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Sample records for affects young males

  1. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  2. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  3. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  4. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with

  5. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  6. Extra pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumour in a young male.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Naima; Qureshi, Asim; Dian, Asifa

    2016-10-01

    Solid pseudo-papillary tumour of pancreas is a rare neoplasm having a low malignant potential. It mostly affects young adolescent females. We report an unusual case of an 18 year old male with a mass in the mesocolon which was reported as solid pseudo-papillary tumour of pancreas. This case is unusual by virtue of extra pancreatic location and male gender of the patient.

  7. Changes in Bone Metabolism in Young Castrated Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seong-Jun; Ryu, Dal-Sung; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Park, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Su; Cho, Yong-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the window of time during which osteoporosis affects the management of spinal surgery and the mechanism of bone metabolism changes in males with osteoporosis by examining changes in bone metabolism in young castrated male rats. Materials and Methods A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into two study groups. Group 1 (control) received a sham surgery and Group 2 received bilateral orchiectomy to change bone mineral density (BMD). Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) were analyzed at postoperative date (POD) 8, 10, and 12 weeks. BMDs were measured using micro computed tomography scans. Results Femoral and lumbar BMDs were decreased in the orchiectomy groups. BMDs in the sham and orchiectomy groups showed statistically differences at POD 8, 10, and 12 weeks for the femur (p=0.032, 0.008, 0.008) and lumbar spine (p=0.151, 0.008, 0.008, respectively). Serum osteocalcin, ALP, and CTX decreased gradually; however, N-terminal type 1 procollagen (P1NP) showed a slight increase yet no significant change. Conclusion In young castrated male rats, a significant decrease in BMD was observed after orchiectomy due to the mixture of two detrimental factors. Young castrated male rats did not reach peak BMD. Increased bone turnover causes bone resorption to exceed bone formation. This study may contribute to the creation of a valuable model for studies of male osteoporosis and the spinal surgery field. PMID:27593866

  8. Consumption of caffeinated coffee and a high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial metabolism of a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test in young, healthy males.

    PubMed

    Moisey, Lesley L; Robinson, Lindsay E; Graham, Terry E

    2010-03-01

    Caffeine and caffeinated coffee (CC) elicit acute insulin insensitivity when ingested before a carbohydrate load. The effects of CC on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when co-ingested with a high carbohydrate meal and on postprandial metabolism of a subsequent (second) carbohydrate load have not been studied. In a randomised, crossover design, ten healthy males ingested either CC (5 mg caffeine/kg body weight), decaffeinated coffee (DC) or water (W; equal volume) co-ingested with a high glycaemic index cereal followed 3 h later by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. After the initial meal, insulin area under the curve (AUC) and insulin sensitivity index did not differ between treatments, although glucose AUC for CC (107 (sem 18) mmol/l x 3 h) and DC (74 (sem 15) mmol/l x 3 h) was greater than W ( - 0.2 (sem 29) mmol/l x 3 h, P < 0.05). After the second carbohydrate load, insulin AUC for CC was 49 % and 57 % greater (P < 0.01) than for DC and W, respectively. Despite the greater insulin response, glucose AUC for CC (217 (sem 24) mmol/l x 2 h) was greater than both DC (126 (sem 11) mmol/l x 2 h, P = 0.01) and W (55 (sem 34) mmol/l x 2 h, P < 0.001). Insulin sensitivity index after the second meal was lower after CC (8.2 (sem 0.9)) compared with both DC (12.4 (sem 1.2), P < 0.01) and W (13.4 (sem 1.4), P < 0.001). Co-ingestion of CC with one meal resulted in insulin insensitivity during the postprandial phase of a second meal in the absence of further CC ingestion. Thus, CC may play a role in daily glycaemic management.

  9. Family Planning and the Young Minority Male: A Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leanor Boulin; Staples, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Young Inner-City Males Project, a pilot project to provide culturally relevant family life planning services to young minority males in Los Angeles. The project offered goal-directed support to promote sexual responsibility and reduce unwanted pregnancies. (FMW)

  10. Insulin resistance in young, lean male subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Belan, V; Blazicek, P; Imrich, R; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M; Selko, D; Koska, J; Radikova, Z

    2011-06-01

    Impaired insulin action, frequently found in essential hypertension (HT), is modified by other factors, such as higher age, accumulation of body fat, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, antihypertensive and insulin-sensitizing medication itself may significantly affect cardiovascular and metabolic milieu. The aim of this study was to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, lipidaemic status and the adipokines' concentrations with regard to abdominal fat distribution in young, lean male subjects with treatment-naïve essential HT and in matched healthy normotensive (NT) subjects. We studied 27 HT patients (age: 19.9±0.6 years; body mass index (BMI): 22.9±0.5 kg m(-2)) and 15 NT controls (age: 22.3±1.0 years; BMI: 23.7±0.6 kg m(-2)). The subjects underwent an oral and an intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT, IVGTT) on separate days in random order. Higher fasting insulin (P<0.001), non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05) and plasminogen activator inhibitor factor 1 concentrations (P<0.05) were found in HT patients when compared with NT patients. Despite comparable anthropometric parameters and body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in both groups, newly diagnosed untreated young hypertensive male subjects showed decreased insulin sensitivity, augmented insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose load (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) and 'higher still normal' 2-h plasma glucose levels during OGTT. Untreated, young, lean hypertensive male subjects, with distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and lipid profile comparable with their healthy NT matched counterparts, showed considerable signs of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. We hypothesize that insulin resistance is the initial feature, which is influenced by several environmental factors, and HT is one of their common consequences.

  11. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  12. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  13. Prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon in young Greek males.

    PubMed

    Tzilalis, Vassilios; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Papatheodorou, George; Rallis, Efstathios; Kassimos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon in young males. Young males were examined prospectively in a district hospital, and laboratory tests were performed on the basis of the clinical history. Young males (3.912), age 18-28 years old, were examined. Raynaud's phenomenon was present in seven men (1,79 per 1.000, 95% CI 0.72-3.68). Three of them had at least one member in their family diagnosed with Raynaud's phenomenon. Three were smokers. All had negative immunological test. Five patients reported having severe attacks and two had only mild ischemic attacks. The treatment was conservative for all patients, two of them necessitated vasodilators. Very low prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was observed in this young male group compared with the previous studies.

  14. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  15. HIV and Young Male Street Prostitutes: A Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence data for young male street prostitutes. Examined sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, HIV-related risk behaviors, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome knowledge as potential correlates to HIV status. Findings suggest that adolescent male prostitutes are exposed to…

  16. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  17. Auditory Brainstem Responses in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen; Roush, Jackson; Gravel, Judith; Skinner, Martie; Misenheimer, Jan; Reitz, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation resulting in developmental delays in males. Atypical outer ear morphology is characteristic of FXS and may serve as a marker for abnormal auditory function. Despite this abnormality, studies of the hearing of young males with FXS are generally lacking. A few studies…

  18. Male age and strain affect ejaculate quality in the Mexican fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Cruz, Mariana; Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolas; Flores-Estévez, Norma; Reyes-Hernández, Martha; Alvarado, Mayvi; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2017-02-19

    Aging in all organisms is inevitable. Male age can have profound effects on mating success and female reproduction, yet relatively little is known on the effects of male age on different components of the ejaculate. Furthermore, in mass-reared insects used for the Sterile Insect Technique, there are often behavioral differences between mass-reared and wild males, while differences in the ejaculate have been less studied. The ejaculate in insects is composed mainly of sperm and accessory gland proteins. Here, we studied how male age and strain affected (i) protein quantity of testes and accessory glands, (ii) the biological activity of accessory gland products injected into females, (iii) sperm viability and (iv) sperm quantity stored by females in wild and mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). We found lower protein content in testes of old wild males and lower sperm viability in females mated with old wild males. Females stored more sperm when mated to young wild males than with young mass-reared males. Accessory gland injections of old or young males did not inhibit female remating. Knowledge of how male age affects different ejaculate components will aid our understanding on investment of the ejaculate and possible post-copulatory consequences on female behaviour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed.

  20. A young male with familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Afzalur; Ahmed, Moeen Uddin; Islam, A.K.M. Monwarul; Karim, Aparajita; Sarker, Shafiqul A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A nine-year-old Bangladeshi male with a body mass index 16.5 kg/m2 presented with progressive tuberous xanthomata on both auricles, elbows, gluteal regions and legs since birth. His father, paternal and maternal grandfather had xanthelasma, however, the siblings had none. Examination of the cardiovascular system was otherwise normal. Laboratory investigations were performed on several occasions since he was 4 years of age and revealed extreme dyslipidaemia with very high total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and lipoprotein(a), and low apolipoprotein-A (Apo-A) levels. Repeated combination of lipid lowering agents with cholestyramine, atorvastatin and ezetimibe were virtually ineffective in improving the lipid profiles. Supplementation therapy with niacin also had no effect. In view of the unavailability in Bangladesh of lipid apheresis, the cornerstone of therapy, the management of the case becomes complicated. PMID:24174835

  1. A Rare Case of Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy in Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy (UAIM) is a rare disorder of Retinal Pigmentary Epithelium (RPE) that mainly affects the young healthy male. The variability of this disease can masquerade different entity, so diagnosis becomes cumbersome. We are reporting a case of young healthy male, who has reported to us with gross diminution of vision from right eye. Right eye examination showed a grayish yellow lesion with fluffy margins on the macula. Based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) findings, he was diagnosed as a case of UAIM. He was started on topical anti-inflammatory eye drops with subsequent improvement of his vision.

