an easel in addition to recipe-oriented activities such as putting together precut shapes to create a spider or an apple…
Young children do not consume foods in a structured manner. Their foods contact surfaces (hands, floors, eating surfaces, etc.) that may be contaminated while they are eating them. Thus, dietary exposures of young children are difficult to accurately assess or measure. A recen...
Danby, Susan; Ewing, Lynette; Thorpe, Karen
Being a novice researcher undertaking research interviews with young children requires understandings of the interview process. By investigating the interaction between a novice researcher undertaking her first interview and a child participant, the authors attend to theoretical principles, such as the competence of young children as informants,…
Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood Education, 2004
This curriculum, designed for young children ages 3-6, focuses on math, science, and social studies and includes integrated activities to use with over 30 software titles. Young Children as Explorers: Interactive Learning Experiences addresses learning standards established by the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics, National Research…
Osofsky, Joy D., Ed.
Recent years have seen significant advances in knowledge about the effects of exposure to psychological trauma on young children from birth to age 5. This volume brings together leading experts to address practical considerations in working with traumatized young children and their caregivers. State-of-the-art assessment and treatment approaches…
Aronson, Susan S.
Discusses common foot problems of young children and ways parents, child caregivers, and physicians should deal with them. Particular attention is given to care and medical treatment for flat feet, peeling feet, and "w"-sitting in young children. (Author/BB)
The versatility of the computer can be expanded considerably for young handicapped children by using input devices other than the typewriter-style keyboard. Input devices appropriate for young children can be classified into four categories: alternative keyboards, contact switches, speech input devices, and cursor control devices. Described are…
Rivkin, Mary S.
This digest examines the value of outdoor experience for young children, reasons for its decline, ways to enhance school play spaces, and aspects of developmentally appropriate outdoor environments. Young children appear to benefit from being outdoors and especially need the broad experiential base provided by being outdoors. The richness and…
Valeski, T N; Stipek, D J
This study examined factors associated with young children's feelings about school in kindergarten and first grade, using a new measure, the Feelings about School (FAS). The FAS measures children's perceptions of academic competence, their feelings about the teacher, and their general attitudes toward school. Findings provided support for the reliability and validity of the FAS for kindergartners (N = 225) and first graders (N = 127). Variables presumed to predict children's feelings about school were the classroom structure, academic performance, and relationships with teachers. Feelings about school were expected to predict academic engagement. Correlational analyses indicated that kindergartners' and first graders' feelings about school were associated with their academic skills, as measured by direct assessments and teacher ratings. The evidence for first graders was stronger than for kindergartners. Kindergartners' general attitudes toward school were more negative in highly structured, teacher-directed classroom environments. First graders' perceptions of competence were more negative in classrooms lacking structure and control. First graders', but not kindergartners', perceptions of competence were significantly associated with academic engagement. PMID:11480942
Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken
School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity levels by identifying additional variables through the interview process. Thirteen public schools were included in the sample (total 2946 children). Physical activity and environmental data were collected over 3 days. Environmental variables were manually assessed at each of the 13 schools. Observational data were used to determine which three schools were the most and least active. The principal, three teachers and 20 students in Grades 4-6 from these six schools (four lower and two average socioeconomic status) were invited to participate in the interview process. Student interviews involved the paired interview technique. The main themes generated from the school interviews included the effect of non-fixed equipment (including balls), playground markings, playground aesthetics, activity preference, clothing, the amount of break time available for play, teacher playground involvement, gender, bullying, school policies, student confidence in break-time activity and fundamental movement skills. The effect of bullying on playground physical activity levels was concerning. PMID:21712499
Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea
This article reports an innovative use of photographs in a pencil-and-paper test which was developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. Two hundred and ninety-five tests were administered by thirteen teachers of Years 1 and 2 children in 3 urban and rural schools. Many of these children of 6-8 years of age were able to…
McMath, Joan Scanlon; King, Margaret A.; Smith, William Earl
Discusses use of nonfiction as a means of teaching preschool children reading skills required in intermediate grades. Identifies recent trends in nonfiction books, values of bringing together young children, and informational books and criteria for selecting high quality informational books. Includes bibliography of nonfiction children's books.…
This paper draws on research exploring young children's playful and humorous communication. It explores how playful activity mediates and connects children in complex activity systems where imagination, cognition, and consciousness become distributed across individuals. Children's playfulness is mediated and distributed via artefacts (tools, signs…
Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy
Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…
This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…
McCracken, Janet Brown, Ed.
Few adults deliberately set out to cause children stress or to teach them how to deal with it, yet adults do just that with every word, action, and reaction. This book collects work in the field of human development on how adults can help children learn to cope with stress. Each of the 30 chapters previously appeared in "Young Children," the…
Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina
This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about…
Torrance, E. Paul
Creative methods of communicating with young children are discussed. In order to communicate through talk, adults must realize that children have a "secret world" with their own language and reasoning and must respect it. Self awareness, patience, understanding, and consistency are necessary for adults to truly communicate with children through…
Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population. PMID:27214410
Scott, Myrtle M.
Describes a program designed to equip persons who will be leaders in the educational field and who have as a main career goal functioning as an interface person in settings which concern young children. (PD)
Wolf, Joan S.
The article describes private evaluation and consultation services provided to parents of young gifted children, and discusses the benefits of private consultation and the potential role of school personnel in meeting the needs of this population. (Author/JDD)
Felleman, Elyse Schwartz; And Others
Although the recognition of the affective experiences of peers is an important prerequisite for social adaptation, children's ability to recognize peers' facial displays of emotion remains unexamined. To investigate the degree to which young children were able to enact expressions of emotion that were recognizable by peers and adults, and to…
Salaverria, Itziar; Philipp, Claudia; Oschlies, Ilske; Kohler, Christian W; Kreuz, Markus; Szczepanowski, Monika; Burkhardt, Birgit; Trautmann, Heiko; Gesk, Stefan; Andrusiewicz, Miroslaw; Berger, Hilmar; Fey, Miriam; Harder, Lana; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hummel, Michael; Loeffler, Markus; Mahn, Friederike; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Pellissery, Shoji; Pott, Christiane; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Reiter, Alfred; Richter, Julia; Rosolowski, Maciej; Schwaenen, Carsten; Stein, Harald; Trümper, Lorenz; Wessendorf, Swen; Spang, Rainer; Küppers, Ralf; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner
The prognosis of germinal center-derived B-cell (GCB) lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma and diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), strongly depends on age. Children have a more favorable outcome than adults. It is not known whether this is because of differences in host characteristics, treatment protocols, or tumor biology, including the presence of chromosomal alterations. By screening for novel IGH translocation partners in pediatric and adult lymphomas, we identified chromosomal translocations juxtaposing the IRF4 oncogene next to one of the immunoglobulin (IG) loci as a novel recurrent aberration in mature B-cell lymphoma. FISH revealed 20 of 427 lymphomas to carry an IG/IRF4-fusion. Those were predominantly GCB-type DLBCL or follicular lymphoma grade 3, shared strong expression of IRF4/MUM1 and BCL6, and lacked PRDM1/BLIMP1 expression and t(14;18)/BCL2 breaks. BCL6 aberrations were common. The gene expression profile of IG/IRF4-positive lymphomas differed from other subtypes of DLBCL. A classifier for IG/IRF4 positivity containing 27 genes allowed accurate prediction. IG/IRF4 positivity was associated with young age and a favorable outcome. Our results suggest IRF4 translocations to be primary alterations in a molecularly defined subset of GCB-derived lymphomas. The probability for this subtype of lymphoma significantly decreases with age, suggesting that diversity in tumor biology might contribute to the age-dependent differences in prognosis of lymphoma. PMID:21487109
In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…
Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.
Young children often encounter feeding challenges, such as food refusal, an inability to meet nutritional needs, and limited skills to self-feed. Further, overall development can be adversely affected when an infant or a toddler has difficulties with intake of fluid and solid foods. A variety of strategies are available to address these challenges…
Snowden, Peggy L.
The acronym CIBER represents five basic principles ensuring that the needs of young gifted children are appropriately and effectively addressed: capitalize, integrate, balance, expose and enhance, and be realistic. Science activities and interdisciplinary learning activities are suggested to enhance development in cognitive, affective,…
Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang
Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…
Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin
The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…
Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.
The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily due to an…
Soto, Lourdes Diaz
Among the topics examined in this research review of issues in bilingual and bicultural education are (1) demographic and educational trends that point to growing numbers of bilingual and bicultural children; (2) continuing misconceptions about how young children learn a second language; (3) successful approaches in early childhood bilingual…
Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…
Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael
Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…
This paper suggests that many children from low-income and minority communities are not taught the skills and knowledge necessary to fully participate in the economic, social, and political life of the United States and that schools need to start early, to recognize the unique nature of how young children learn, and to design software that will…
Fox, Jill Englebright; Tipps, R. Steven
Examined development of young children's psychomotor behaviors on outdoor swings, devising a Guttman hierarchical scale. Found that children consolidate basic movements into proficient swinging skills, and then experiment with the physical properties of the swing and with the social context. Modeling, informal instruction, and practice contribute…
Cardany, Audrey Berger
Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…
Fiore, Lisa B.
In an era of standards and norms where assessment tends to minimize or dismiss individual differences and results in punitive outcomes or no action at all, Assessment of Young Children provides teachers with an approach to assessment that is in the best interest of both children and their families. Author Lisa B. Fiore explores a variety of ways…
Healy, Jane M
In this article, the author believes that computers for young children are often reductive and limiting, rather than expanding their three dimensional sensory, interpersonal, and cognitive experience. Among other points, she discusses the after effects of children's early exposure to technological materials. Moreover, she opines that teachers need…
Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...
Young Children, 2001
Presents ways parents and other adults can help young children deal with tragedy and violence in the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States. Suggests giving reassurance and physical comfort, providing structure and stability, expecting a range of reactions, helping children to talk if they are ready, turning off the television, and…
Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Breit-Smith, Allison; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.
Research Findings: Artfulness is rarely considered as an indicator of quality in young children's spoken narratives. Although some studies have examined artfulness in the narratives of children 5 and older, no studies to date have focused on the artfulness of preschoolers' oral narratives. This study examined the artfulness of fictional spoken…
Taverna, Andrea Sabina; Peralta, Olga Alicia
From an integrative approach, this work focuses on the role of conceptual mechanisms, such as comparison and conceptual-based inference, and sociopragmatic support in young children's taxonomic categorization. "Experiment 1" assessed whether 3-, 4-, and 6-year-old children succeed in detecting taxonomic relations on their own. A…
Intended for use by parents and teachers of preschool age children, this short booklet provides some guidelines to follow when introducing sex education to young children. It discusses issues such as where to begin, how to encourage the child to ask questions about sex, how to handle sex-related problems, child molestation, nudity and the family,…
Warner, Laverne; Weiss, Sara
This article explains the importance of alphabet books in early reading development. Alphabet books encourage literacy development in the following ways: (1) unlock the symbols of language; (2) connect knowledge to other sources; (3) provide book usage knowledge to young children; (4) complement children's enjoyment of books; and (5) aid early…
American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Based on the view that violent behavior is learned and often learned early in life, this pamphlet shows parents how they can help protect young children from getting involved with violence and increase that child's chances for a safe and productive future. The pamphlet cautions parents that early learning is powerful and that children learn how to…
Mathews, Judith R.; And Others
Four young children were taught contact lens wear using a shaping procedure, which involved praise and tangibles for compliance and time-outs or restraint for noncompliance. At followup, levels of compliance were high for three children, while a subject with Down's syndrome showed low compliance with need for physical restraint throughout.…
Bullock, Janis R.
Loneliness is a significant problem than can predispose young children to immediate and long-term negative consequences. This Digest presents an overview of loneliness, with suggestions for practitioners on how they can apply the research in early childhood settings. Children who feel lonely often experience poor peer relationships and feelings of…
Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...
Power, Des; Elias, Gordon
The paper examines a developmental approach to language acquisition in young disabled children. Issues of form, content, and function are explored, with function of communication seen as central for disabled children. The role of teachers and parents in requiring more sophisiticated language is considered. Questions of competence on either the…
Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Vevea, Jack L.; Hedges, Larry V.
This article examines caregiver speech to young children. The authors obtained several measures of the speech used to children during early language development (14-30 months). For all measures, they found substantial variation across individuals and subgroups. Speech patterns vary with caregiver education, and the differences are maintained over…
In this study, I gave a group of six to eight very young Chinese Singaporean children (between 2 and 4 years of age) three identical digital video cameras, plus tripods, and tracked their development in moviemaking over a 2-year period. The children were allowed to explore the cameras freely, though the investigators offered advice and support as…
Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael
Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions. PMID:18299632
The theory of the multiple intelligences are discussed in relation to working with young children and young children with disabilities. A rationale for the use of the multiple intelligences is discussed as well as practical suggestions on how they can be incorporated into early childhood programs.