  2. Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    Achieving manhood has historically been a complex and challenging task for the Black male in America. Therefore Black manhood must be carefully fostered from an early age by major socializing agents and institutions. This book provides school counselors and related professionals with important information about the development of young Black…

  3. Family Planning and the Young Minority Male: A Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leanor Boulin; Staples, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a program aimed at young Black, Spanish-speaking, Asian, and American Indian males in relation to family life education, planning, and parental concerns. The project develops an approach to the promotion of sexual responsibility and reduction of unwanted pregnancy through support and assistance to potential unwed fathers. (Author)

  4. A Labor Market Success Model of Young Male Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenstat, Paul

    The study develops a labor market success model of young male inner-city Hispanics and examines several variables influencing labor market success. A sample of inner-city Puerto Ricans who attended the eighth grade in two schools in Wilmington, Delaware, in the 1966-1971 period was chosen and interviewed. Small control groups of blacks and whites…

  5. Adenomatous Polyposis in a Young Jamaican Male of African Descent

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, R; Mills, M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of adenomatous polyposis in a 20-year old African Jamaican male. This is to highlight the importance of aggressively investigating unexplained recurrent anaemia in the young and the impact of psychosocial issues that arise in managing such a patient. PMID:25303258

  6. Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Young Male *

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Stephen L.; Kliger, Alan; Smith, G.J. Walker

    1982-01-01

    Infection with pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus was found in a young male suspected of having miliary tuberculosis. Problems of diagnosis and predisposing factors for these infections in the patient are discussed. The patient's clinical course and management are reviewed. Autopsy findings are presented. Alternative modes of therapy are considered. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:6305041

  7. Deindustrialization, Disadvantage and Suicide among Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubrin, Charis Elizabeth; Wadsworth, Thomas P.; DiPietro, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Wilson's deindustrialization thesis has been the focus of much recent research. This study is the first to empirically test his thesis as it relates to suicide among young black males, which has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Using 1998-2001 Mortality Multiple Cause-of-Death Records and 2000 census data, we examine the influence…

  8. A multidimensional intergenerational model of young males' driving styles.

    PubMed

    Gil, Shani; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between fathers' driving styles, the family's general and driving-related atmosphere, and the young drivers' motivations, on one hand, and young males' driving styles, on the other. The 242 father and son pairs that participated in the study independently completed several self-report questionnaires at different points in time within the first year after licensure of the young drivers. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed, in which the contribution of fathers' driving style and their sons' perceptions of the general family relations, the family climate for road safety (FCRS), and costs and benefits of driving, to the driving styles of the young male drivers was examined. The SEM estimation results show direct as well as indirect significant effects between the various dimensions. The FCRS factors of non-commitment and messages, and the cost of thrill, were found to be the strongest mediators between the fathers' driving style and the family cohesion, on one hand, and the driving style of the young driver, on the other. These results may be useful in pointing out directions for the development of interventions that could assist in reducing the involvement of youngsters in risky driving and car crashes, and encourage safe and considerate driving.

  9. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    PubMed

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies.

  10. Pubertal testosterone predicts mental rotation performance of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko; Eriksson, C J Peter; Rose, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    Robust sex differences in some spatial abilities that favor males have raised the question of whether testosterone contributes to those differences. There is some evidence for prenatal organizational effects of testosterone on male-favoring spatial abilities, but not much is known about the role of pubertal testosterone levels on adult cognitive abilities. We studied the association between pubertal testosterone (at age 14) and cognitive performance in young adulthood (at age 21-23), assessing male-favoring, female-favoring, and sex-neutral cognitive domains in a population-based sample of 130 male and 178 female twins. Pubertal testosterone was negatively associated with performance in the Mental Rotation Test in young adult men (r=-.27), while among women no significant associations between testosterone and cognitive measures were detected. The significant association among men remained after controlling for pubertal development. Confirmatory within-family comparisons with one-sided significance testing yielded a negative correlation between twin pair differences in testosterone levels and Mental Rotation Test performances in 35 male twin pairs (r=-.32): the twin brother with higher testosterone performed less well on the Mental Rotation Test. That association was evident in 18 pairs of dizygotic male twin pairs (r=-.42; analysis controlling for shared environmental effects). In contrast, the association of differences was not evident among 17 monozygotic male twin pairs (r=-.07; analysis controlling for shared genetic influences). Results suggest that pubertal testosterone levels are related specifically to male-favoring spatial ability and only among men. Within-family analyses implicated possible shared genetic effects between pubertal testosterone and mental rotation ability.

  11. Water maze performance in young male Long-Evans rats is inversely affected by dietary intakes of niacin and may be linked to levels of the NAD+ metabolite cADPR.

    PubMed

    Young, Genevieve S; Jacobson, Elaine L; Kirkland, James B

    2007-04-01

    Niacin is converted in tissues to NAD(+), which is required for synthesis of the intracellular calcium signaling molecule cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). cADPR is involved in many aspects of cognitive function, including long-term depression, in the hippocampus, a brain region that regulates spatial learning ability. The objective of this study was to determine whether niacin deficiency and pharmacological nicotinamide supplementation have an effect on spatial learning ability in young male Long-Evans rats as assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and whether brain NAD(+) and cADPR are modified by dietary niacin intake. We investigated 3 models of niacin deficiency: niacin deficient (ND) vs. pair fed (PF), ND vs. partially feed restricted (PFR), and ND vs. niacin recovered (REC). ND rats showed an improvement in spatial learning ability relative to PF, PFR, and REC rats. ND rats also showed a decrease in both NAD(+) and cADPR relative to PF and REC rats. We also investigated 1 model of pharmacological supplementation, niacin-supplemented vs. control. The niacin-supplemented group showed a small but significant spatial learning impairment relative to controls, and an increase in brain cADPR and NAD(+). Changes in neural function related to the NAD(+) associated calcium signaling molecule, cADPR, may be the link between diet and behavior.

  12. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  13. A Normative Model of Serum Inhibin B in Young Males

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Amy; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibin B has been identified as a potential marker of Sertoli cell function in males. The aim of this study is to produce a normative model of serum inhibin B in males from birth to seventeen years. We used a well-defined search strategy to identify studies containing data that can contribute to a larger approximation of the healthy population. We combined data from four published studies (n = 709) and derived an internally validated model with high goodness-of-fit and normally distributed residuals. Our results show that inhibin B increases following birth to a post-natal peak of 270 pg/mL (IQR 210–335 pg/mL) and then decreases during childhood followed by a rise at around 8 years, peaking at a mean 305 pg/mL (IQR 240–445 pg/mL) at around age 17. Following this peak there is a slow decline to the standard mature adult normal range of 170 pg/mL (IQR 125–215 pg/mL). This normative model suggests that 35% of the variation in Inhibin B levels in young males is due to age alone, provides an age-specific reference range for inhibin B in the young healthy male population, and will be a powerful tool in evaluating the potential of inhibin B as a marker of Sertoli cell function in pre-pubertal boys. PMID:27077369

  14. EPIDEMIC TREMOR, AN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AFFECTING YOUNG CHICKENS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. Elizabeth

    1934-01-01

    A new disease having a characteristic and well defined symptom complex is described as occurring in young chickens in four New England states. Tremor, principally of the head and neck, and progressive ataxia are the characteristic symptoms, either or both of which may be present in a single bird. Age at onset in field epidemics ranges from 3 days to 6 weeks, with a majority of cases reported at 3 weeks. Morbidity in commercial flocks ranges from 5 to 50 per cent; mortality in affected hatches may be 50 per cent. The disease may or may not recur in successive hatches, and in the same flock in successive years. Although birds may survive an attack of the disease, nervous symptoms persist in a majority of cases. There is no evidence that nutritional factors are involved. Normal chickens have not contracted the disease by contact with affected birds. The disease has been reproduced in normal chickens by intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from affected birds. Twenty brain-to-brain passages have been made up to the present time. The incubation period in laboratory passages ranges from 6 to 44 days with symptoms appearing usually between 21 and 28 days. The proportion of inoculated birds developing symptoms has increased with successive passages. The infective agent in the brain has survived in 50 per cent glycerine for 69 days. No organism has been cultivated. The disease has been reproduced after inoculation with bacteriologically sterile filtrates obtained with Seitz and Berkefeld N filters. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the infective agent in the chicken embryo have been inconclusive. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by birds which had survived the disease were not infected, nor were they immune to inoculation at 6 weeks of age. The characteristic lesion of the disease consists of microscopic focal collections of glia cells, perivascular infiltration, degeneration of Purkinje's cells, and degeneration of nerve cells. Foci of infiltration are

  15. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  16. Painless thyroiditis presenting as apathetic hyperthyroidism in a young male.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, David Y; Kepchar, Jessica; Sartori, Roberto; Sarkar, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Apathetic hyperthyroidism is an uncommon presentation of thyrotoxicosis that is most commonly observed in elderly individuals. A small number of cases, however, have been observed in young adults-all of whom were female. We describe a case of apathetic hyperthyroidism due to painless thyroiditis in a 23-year-old active duty male, who presented with a 1-month history of change in behavior characterized by poverty of speech and disinterest in his surrounding environment. Initial evaluation for neuropsychological disorders was negative. Thyroid function tests showed a thyrotoxic state. Results of thyroid antibody testing and a thyroid uptake and scan supported the diagnosis of painless thyroiditis. The patient's presenting symptoms were attributed to apathetic thyrotoxicosis and he was treated supportively. His speech and social involvement slowly improved. Although uncommon in young adults, we recommend that apathetic hyperthyroidism be considered in the differential diagnosis of withdrawn social behavior and subsequently investigated with thyroid function tests.