Underwood, Kathryn; Chan, Cherry; Koller, Donna; Valeo, Angela
This study examines the efficacy of engaging young children with disabilities in interviews to elicit their perspectives on their own capabilities. Using the theoretical framework of the capability approach, the authors investigated the efficacy of different interview techniques to engage young children with disabilities in research about their…
Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin
Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them. PMID:15534461
Ambrosi, Solène; Lemaire, Patrick; Blaye, Agnès
Dynamic, trial-by-trial modulations of inhibitory control are well documented in adults but rarely investigated in children. Here, we examined whether 5-to-7 year-old children, an age range when inhibitory control is still partially immature, achieve such modulations. Fifty three children took flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks. Above and beyond classic congruency effects, the present results showed two crucial findings. First, we found evidence for sequential modulations of congruency effects in these young children in the three conflict tasks. Second, our results showed both task specificities and task commonalities. These findings in young children have important implications as they suggest that, to be modulated, inhibitory control does not require full maturation and that the precise pattern of trial-by-trial modulations may depend on the nature of conflict. PMID:27221602
Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya
Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…
Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi
Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position. PMID:27625616
Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah; Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor
Across the U.S., large numbers of young children are affected by one or more risk factors that have been linked to academic failure and poor health. High quality early care and education can play a critical role in promoting young children's early learning and success in life, while also supporting families' economic security. Young…
Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron
Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…
Waller, Mary Bellis
Crack-affected children who experience early intervention can be mainstreamed successfully into regular classes. These children can be overwhelmed by stimuli and need stability, routine, and sameness in the intervention classroom. Teachers have discovered effective methods for working with crack-affected children. (16 references) (MLF)
Jones, Liz; MacLure, Maggie; Holmes, Rachel; MacRae, Christina
This paper considers young children's (aged 3-5 years) relations with objects, and in particular objects that are brought from home to school. We begin by considering the place of objects within early years classrooms and their relationship to children's education before considering why some objects are often separated from their owners on entry…
Breazeal, Cynthia; Harris, Paul L; DeSteno, David; Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M; Dickens, Leah; Jeong, Sooyeon
Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and receptive to whichever robot displayed the greater non-verbal contingency. Such selective information seeking is consistent with recent findings showing that although young children learn from others, they are selective with respect to the informants that they question or endorse. PMID:26945492
Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W.
Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children’s choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children’s pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously. PMID:25875949
This article shares narratives, or learning-informed stories, of young gifted learners. The purpose of the article is to document exceptionalities of the youngest gifted learners, supporting advocacy, and to demonstrate the merit of narrative approaches to assessment. Narrative assessment, including learning stories, is particularly useful for…
Reid, David A.
This paper reports results related to the development of a consistent descriptive language for research on mathematical reasoning. Ways of reasoning deductively are highlighted, using examples drawn from observations of young students. One-step deductions versus multi-step deductions, known versus hypothetical premises, and single versus multiple…
Pelczarski, Kristin M; Yaruss, J Scott
This study investigated phonological memory in 5- and 6-year old children who stutter. Participants were 11 children who stutter matched on general language abilities, maternal education level, and sex to 11 typically fluent children. Participants completed norm-referenced nonword repetition and digit span tasks, as well as measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary and articulation. The nonword repetition task included stimuli that ranged from 1 to 7 syllables, while the digit naming task contained number strings containing 2-10 digits. Standardized tests of vocabulary and articulation abilities were tested as well. Groups were comparable on measures expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, and articulation. Despite the fact that the majority of participants scored within typical limits, young children who stutter still performed significantly less well than children who do not stutter on the nonword repetition task. No between-group differences were revealed in the digit naming task. Typically fluent children demonstrated strong correlations between phonological memory tasks and language measures, while children who stutter did not. These findings indicate that young children who stutter may have sub-clinical differences in nonword repetition. PMID:27280891
Forman, George E.
Through six video clips and accompanying commentary, the author argues that by carefully observing how very young children play, adults can gain insight into their high-level thinking and their knowledge, as well as the implications that their strategies hold for their assumptions, theories, and expectations. Adults can then become more protective…
In this article, the author describes an open-ended drawing task that was used to discover young children's experiences with, and understandings of, the concept of mass. Mass is defined as the amount of matter in an object, and, like time, it cannot be seen (NSW Department of Education and Training Professional Support and Curriculum Directorate…
Parker, Robert P., Ed.; Davis, Frances A., Ed.
Recognizing that language itself is not an isolated entity but part of a larger social, cultural, and cognitive context, the papers in this book investigate the relationships among all aspects of language--reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Literacy is dealt with as the development of language in young children. Issues related to this…
Katz, Lilian G.
Four research-based principles offer guidance to educators aiming to facilitate young children's acquisition of communicative competence. These principles concern the effect of interaction on the development of competence; the necessity for content in interaction; the requirement that content be ecologically valid to participants; and the impact…
Giffard, E. O.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alleged special difficulties in teaching very young children how to interpret cartographic symbols. Adults too often reduce or temporarily destroy interest by introducing too many complications too fast. There is a vast difference between acceptance of a fact and understanding of the cause of the fact.…
Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Displaying guilt after a transgression serves to appease the victim and other group members, restore interpersonal relationships, and indicate the transgressors' awareness of and desire to conform to the group's norms. We investigated whether and when young children are sensitive to these functions of guilt displays. In Study 1, after 4- and…
Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon
This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…
This book presents simple environmental activities designed for young children. The contents are organized seasonally and each section features subsections: The Whole Earth Home and Classroom, Bringing Nature In, The Season Garden, Seasonal Crafts, and Supplying the Missing Links. These sections provide information on how to set up an indoor…
McBrien, Dianne M.; Bonthius, Daniel J.
This article reviews the most frequent causes of seizure disorders in young children and the classification of different seizure types. It discusses current therapies, including alternatives to medication. Emergency response to seizures is covered a well as non-epileptic episodes that may resemble seizures. Epilepsy's potential impact on the…
Moriarty, Viv; Edmonds, Suzanne; Martin, Clare; Blatchford, Peter
Early childhood teachers in Britain (n=359) found working with young children rewarding but felt impeded by stressful educational changes and curriculum initiatives, especially when required to implement policies contrary to their teaching values and philosophy. They were frustrated at spending more time on bureaucratic tasks than on teaching. (SK)
Burns, Marcia V.; Lewis, Alisha L.
In this article, educators at University Primary School in Champaign, Illinois, share examples and understandings of the ways The Project Approach challenges young children to think critically about topics of importance in their world. Project investigations that provoke academic and social challenges for individuals and classroom communities of…
Reyes, Iliana; Azuara, Patricia
This article explores the relationship between emergent biliteracy and growing up in a biliterate environment. The study focuses on two questions: (1) What knowledge of biliteracy do young bilingual preschool children develop in the early years? (2) How do context and specific language environments influence the development of biliteracy in young…
Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks
This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…
He, Jie; Xu, Qinmei; Degnan, Kathryn Amey
This study investigated anger expression during toy removal (TR) in 92 young Chinese children, two to five years of age, and its relations to their persistence in responding to obstacles during two challenging tasks with highly desirable goals [TR and locked box (LB)] and one challenging task with a less desirable goal [impossible perfect circles…
Diezmann, Carmel M.; English, Lyn D.
This article describes a series of enrichment experiences designed to develop young (ages 5 to 8) gifted children's understanding of large numbers, central to their investigation of space travel. It describes activities designed to teach reading of large numbers and exploring numbers to a thousand and then a million. (Contains ten references.) (DB)
Reference Librarian, 1983
This 25-article issue presents overview of reference services for childern and young adults, including public and school libraries, information needs, reference interviews, children's librarians, library instruction, library cooperation, production of information resources, material selection, and vertical files. References are included. (Haworth…
Lee, Tiffany R.
This study explores young children's images of science and scientists, their sources for scientific knowledge, and the nature of their science-related experiences. A cross-sectional design was used to study how students' ideas differ over the first three years of elementary school. A modified version of the Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and a…
Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Wang, Chiao-Li; Chiu, Hsiu-Yueh
The ability to delay gratification (DG) in young children is vital to their later development. Such ability should be taught as early as possible. One hundred kindergartners (Mean age = 6.11), randomly assigned to three groups; (a) labeling: received the treatment of being labeled as "patient" kids; (b) story-telling: were read a story about the…
Chenfeld, Mimi Brodsky
Teachers usually enter the early childhood education profession aglow with purpose, drive, and imagination. Sometimes along the way, the inner flames flicker, or even disappear. In Celebrating Young Children and Their Teachers, Mimi Brodsky Chenfeld urges early childhood teachers to keep their lights alive by reflecting on the magic of the…
Lyon, Thomas D.; Flavell, John H.
Three studies examined young children's understanding that, if one "remembers" or "forgets," one must have known something previously. The majority of four-year olds, but not three-year olds, understood that, when two characters currently knew something, the one with prior knowledge remembered and that, when neither character currently knew…
Kendrick, Abby Shapiro, Ed.; And Others
This manual, which was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children, describes high standards for health policies. Also provided are information based on current research and recommendations from experts in health and early childhood education. The manual contains 7 sections and 19 chapters.…
Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)
Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Litman, Jordan A.; Valkenburg, Patti
Epistemic curiosity (EC) is the desire to obtain new knowledge capable of either producing positive experiences of intellectual interest (I-type) or of reducing undesirable conditions of informational deprivation (D-type). Although researchers acknowledge that there are individual differences in young children's epistemic curiosity, there are…
Quick, Donna S.; Botkin, Darla; Quick, Sam
Urges teachers to be aware of the types of family violence, their prevalence, and the common effects of family violence on young children. Explores indicators of abuse and neglect, factors that protect against family violence, suggestions for creating a nurturing classroom climate, and the role of early childhood professionals in cases of abuse.…
Edmister, Evette; Staples, Amy; Huber, Beth; Garrett, Jennifer Walz
This article describes an authentic, social, inclusive writing activity for young children (preschool to second grade) with and without disabilities engaged in what the second and third authors called "Big Paper." In addition to detailing the activity, recommendations for maximizing the participation of all students and monitoring…
Bromwich, Rose M.
A modified approach to the development of verbal expression in young children is proposed as an alternative to either the prescriptive-instructional method or the developmental viewpoint which relies on self-initiated learning. The Bereiter-Engelmann method, the method based on operant conditioning, and the Montessori method are representative of…
Smith, Terry Fonda
The number of professional ensembles and organizations with dedicated outreach concerts has been steadily increasing over the past decade. More recently, educational concerts pairing chamber music with young children have been documented. The work presented in this article is a study in the efficacy and feasibility of this format. Various music…
The articles in this engaging volume, mostly from Young Children, address the purposes of and uses for assessment. Expert commentary from Marian Marion, Gayle Mindes, Richard Clifford, Diane Trister Dodge and others offers an overview of the topic and specific examples to show how assessment informs and improves practice in early childhood…
In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…
The Disabled Children and Young Peoples Participation Project (DCYPPP) was established by Barnardos (Northern Ireland) in 2002 to explore ways of involving children and young people with disabilities in decision-making processes within Children's Services Planning of the Health and Social Services Board. Over 200 young people have participated in…
Christiansen, N; Mora, J O; Herrera, M G
Altogether 164 poor families who had children of normal and subnormal weight and height were studied in Bogota, Colombia. Physical growth was found to be positively associated with expenditure on food, sanitary conditions in the home, mother's age, birth interval between surviving children, level of parental newspaper reading, aspirations for children, and socioeconomic status. Physical growth was negatively associated with crowded living conditions and family size. Only mother's age, family size, spacing of births, and sanitary conditions were related to weight and height, independent of socioeconomic status. Food expenditure, crowding, parental newspaper reading, and aspirations for children all reflected the influence of socioeconomic status upon physical growth. The findings emphasized the importance of within-class social differences as they affect the physical growth of young children. PMID:1182354
Elementary teachers are in the position of inspiring young children to become lifelong readers. Some preservice teachers' do not possess a positive affective domain of reading to fill the role of an inspiring reading model in young children's lives. In this sequential explanatory mixed methods investigation, I detected and described six preservice…
Tang, Connie M; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina
This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about when the different learning events occurred. Responses of children who responded correctly to control questions about time supported the hypothesis that temporal distance questions would elicit more correct responses than would temporal location questions. Partial support was also found for the hypothesis that behavior learning would generate more correct reports than would fact learning. Implications for characterizations of children's developing understanding of knowledge and for applications of those characterizations in education and eyewitness testimony are discussed. PMID:17346740
Flohr, John W.; Miller, Daniel C.; deBeus, Roger
Describes how electroencephalogram (EEG) data are collected and how brain function is measured. Discusses studies on the effects of music experiences with adult subjects and studies focusing on the effects of music training on EEG activity of children and adolescents. Considers the implications of the studies and the future directions of this…
Handa, Yuichi; Mattman, Thomas
There are many interesting explorations that can be done in knot theory, the study of mathematical knots. This article offers some knot theory activities that are appropriate for elementary grade children. These activities teach some basic concepts from knot theory as a natural extension of commonly-taught geometric ideas. (Contains 10 figures.)