  17. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  18. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories During Secondary School Predict Substance Use Among Urban Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multi-ethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived stress. As young adults, participants reported on the frequency and quantity of their alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a telephone interview. Controlling for demographic variables, self-regulation did not significantly change over adolescence, although there was significant variation in participants’ rates of growth and decline. Lower seventh grade self-regulation and less steep increases in self-regulation were predictive of higher young adult substance use. Male participants had significantly lower initial self-regulation and higher young adult substance use. The results suggest that interventions that build affective self-regulation skills in adolescence may decrease the risk of young adult substance use. PMID:26549966

  19. Handedness and cerebral anatomical asymmetries in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Crivello, Fabrice; Perchey, Guy; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2006-02-15

    Using voxel-based morphometry, we measured the cerebral anatomical asymmetries in a sample of 56 young right-handed males and then compared voxelwise asymmetry indices of these subjects to those of 56 young left-handed males. In the right-handed, the clusters of grey matter asymmetry corresponding to the leftward occipital petalia and planum temporale asymmetries were retrieved. Strong rightward temporo-parietal asymmetries were also observed, but the rightward grey matter asymmetry in the frontal lobe was less massive than previously described. Group comparisons of left- and right-handed subjects' asymmetry maps, performed at a statistical threshold not corrected for multiple comparisons, revealed significant effects of handedness on this pattern of anatomical asymmetry in frontal regions, notably in the lower central and precentral sulci, and also in the planum temporale, with right-handed subjects being more leftward asymmetric. Concerning white matter, although almost no focal differences between left- and right-handed subjects were detected, volumetric analyses at the hemispheric level revealed a leftward asymmetry, which happened to be significantly less marked in the left-handed. This latter result, together with the pattern of leftward white matter asymmetries, suggested that anatomical correlates of the left hemispheric specialization for language would exist in white matter. In the population we studied, differences in anatomical asymmetry between left- and right-handed subjects provided structural arguments for a greater functional ambilaterality in left-handed subjects.

  20. Articulation Rate and Vowel Space Characteristics of Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Acoustic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Misenheimer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Increased speaking rate is a commonly reported perceptual characteristic among males with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this preliminary study was to determine articulation rate--one component of perceived speaking rate--and vowel space characteristics of young males with FXS. Method: Young males with FXS (n = 38), …

  1. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male.

    PubMed

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebaek, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-10-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  2. Isometric push and pull strengths of young Taiwanese males.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Lee, Yu-Chi; Hsu, Tin-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This study recruited 30 young Taiwanese males to determine the horizontally maximum isometric pushing and pulling strengths under 16 exertion heights and four handle-foot horizontal distances. This study shows that isometric push and pull strengths as measured on a simulated frictional floor condition in Taiwanese hypermarkets were markedly lower than previous tests using high-traction flooring or anchoring participant's feet. Pushing strengths were always higher than pulling in all 64 task combinations, whereas no significant differences were present at heights of 30-60 cm. When considering maximum push and pull force demands, the optimal heights for such activities would be 50-90 cm (approximately ranged from the knee to hip position). The push and pull strength profiles identified in this study must be used appropriately, considering the real task situations.

  3. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. PMID:22349083

  4. Juvenile hormone agonists affect the occurrence of male Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Oda, Shigeto; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2003-12-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna reproduces primarily by cyclic parthenogenesis. Environmental stimuli that signal a change to adverse conditions induce the organisms to switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. During the gamogenetic period, they produce male daphnids and dormant resting eggs, which can survive prolonged periods of environmental adversity. However, little is known about the mechanisms associated with the switch from parthenogenesis to gamogenetic reproduction. We investigated the effects of several juvenoids on sex determination in Daphnia. Females less than 24 h old were exposed to various concentrations of the test substance and were observed for 21 days. It was found that they can trigger the appearance of male daphnids: the percentage of males in the population increases to a level greater than what occurs under ordinary environmental conditions. We found that methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, methoprene, and the phenoxyphenoxy derivatives pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb (both insecticides) reduced the production of offspring and produced sex ratios dominated by male daphnids. Pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb showed striking effects at low concentrations. Exposure to either of these chemicals at a concentration of 330 ngl(-1) caused adult females to produce almost all male neonates. Methylfarnesoate, juvenile hormone III, and methoprene showed an effect in inducing male production at higher concentrations (3.7 x 10(3), 3.3 x 10(5), and 1.3 x 10(5) ngl(-1), respectively). Our findings suggest that juvenile hormone agonists, including some insecticides, affect the chemical signaling responsible for inducing the production of male offspring.

  5. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas in Young Male Patients: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Akira; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Sudovykh, Irina; Ito, Tetsuhide; Nakamura, Masafumi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Nobuyoshi; Oda, Yoshinao; Shimizu, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    A preoperative diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) in young male patients is difficult to achieve using radiological images. We herein present three cases of young male patients with relatively small SPNs. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed well-encapsulated, smooth-surfaced, heterogeneous solid lesions in all patients, and all preoperative diagnoses were achieved by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The final pathological diagnosis after surgery was an SPN with a Ki-67 labeling index of <2%. SPNs should be considered even in young male patients. EUS with EUS-FNA could be a useful diagnostic modality for SPNs even in young male patients. PMID:28255475

  6. Comparative studies on physical characteristics and resting metabolism between young male highlanders of Papua New Guinea and young male Japanese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, S.; Tsujita, J.; Mayuzumi, M.; Tanaka, N.

    1980-09-01

    Anthropometric measurements and measurements of resting metabolism were made on 15 young male highlanders in Beha village at altitudes between 1,500 m and 1,800 m in the Eastern Highland of Papua New Guinea in August in 1978 and 10 young male Japanese in Nishinomiya in September. New Guineans showed significantly lower height, considerably lower body weight than Japanese but heavier body weight for height and significantly greater mean values of Rohrer's index and Brugsch's index than Japanese. Skinfold thicknesses for New Guineans were significantly smaller than those for Japanese. Thus, physically, New Guineans were more muscular and athletic when compared with Japanese. The mean value of resting metabolic rate for New Guineans, 46.35 W/m2, at 25°C was considerably lower than that for Japanese, 51.01 W/m2. New Guineans showed significantly lower mean value of resting metabolism 47.57 W/m2 at 30°C than Japanese 55.16 W/m2. The mean values of respiratory quotient for New Guineans (RQ = 0.950 at 25°C and 0.971 at 30°C) were significantly greater than those for Japanese (0.81 at 25°C and 0.81 at 30°C). New Guineans showed considerably lower mean value of heart rate at 30°C (71.1 beats/min) than Japanese (79.2 beats/min). The smaller physique of New Guineans might be the result of lower caloric intake and protein intake as well as of living in a tropical climate.

  7. Interactions with heterospecific males do not affect how female Mesocricetus hamsters respond to conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive interference includes any interspecific interaction that reduces the fitness of one or both species involved. There are several types of reproductive interference, but they normally involve the direct cost of interacting or mating with heterospecifics. An indirect cost of interacting with heterospecific individuals is a consequent reduction in successful interactions with conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that being aggressive towards a heterospecific individual will diminish sexual responses towards conspecifics in later encounters. We used two species of Mesocricetus hamsters (Syrian and Turkish hamsters), whose interspecific interactions have previously been determined. We exposed or both exposed and paired Syrian hamster females with a conspecific or a heterospecific male. Five minutes later, we paired all females with a conspecific male and measured the latency to lordosis, the duration of lordosis and any incidence of aggression. We found that (1) interactions with heterospecific males did not affect how females responded to conspecific males in later encounters and (2) previous pairing of female subjects with either conspecific or heterospecific males promoted a faster sexual response by females in subsequent interactions with conspecific males. Thus, aggressive interactions of Syrian hamster females with heterospecific males, contrary to our initial hypothesis, had a positive effect on subsequent interactions with conspecific males. PMID:23439800

  8. [Fluorosis of coal burning affects the male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jin; Xiao, Yue-Hai; Sun, Fa

    2014-01-01

    Fluorosis of coal burning is a new type of endemic fluorosis in China, which affects the male reproductive system. Furthermore, the content of fluoride in the semen, sperm mortality, sperm concentration and the incidence of infertility are higher in severe fluorosis areas than in mild- and non-fluorosis areas, so are the levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. However, the levels of inhibin B, serum testosterone and estradiol show different degrees of reduction in severe fluorosis areas. Accordingly, fluorosis of coal burning, just like other endemic fluorosis, may affect the structure of male reproductive organs, the generation of sperm and reproductive endocrinology, resulting in the decline of men's reproductive ability.

  9. Alcohol, intelligence and violent crime in young males.

    PubMed

    Welte, J W; Wieczorek, W F

    1998-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a relationship between alcohol and violent behavior, but proof of a causal connection remains elusive. A recent review concluded that the key task that remained was to identify sub-groups of the population for which alcohol promotes violence. Because alcohol might induce violence by causing cognitive disruption (e.g., misunderstood communication), less intelligent persons could be vulnerable because they start out closer to the lower limit of comprehension. Our objective is to investigate the effect of lower intelligence on the alcohol/violence relationship. This analysis uses data from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men to investigate this hypothesis. Males, 16 to 19 years of age (N = 596), were selected from Buffalo, NY, by random digit dialing. High-risk males were oversampled. Two interviews were conducted 18 months apart, including drinking, criminal offenses, and psychological traits. Verbal intelligence was measured by the Ammons Quick Test and visual-motor intelligence by the Trail Making Test. An analysis of covariance was conducted with wave 2 average alcohol consumption and both measures of intelligence as independent variables, violent offending as the dependent variable, and race, wave 1 alcohol and wave 1 violence as covariates. Results show a positive main effect of wave 2 alcohol consumption, but also interactions with both verbal and visual-motor intelligence. These interactions indicate that the prevalence of violence increases significantly at low intelligence and high alcohol consumption levels. A parallel analysis with nonviolent offending as the dependent variable failed to find significant interactions. The combination of heavy drinking and lower intelligence is associated with a synergistic surge of violent behavior.

  10. Parenting Interventions for Male Young Offenders: A Review of the Evidence on What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buston, K.; Parkes, A.; Thomson, H.; Wight, D.; Fenton, C.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one in four incarcerated male young offenders in the UK is an actual or expectant father. This paper reviews evidence on the effectiveness of parenting interventions for male young offenders. We conducted systematic searches across 20 databases and consulted experts. Twelve relevant evaluations were identified: 10 from the UK, of…

  11. Distal Femoral Oblique Fracture in a Young Male Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David Naji; Al Khateeb, Hesham; Safwat, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we report a case of a distal femoral fracture in a 23-year-old male army cadet who presented to the Accident and Emergency department following a twisting injury while participating in a routine military marching exercise. A pathological fracture was considered but this suspicion was put to rest following thorough investigations, leaving only a diagnosis of a nontraumatic spontaneous femoral fracture. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of distal femoral fractures associated with nontraumatic military exercises, with the majority of injuries instead related to stress fractures. A vigilant literature search yielded no cases of similar injury nature, which is the primary reason we believe that those interested in orthopaedics or military doctors would find themselves drawn to this case. The patient presented with severe pain in his left thigh and on examination there was a deformity of his left thigh. In terms of investigations, a bone profile, plain film radiographs, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and tumor markers were all preformed and proved unremarkable. The definitive treatment was by open reduction and internal fixation. Femoral fractures often require significant amounts of force, particularly in young, healthy individuals. Generally, these injuries in this demographic follow high-energy traumas, with the lion's share occurring following a road traffic accident or other high-speed impact. More often than not, the treatment is surgical. Given the extraordinary manner of this such, one must be attentive and exhaustive in their investigation of such presentations. PMID:27258509

  12. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  13. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  14. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  15. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  16. Material deprivation affects high sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households.

  17. Does furan affect the thymus in growing male rats?

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, E Arzu; Kılıç, Aysun; Karacaoğlu, Elif; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz

    2012-07-01

    Furan has been identified in foods such as heat-treated foods, including coffee, canned meat, hazelnuts, and infant foods and formulas. Children may be exposed to furan via either consumption of these foods or their derivatives. We evaluated the effects of furan on the thymus of weaning male rats in the present study. Five separate groups containing male rats were used: control, oil control, and three furan-treated groups. Furan was given orally to rats in the treatment groups at doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg/day for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, thymus of the rats were examined morphologically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically. We observed that absolute and relative weights of thymus were decreased significantly in rats treated with 4- and 8-mg/kg/day doses of furan. In histopathological examination, enlargement of interstitial connective tissue between the thymic lobules, lymphocyte depletion, and hemorrhage were observed. We detected an increase in apoptotic cell counts in thymus of the treatment groups. In addition, we found significant differences in the distribution of fibronectin and transforming growth factor-beta in the thymus of the treatment groups. In conclusion, we suggest that furan has affected the thymus in growing male rats.

  18. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  19. Nurturing Young Black Males. Challenges to Agencies, Programs, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    This fundamentally encouraging book describes programs that offer young Black males from high-risk environments the same nurturing opportunities that other young people have to develop the competencies needed for adulthood. Chapters and their authors are (1) "Introduction" (Ronald B. Mincy); (2) "Adolescent Development"…

  20. Young Black Males: Resilience and the Use of Capital to Transform School "Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cecile; Maylor, Uvanney; Becker, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the idea of "failure" of young black males with respect to schooling. Perceptions of black masculinity are often linked to "underperformance" in the context of school academic achievement. This article addresses how young black men, by great personal effort, recover from school "failure". It…

  1. Is There a Correlation Between Static and Dynamic Postural Balance Among Young Male and Female Dancers?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Adams, Roger; Waddington, Gordon; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-01-01

    Aimed to investigate whether young male and female dancers have different patterns of association between static and dynamic postural balance (PB), 60 dancers from the Australian Ballet School (14-19 years old) were tested for static and dynamic PB with head and lumbar accelerometers. Monotonic relationships between static and dynamic PB were found in head movements among young female dancers in all three directions, but were found for young male dancers in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions only. In lumbar movements, monotonic relationships were found for young female dancers in the AP direction only. Comparing head with lumbar movements in static PB, young male dancers demonstrated monotonic relationships between head and lumbar movements in all 3 directions; however, young female dancers demonstrated monotonic relationships in the AP direction only. In the dynamic measurements, both male and female dancers demonstrated monotonic relationships between head and lumbar movements for all parameters measured in the ML and vertical directions (p < .05). In conclusions, among female dancers static PB ability is correlated with their dynamic ability, whereas among male dancers, no relationship between the static and dynamic PB in the AP direction exists. Male dancers showed head and lumbar coordination in the static PB movement, but both genders manifested no head and lumbar coordination in the AP direction measured for dynamic PB.

  2. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  3. Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ...

  4. Anaerobic Endurance of Young Untrained Male and Female Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Edyta; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Iwanska, Dagmara; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the anaerobic endurance of untrained male and female subjects by applying repeated maximal exercises. Material and methods: Untrained male subjects aged 23-27 years (n = 17, body height 170-197 cm, body mass 65-110 kg) and female ones aged 20-25 years (n = 10, body height 168-184 cm, body mass 55-86 kg) performed 6 maximal…

  5. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer’s Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards asking them what they are doing when hanging out (e.g., in the park or playground or on the street corner). Results showed that such stressors made a unique and significant contribution to the experience of somatic symptoms. Future research directions and implications for addressing the larger societal perceptions of young Black males are discussed. PMID:27134517

  6. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  7. Negative affect words prime beer consumption in young drinkers.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X; Fragopoulos, Fofo; Woodford, Tracy M; MacLeod, Colin M

    2006-01-01

    Negative affect is consistently associated with pathological aspects of alcohol use. Priming of motivation for alcohol by negative affect cues may contribute to this relationship. This study sought to determine whether: (a) exposure to negative affect words primes actual drinking behavior; (b) this effect is related to severity of alcohol problems; and (c) these effects are moderated by gender and anxiety sensitivity. Prime words (negative, positive, neutral) were administered using a synonym generation task. Primed drinking behavior was measured in a taste-test procedure, using placebo beer. Drinking scores were significantly greater in the negative affect condition than in the other two conditions, which did not differ from each other. Problem drinking severity directly predicted priming effects of negative affect words but was unrelated to drinking in the other two word prime conditions. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to drinking in any condition. Even unobtrusive exposure to negative affect cues can prime drinking behavior in young drinkers, and this effect is tied to the severity of alcohol problems.

  8. Young, Black, and Male In America: An Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor, Ed.; And Others

    This book evolved out of a presentation on the psychosocial problems of black adolescents and youth at a colloquium jointly sponsored by the Bay Area Black United Fund and the School of Social Welfare at the University of California at Berkeley in the Spring of 1982. The problems of black inner-city males are so severe that society tends to ignore…

  9. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  10. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Jay; McCourty, Althea; Lecanu, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies. Methods Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting. Conclusion We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased during aging. Such sexual dimorphism might explain, at least in part, the sex difference in neural fate we observed in young and old neural stem cells. These results suggest that sex and aging are two factors to be taken

  11. A Case of Nutritional Osteomalacia in Young Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Choong-Kyun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Bu Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important hormone that can be a role of bone and calcium metabolism in the human organ. Thus, vitamin D deficiency could contribute to the severity of metabolic bone disease. The osteomalacia, one of the metabolic bone diseases, is the softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium. We experienced a case of osteomalacia presented with walking disturbance, 30 year-old young aged man, caused by vitamin D deficiency due to strict vegetarian diet and lack of sunlight exposures. PMID:24524057

  12. Major depressive disorder symptoms in male and female young adults.

    PubMed

    Lopez Molina, Mariane Acosta; Jansen, Karen; Drews, Cláudio; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the prevalence rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and to differentiate the presence and severity of depressive symptoms between women and men aged 18-24 years. In this population-based, cross-sectional study (n = 1560), young adults were screened with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for MDD (n = 137). Participants then completed a self-report questionnaire to gather sociodemographic data, and the presence of each symptom of depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. The proportion of women (12.2%) with MDD was higher than that of men (5.3%). The symptoms of depression found to be significantly more prevalent in women were sadness, crying, difficulty making decisions, and lack of energy, as well as self-criticism, irritability, changes in self-image, work difficulty, and loss of interest in sex. Sadness and self-criticism were significantly more severe in women than in men. The presentation of depressive symptoms in young adults with MDD differed between men and women.