Pile, Naomi F.
This book points out methods and materials that can be used by teachers helping preschoolers express their ideas and emotions through art. Hints on how to create atmosphere conducive to artwork and how to increase children's awareness of the visual world are given, along with hints on buying, using, and storing materials. Specific instructions are…
Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.
Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…
Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…
Flavell, John H.; And Others
Reports results of 14 studies on children's knowledge about thinking. Suggests that preschoolers appear to know that thinking is an internal mental activity that can refer to real or imaginary objects or events. However, preschoolers are poor at determining when a person is and is not thinking. This shortcoming is considerably less evident in…
This article discusses a study that explored first-grade students' responses to and interpretations of eight picture books with metafictive devices. The article focuses on children's visual and written responses to the picture books and describes the relationship between the students' visual and verbal texts with respect to storytelling. The two…
Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.
Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)
Dietary exposure research supports the requirements of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 by improving methods of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments for children. The goal of this research is to reduce the level of uncertainty in assessing the dietary path...
Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.
Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…
Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.
The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics1, promote early identification2, and inform treatment3. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms4-7. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance8 and abnormal brain functioning9, particularly during the processing of social information1,10-11. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities2,12-13. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties. PMID:22491039
Bartlett, James C.; And Others
Two experiments examined affect-dependent memory in preschool/kindergarten and third-grade children. A two-list intentional learning procedure was used to assess the effects of the congruent versus incongruent relationship between happy versus sad affect during initial list learning and happy versus sad affect during a delayed-recall test.…
Eliassen, Erin K.
Young children depend on their families and teachers to support their well-being and promote positive development, including eating behaviors. Children's food preferences and willingness to try new foods are influenced by the people around them. The eating behaviors children practice early in life affect their health and nutrition--significant…
Suthers, Louie; Larkin, Veronicah
This study investigated the use of arts games (structured play activities based on drama, movement, and music) with children age birth to 5 years in a day care setting. A set of 20 games was tested by 2 early childhood teachers; 1 teacher tested 10 games with a group of 2-year-olds and the other tested a different set of 10 games with a group of…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Psychosexual development in young children is a topic that early childhood educators often ignore in the belief that children are not sexual beings. This paper discusses psychosexual development in young children, noting that preschoolers are often puzzled by sexual anatomical differences, that children need names for sexual body parts, and that…
Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.
The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…
Noting that adults caring for young children often find themselves responding to children's misbehavior in ways contradictory to their overall goals of children's autonomy and self-management, this book provides practical child-centered suggestions for responding to young children's disruptive behavior and suggests behavior management techniques…
Klein, Rachel G.; Angelosante, Aleta; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Dixon, Erica; Dodds, Alice; Spindel, Carrie
Abstract Objective In light of the current controversy about whether severe temper outbursts are diagnostic of mania in young children, we conducted a study to characterize such children, focusing on mania and other mood disorders, emotion regulation, and parental psychiatric history. Methods Study participants included 51 5–9-year-old children with frequent, impairing outbursts (probands) and 24 non-referred controls without outbursts. Parents completed a lifetime clinical interview about their child, and rated their child's current mood and behavior. Teachers completed a behavior rating scale. To assess emotion regulation, children were administered the Balloons Game, which assesses emotion expressivity in response to frustration, under demands of high and low regulation. Parental lifetime diagnoses were ascertained in blind clinical interviews. Results No child had bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), or major depression (MDD). The most prevalent disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (88.2%), followed by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (74.5%), anxiety disorders (49.0%), and non-MDD depressive disorders (33.3%). Eleven probands (21.6%) met criteria for severe mood dysregulation. During the Balloons Game, when there were no demands for self-regulation, children with severe outbursts showed reduced positive expressivity, and also showed significant deficits in controlling negative facial expressions when asked to do so. Anxiety disorders were the only diagnoses significantly elevated in probands' mothers. Conclusions Overall, young children with severe temper outbursts do not present with bipolar disorder. Rather, disruptive behavior disorders with anxiety and depressive mood are common. In children with severe outbursts, deficits in regulating emotional facial expressions may reflect deficits controlling negative affect. This work represents a first step towards elucidating mechanisms underlying severe outbursts in
Ceppi, Giulio, Ed.; Zini, Michele, Ed.
This book describes a project on designing spaces for young children; the aim of the project is to enable a "meeting of minds" between the pedagogical philosophy of Reggio Emilia preschools and the innovative experiences within the culture of design and architecture. The book presents the project in three main sections: (1) a critical analysis of…
Sandbu, Synne; Nøkleby, Hanne
Pregnant women and parents of young children travelling to non-western countries should consider the risks to which they expose themselves and their children. Travelling during these periods of life needs to be particularly well planned. Travel insurance should cover the whole family, and for pregnant women also the risk of premature birth. Travelling long distances during pregnancy involves a certain amount of risk in itself. This risk could be increased if complications were to occur in areas with a lower standard of health service. As a rule, infants and young children easily adapt to new environments but children abroad should be expected to need a doctor at least as often as at home. Some vaccines and antimalarials must not be used for children below a certain age. Only a few vaccines and antimalarials have been systematically studied in pregnant women in order to exclude teratogenicity. We present some aspects of vaccination and malaria prevention, transport, climate and environment, nutrition, food and drinking water hygiene. PMID:12119785
Background: Leptin, ghrelin and insulin are hormonal regulators of energy balance and, therefore, may be related to growth during infancy. Zinc is essential for growth and may have an effect on growth through these hormones. Objectives: To determine whether supplemental zinc affects plasma leptin an...
The relaxation response, relaxation with mental imagery/self-hypnosis, and centering are techniques that can be used by the nurse practitioner in a variety of clinical situations to help children and young people manage stress. These approaches also can be used to treat certain common pediatric problems, such as headaches, enuresis, acute and chronic pain, and habit disorders. The techniques and their appropriate use are described. PMID:2647960
National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.
Noting that teachers of young children can help protect children from getting involved in violence, this booklet provides research and practice-based information on preventing violence in young children's lives. The booklet asserts that young children need to feel safe and loved, need to watch peace-loving people, need to be protected from…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.
This monograph summarizes the issues discussed at an international workshop convened to identify strategies, lines of action, and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The monograph provides background information on the HIV/AIDS pandemic; describes current initiatives and results…
Lázaro, Miguel; García, Laura; Burani, Cristina
This study investigates how orthographic modifications to the stems of complex words affect morphological processing in proficient young Spanish readers and children with reading deficits. In a definition task all children, irrespective of their reading skill, were worse at defining derived words that had an orthographic alteration of the base stem than words with no orthographic alteration. In a go/no-go lexical decision task, an interaction between base frequency and orthographic alteration was found: base frequency affected derived words with no orthographic alteration more than words with alterations, irrespective of reading skill. Overall, results show that all children benefit from a high frequency base, skilled children outperform children with reading deficits and morphological processing is affected by orthographic alterations similarly in proficient and impaired readers. PMID:25899060
Korn-Bursztyn, Carol, Ed.
Young Children and the Arts: Nurturing Imagination and Creativity examines the place of the arts in the experiences of young and very young children at home and in out-of-home settings at school and in the community. There is great need for development of resources in the arts specifically designed to introduce babies and toddlers to participatory…
Hernandez, Donald J.; Denton, Nancy A.; Macartney, Suzanne E.
This article presents a demographic portrait of young Hispanic children compared to young non-Hispanic Whites. New results from Census 2000 describe family and economic circumstances of children aged 08, as well as pre-K/nursery school and kindergarten enrollment for the United States, and for the 9 states with the largest number of young Hispanic…
Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S
An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. PMID:27395441
Friedman, D E
The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices. PMID:11712457
Harris, Paul L.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.
Young children readily act on information from adults, setting aside their own prior convictions and even continuing to trust informants who make claims that are manifestly false. Such credulity is consistent with a long-standing philosophical and scientific conception of young children as prone to indiscriminate trust. Against this conception, we argue that children trust some informants more than others. In particular, they use two major heuristics. First, they keep track of the history of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, they endorse claims made by someone who has provided reliable care or reliable information in the past. Second, they monitor the cultural standing of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, children endorse claims made by someone who belongs to a consensus and whose behaviour abides by, rather than deviating from, the norms of their group. The first heuristic is likely to promote receptivity to information offered by familiar caregivers, whereas the second heuristic is likely to promote a broader receptivity to informants from the same culture. PMID:21357240
Harris, Paul L; Corriveau, Kathleen H
Young children readily act on information from adults, setting aside their own prior convictions and even continuing to trust informants who make claims that are manifestly false. Such credulity is consistent with a long-standing philosophical and scientific conception of young children as prone to indiscriminate trust. Against this conception, we argue that children trust some informants more than others. In particular, they use two major heuristics. First, they keep track of the history of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, they endorse claims made by someone who has provided reliable care or reliable information in the past. Second, they monitor the cultural standing of potential informants. Faced with conflicting claims, children endorse claims made by someone who belongs to a consensus and whose behaviour abides by, rather than deviating from, the norms of their group. The first heuristic is likely to promote receptivity to information offered by familiar caregivers, whereas the second heuristic is likely to promote a broader receptivity to informants from the same culture. PMID:21357240
Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C
Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422
Gross, Carol M.
Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…
In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…
Bhana, D.; Jewnarain, D.
Responses to AIDS have often neglected children. Drawing on a qualitative study of young children aged 7-9 years, this paper draws attention to their understandings of HIV and AIDS. It is argued that young children are able to give meaning to the disease in ways that link to their social contexts, where gender inequalities and sexual violence are…
Haugland, Susan W.
Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…
Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire
Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.
Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…
Pizzolongo, Peter J.; Hunter, Amy
Every day, young children--around the world and in the United States--experience stress or trauma. Some children are exposed to crises such as natural disasters, community violence, abuse, neglect, and separation from or death of loved ones. These events can cause young children to feel vulnerable, worried, fearful, sad, frustrated, or lonely.…
Kourofsky, Carolyn E.; Cole, Robert E.
For more than 15 years, preschool programs nationwide have worked with Fireproof Children/Prevention First, an international center for injury prevention research and education, to bring fire safety education to young children and their families. The "play safe! be safe!"[R] curriculum includes lessons that young children can learn and understand,…
Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.
Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…
Aunio, Pirjo; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Sajaniemi, Nina; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
The aim of this study was to explore the early numeracy of low-performing young children. The mean age of the children was six years and four months. The 511 participants belonged to three groups: multi-language children, children with special educational needs and children with average performance. The results showed that there were significant…
Thomason, Nita Davison
Describes how children develop a concept of death, and presents suggestions for classroom experiences to help young children cope with death. Considers children's attendance at funerals and how to answer children's questions about death. Lists 14 children's books about death. (KB)
... Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s emergency physicians handle tragic situations ... Emergency Physicians. “Every parent or guardian of a young child should look around their homes and imagine ...
Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.
OBJECTIVE: This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. METHODS: Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. RESULTS: In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs 3.5%; P < .001). Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1–2.5]). CONCLUSIONS: Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors. PMID:24488743
Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere
Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967
Kriss, A; Jeffrey, B; Taylor, D
Electroretinography (ERG), especially when combined with visual evoked potential recording, can provide valuable information to the pediatric clinician assessing a young child with nystagmus who appears not to see. ERG changes are described in clinical conditions affecting rod and/or cone function, vitreoretinal disease, maculopathies, and disorders involving the retina and central nervous system. The role of ERG in monitoring treatment, and in excluding retinal disease prior to eye surgery, is also covered. PMID:1517405
Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo
One of the key issues in conceptual development research concerns what kinds of causal devices young children use to understand the biological world. We review evidence that children predict and interpret biological phenomena, especially human bodily processes, on the basis of 'vitalistic causality'. That is, they assume that vital power or life force taken from food and water makes humans active, prevents them from being taken ill, and enables them to grow. These relationships are also extended readily to other animals and even to plants. Recent experimental results show that a majority of preschoolers tend to choose vitalistic explanations as most plausible. Vitalism, together with other forms of intermediate causality, constitute unique causal devices for naive biology as a core domain of thought. PMID:15335462
A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...
Discusses specific steps teachers of young children can take to sustain and increase children's love of poetry. The discussion ranges from the music of Mother Goose, chants, and nonsense verse to implementing a planned program of poetry writing. (RH)
Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.