  13. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  14. Young Male Prisoners in a Young Offenders' Institution: Their Contact with Suicidal Behaviour by Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, H.; Davison, S.; Misch, P.; Taylor, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Prison suicide rates are increasing. The impact of witnessing a suicide or how many people do so is unknown. The aim of this study was to find how many young people detained in a Young Offenders' Institution (YOI) have had contact with another's suicide attempt and to test for association between this and own self-harming behaviour. A…

  15. Giant nontraumatic intradiploic arachnoid cyst in a young male*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajesh; Gupta, Puneet; Mahajan, Manik; Sharma, Poonam; Gupta, Anchal; Khurana, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Intradiploic arachnoid cysts have scarcely been reported in the literature, most reported cases being secondary to trauma. Nontraumatic arachnoid cysts are quite rare and have been reported mostly in adults. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass in the occipital region and intermittent headaches. On the basis of the findings of X-rays, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head, the mass was diagnosed as a giant intradiploic arachnoid cyst. PMID:27818549

  16. Does testosterone affect foraging behavior in male frogs?

    PubMed

    Desprat, Julia L; Mondy, Nathalie; Lengagne, Thierry

    2017-02-19

    During the breeding season, males often produce costly and extravagant displays or physical ornaments to attract females. Numerous studies have established that testosterone could directly influence the expression of certain sexual signals. However, few of these studies have focused on the indirect role that testosterone could play in modulating prey detection and visual performance to improve the foraging ability of males and hence their acquisition of nutritional resource. In the present study, we experimentally modified the testosterone levels of European tree frog males (Hyla arborea), staying in the natural range previously measured in the field, and we investigated the effect of testosterone on the foraging ability of individuals. Foraging capacities were measured on males placed in an arena with a virtual cricket moving on a computer screen. Our results demonstrated a significant effect of testosterone on the hunting behavior of H. arborea. We observed that testosterone reduced the orientation latency to virtual prey for supplemented males compared to controls. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the attack promptness of male frogs. Finally, our experiment did not demonstrate any impact of testosterone on male attack success.

  17. Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast in young male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, A; Fioriti, L; Brugia, M; Roila, F; Farabi, R; Sidoni, A; Avenia, N

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast ("Swiss cheese disease'') is a benign localized proliferative condition of the breast which occurs almost exclusively in young adult women. Patients with this lesion often have a family history of breast carcinoma, but rarely carcinoma may coexist with the lesion at the time of diagnosis. We present a case of a young male with juvenile papillomatosis of the breast. The pathology and clinical management of this rare lesion is discussed.

  18. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p < 0.05). The latency time from the beginning of each series (each voltage) decreased until 4 V (p < 0.01). The number of vocalizations/voltage increased from 4 V (p < 0.05). The length of each vocalization and the total time during which animals vocalized were greater in YM than AM (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males.

  19. Colonic Perforation in a Young Tetraplegic Male Caused by Zucchini

    PubMed Central

    Pigac, Biserka; Masic, Silvija

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colonic perforation is a clinical condition which occurs due to variety of reasons, such as intrinsic disorders of the intestine, extrinsic causes, but also due to presence of foreign bodies. Foreign objects enter gastrointestinal tract by oral or transanal introduction. Case report: we present an uncommon case of a 26- year-old tetraplegic male, whose death was a consequence of a widespread purulent peritonitis provoked by colonic perforation inflicted by an unusual foreign body, transanally introduced 28 centimeters long zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.). Conclusions: we share our experience in order to emphasize the importance of consideration and early recognition of foreign body presence in the alimentary tract as possible diagnosis. PMID:27994305

  20. HIV prevention interventions for young male commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C

    2014-03-01

    The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.

  1. Magnetic information affects the stellar orientation of young bird migrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindler, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    WHEN young birds leave on their first migration, they are guided by innate information about their direction of migration. It is generally assumed that this direction is represented twice, namely with respect to celestial rotation and with respect to the Earth's magnetic field1,2. The interactions between the two cue systems have been analysed by exposing hand-raised young birds during the premigratory period to cue-conflict situations, in which celestial rotation and the magnetic field provided different information. Celestial rotation altered the course with respect to the magnetic field3-7, whereas conflicting magnetic information did not seem to affect the course with respect to the stars8,9. Celestial information thus seemed to dominate over magnetic information. Here we report that the interaction between the two cue systems is far more complex than this. Celestial rotation alone seems to provide only a tendency to move away from its centre (towards geographical south), which is then modified by information from the magnetic field to establish the distinctive, population-specific migratory direction.

  2. An exploration of young ethnic minority males' beliefs about romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners.

  3. Influence of competition day on cognitive control and HRV in young male gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Francesco; Capuzzoni, Silvia; Rospo, Gianluca; La Torre, Antonio; Vailati, Fulvio; Vailati, Emanuele

    2016-09-21

    In gymnastics high levels of executive attention, physical and coordinative capacities are required. However, training planning does not usually account for dynamic alterations in cognitive capacity. This study investigated whether cognitive capacity was altered by the approach of a competition. Ten elite male gymnasts (16 ± 2yrs, 57.3 ± 16.1kg, 1.64 ± 1.27m) were monitored for sleep, life-demands, rating of perceived effort (RPE) and pain, starting 5 days before the competition and up to 5 days after it. Stroop task performance and concomitant heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored 5 days, 1 day before the competition then 1 and 5 days after. Sleep and life-demands were not affected by the competition. Localized pain ranged from mild to moderate levels throughout the observation period. It weakly correlated with RPE (r=0.241, p=0.010) and moderately with number of errors (NoEs) (r=0.639, p=0.047). RPE was higher for the competition day (p=0.002). Median reaction times during the Stroop task were higher in the period preceding the competition (p<0.001) for a similar NoEs. HRV during the congruent stimuli task showed a higher root mean square differences of successive beats, portion of NN intervals exceeding 50 ms and high frequency following the competition (p<0.05). Poincaré plot standard deviation 2 showed a positive correlation with Stroop task NoEs (r=0.590, p<0.001). In conclusion, the period preceding an important competition affected cognitive performance and HRV in young male gymnasts. A practical implication of this study is that training loads could be adjusted according to mental stress prior to a competition.

  4. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-19

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  5. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  6. Kinanthropometric attributes of young male combat sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Catikkas, Fatih; Kurt, Cem; Atalag, Ozan

    2013-12-01

    Although there are enough studies concerning the kinanthropometric attributes of players of sports such as football, basketball, or volleyball in Turkey, there are not enough studies on the same for combat sports. Hence, our aim is to assess the kinanthropometric attributes of different combat sports like karate, taekwondo, judo and kickboxing. The present study included 48 national level male athletes from four different combat sports (age, 20.3 (3.19) years; number of years playing the sport, 8.33 (4.59); height, 174.3 (7.15) cm; weight, 67.35 (10.55 kg). Skinfold thickness was measured with a skinfold caliper (Holtain Ltd., UK), and Yuhazs formula was used to calculate the body fat percentage. Somatotype assessment was carried out with a computer program (Sweat Technology Trial Version, South Australia). Width measurements were obtained with a slide caliper (HLT-100, Holtain Ltd.), and girth measurements were obtained with a non-flexible tape measure. The data obtained were analyzed with the computer program SPSS 17.0 in terms of the SD. The findings were as follows: body mass index (BMI), 22.00 (2.66) kg/m2; body fat percentage, 12.20% (3.07%); endomorphic component, 2.9 (1.30); mesomorphic component, 4.25 (1.30); and ectomorphic component, 3.10 (1.30). The cormic index was 51.99% (1.88%); Monourier index, 92.39% (4.47%); Acromio-iliac index, 60.87% (6.61%); Martine index, 6.29% (0.70%); Biacromial index, 22.58% (0.99%); and hip index, 13.91% (0.86%). The mesomorphic component was found to be dominant in our study. Although BMIs were found to be normal, body fat percentages were low. According to body proportions, the athletes who participated in this study had wide shoulders, narrow hips, and medium-sized trunks.

  7. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  8. Long-Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Young Adult Male Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mednick, Birgitte; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between divorce and young adult male crime, controlling for two factors; socioeconomic status and paternal criminality. The subjects were drawn from the subject pool of a Danish longitudinal study. The initial significant effects of divorce disappeared when the controlling factors were introduced through…

  9. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  10. After-School Programs: A Resource for Young Black Males and Other Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Malcolm H.

    2016-01-01

    While after-school programs are plentiful, they are often developed arbitrarily with little attention given to theoretical underpinnings that may inform program interventions. In this article, after-school programs are situated in resilience theory as protective factors, which encourage resilience among young Black males and other urban youth. The…

  11. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  12. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  13. Young Adult Male Satisfaction with Drug & Alcohol Rehabilitation Facilities: Interior Design Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potthoff, Joy K.

    1991-01-01

    Examined young adult male patient (n=18) satisfaction with interior environments of three different in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities: renovated Elk's Club; hospital wing; and facility built for drug and alcohol treatment. Findings indicated satisfaction declined over four-week treatment period; familiar objects were missed;…

  14. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  15. Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-09-01

    The object of present study is to investigate the effects of 50 GHz microwave frequency electromagnetic fields on reproductive system of male rats. Male rats of Wistar strain were used in the study. Animals 60 days old were divided into two groups--group I sham exposed and group II experimental (microwave exposed). During exposure, rats were confined in Plexiglas cages with drilled ventilation holes for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a specified specific absorption rate of 8.0 x 10(-4) W/kg. After the last exposure, the rats were sacrificed immediately and sperms were collected. Antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase), histone kinase, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed in sperm cells. Result shows a significant decrease in the level of sperm GPx and SOD activity (p < or = 0.05), whereas catalase shows significant increase in exposed group of sperm samples as compared with control (p < 0.02). We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean activity of histone kinase as compared to the control (p < 0.016). The percentage of cells dividing in a spermatogenesis was estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. The percentage of apoptosis in electromagnetic field exposed group shows increased ratio as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.004). There were no significant differences in the G(0)/G(1) phase; however, a significant decrease (p < 0.026) in S phase was obtained. Results also indicate a decrease in percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in exposed group as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.019). We conclude that these radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility.

  16. Delayed breeding affects lifetime reproductive success differently in male and female green woodhoopoes.

    PubMed

    Hawn, Amanda T; Radford, Andrew N; du Plessis, Morné A

    2007-05-15

    In cooperatively breeding species, many individuals only start breeding long after reaching physiological maturity [1], and this delay is expected to reduce lifetime reproductive success (LRS) [1-3]. Although many studies have investigated how nonbreeding helpers might mitigate the assumed cost of delayed breeding (reviewed in [3]), few have directly quantified the cost itself [4, 5] (but see [6, 7]). Moreover, although life-history tradeoffs frequently influence the sexes in profoundly different ways [8, 9], it has been generally assumed that males and females are similarly affected by a delayed start to breeding [7]. Here, we use 24 years of data to investigate the sex-specific cost of delayed breeding in the cooperatively breeding green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus) and show that age at first breeding is related to LRS differently in males and females. As is traditionally expected, males that started to breed earlier in life had greater LRS than those that started later. However, females showed the opposite pattern: Those individuals that started to breed later in life actually had greater LRS than those that started earlier. In both sexes, the association between age at first breeding and LRS was driven by differences in breeding-career length, rather than per-season productivity. We hypothesize that the high mortality rate of young female breeders, and thus their short breeding careers, is related to a reduced ability to deal with the high physiological costs of reproduction in this species. These results demonstrate the importance of considering sex-specific reproductive costs when estimating the payoffs of life-history decisions and bring into question the long-held assumption that delayed breeding is necessarily costly.

  17. Pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection favor aggressive, young males in polyandrous groups of red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Grant C; Spurgin, Lewis G; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-28

    A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection). Pre- and postcopulatory components of male reproductive success covaried positively; males with high mating success also had high paternity share. Two male phenotypes affected male pre- and postcopulatory performance: average aggressiveness towards rival males and age. Aggressive males mated with more females and more often with individual females, resulting in higher sexual exclusivity. Younger males mated with more females and more often with individual females, suffering less intense sperm competition than older males. Older males had a lower paternity share even allowing for their limited sexual exclusivity, indicating they may produce less competitive ejaculates. These results indicate that - in these populations - postcopulatory sexual selection reinforces precopulatory sexual selection, consistently promoting younger and more aggressive males. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.

    PubMed

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the

  19. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed.

  20. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  1. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  2. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

    2012-01-01

    Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice.

  3. Castration induces Parkinson disease pathologies in young male mice via inducible nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Khasnavis, Saurabh; Ghosh, Anamitra; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-07-19

    Although Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, available animal models do not exhibit irreversible neurodegeneration, and this is a major obstacle in finding out an effective drug against this disease. Here we delineate a new irreversible model to study PD pathogenesis. The model is based on simple castration of young male mice. Levels of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), glial markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD11b), and α-synuclein were higher in nigra of castrated male mice than normal male mice. On the other hand, after castration, the level of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) markedly decreased in the nigra of male mice. Accordingly, castration also induced the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the nigra and decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers and neurotransmitters in the striatum. Reversal of nigrostriatal pathologies in castrated male mice by subcutaneous implantation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone pellets validates an important role of male sex hormone in castration-induced nigrostriatal pathology. Interestingly, castration was unable to cause glial activation, decrease nigral GDNF, augment the death of nigral dopaminergic neurons, induce the loss of striatal fibers, and impair neurotransmitters in iNOS(-/-) male mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that iNOS-derived NO is responsible for decreased expression of GDNF in activated astrocytes. Together, our results suggest that castration induces nigrostriatal pathologies via iNOS-mediated decrease in GDNF. These results are important because castrated young male mice may be used as a simple, toxin-free, and nontransgenic animal model to study PD-related nigrostriatal pathologies, paving the way for easy drug screening against PD.

  4. Sex hormone influence on hepatitis in young male A/JCr mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed

    Theve, Elizabeth J; Feng, Yan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Cormier, Kathleen S; Bell, David R; Fox, James G; Rogers, Arlin B

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma, is especially virulent in males infected at an early age. Likewise, the murine liver carcinogen Helicobacter hepaticus is most pathogenic in male mice infected before puberty. We used this model to investigate the influence of male sex hormone signaling on infectious hepatitis. Male A/JCr mice were infected with H. hepaticus or vehicle at 4 weeks and randomized into surgical and pharmacologic treatment groups. Interruption of androgen pathways was confirmed by hormone measurements, histopathology, and liver gene and Cyp4a protein expression. Castrated males and those receiving the competitive androgen receptor antagonist flutamide had significantly less severe hepatitis as determined by histologic activity index than intact controls at 4 months. Importantly, the powerful androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone did not promote hepatitis. No effect on hepatitis was evident in males treated with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist bezafibrate, or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid. Consistent with previous observations of hepatitis-associated liver-gender disruption, transcriptional alterations involved both feminine (cytochrome P450 4a14) and masculine (cytochrome P450 4a12 and trefoil factor 3) genes, as well gender-neutral (H19 fetal liver mRNA, lipocalin 2, and ubiquitin D) genes. Hepatitis was associated with increased unsaturated C(18) long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) relative to saturated stearic acid. Our results indicate that certain forms of androgen interruption can inhibit H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis in young male mice, whereas androgen receptor agonism does not worsen disease. This raises the possibility of targeted hormonal therapy in young male patients with childhood-acquired HBV.

  5. Parental attachment, premorbid personality, and mental health in young males with hyperventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bih-Ching; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Lee, Fei-Yin; Tzeng, Don-Seng; Lin, Hsuan-Yin; Lung, For-Wey

    2007-10-31

    The aim of the study was to examine the predisposing and precipitating factors in the development of hyperventilation syndrome in males during military training in Taiwan. The participants included 110 young males who visited the emergency room of a teaching hospital in southern Taiwan because of an episode of acute hyperventilation during military training. Another 53 males, who had the same military training, and who did not experience hyperventilation or any psychiatric symptoms, were recruited as the control group. The risk of hyperventilation syndrome was increased by the following factors: greater neuroticism, less extraversion, parental overprotection, and less parental caring. A final parsimonious structural equation model showed a cause-effect relationship between the direct effects of maternal overprotection and introversion and the individual's neurotic characteristics, which contributed to the individual's current mental health status and the development of hyperventilation syndrome. Military training could be a precipitating factor in the development of hyperventilation syndrome in young males. The elucidation of these factors may contribute to the understanding and treatment of hyperventilation syndrome. The determination of competing risk factors and mediating effects in males with hyperventilation syndrome should be considered in future studies.

  6. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  7. Putting the Boys in the Picture: A Review of Programs To Promote Sexual Responsibility among Young Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    This document focuses entirely on pregnancy prevention and young males. It begins with a brief review of current literature on male involvement from which many of the findings and program ideas reported in the document were compiled. A short essay on the self-reported life experiences of adolescent males is followed with statistical data on the…

  8. Young African-American Males: Continuing Victims of High Homicide Rates in Urban Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gareth G.; Muhlhausen, David B.