A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…
Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M
This research examines how family dynamics like interparental conflict, family violence, and quality of parenting are associated with young children's experiences of sibling victimization. We use nationally representative data from interviews with caregivers of 1,726 children aged 2 to 9 years of age. We hypothesized different family dynamics predictors for a composite of common types of sibling victimization (property, psychological, and mild physical aggression) in comparison to severe physical sibling victimization (victimization that includes physical aggression with a weapon and/or injury). Multinomial regression results showed that sibling victimization in general was associated with negative family dynamics but that children in the severe group had even less parental warmth, poor parental supervision, and greater exposure to interparental conflict and family violence than children in the common types victimization group. Different aspects of family dynamics contribute to sibling victimization, but possibly in different ways and with different consequences. The findings underscore the importance of a family systems theory approach to clinical and intervention work. PMID:25111955
Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint activity, 3-year-olds (n = 24) reacted to the break significantly more often (e.g., by trying to re-engage her or waiting for her to restart playing) than when she simply joined the child's individual activity unbidden. Two-year-olds (n = 24) did not differentiate between these 2 situations. In the second study, 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 30 at each age) were enticed away from their activity with an adult. Children acknowledged their leaving (e.g., by looking to the adult or handing her the object they had been playing with) significantly more often when they had made a joint commitment to act together than when they had not. By 3 years of age, children thus recognize both when an adult is committed and when they themselves are committed to a joint activity. PMID:19702403
This article explores the use of children's photography as a method for conducting mathematics education research with young children. Collected as part of a study focusing on the experiences with measurement children have at the start of schooling, the photographs presented here were taken by children aged five and six years, from two Australian…
Dockett, Sue; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob
Participatory approaches to engaging in research with young children place a great deal of emphasis on children's rights to choose whether or not they wish to be involved. A number of recent studies have reported a range of strategies both to inform children of their research rights and to establish options for checking children's understanding of…
Costley, Kevin C.
In his monumental research, although Piaget primarily relayed information about children's developmental stages of cognitive growth, Marian Marion goes on to discuss not only the developmental stages, yet focuses on how children think. In her textbook, "Guidance of Young Children", Marion conveys how teachers need to understand children and help…
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…
van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle
We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…
Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy
Many young children with autism exhibit feeding-related difficulties, such as accepting a limited diet, demonstrating texture aversions, or using only specific mealtime utensils. Young children with autism need assistance to acquire skills to improve mealtime behavior, including increased acceptance of a variety of foods (types and textures) at…
This document discusses the nature and objective of the Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program on Young Children (IDPYC), which is designed to prepare leaders to function as "interface" (or, catalysts) in settings that concern young children. This program trains them to attain the following characteristics: (a) a sound background and knowledge base in…
Shade, Daniel D.
Examines the use of compact disc (CD)-based software with young children. Discusses the general benefits of CD technology and the challenge of deciding when to purchase a new product. Describes what to look for in CD technology for young children, such as electronic books, interactive electronic books, and older software now available in CD…
This paper explores the ways in which young South African school children (aged between seven and eight) in a predominantly white primary school give meanings to HIV/AIDS. Using ethnographic methods and interview data, the analysis of young children's responses shows that their accounts of HIV/AIDS draw from their knowledge of disease more…
Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael
Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six…
Aronson, Susan S., Ed.
Noting that the health component of child care should be planned to respond to the developmental patterns of young children, this manual was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children and can be used as a textbook for adult learners. The manual, based on national standards and reviewed by…
Halfon, Neal, Ed.; McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe, Ed.; Schuster, Mark A., Ed.
In the wake of intense national interest in very young children, this volume presents an examination of the findings of the Commonwealth Survey of Parents with Young Children, as analyzed by scholars from diverse disciplines. What emerges from this analysis is a picture of the complex forces that influence families and child rearing in the…
Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Hoffman, Dannie
Little is known about the impact of maternal disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus on young children. The objective of this study was to explore this topic, utilizing in-depth qualitative interviews. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 mothers who had disclosed to their young, well child, and with the children. The most prevalent child…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine
Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…
Periolat, Janet; Nager, Nancy
Not all fighting or aggression in young children is bad, and some kinds of teacher intervention may be beneficial. Play-fighting refers primarily to rough and tumble play and chasing, and several studies have shown that play and serious fighting can be clearly distinguished in young children. Numerous authors have pointed out the value and…
This article explores young children's rhythmic, musical, aesthetic and playful creative communication in an early childhood education centre. Young children's communication is musically rhythmic and social. The data, presented as "events", formed part of an ethnographic-inspired study conducted by the researcher as a participant observer.…
The proliferation of computer software for young children necessitates that early childhood teachers have the knowledge and skills needed to evaluate and select developmentally appropriate software. This article describes the manner in which one university prepares early childhood teacher candidates to analyze software for the young children in…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Play provides young children with the opportunity to express their ideas, symbolize, and test their knowledge of the world. It provides the basis for inquiry in literacy, science, social studies, mathematics, art, music, and movement. Through play, young children become active learners engaged in explorations about themselves, their community, and…
Teaching young children remains a generally female occupation in spite of some educators' encouraging men to enter the field. In order to explore the reasons for this imbalance, 10 male school teachers of young children were interviewed at length about their teaching history and plans, their satisfaction with their work, and their attitudes about…
Epstein, Ann S.; Trimis, Eli
Based on the view that art should be a vital component of young childrens experiences, this book examines the High/Scope approach to the visual arts for young children in early care and education settings and highlights an in-depth studio approach to developing art. The book is organized in two parts. Chapters in Part 1 present the High/Scope…
Kubey, Robert; Larson, Reed
Examines the use and experience of music videos, video games, and videocassettes among children and young adolescents. Finds that boys reacted with greater arousal and more positive affective states to new video media as compared to traditional media, while girls reported lower affect and arousal, expecially during video games and music videos.…
The research reviewed and the current responses identified in this paper show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children infected/affected by HIV and AIDS. Chapter one identifies some key areas where the…
Martin, Sarah E.; Clements, Mari L.
This study examined young children's affective distress and behavioral responses to parental marital conflict. Forty-eight 4-year-olds and their parents participated in the study. Mothers and fathers independently completed measures of marital conflict, children's reactions to marital conflict, and child behavior problems, while the children…
Denham, Susanne A.
Age, specific emotion, and linguistic modality (verbal vs. non-verbal) were predicted to affect knowledge of emotion in young preschoolers (N = 45, mean age = 40.7 mos). Prosocial response to emotion and knowledge of emotion were also predicted to be related, given naturalistic observation and the use of contextually valid emotion knowledge…
Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.
Emotion-related regulation is a topic of increasing interest among researchers, yet there is little agreement on ways to measure emotion regulation in young children. In this paper, we first consider important conceptual distinctions in regard to the different types of emotion-related regulation and control. Next, we describe a number of ways researchers have assessed children’s regulation. We also present data from the Toddler Emotional Development project, in which laboratory-based measures of effortful regulation were used. In this section, we highlight the measures that show promise (and those that did not work well). Future directions for research on the measurement of effortful regulation are presented. PMID:18066395
DeLoache, J S
The research summarized here shows that young children undergo an abrupt transition in their ability to understand the relation between a scale model and a larger space. Virtually none of our 2.5-year-old subjects seemed to understand the relationship between the model and the room; almost all of the 3-year-olds did understand it. The difference seems to be that the 2.5-year-olds do not respond to the model both as a real thing and as a representation of something else. Its status as a complex, meaningful real object prevents their apprehension of its abstract relation to the room. The resistance to instruction, abrupt developmental shift, and negligible individual differences in the model task suggest the possibility of a strong maturational underpinning (Espenschade & Eckert, 1967). Further research, including a longitudinal study and cross-cultural comparisons, will be addressed to the issue of the role of experience in the development of mastery of the model task. The primary contribution of this research lies in the revelation of a hitherto undocumented abrupt developmental shift in very young children's representational flexibility--in their ability to form and coordinate multiple representations. The ability to think of one thing in two ways is an important aspect of early symbolic development. In Western cultures, where so much of a child's learning occurs via various representational media, this is a crucial step. More generally, the cognitive advance that occurs between 2.5 and 3 years of age provides a foundation for further developments in the understanding of multiple representations. PMID:2480700
Suskind, Diana; Iseghohimhen, Tony Onon; Aondo-Akaa, Patricia Ashi
This study examined the effect of the young child-carrying practices of Nigerian women on gross motor and language development in young children. The data collected were designed to help ascertain if and how these practices affect the child's later development. The data documented a variety of factors, including: general medical background,…
Hebert, Elizabeth A.
The organization of space profoundly affects learning. Students feel better connected to a building that anticipates their needs and respects them as individuals. Built in 1971, Crow Island School, in Winnetka, Illinois, is a prize-winning facility that has provided generations of children with windowed classrooms, skylights, adjacent workrooms,…
El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.
Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…
Children, particularly young children, demonstrate characteristics of giftedness in many different ways. These characteristics manifest themselves based on gender, experiences, cultural identity, personal passions and interests, and family or community. Gifted children develop asynchronously. Morelock (2000) stated that "asynchrony in the gifted…
Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…
Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia
The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…
Currently in the popular and academic press, a debate exists as to the usefulness and the potential harm of praising young children. On one side of this debate, there are professionals who are involved in research and education of children with disabilities, and on the other side, those involved in research and education of children without…
Here is a book that invites teachers to the table--even those of us who don't see ourselves as cooks--to create tasty, wholesome projects with children. Young children certainly love to cook, and cooking experiences give them a chance to see a task through to completion and take pride in a product. As they prepare food, children learn social…
Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan
Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption, foster children, and open…
Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna
This article aims to explore young children's (from one to three years old) perspectives of the role and pedagogy of educators in play in an Icelandic preschool. The intention is to explore the meaning that children put into involving educators in their play and whether the children experience educators' actions as a resource for their play. The…
This longitudinal study investigated self-invented notation systems created by young children aged four to six. The researcher showed the children how to feel various pitches and rhythms through singing, eurhythmy, instrumental playing, rhymes and music appreciation. The children were then provided with opportunities to create music notations and…
Wright, Ingram; Lewis, Vicky; Collis, Glyn M.
Competence in object search and pretend play are argued to reflect young children's representational abilities and appear delayed in children with Down syndrome relative to social and imitative skills. This paper explores the effects on object search and play of this social strength in children with Down syndrome. Three experiments compared…
Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria
This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…
Childress, Dana C.
Learning to explore, communicate, and interact with others and the environment through play can be problematic for young children with disabilities, but with parental support, children can learn and interact successfully during play activities. To determine how parents engage their preschool children with disabilities in play and what behaviors…
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
There is a need for more comprehensive assessments of young children's emerging print knowledge. Traditional letter and numeral identification assessments score children's responses as either correct or incorrect and this approach can underestimate what children know. The present study tested an assessment scale that scored three- and…
Lamme, Linda Leonard; And Others
The purpose of this book is to provide parents with a variety of ideas for getting young children from infancy until the beginning reading stages involved with literature. An introductory section contains discussions of the literary needs of children and of how children develop a sense of literature, guidelines to use in determining literary…
Janson, Gregory R.; King, Margaret A.
Discussions regarding young children and secure schools often focus on children's physical safety and external stressors such as chaotic families, dangerous neighborhoods, and terrorism. Less attention is given to the emotional security of children in schools, a necessary prerequisite to learning and healthy development. The most effective way to…
This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…
Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.
This investigation explores young children's computer skills development from kindergarten to third grade using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) dataset. The sample size of the study was 8642 children. Latent growth curve modeling analysis was used as an analytical tool to examine the development of children's computer…
Abkarian, G. G.; And Others
Analysis of young children's comprehension of common idioms revealed a significant linear trend for children to make more literal responses with increasing age. Children did not find the story contexts helpful in interpreting the idioms. A range of comprehension scores was found among the individual idioms, but semantic transparency was not…
Ee, Jessie; Wong, Khoon Yoong; Aunio, Pirjo
Young children's number sense is essential for the acquisition of higher number skills in later years. Most recent studies focus on children over 6 years of age only. To extend the scope, this study dealt with the performance of children aged 4-7 years in 3 cities: Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki (This study is an extension of the research of…
Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…
Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.
Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…
Meadan, Hedda; Jegatheesan, Brinda
Many young children have a natural attraction to and curiosity about animals. They like to observe, touch, talk to, and ask questions about them. Teachers and parents both can use this broad interest to facilitate children's development and learning in a variety of domains. Research shows that children across ages find emotional comfort in their…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
This theme issue explores the development of memory and creativity in very young children. The first article, "The Guy Who Went Up the Steep Nicken: The Emergence of Story Telling during the First Three Years" (Susan Engel), describes the developmental stages of children's story telling. The reasons children tell stories and strategies for…
Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Dennis, Tracy A.