    To measure the extent of the progress that has been made in the fight against violent crime over the past decade and to get some perspective on the progress that must still be made, this analysis examines the data for one of the most vulnerable groups in the United States, young African American males who reside in eight of the largest U.S.…

  9. An Interesting Case of Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome in a Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Konowitz, Nicholas; Lu, Hannah; Faqah, Anadil; Kuruvilla, Aneesh

    2017-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare disease with a limited number of cases reported in the literature. It typically presents with orbital pain associated with palsy of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve. We present an interesting case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in a young male who responded well to high-dose steroids and in a few days had significant improvement in his retro-orbital pain and ocular movements. PMID:28210639

  10. The implication of salience network abnormalities in young male adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Guan, Yanyan; Cheng, Jiadong; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-20

    Studying the neural correlates of smoking behaviors in young adulthood is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes. In previous addiction studies, the important roles of the salience network (SN) in drug cue processing and cognitive control have been revealed. Unfortunately, few studies focused on the resting-state functional connectivity and structural integrity abnormalities of SN in young adult smokers, and less is known about its association with smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits. Thirty-one young male adult smokers and 30 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers participated in this study. The structural and functional connectivity differences of SN were investigated between young adult smokers and nonsmokers by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), which were then correlated with the smoking behavioral assessments (pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)) as well as impaired cognitive control measured by the Stroop task. Within SN, reduced RSFC and increased fractional anisotropy (FA) were found between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right insula in young adult smokers relative to nonsmokers. The RSFC between the ACC and right insula was negatively correlated with the number of errors during the incongruent condition of the Stroop task in young adult smokers. Additionally, the right insula-ACC RSFC was negatively correlated with pack-years in young adult smokers. Our results revealed abnormal RSFC and structural integrity within the SN in young adult smokers, which shed new insights into the neural mechanism of nicotine dependence.

  11. Main Facilitators of Smoking Among Young Males in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Amiri, Parisa; Amirshekari, Golshan; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases and its alarming trend. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and determine facilitating factors for smoking in young males, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), from their own perspective. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted within the framework of the TLGS. Participants were young males with 15 to 25 years of age and various levels of education. The inductive content analysis approach was used to analyze data on the participants’ perceptions with regard to smoking facilitators. Data collection was conducted through discussions by six semi-structured focus groups consisted of five to seven people. All the interviews were transcribed after being recorded and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Results: Two main categories derived from the analysis of the data: I) personal needs and features; and II) environmental facilitators. The former concept included three subcategories: 1) fulfilling essential needs; 2) search for identity; and 3) lack of life skills. Environmental facilitators were also divided into two subcategories: 1) social patterns; and 2) ease of access. Conclusions: Tendency towards smoking is influenced by different factors. Clarifying these influential factors for smoking from the perspective of young males can be important in designing effective preventive programs. PMID:25593726

  12. Male white grub beetles prefer the pheromone composition of young females in the field.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, N; Yasui, H; Wakamura, S; Nagayama, A; Arakaki, N

    2016-10-01

    Females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release both (R)- and (S)-2-butanol as sex pheromones, but the males are only attracted to (R)-2-butanol. In laboratory-reared females, the proportion of the (R)-isomer decreased significantly as their calling opportunities increased and as they aged. We examined whether such qualitative changes also occur in field populations. We collected virgin females from the field and then trapped and analysed the volatiles emitted during their first and second callings. The ratio of (R)- to (S)-2-butanol (R/S) was 78:22 at the first calling, but shifted to 39:61 at the second calling. While investigating the composition of the female pheromones, the question arose as to whether the male preferences change in response to the shift in female pheromone composition. To answer this question, we observed the behaviour of young and old males in response to various R/S ratios as lures in the laboratory and in the field. In the flight tunnel assay of laboratory-reared individuals, young males touched female models with a 9:1 R/S ratio lure less than those with pure (R)-2-butanol; however, older males touched the two groups with equivalent frequency. In the field trap test, older males were much more attracted to (R)-2-butanol-scented lures. When we tested using lures with the same amount of (R)-2-butanol but added different amounts of the (S)-isomer, we found that increased levels of (S)-2-butanol resulted in lower attractiveness to males. (S)-2-butanol was confirmed to have an inhibitive activity in the attractiveness of (R)-2-butanol.

  13. Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

    2008-09-01

    The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.

  14. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  15. Male seminal fluid substances affect sperm competition success and female reproductive behavior in a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females' initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females' initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species.

  16. Male Seminal Fluid Substances Affect Sperm Competition Success and Female Reproductive Behavior in a Seed Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takashi; Goenaga, Julieta; Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Arnqvist, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Male seminal fluid proteins are known to affect female reproductive behavior and physiology by reducing mating receptivity and by increasing egg production rates. Such substances are also though to increase the competitive fertilization success of males, but the empirical foundation for this tenet is restricted. Here, we examined the effects of injections of size-fractioned protein extracts from male reproductive organs on both male competitive fertilization success (i.e., P2 in double mating experiments) and female reproduction in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that extracts of male seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 1 day after the females’ initial mating, while extracts from accessory glands and testes increased competitive fertilization success when males mated with females 2 days after the females’ initial mating. Moreover, different size fractions of seminal fluid proteins had distinct and partly antagonistic effects on male competitive fertilization success. Collectively, our experiments show that several different seminal fluid proteins, deriving from different parts in the male reproductive tract and of different molecular weight, affect male competitive fertilization success in C. maculatus. Our results highlight the diverse effects of seminal fluid proteins and show that the function of such proteins can be contingent upon female mating status. We also document effects of different size fractions on female mating receptivity and egg laying rates, which can serve as a basis for future efforts to identify the molecular identity of seminal fluid proteins and their function in this model species. PMID:25893888

  17. Teachers' Affective Presentation of Children's Books and Young Children's Display of Affective Engagement during Classroom Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschovaki, Eleni; Meadows, Sara; Pellegrini, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how teachers' use of affective strategies (voice intonation, dramatization, personal involvement comments) during the reading and discussion of books influence young children's affective reactions (dramatization, personal engagement, language play comments). Twenty kindergarten teachers read four books, two fiction and two…

  18. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  19. Repeated carbon nanotube administrations in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes are promising materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, however, their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress, and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired after 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality, and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice. PMID:20693989

  20. Right ventricular myocardial responses to progressive exercise in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Rowland, T; Wharton, M; Masters, T; Mozer, M; Santiago, M; Smith, D L

    2014-11-01

    Recent attention has been focused on possible unique features of the right ventricular response to exercise. This study investigated a) the responses of right ventricular cardiac dynamics and myocardial function to a standard bout of progressive cycle exercise in healthy young males, and b) the effect of level of aerobic fitness on these responses. 14 athletically-trained males (20.4±1.5 years) and 11 normally-active males (21.1±1.3 years) underwent a progressive upright cycle test to exhaustion with measurement of gas exchange variables and assessment of right ventricular stroke volume, systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, and tricuspid inflow velocities by standard Doppler echocardiographic techniques at rest, submaximal and peak exercise. Stroke volume rose initially by approximately 27% in each group, followed by stable values to exhaustion. Values of maximal stroke index and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly greater in the trained group than the normally-active males (62±10 ml m(-2), 54.3±4.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1); 49±7 ml m(-2), 40.3±5.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively). No significant differences were observed in increases in systolic or diastolic myocardial velocities, peak pulmonary outflow velocity, systolic ejection rate, or tricuspid inflow velocity between the 2 groups. The magnitude of change of these variables was similar to those previously described for left ventricular responses to similar exercise. This study revealed no unique features of right ventricular functional responses to an acute exercise challenge in young males.

  1. Multivariate analysis of 200-m front crawl swimming performance in young male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Sadeghi, Heydar; Sobhkhiz, Azade; Mohammadian, Kamran; Nikouei, Ameneh; Baghaiyan, Mahdi; Fattahi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomechanical (stroke rate, stroke length, and stroke index), anthropometrical (body height, body mass, body mass index, arm span, shoulders width, thigh, leg and upper arm lengths), and muscle architectural (muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length) parameters as predictors of 200-m front crawl swimming performance in young male swimmers. Twenty-two county level male swimmers (mean ±SD: age: 14.52 ± 0.77 years; body height: 173 ± 5 m; body mass: 60.5 ± 5.7 kg) performed a 200-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that biomechanical parameters (87%) characterized best 200-m front crawl swimming performance, followed by anthropometrical (82%) and muscle architectural (72%) parameters. Also, stroke length (R2 = 0.623), body height (R2 = 0.541), fascicle length of Triceps Brachii (R2 = 0.392) were the best single predictors that together explained 92% of the variability of the 200-m front crawl swimming performance in these swimmers. As a conclusion, with respect to higher performance prediction power of biomechanical parameters, technique should represent the core of the training program at these ages. In addition, these findings could be used for male young swimmers selection and talent identification.

  2. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  3. Contagion in Family Affection: Mothers, Fathers, and Young Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Examines affective relationships from the perspective of both parent and child. Results show that parents' affect is related to martial quality and the partner's relationship with the child. Children's affect for mothers and for fathers is related to their feelings toward the other parent but not to their parents' martial quality. Includes…

  4. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies.

  5. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  6. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  7. Risk Factors for Urethral Condyloma among Heterosexual Young Male Patients with Condyloma Acuminatum of Penile Skin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on risk factor of urethral condyloma (UC). The subjects of our study included genital warts patients who had been diagnosed as having condyloma acuminatum of penile skin (CAPS) with/without UC. Relationship with UC of number of life time female partners, co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status, number of CAPS and wart diameter were studied by use of multivariate analysis. Co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status were risk factors of UC in heterosexual young male patients with CAPS. This information will be helpful for providing more professional counseling to patients with genital warts. PMID:27659432

  8. A case of severe pulmonary thromboembolism in a young male with klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung-Soo; Cho, Deok-Kyu; Koh, Won-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Won, Ki-Bum; Cho, Yun-Hyeong; Hwang, Eui-Seock; Koh, Jong-Hoon

    2012-08-01

    A young male patient diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome was admitted to our hospital via the emergency room with chief complaints of acute chest pain and dyspnea. Pulmonary thromboembolism was diagnosed from his chest CT images. His symptoms improved after he underwent thrombolysis and anticoagulation treatment. Klinefelter syndrome has a tendency towards hypercoagulability due to hormonal imbalance and one or more inherited thromophilic factors. Thus, Klinefelter syndrome patients with a past medical history of venous thromboembolism require continuous oral anticoagulation therapy for a period of at least six months.