Despite recent evidence that neural correlates of error monitoring such as the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) are visible in children sooner than previously thought, little is known about these components early in life. Error-monitoring components can be noninvasively recorded from a very early age and have been proposed as biological markers of risk for psychopathology. Therefore, the current study represents an attempt to examine the presence of these components in a sample of very young children and explore their associations with affect and attentional control. Fifteen children between ages 4 and 8 participated in two laboratory episodes: interacting with a stranger and completing a computerized flanker task. Shy and bold behaviors were scored during the stranger interaction and parents reported on temperament-based affective behaviors. Both ERN and Pe were visible in children as young as age 4. A trend-level interaction was observed between age and gender in association with ERN amplitudes. Age and gender were unrelated to the Pe. Greater ERN and Pe were associated with better poorer orienting and greater attentional focusing, respectively. Greater Pe was also linked to less observed boldness. Implications for studies of the development of performance monitoring in children are discussed. PMID:21572941
Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle
This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.
A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…
Mellon, Nancy K.; Ouellette, Meredith; Greer, Tracy; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia
Children with hearing loss, with early and appropriate amplification and intervention, demonstrate gains in speech, language, and literacy skills. Despite these improvements many children continue to exhibit disturbances in cognitive, behavioral, and emotional control, self-regulation, and aspects of executive function. Given the complexity of developmental learning, educational settings should provide services that foster the growth of skills across multiple dimensions. Transdisciplinary intervention services that target the domains of language, communication, psychosocial functioning, motor, and cognitive development can promote academic and social success. Educational programs must provide children with access to the full range of basic skills necessary for academic and social achievement. In addition to an integrated curriculum that nurtures speech, language, and literacy development, innovations in the areas of auditory perception, social emotional learning, motor development, and vestibular function can enhance student outcomes. Through ongoing evaluation and modification, clearly articulated curricular approaches can serve as a model for early intervention and special education programs. The purpose of this article is to propose an intervention model that combines best practices from a variety of disciplines that affect developmental outcomes for young children with hearing loss, along with specific strategies and approaches that may help to promote optimal development across domains. Access to typically developing peers who model age-appropriate skills in language and behavior, small class sizes, a co-teaching model, and a social constructivist perspective of teaching and learning, are among the key elements of the model. PMID:20150187
Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Gracely, Edward J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Orlin, Margo N.
Background The attainment of walking is a focus of physical therapy intervention in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and may affect their independence in mobility and participation in daily activities. However, knowledge of determinants of independent walking to guide physical therapists' decision making is lacking. Objective The aim of this study was to identify child factors (postural control, reciprocal lower limb movement, functional strength, and motivation) and family factors (family support to child and support to family) that predict independent walking 1 year later in young children with CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels II and III. Design A secondary data analysis of an observational cohort study was performed. Methods Participants were 80 children with CP, 2 through 6 years of age. Child factors were measured 1 year prior to the walking outcome. Parent-reported items representing family factors were collected 7 months after study onset. The predictive model was analyzed using backward stepwise logistic regression. Results A measure of functional strength and dynamic postural control in a sit-to-stand activity was the only significant predictor of taking ≥3 steps independently. The positive likelihood ratio for predicting a “walker” was 3.26, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.74. The model correctly identified a walker or “nonwalker” 75% of the time. Limitations Prediction of walking ability was limited by the lack of specificity of child and family characteristics not prospectively selected and measurement of postural control, reciprocal lower limb movement, and functional strength 1 year prior to the walking outcome. Conclusions The ability to transfer from sitting to standing and from standing to sitting predicted independent walking in young children with CP. Prospective longitudinal studies are recommended to determine indicators of readiness for independent walking. PMID:26089044
Martel, Michelle M.
Objective This study evaluated a novel person-centered approach to parsing ADHD heterogeneity using dispositional traits. Method Participants were one hundred nine 3- to 6-year-olds, and their primary caregivers and day care providers/teachers who completed a multi-informant diagnostic procedure with longitudinal follow-up. Results Based on latent profile analysis, young children with ADHD could be divided into low control, high surgency, and high negative affect subgroups. The low control and high surgency groups exhibited increased parent- and teacher-rated hyperactive-impulsive and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. Although the low control group exhibited the worst response inhibition, the high surgency group exhibited the worst working memory. Furthermore, the high surgency group exhibited high aggression and increasing levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity and ODD symptoms over time. Conclusion A subgroup of young children with ADHD with high surgency may be at particular risk for comorbid psychopathology and longitudinal worsening of symptoms. PMID:23239785
Fiore, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Mattia; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Garzoni, Luca; Bianchetti, Mario G; Bettinelli, Alberto
Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is an uncommon but likely underestimated cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The condition typically affects infants 6-24 months of age with a history of recent respiratory illness with or without course of antibiotics. The diagnosis is made in children, mostly nontoxic in appearance, presenting with nonpruritic, large, round, red to purpuric plaques predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities, with relative sparing of the trunk, often with a target-like appearance, and edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face that is mostly non-pitting, indurative, and tender. In boys, the lesions sometimes involve the scrotum and, more rarely, the penis. Fever, typically of low grade, is often present. Involvement of body systems other than skin is uncommon, and spontaneous recovery usually occurs within 6-21 days without sequelae. In this condition, laboratory tests are non-contributory: total blood cell count is often normal, although leukocytosis and thrombocytosis are sometimes found, clotting studies are normal, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein test are normal or slightly elevated, complement level is normal, autoantibodies are absent, and urinalysis is usually normal. Experienced physicians rapidly consider the possible diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic edema when presented with a nontoxic young child having large targetoid purpuric lesions and indurative swelling, which is non-pitting in character, and make the diagnosis either on the basis of clinical findings alone or supported by a skin biopsy study. PMID:21674141
Wiggins, Lisa D.; Robins, Diana L.; Bakeman, Roger; Adamson, Lauren B.
The purpose of this study was to explore the sensory profile of young children with ASD compared to young children with other developmental delays (DD) at first ASD assessment. Results found that young children with ASD had more tactile and taste/smell sensitivities and difficulties with auditory filtering than young children with other DD.…
Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel
The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)
A deterministic model was developed to identify critical input parameters to assess dietary intake of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding important factors in data collection and analysis. Factors incorporated included transfer efficiencies of pest...
Greer, Frank R
Vitamin D deficiency occurs in the United States in exclusively breastfed infants who have high levels of skin pigmentation, inadequate vitamin D supplementation, and insufficient sunlight exposure. I review serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and functional outcomes of vitamin deficiency in young children and breastfed and nonbreastfed infants. These outcomes include the presence or absence of vitamin D deficiency rickets, bone mineral content, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration. Daily vitamin D supplements of 400 IU/L keep serum 25(OH)D concentrations higher than 50 nmol/L and prevent rickets in infants and young children. The available evidence is not sufficient to support the use of bone mineral content or parathyroid hormone concentrations in infants and young children as functional outcomes to define deficient or sufficient levels of 25(OH)D. I therefore propose a research agenda to establish the functional definitions of vitamin D sufficiency or deficiency in infants and young children. PMID:18689395
To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...
Kennedy, Robert; Binns, Frances
This article demonstrates how a strategy to improve patient safety and the patient experience in hospital health care was implemented in a large tertiary children's hospital. A children and young people's therapeutic safe holding policy and training programme for all clinical nursing staff was developed and introduced. The strategy aimed to define best practice and equip healthcare professionals with the appropriate tools to deliver care safely, effectively and in the best interests of the child or young person. PMID:27156420
Wetherby, Amy M.; Prizant, Barry M.
This article discusses strategies for sampling communication and symbolic abilities in young children who are not yet talking or who are at early language stages, placing emphasis on caregiver involvement. The paper points out that profiling a young child's communication and symbolic abilities can contribute to the early identification of language…
Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy
The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
The purpose of this study was to examine the involvement of young fathers with their children at entry to a fatherhood program and at subsequent follow-up. Thirty-eight young fathers participated in this analysis. Using open-ended questions at intake and subsequent follow-up, they were asked to describe in their own words their relationships with…
Collins, Chimere C.; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D.; Zeldin, Leslie P.
Background and Objectives Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children’s oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. Methods This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: “What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?” Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Findings Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children’s oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children’s oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Conclusions Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral
Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna
This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…
Hayes, Cheryl D.
How early childhood funds are channeled to communities significantly affects what supports and services are available, how they are provided, how well they are linked to other resources in the community, and who benefits from them. As pressure mounts for states and communities to strengthen their commitment to families with young children and meet…
Alaska State Legislature, Juneau.
The conference described addressed a wide range of key issues affecting young children and families; namely, child abuse, quality in pre-elementary programs, and responsibility for delivery of services. The document summarizes the policy issues identified by attendees of the 16 workshops and the addresses of the three major speakers (Dr. Donald C.…
Alexander, Shona; Brown, Neil; Farmer, Kait; Fraser-Smith, Jenny; McClatchey, Kirstie; McKeown, Vibeke; Sangster, Ali; Shaver, Isabel; Templeton, Jenny
This paper describes the process employed by a psychological service to gather the views of children and young people using guided discussion groups and questionnaires. Pupils in the guided discussion groups were asked to identify issues that affect them and how adults could help. This information was analysed using thematic analysis. Seven themes…
Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit
For young children to engage and learn in school, they need to feel safe in the classroom and on the playground right from the first day. They also need learning experiences that are active and meaningful--that engage them cognitively, affectively, and operatively. Feeling safe requires knowledge about places, rules, codes of behavior, and the…
McNeilly, Patricia; Macdonald, Geraldine; Kelly, Berni
There is an increasing expectation that children, young people and their parents should participate in decisions that affect them. This includes decisions about their health and social care and collective or public decisions about the way in which such services are designed, delivered and evaluated. Indeed this has become a policy priority across…
This review paper provides pre-service and in-service teachers, principals and other educational professionals with the information needed to understand the concept of resilience to affect positive development in children and young people in their care. It reviews and critiques the most influential literature on resiliency over the last four…
Odom, Samuel L.; Buysse, Virginia; Soukakou, Elena
Issues affecting inclusion of young children with disabilities over the last 25 years are discussed. A brief history of early childhood inclusion is followed by a discussion of definition, terminology, and models for inclusive services. A summary of synthesis points derived from the research literature focuses on critical outcomes for children…
Melson, Gail F.; Hulls, M. Johanna
This paper discusses several studies related to the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication in young children and presents educational implications of this research. Two areas of nonverbal communication are considered: kinesics, or the use of body movements as displays of affection and emotion and as regulators of communication, and…
Assessed mother-infant attachment in a low-income population in Chile. Underweight children and children with adequate weight were classified as secure or anxious by means of the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Underweight children showed more anxious attachment, and anxious children showed the most serious weight deficits. (BC)
The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children…
Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija
Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre…
Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.
We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…
Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Marla; Midden, Karen
Children are drawn to nature and the outdoors. This guide details the inclusion of gardening in the preschool curriculum at a university child development program in Illinois. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Garden?" details the benefits of gardening for young children, describes the project approach used, discusses the role of the teacher, and…
Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Much is known about young children's use of deictic gestures such as pointing. Much less is known about their use of other types of communicative gestures, especially iconic or symbolic gestures. In particular, it is unknown whether children can create iconic gestures on the spot to inform others. Study 1 provided 27-month-olds with the…
Lim, Eun Mee
When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…
More, Cori M.
Social Stories are becoming a popular intervention used to improve the social skills of children with disabilities. This article examines the use of Social Stories with young children with disabilities. Social Stories are described, creation guidelines are recommended, and strategies for Social Story implementation in the classroom are discussed.…
Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.
As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…
Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen
Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…
Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.
In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…
Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.
This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…
Shulman, Brian B.
The effects of three play contexts on young children's turn taking, topic maintenance, and topic change skills were investigated. Participants were 40 normally-developing, English-speaking Caucasian children of middle-income parents; they ranged in age from approximately 4 years to 6 and one half years. Subjects were subdivided into younger and…
This article explores the considerable developments in both early years policy and in the provision of services for young children in England since 1997, noting the role that such services have had in informing the broader "Every child matters" agenda. Many challenges remain, however, not least the numbers of children and families who still live…
Rosenberg, Reagan; Bryant, Miles
This paper explores the differences in how young children respond to three different types of sample survey response icons. The purpose of the project was to determine if using different types of response icons would result in greater levels of discrimination by children in kindergarten through third grade. The setting was a summer enrichment…
Glauert, Esme Bridget
This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…
Barnes, Susan Kubic
In this era of increased accountability in education, there is a need for tools to use in assessing the abilities and instructional levels of young children. Computers have been used successfully to assess older children and adults. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to provide evidence that computer-based testing (CBT) is…
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Young Child and the Family Environment Unit.
This document provides information on eleven basic indicators of the well being of young children, their families, and communities worldwide. It consists of two parts: The first summarizes information on the importance of the early childhood period for children, the education system, and parents; describes the organization of efficient early…
Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick
The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…
Hwang, Young Suk; Gorrell, Jeffrey
Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process through which individuals direct and sustain their awareness, behaviors, and motivation to optimize their learning or to reach goals. Noting that very little research has been conducted on young children's SRL, this study examined 40 kindergarten children's SRL by investigating: their awareness while…
Recent studies of total dietary ingestion of common indoor contaminants have demonstrated that young children's behaviors while eating can lead to a significant source of food contamination. The difference between children eating their food items with or without their hands wh...
Johnston, Lynne; And Others
This pamphlet presents guidelines and tips for parents on setting limits for the behavior of young children. The need for limits and the goal of teaching children self-control are explained. Some general guidelines for limit setting are provided which include making the limits age-appropriate, recognizing the child's need for practice and…
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.
Noting that young children need early childhood settings supporting the development of the full range of capacities that will serve as a foundation for future school learning, and that adults have an opportunity and an obligation to assist children in becoming active participants in the learning process, this document details foundations to…
Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a…
Clements, Douglas; Sarama, Julie
The authors summarize the research on the effects of computer use by young children, concentrating especially on implications for social, emotional, and cognitive development. They cover effects on children's language and reading, creativity, and mathematics learning. They note the importance of teacher planning for appropriate computer use in the…
Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen
The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…
Renton, Zoe; Butcher, Joanne
This article outlines why sustainable development matters for children and young people, and explores the relevant policy context in England and the UK. It asks whether enough is being carried out by central government to secure a more sustainable future for, and with, today's children. More is needed at the national policy level to: embed…
Burgess, Stephen R.
The home literacy environment (HLE) provided to very young children was examined. A parent with a child under 19 months of age (N = 262) completed a series of checklists and surveys designed to assess literacy experiences and opportunities within the home. In general, children were exposed to a wide range of literacy activities and experiences,…
Hughes, Eileen; Wineman, Kathi
Children's acquisition of early literacy skills continues to attract attention from researchers, educators, families, and policy makers. Literacy development starts early in life and is correlated with academic achievement. Early childhood educators can implement effective strategies to promote young children's literacy development. With changing…
This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…
Barton, Erin E.; Lawrence, Karen; Deurloo, Florien
Increasing numbers of children with autism receive education services in settings with their typically developing peers. In response to this shift in the location of services, there is a growing body of research identifying evidence-based practices for young children with autism in inclusive early childhood classrooms. The purpose of this paper is…
This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…
Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie
To ensure the best possible outcomes for young children with and without disabilities, early childhood educators must enter the classroom ready to conduct all types of early childhood assessment--including determining if children need additional services, planning and monitoring instruction, and determining program effectiveness. They'll get the…
Young children's natural processes of language acquisition, the ways they learn a second language, and guides for teaching children a second language are discussed. Topics addressed include social influences on language acquisition, code-switching in bilingual communities, and the relationship of enculturation and acculturation to the development…
The activities and guidance in this book will help teachers to develop the confidence and meet the individual needs of young children with English as an additional language across different settings. There are also practical and varied language teaching strategies to promote learning for children working individually or in small groups. The first…
Aunio, Pirjo; Ee, Jessie; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.
This study examines young children's number sense in subjects from Finland (n =254), Hong Kong (n =246), and Singapore (n =130). Chinese, English and Finnish versions of the Early Numeracy Test (ENT; Van Luit et al., 1994) were used. Two highly correlated aspects of number sense were measured, one reflecting children's abilities to organize and…
Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca
In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…
Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and…
Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.
The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…
Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick
Background: In this study, psychosocial functioning of different groups of young children with learning problems was investigated using a diverse set of psychosocial variables (including behaviour problems, academic motivation, social preference, and self-concept). Methods: For this purpose, children with low academic achievement, with a specific…
Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.
Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…
Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather
Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)
Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah
This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass…
Macklin, M. Carole
In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited language facility.…
Moriguchi, Yusuke; Minato, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Ikuko; Itakura, Shoji
Previous studies have shown that observing a human model's actions, but not a robot's actions, could induce young children's perseverative behaviors and suggested that children's sociocognitive abilities can lead to perseverative errors ("social transmission of disinhibition"). This study investigated how the social transmission of disinhibition…
Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen
Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in…
Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong
A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…
Judge, Sharon Lesar
Asserts that as the number of young children using assistive technology increases, four areas emerge as particularly important: (1) accessing assistive technology; (2) matching needs of children to technology; (3) funding assistive devices and services; and (4) training early childhood education professionals and family members. Addresses…
Schwartz, Judy I.
This paper presents a study of metalinguistic awareness in young children. Metalinguistic awareness refers to the child's ability to concentrate on the sounds and patterns of language rather than on its communicative aspects. Metalinguistic awareness was studied by analyzing the verbal play and verbal games of 149 children from 6 months to 10…
This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…
This article discusses the use of visual arts activities to help young children cope with separation anxiety and sibling rivalry. Addressed to preschool and elementary school teachers seeking therapeutic classroom activities, the article suggests ways of using children's literature as starting points for drawing activities focused on anxiety…
Dimidjian, Victoria Jean
This monograph examines the phenomenon of young children who lack the socialization and academic preparation needed to meet the demands of schooling and take advantage of educational programs. Such children have inadequately nurtured bodies and incompletely or inappropriately stimulated minds. The changing nature of childhood is portrayed in…
Kalish, Charles W.; Kim, Sunae; Young, Andrew G.
Three experiments with preschool- and young school-aged children (N = 75 and 53) explored the kinds of relations children detect in samples of instances (descriptive problem) and how they generalize those relations to new instances (inferential problem). Each experiment initially presented a perfect biconditional relation between two features…
Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre
Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Teachers and caregivers understand well how important their role is in the promotion of young children's cognitive development. However, they must also emphasize the development of prosocial behaviors in children, particularly in light of some recent data indicating possible heightened aggression and lack of prosocial interactions among…
Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne
Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…
Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle
Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…
Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Two studies investigated whether young children are selectively prosocial toward others, based on the others' moral behaviors. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped the helpful and…
Test, Joan E.; Cunningham, Denise D.; Lee, Amanda C.
In general, talking with young children encourages development in many areas: (1) spoken language; (2) early literacy; (3) cognitive development; (4) social skills; and (5) emotional maturity. Speaking with children in increasingly complex and responsive ways does this even better. This article explores research findings about the effects of…
Strasser, Janis; Seplocha, Holly
This article discusses the importance of using picture books to support young children's literacy. A picture book is different from a children's book, because it contains illustrations. In a picture book, both the picture and text are equally important. The text and illustrations of high-quality picture books weave rich stories that can excite and…
Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…
St. John, Patricia A.
Observing young children find and make meaning by manipulating and transforming teacher-presented music material provides a unique lens to view collaborative efforts. Collective music-making reveals the fundamental role of others as children make "in-the-moment" adjustments based on their perception of challenge presented and requisite skill.…
Essa, Eva L., Ed.; Burnham, Melissa M., Ed.
Best practice is based on knowledge--not on beliefs or guesses--about how children learn and develop. This volume contains 20 overviews of research on aspects of young children's social, emotional, cognitive, or physical development, as well as how the findings can be applied in the classroom. Originally "Research in Review" articles in NAEYC's…
Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.; Gathercole, Susan E.
The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and how these links develop over time. The major aim is to determine which aspect of the working memory system--short-term storage or cognitive control--drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from…
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
Zachor, Ditza A.; Itzchak, Esther Ben
The current study examined the relation between autism severity at baseline, type of intervention employed and outcomes in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventy-eight children with ASD, aged 15-35 months (M=25.4, SD=4.2), received either applied behavioral analysis (ABA) or integration of several intervention approaches…
Broen, Patricia A.; And Others
The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…
Sims, Wendy L.; Lindeman, Carolynn A.
Offers a strategy from the book "Strategies for Teaching Prekindergarten Music" to help young children meet the achievement levels called for in Music Educators National Conference (MENC) Prekindergarten Music Education Standards. Explains that in the lesson provided children will become familiar with music as a medium for changing feelings. (CMK)
Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…
This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…
Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Mackey-Bilaver, Lucy
Objective: To examine whether and to what extent specific chronic health conditions place young children at risk of maltreatment. Methods: The study used a sample of Illinois children (born between January 1990 and March 1996) who were through age 3 continuously enrolled in Medicaid, a public health insurance program for low-income families. The…
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
Derman-Sparks, Louise; Gutierrez, Maria; Phillips, Carol Brunson
Based on research indicating that children between ages 2 and 5 become aware of gender, race, ethnicity, and disabilities, this brochure attempts to assist parents in dealing with misconceptions, discomfort, fear, and rejection of differences that may develop into prejudice in their young children. The brochure argues that bias adversely…
Young children love to investigate the natural world, and they love to take photographs. "Picture Science" goes beyond just documenting class projects. The book shows how to use digital photography to make each step in the scientific process--from posing a question, to gathering data, to showing findings--concrete and fun for children. Keyed…
Shutts, Kristin; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
To whom do children look when deciding on their own preferences? To address this question, three-year-old children were asked to choose between objects or activities that were endorsed by unfamiliar people who differed in gender, race (White, Black), or age (child, adult). In Experiment 1, children demonstrated robust preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own gender, but less consistent preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own race. In Experiment 2, children selected objects and activities favored by people of their own gender and age. In neither study did most children acknowledge the influence of these social categories. These findings suggest that gender and age categories are encoded spontaneously and influence children's preferences and choices. For young children, gender and age may be more powerful guides to preferences than race. PMID:20590724
Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen
This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…
Asis, Maruja M B; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia
This article examines the link between parental migration and young children's education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children's school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers -children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962
Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin
Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780
Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R
Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421
Falbo, Toni; Cooper, Catherine R.
Examines assumptions of the confluence model of the effects of family structure on children's intelligence. Subjects were 24 preschool children. Findings indicate that individual differences in intellectual ability are associated with the amount of time children spend in certain activities and with certain people. (Author/RH)
Piper, Francesca M.
The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…
Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.
In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…
Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan
This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…
Responses of 100 parents, 30 teachers, and over 200 preschool children were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse prevention curriculum for preschool children. An orientation meeting for parents and teachers preceded a presentation of the curriculum to preschool children. Parents and teachers were already aware of child sexual…
Mayes, L C
Work with infants and young children is a subspecialty of child psychiatry. Special areas of expertise and clinical skills are required for work in this area and even traditional areas of clinical skills--evaluating mental and developmental competency, collaborations with other professionals, synthesizing information for parents--have an added valence when applied to work with very young children. Furthermore, in the last three decades, there has been a remarkable increase in knowledge about the first years of life. Most recently, understanding about early brain development and the complex interactions among biology, environment, and experience in shaping early development has highlighted the critical nature of psychological interventions in the first years of life. Providing mental health services for very young children requires a multidisciplinary approach, and the field has evolved simultaneously in the disciplines of child psychiatry, pediatrics, psychology, social work, neurology, early childhood education, and nursing. With that range of theoretic and professional background, the resulting evaluative approaches and services are also quite diverse. The agenda for the next decade of work is to bring together these multiple viewpoints around critical areas for the development of the field, including improved diagnostic nosology, a better understanding of the number of young children needing services, pathways for accessing those services, and more explicit descriptions of the important features of a mental health intervention for very young children and their families. PMID:10202586
Principe, Gabrielle F.; Schindewolf, Erica
Research on factors that can affect the accuracy of children's autobiographical remembering has important implications for understanding the abilities of young witnesses to provide legal testimony. In this article, we review our own recent research on one factor that has much potential to induce errors in children's event recall, namely natural…
Barker, Lisa Hains; Berry, Kathy D
Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in war time deployments for military service members. How have young children been affected by single and multiple Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) deployments? We found young children with a deployed parent showed increased behavior problems during deployment and increased attachment behaviors at reunion compared with children whose parents had not experienced a recent deployment. Child behavior problems were related to many individual child and family characteristics, such as child age and temperament, length of the deployment, total time deployed parent was absent, number of moves, and number of stressors reported by parent. Child attachment behaviors were related to the length of the deployment, number of deployments, and the number of stressors faced by the parent. Soldiers and spouses of soldiers who chose not to re-enlist more often described themselves as depressed, and had children with many more behavior problems at reunion. PMID:19891214
Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...
Lovato, Silvia B.; Waxman, Sandra R.
Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them. PMID:27486421
Dibbets, Pauline; Jolles, Jellemer
Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58-156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children…
DeLoache, J S
A remarkable difference in the understanding of the symbolic relation between a scale model and the larger space that it represented was displayed by two age groups of young children. Three-year-old children who observed an object being hidden in a model knew where to find an analogous object hidden in the corresponding location in a room, but 2.5-year-old children did not. The success of the group of older children reveals an advance in their cognitive flexibility: they think of a model in two ways at the same time--both as the thing itself and as a symbol for something else. PMID:2446392
Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Janke, Kelly M; Luo, Wen; Casnar, Christy L; Hunter, Scott J; Tonsgard, James; Trapane, Pamela; van der Fluit, Faye; Kais, Lorri A
Children with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1), a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from a mutation of the NF1 gene (17q11.2), often have difficulties with learning and attention, but there is little research in the early childhood years. In this study, the cognitive and psychosocial functioning of 40 young children with NF1 (ages 3 through 6) was examined and compared both to normative data and to a contrast group comprised of unaffected siblings and community members matched for age and socio-economic status (n = 37). Children with NF1 showed significantly weaker cognitive abilities across all domains and for the vast majority of subtests. Consistent with research in older children, a variety of patterns of intra-individual strength and weakness were present for young children with NF1. Few significant group differences in psychosocial functioning were observed, but the children with NF1 showed significantly greater functional communication problems than did the unaffected group. Overall, the results indicate that in participant groups matched for age and socioeconomic status, cognitive vulnerabilities are evident for close to half of young children with NF1, with some relations to psychosocial functioning, particularly functional communication, attention problems and social skills. PMID:24229851
International and national political agendas have prioritized children's issues in the past decade or so. However the nature of the commitment to children themselves participating in arrangements that affect them and their communities are highly ambiguous. Whilst children's voices have become progressively louder, the extent to which these voices…
Gaffney, Janet; Ostrosky, Michaelene; Hemmeter, Mary
Children develop literacy skills in environments that encourage their engagement with language, print, and books. The way children learn to read is affected by the level of support adults provide when children interact with books. The authors discuss books as natural supports for literacy learning and embedding such learning in typical early…
Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.; Lipman, Corey
In the current research, we examined whether the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) could be successfully adapted as an implicit measure of children's attitudes. We tested this possibility in 3 studies with 5- to 10-year-old children. In Study 1, we found evidence that children misattribute affect elicited by attitudinally positive (e.g., cute…
Koralek, Derry, Ed.; Mindes, Gayle, Ed.
When engaged in social studies, with guidance and encouragement from adults, children develop awareness of self and family and become active participants in the larger community. The knowledge and skills learned through social studies prepare children to become informed and engaged citizens of their country and the world. In this collection of…
Custodero, Lori A.
Explores a study that quantifies preschool children's music learning preferences in teacher-intitiated environments by observing the children on video to determine their flow experiences where the challenge level and skill level are both high. Stresses that using flow to measure music experiences provides a means for teachers to evaluate student…
Merino, Cristian; Sanmarti, Neus
This paper analyses the perceptions of a group of children aged between 9 and 11 that emerge when they imagine a chemical change and explain it through drawings. Our investigation stems from broader research at primary school level, aimed at developing children's capacities to model changes in the structure of materials through stimulating the use…
Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Barros, Rossana
Before starting school, many children reason logically about concepts that are basic to their later mathematical learning. We describe a measure of quantitative reasoning that was administered to children at school entry (mean age 5.8 years) and accounted for more variance in a mathematical attainment test than general cognitive ability 16 months…
Salmon, Angela K.
During a neighborhood walk, preschool children from Ms. Silvia's class took pictures of buildings, businesses, and people. Back in the classroom, Ms. Silvia displayed their pictures on a large screen and used the "See/Think/Wonder" thinking routine to help the children think and talk about their experiences on the walk. Thinking routines are…
Lillard, Angeline S.; Flavell, John H.
Two studies tested three year olds' understanding of five mental states in a false belief scenario. Results indicated that children understand that desires can differ from reality before they understand that beliefs can. Results concerning children's understanding of pretenses, and dreams that differ from reality are discussed. (BC)
In two experiments we tested the hypothesis that children have a basic problem in mastering the attributive relation because it involves a two-step logical-semantic integration process of the head-noun and the attributive adjective. Hebrew-speaking children were asked to interpret highly familiar adjective-noun combinations by selecting a photo…
This paper discusses four key concepts to help preschool and primary grade children develop the ability to read and understand maps. Examples of student activities to develop each of the concepts are provided. The essential concepts are representation, symbolization, perspective, and scale. Representation is vital. Children must perceive that a…
Green, Moira D.
This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…
Flohr, John W.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…
Kirsch, Dorothy Italie
The purposes of this study were to survey expressed reading interests of first and second grade children from different geographic areas of the United States, with differing racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds; to compare expressed reading interests of children in grades one and two in an attempt to determine if interests change; and to…
Shure, Myrna B.
There are lots of ways to handle behavior problems in the classroom. Some teachers send difficult children to time out, others tell them what and what not to do, and many explain why. But these techniques have one thing in common: they all do the thinking for the child. In this article, the author discusses how to help children handle conflicts…
Starkweather, Elizabeth K.
The Starkweather Originality Test is designed to measure the creative potential of children ranging in age from 3 years, 6 months to 6 years, 6 months. Children younger than 3 years, 6 months can be given the Originality Test if their ability to communicate verbally is satisfactorily demonstrated during the pretest. The test is individually…
King, Edith W.; And Others
This text aims to provide information, strategies, techniques, innovative ideas, and encouragement for teachers, administrators, and parents in implementing a diversity perspective to education for children ages 3 to 8 years. Major focuses are on ethnic, gender, and social-class differences, but issues related to special needs children, including…
Saracho, Olivia N.
A family literacy program was examined to document the literacy experiences of 25 fathers and their five-year-old children. Using a case study methodology, this study examined the effects of a literacy intervention program that was designed to assist fathers to promote their children's acquisition of literacy. The results indicated that the…
Metz, Kathleen E.
Though there are political cries for more science instruction, reform efforts have largely been focused at the middle or high school. One problem is that educators believe elementary school children aren't developmentally ready to handle complex science. But children are able to understand much more than is assumed. An experimental curriculum…
Sepers, J W; van der Boon, N; Landsmeer-Beker, N E A
An eight-year-old boy with spastic type bilateral cerebral palsy and a two-year-old girl with biliary atresia were referred to a psycho-trauma centre. Both children developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of the medical procedure. Because of their symptoms, they were resisting further medical treatment. The children were given trauma-focused treatment (eye movement and desensitisation reprocessing and cognitive behavioural therapy). This article argues that hypnosis and distraction can play a role in preventing PTSD symptoms after undergoing a medical procedure. If PTSD is unavoidable, it is important to recognise the symptoms and to treat these children. Furthermore, their parents might also be traumatised. PTSD symptoms in children and their parents can be successfully treated. Also children with sub-threshold PTSD can benefit from trauma treatment. PMID:27353156
Leonhardt, Anja; Könen, Tanja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian
Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280488
Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Huang, Cindy Y.; Crusto, Cindy A.; Kaufman, Joy S.
Background Childhood trauma is an important public health problem with financial, physical health, and mental health repercussions. Emergency Departments are often the first point of contact for many young children affected by emotionally or psychologically traumatic events (e.g., neglect, separation from primary caregiver, maltreatment, witness to domestic violence within the family, natural disasters). Study Objectives Describe the prevalence of physical health symptoms, ED use and health related problems in young children (birth through 5 years) affected by trauma, and to predict whether or not children experiencing trauma are more likely to be affected by health related problems. Methods Community-based, cross-sectional survey of 208 young children. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory – Parent Report Revised. Child health symptoms and health related problems were measured using the Caregiver Information Questionnaire, developed by ORC Macro. Results Seventy-two percent of children had experienced at least one type of traumatic event. Children exposed to trauma were also experiencing recent health related events, including visits to the ED (32.2%) and the doctor (76.9%) for physical health symptoms, and recurring physical health problems (40.4%). Children previously exposed to high levels of trauma (4 or more types of events) were 2.9 times more likely to report having had recently visited the ED for health purposes. Conclusions Preventing recurrent trauma or recognizing early trauma exposure is difficult but essential if long-term negative consequences are to be mitigated or prevented. Within emergency departments, there are missed opportunities for identification and intervention for trauma-exposed children, as well as great potential for expanding primary and secondary prevention of maltreatment-associated illness, injury and mortality. PMID:24565881
Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly
This study presents a novel task examining young children’s affective responses to evaluative feedback—specifically, social acceptance and rejection—from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children’s responses to peer evaluation vary as a function of temperamental shyness and gender. Four- to seven-year-old children (N = 48) sorted pictures of unknown, similar-aged children into those with whom they wished or did not wish to play. Computerized peer evaluation later noted whether the pictured children were interested in a future playdate with participants. Participants then rated their affective responses to each acceptance or rejection event. Children were happy when accepted by children with whom they wanted to play, and disappointed when these children rejected them. Highly shy boys showed a wider range of responses to acceptance and rejection based on initial social interest, and may be particularly sensitive to both positive and negative evaluation. Overall, the playdate task captures individual differences in affective responses to evaluative peer feedback and is potentially amenable to future applications in research with young children, including pairings with psychophysiological measures. PMID:23997429
Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.
Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,p<0.01). Multivariable regression analyses stratified by age revealed differences by age group. Among 4-11 month olds, children of English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas watch similar amounts of television. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147
Viaz'menov, E O; Radtsig, E Iu; Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Vodolazov, S Iu; Poliudov, S A; Myzin, A V
The objective of the present work was to study voice disturbances in young children with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Diagnostic algorithm included direct transnasal examination of the larynx using an Olympus fibroscope (Japan), fibrogastroduodenoscopy, 24-hour potentiometry, biopsy of oesophageal mucosa, and acoustic analysis of the voice. A total of 26 children at the age from 8 months to 3 years with voice disturbances were examined, including 12 children below one year, 5 between 1 and 2 years, and 9 between 2 and 3 years. The main signs of laryngoesophageal reflux were dysphonia, oedema, hyperemia, and altered light reflex of mucous membrane of arytenoid cartilages, interarytenoid space, and vocal cords. It is concluded that voice disturbances are the most common symptoms of laryngoesophageal reflux in young children which necessitates the earliest possible endoscopic study of the larynx in all cases of dysphonia. PMID:20517277
Asis, Maruja M.B.; Ruiz-Marave, Cecilia
This article examines the link between parental migration and young children’s education using data from the Philippine country study of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The key research question probed here is: what difference does parental migration make to the school outcomes of young children? Specifically, it looks at factors that explain children’s school progression (school pacing) and academic performance (school achievement) using multiple regression analysis. These questions are explored using CHAMPSEA data gathered from a survey of children under 12 years of age and their households in Laguna and Batangas (n=487). The concern that parental absence due to migration can negatively affect the school performance of children is not supported by the study. If parental migration affects school outcomes, it is associated with positive outcomes, or with outcomes which show that children in transnational households are not doing worse than children living with both parents. Positive school outcomes are best associated with a migrant-carer arrangement where fathers work abroad and mothers stay home as carers –children in these households fare very well when it comes to school pacing and school achievement. The study concludes that families and households need to provide both economic and psychological support to enhance the chances that children are at pace with their schooling and are doing well at school. PMID:24954962
Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.
Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of…
Vredenburgh, Christopher; Kushnir, Tamar
Young children's social learning is a topic of great interest. Here, we examined preschoolers' (M = 52.44 months, SD = 9.7 months) help-seeking as a social information gathering activity that may optimize and support children's opportunities for learning. In a toy assembly task, we assessed each child's competency at assembling toys and the…
Poche, Cheryl; Brouwer, Richard; Swearingen, Michael
Self-protective behaviors were taught to three preschool children in order to prevent the opportunity for abduction. An analogue measure of self-protection was developed in which confederate adults approached and verbally attempted to lure each child from the setting, before, during, and after training. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used. During baseline, all the children displayed susceptibility to the lures. Training procedures included modeling, behavior rehearsal, and social reinforcement. Within 1 week after training began, all children displayed appropriate responses to all of the lures both in the training setting and in the community. PMID:16795643
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H; Reid, M Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program interventions among 99 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4-6). Mother reported significant treatment effects for appropriate and harsh discipline, use of physical punishment, and monitoring, whereas fathers reported no significant parenting changes. Independent observations revealed treatment effects for mothers' praise and coaching, mothers' critical statements, and child total deviant behaviors. Both mothers and fathers reported treatment effects for children's externalizing, hyperactivity, inattentive and oppositional behaviors, and emotion regulation and social competence. There were also significant treatment effects for children's emotion vocabulary and problem-solving ability. At school teachers reported treatment effects for externalizing behaviors and peer observations indicated improvements in treated children's social competence. PMID:21391017
Ryznar, Elizabeth; Rosado, Norell; Flaherty, Emalee G
This retrospective study describes the characteristics and mechanisms of forearm fractures in children <18 months adding to the evidence-base about forearm fractures. It also examines which features of forearm fractures in young children may help discriminate between abusive and noninflicted injuries. Electronic medical records were reviewed for eligible patients evaluated between September 1, 2007 and January 1, 2012 at two children's hospitals in Chicago, IL. The main outcome measures were the type of fracture and the etiology of the fracture (abuse versus not abuse). The 135 included patients sustained 216 forearm fractures. Most were buckle (57%) or transverse (26%). Child protection teams evaluated 47 (35%) of the patients and diagnosed 11 (23%) as having fractures caused by abuse. Children with abusive versus non-inflicted injuries had significant differences in age (median age 7 versus 12 months), race, and presence of additional injuries. Children with abusive forearm fractures often presented without an explanation or a changing history for the injury. Children with non-inflicted forearm fractures often presented after a fall. No particular type of forearm fracture was specific for child abuse. Any forearm fracture in a young child should be evaluated with special attention to the details of the history and the presence of other injuries. Young age, additional injuries, and an absent or inconsistent explanation should increase concern that the fracture was caused by child abuse. PMID:25765815
Discusses the theory of self-efficacy, the ways in which young children learn self-care and self-efficacy, and methods parents and other caregivers can use to encourage self-efficacy in young children. (RJC)
Iowa Kids Count Initiative, Des Moines.
Two booklets, "A Blueprint for Iowa's Young: Implementation Directions for the Framework Paper," and "Investing in Families, Prevention and School Readiness: Working Draft of a Framework Paper" present a framework for creation of a blueprint for implementation and management of community investment initiatives. The framework is based upon a…
Urges early childhood professionals to build partnerships with parents and with other teachers. Points out that agencies and individuals, like children, can demonstrate different cooperative styles. Barriers to collaboration and benefits of cooperative partnerships are discussed. (GH)
Hendrickson, Norejane J.; And Others
The relationship between preschool children's level of social maturity and their drawing expressions was tested; findings stregthened the contention that the drawings of preschoolers are not appropriate indicators of their social maturity. (SDH)
Williams, P D; Soetjiningsih; Williams, A R
The study examined Balinese mothers' expectations for children's development and mothers' child-rearing practices, as influenced by selected variables (child's gender and ordinal position, mother's education, and rural or urban residence). Rural (n = 100) and urban (n = 100) mothers responded to structured questionnaires read aloud to them by trained interviewers who recorded responses. All children were between 4 and 6 years. Equal numbers of male and female children were included, and the entire economic and educational ranges of families were represented. MANOVA results showed significant interaction effects of residential location and maternal education on mothers' expectations of children's cognitive, F(2, 170) = 4.31, p = .04, and psychosocial development, F(2, 170) = 4.35, p = .01. Significant interaction effects were found for maternal education, residential location, child's ordinal position, and gender, F(3, 170) = 5.92, p = .001, on maternal child-rearing practices. Two developmental timetables were constructed. PMID:11094575
Woolley, J D; Wellman, H M
In 2 studies we uncover some of children's earliest conceptions of various realities, nonrealities, and appearances. In the first study, we investigated children's early understanding by examining their use of the words real and really in spontaneous speech. These natural language data consisted of longitudinal samples of 6 children's speech between the ages of 1 and 6 from the Childes database. Analyses of these samples showed that by age 3 children clearly distinguished between reality and a variety of nonreal contrasts in their everyday speech. For example, young children distinguished between toys, pictures, and pretend actions versus their real natures. We claim that, in making these distinctions, children often are considering appearances, broadly construed. To confirm this, we conducted a second experimental study with 3-year-olds, in which we questioned children about the reality and appearance of a variety of items. Results from this study confirm and clarify our findings from the natural language data. We discuss the implications of these studies for current descriptions of young children's understanding of realities and nonrealities, including their understanding of the distinction between reality and appearance. PMID:2209198
MacDonald, Rebecca; Green, Gina; Mansfield, Renee; Geckeler, Amy; Gardenier, Nicole; Anderson, Jennifer; Holcomb, William; Sanchez, June
Although stereotypy is one of the key diagnostic features of autism, few studies have compared stereotypic behavior in children with autism and typically developing children. The present study employed direct observational measurement methods to assess levels of stereotypic behavior in 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children with autism or pervasive…
Cooper, Patricia M.
Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…
Bundy, David G; Muschelli, John; Clemens, Gwendolyn D; Strouse, John J; Thompson, Richard E; Casella, James F; Miller, Marlene R
Preventive services can reduce the morbidity of sickle cell disease (SCD) in children but are delivered unreliably. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children aged 2 to 5 years with SCD, evaluating each child for 14 months and expecting that he/she should receive ≥75% of days covered by antibiotic prophylaxis, ≥1 influenza immunization, and ≥1 transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). We used logistic regression to quantify the relationship between ambulatory generalist and hematologist visits and preventive services delivery. Of 266 children meeting the inclusion criteria, 30% consistently filled prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions. Having ≥2 generalist, non-well child care visits or ≥2 hematologist visits was associated with more reliable antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-one percent of children received ≥1 influenza immunizations. Children with ≥2 hematologist visits were most likely to be immunized (62% vs. 35% among children without a hematologist visit). Only 25% of children received ≥1 TCD. Children most likely to receive a TCD (42%) were those with ≥2 hematologist visits. One in 20 children received all 3 preventive services. Preventive services delivery to young children with SCD was inconsistent but associated with multiple visits to ambulatory providers. Better connecting children with SCD to hematologists and strengthening preventive care delivery by generalists are both essential. PMID:26950087
Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Anan, Ayumi; Shibata, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshihiro
Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children. Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months) who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS) for perceived stress. Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant. Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children. PMID:26819847
The effect of a relatively common chronic disease, severe dental caries, affects young childrens' growth and well-being. Treating dental caries in pre-school children would increase growth rates and the quality of life of millions of children. Severe untreated dental caries is common in pre-school children in many countries. Children with severe caries weighed less than controls, and after treatment of decayed teeth there was more rapid weight gain and improvements in their quality of life. This may be due to dietary intake improving because pain affected the quantity and variety of food eaten, and second, chronic inflammation from caries related pulpitis and abscesses is known to suppress growth through a metabolic pathway and to reduce haemoglobin as a result of depressed erythrocyte production. PMID:17128231
A small, pilot field study was conducted to determine the adequacy of protocols for dietary exposure measurements. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of pesticides transferred from contaminated surfaces or hands to foods of young children and to validate a dietary mod...
Barton, Marianne L.; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Fein, Deborah
The increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as well as emerging evidence of the efficacy of early intervention has focused attention on the need for early identification of young children suspected of having an ASSD. Several studies have suggested that while parents report concerns early in development, it may be months before children…
Atkinson, Mary, Ed.
This report presents the findings of an analysis of the new or updated Children and Young People's Plan (CYPP) published in 2007. The documents analysed, known variously as plans, reviews or refreshes, are collectively referred to throughout the report as CYPPs. Attendees at the Planning for Excellence (PFE) network workshops suggested that…
Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison
Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…
Ackers, Melanie Jane
The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made…
Cavendish, Jill; Stopps, Bev; Ryan, Charly
Liberating and channelling the energy and enthusiasm of young children as they explore their world motivates teachers to reflect on their science-teaching practices. This was the claim the authors made at the start of an early-years science project funded by the Astra-Zeneca Science Teaching Trust. Their aims were to develop case studies of…
This paper on autism in young children discusses the differences between classic infantile autism and autistic-like conditions; the evolving manifestations of autism; accompanying handicaps such as mental retardation, epilepsy, blindness, and deafness; possible infectious or metabolic disease etiologies; and treatment through behavior…
Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
This paper reports on the development and validation of an instrument for recording haptic exploratory behavior through detailed examination of exploratory search strategies of young children. Individual differences within age level were investigated, as well as the extent to which information processing capabilities for haptic perception are…
Levine, Judith A.; Pollack, Harold; Comfort, Maureen E.
This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to investigate the effects of early motherhood on the academic and behavioral outcomes of these mothers' children. The NLSY follows 12,686 young people who were age 14-21 years in 1979 with annual or biannual interviews. African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and poor…
Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…
Clegg, Luther B.; Ford, Peggy K.
Maintains that works of historical fiction and fantasy introduce children to concepts of time and history, as well as allowing them to empathize with other people. Historical fantasy often involves a young protagonist traveling through time and experiencing different eras and events. (MJP)
Andrews, Maya L.; And Others
The paper presents an approach to voice therapy programing for young children who are hypernasal. Some general principles underlying the approach are presented and discussed, including use of language patterns appropriate to the child's age and cognitive and linguistic development. (Author/CL)
Dansereau, Diana R.
The purpose of this study was to observe, analyze, and document the range of young children's interactions with sound-producing objects in order to better understand the nature of such interactions. Of particular interest was whether theories of cognitive play, social play, object play, and existing research on musical play could guide…
Cohen, Richard; Tunick, Betty Phillips
Nature education for young children involves building both cognitive and emotional connections to the natural world through the use of indoor and outdoor activities and through field trips. This guide to nature education is based on the stories of how two early childhood teachers created mini-habitats and then built indoor and outdoor activities…
Schrag, Howard L.; And Others
This study reports on the needs of young children in Idaho, relating to: (1) health and related factors during early childhood, (2) heredity and environmental factors which influence the child's development. Initial data were drawn from already existing studies and sources. Missing data were collected in face-to-face interviews with 2 percent of…
Reid, Gavin; Maxwell, Shirley; Daniels, Jenny; McConnell, Judith
Presents book reviews of "How to Manage Communications Problems in Young Children" (Kersner and Wright), "The First Years at School: Developing Teachers and Teaching (2nd Ed.)" (Anning), "The Teaching of Reading" (Riley), and "Starting from the Child? Teaching and Learning From 4 to 8" (Fisher). (KB)
Teaching pre-literacy skills to young children is an important educational goal that potentially can be assisted through the use of computer technologies. Preschool teachers and parents also want to help foster independent work on technological skills. Educational Web sites are being developed that might be useful in meeting both goals; however,…
Campano, Gerald; Ngo, Lan; Low, David E.; Bartow Jacobs, Katrina
This article, part of a four-year research partnership with a multilingual faith community and its school, explores what happened when we invited young children in an aftercare program to inquire into the university from their perspectives. Through a sociocultural literacy framework and realist theories of identity and experience, we examine the…
Ross, Sylvia P.
This document describes a series of five booklets that have been developed to help parents and teachers teach children about the traffic system in an effort to avoid accidents. Booklet number one, which is included as part of this document, is a guide for parents describing the young child's pedestrian problem. Suggestions are offered on how to…
Cameron, Margaret; Hofvander, Yngve
This manual provides information on preventive treatment and improving the health and food of infants, young children, and their mothers in developing nations. The nutrition needs of women during and following pregnancy are outlined, as well as the benefits and problems of breast feeding and weaning techniques. A discussion is presented on the…
Kuoch, Hoa; Mirenda, Pat
A study examined the effectiveness of social story interventions for three young children (ages 3-6) with autism spectrum disorders. Results confirmed the effectiveness of this intervention for reducing the frequency of target behaviors. Target behaviors remained at a low level even after the social story interventions were discontinued. (Contains…
Martin, Sylvia; Forsbach-Rothman, Terri; Crawford, Caroline
Technology integration into the early childhood environment provides learning opportunities that promote self-directed learning and interaction with peers for young children with disabilities. This study reports the results and implications of a survey of 132 inclusive childcare settings on the availability of computers in childcare settings,…
This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil
The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…
Lerman, Dorothea C.; Vorndran, Christina; Addison, Laura; Kuhn, Stephanie A.C.
Educational interventions based on the principles of behavior analysis are highly effective for establishing skills in young children with autism. As a first step in program development, the child's current skill level is determined by evaluating performance on tasks drawn from a preestablished curriculum. However, few specific guidelines have…
Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore
Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…
A deterministic model was developed to identify the critical input parameters needed to assess dietary intakes of young children. The model was used as a framework for understanding the important factors in data collection and data analysis. Factors incorporated into the model i...
Schwab, Jessica F.; Lew-Williams, Casey
Young children who hear more child-directed speech (CDS) tend to have larger vocabularies later in childhood, but the specific characteristics of CDS underlying this link are currently underspecified. The present study sought to elucidate how the structure of language input boosts learning by investigating whether repetition of object labels in…
This paper provides an overview of the literature on sensory integration in young children. First it explains the importance of "sensory integration" in child development and normal functioning. It goes on to note signs of a sensory integration dysfunction (such as hyper-or hypo-sensitivity to touch, poor coordination, and poor behavioral…
Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen
A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un[subscript MASC]ravole "a ravole"). Test trials…
Glenberg, Arthur M.; Gutierrez, Tiana; Levin, Joel R.; Japuntich, Sandra; Kaschak, Michael P.
The Indexical Hypothesis suggests a new method for enhancing children's reading comprehension. Young readers may not consistently "index," or map, words to the objects the words represent. Consequently, these readers fail to derive much meaning from the text. The instructional method involves manipulating toy objects referred to in the text (e.g.,…
Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.
This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…
Kohen, Dafna E.; Leventhal, Tama; Dahinten, V. Susan; McIntosh, Cameron N.
The present study used Canadian National Longitudinal data to examine a model of the mechanisms through which the effects of neighborhood socioeconomic conditions impact young children's verbal and behavioral outcomes (N = 3,528; M age = 5.05 years, SD= 0.86). Integrating elements of social disorganization theory and family stress models, and…
Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise
This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…