  9. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    PubMed Central

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance. PMID:22363880

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a young male: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Nivedita; Mishra, Kiran; Saini, Pradeep; Agarwal, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney is a rare tumor. A total of approximately 79 primary renal cases have been reported to date. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors occur preferentially in the soft-tissues of the paravertebral region and chest wall, less frequently in extremities, with a slight male predominance. We report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 17-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma-stage 4. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor of monotonous sheets of round cells with focal areas of rosette formations and high mitotic rate with Ki67 index of 25-30%. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 confirming the diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney needs to be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in young adults presenting with a large kidney mass.

  11. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  12. The facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1) gene affects males more severely and more frequently than females.

    PubMed

    Zatz, M; Marie, S K; Cerqueira, A; Vainzof, M; Pavanello, R C; Passos-Bueno, M R

    1998-05-01

    We investigated 52 families of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD1), including 172 patients (104 males and 68 females). Among 273 DNA samples which were analyzed with probe p13E-11, 131 (67 males and 64 females) were shown to carry an EcoRI fragment smaller than 35 kb; 114 among them were examined clinically and neurologically. Results of the present investigation showed that: a) there is no molecular evidence for autosomal or X-linked recessive inheritance of FSHD1; b) an excess of affected males, which is explained by a significantly greater proportion of females than males among asymptomatic cases and a significantly greater proportion of affected sons than daughters observed in the offspring of asymptomatic mothers; c) the penetrance of the FSHD1 gene until age 30 was estimated as 83% for both sexes but was significantly greater for males (95%) than for females (69%); d) new mutations occur significantly more frequently in females than males among somatic/germinal mosaic cases; and e) severely affected cases originated more often through new mutations or were transmitted through maternal than through paternal lines including somatic/germinal mothers. These observations have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for FSHD1 and for genetic and prognostic counseling according to the gender of the affected patient.

  13. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  14. Masturbation and its relationship to sexual activities of young males in Korean military service.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y J; Lee, W H; Rha, K H; Xin, Z C; Choi, Y D; Choi, H K

    2000-04-01

    This study examined the masturbatory experiences and other sexual activities of young Korean males in military service. The actual status of masturbation and its relationship to sexual activity questionnaire. A total of 1,212 young males among military personnel in Korea were interviewed with sexuality questionnaires on masturbation, sexual intercourse and personal characteristics. We divided these subjects into four groups according to the age of initiation of masturbation and analyzed the relationship between masturbation and other sexual activities. The mean age of subjects was 22.03 +/- 1.22 (19-27) years. The percentage of men who reported ever having masturbated was 98.1% (1189/1212) and the average age of initiation of masturbation was 14.26 +/- 1.66 years. So we divided 1,212 males into four groups on the basis of the average age below and above one standard deviation. Overall, 67.7% (821/1212) had experienced sexual intercourse, and significantly, the earlier the initiation age of masturbation, the higher the coitus rate in each group (p < 0.05). About 21.5% of the men who were not virgins had experienced their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. The mean age of first coitus, the incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and the frequency of masturbation were closely linked to the initiation age of masturbation, respectively (p < 0.05). A masturbatory guilt feeling was seen in about 10.9% (132/1212) and there was no significant difference according to the types of religious worship (p = 0.227). On the basis of this study, sexual activities generally increased accordingly as the beginning of masturbation was earlier. Coital incidence in this study was 67.7% for young males in Korean military service, and 21.5% of them had their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prostitution still plays an important role in the sexual lives of males in Korea. The incidence of STD was over 10% and homosexual manifestation was seen in 1.07% of subjects

  15. Impact of morphological and motor dimensions on success of young male and female karateka.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Blazević, Stipe

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify morphological and motor structures which determine the achievement of top results in karate in the age group of younger cadets. With this purpose, a set of 18 morphological measures and a set of 12 motor tests were used on a sample of 60 male and 51 female Croatian karateka aged 13 to 15. Different morphological structures were isolated by factor analysis according to gender. Two morphological factors in male karateka, named: ecto-mesomorphy and fat tissue. Three factors in female karateka, named: endo-mesomorphic somatotype, ecto-mesomorphic somatotype and transverse dimensionality of the skeleton, particularly of the hand and wrist. Also, different motor structures were isolated by factor analysis according to gender. In male karateka: the first factor responsible for cortical regulation of movement, the second one responsible for power-force regulation and the third one named precision. In female karateka: the first factor integrating regulators of speed, force, movement structures and muscle tone with synergetic regulation, the second one responsible for energy regulation integrating core strength and sprint, and the third one named precision. Latent structure of fighting efficiency in karate differs according to gender. Two morphological factors, namely force regulator and factor of cortical regulation of movement, and one morphological factor defined as ecto-mesomorphy factor have a significant impact on determining success in male karateka. In determining fighting efficiency of young female karateka, two motor factors have significant impact, namely: the first factor integrating regulators of speed, force and agility/coordination, accompanied by regulator of muscle tone and synergetic regulation, and the second factor of basic core strength which ensures the initial energy component in technique performance, particularly of kicks. Out of all morphological factors, transverse dimensionality of the skeleton, particularly of

  16. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  17. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  18. Asperger Syndrome in Adolescent and Young Adult Males. Interview, Self- and Parent Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS…

  19. Prevention of partner violence by focusing on behaviors of both young males and females.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, K Daniel; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2012-08-01

    Historically, the political context of partner physical aggression policy and research has focused on protection of physically victimized women and mandated interventions for male batterers. This emphasis is understandable when one considers the injuries and deaths of women by men. However, physical aggression against partners among teens is a very different phenomenon than battering. Intimate partner violence (IPV) in the form of physical aggression, the focus of this review, often starts in junior high school, and approximately 35% of male and female senior high school students report engaging in IPV. The specific trajectory of IPV varies by sample, but IPV appears to decrease in the late teens or early 20s. IPV is generally reported by both males and females, and not attributable to self-defense. IPV is significantly stable in couples who remain together, but stability appears lower if partners change. Given the importance of physical aggression by both males and females, prevention and early intervention programs need to address relationship factors, and targeted prevention and early intervention would be prudent with young high-risk couples. Decades of intervention programs for batterers have not proven very successful, and IPV appears easier to prevent than treat. Thus, emphasis on prevention of IPV seems both timely and promising. This review is intended for diverse audiences including educational administrators, policy makers, and researchers. It reviews issues such as who and when to target for IPV prevention programs, and it summarizes data relevant to these issues.

  20. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  1. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  2. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  3. Analysis of Setting Efficacy in Young Male and Female Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Alberto Moreno; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; Rabaz, Fernando Claver; Arroyo, M. Perla Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The main objective of this study was to analyse the variables that predicted setting efficacy in complex I (KI) in volleyball, in formative categories and depending on gender. The study sample was comprised of 5842 game actions carried out by the 16 male category and the 18 female category teams that participated in the Under-16 Spanish Championship. The dependent variable was setting efficacy. The independent variables were grouped into: serve variables (a serve zone, the type of serve, striking technique, an in-game role of the server and serve direction), reception variables (a reception zone, a receiver player and reception efficacy) and setting variables (a setter‘s position, a setting zone, the type of a set, setting technique, a set’s area and tempo of a set). Multinomial logistic regression showed that the best predictive variables of setting efficacy, both in female and male categories, were reception efficacy, setting technique and tempo of a set. In the male category, the jump serve was the greatest predictor of setting efficacy, while in the female category, it was the set’s area. Therefore, in the male category, it was not only the preceding action that affected setting efficacy, but also the serve. On the contrary, in the female category, only variables of the action itself and of the previous action, reception, affected setting efficacy. The results obtained in the present study should be taken into account in the training process of both male and female volleyball players in formative stages. PMID:28149423

  4. Acquired resistance affects male sexual display and female choice in guppies

    PubMed Central

    pez, S. L

    1998-01-01

    Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.

  5. Vascular and baroreceptor abnormalities in young males with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boutcher, Yati N; Park, Young J; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2009-12-01

    Vascular and baroreceptor abnormalities in 44 young males, mean age 21 years, comprising of offspring with (FH(+); n = 22) and without (FH(-); n = 22) hypertensive parents, were investigated. Peak forearm blood flow (FBF), which was defined as the highest blood flow obtained following reactive hyperaemia, was assessed using strain gauge plethysmography following 5 min of ischemia. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor sensitivity was assessed using lower body negative pressure for 5 min at -20 mmHg and was determined by calculating change of stroke volume and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) to lower body negative pressure. Carotid baroreceptor sensitivity was assessed using neck suction at -20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg and was calculated by dividing RR interval by systolic blood pressure. Augmentation index, a measure of wave reflection, was assessed using applanation tonometry and was calculated as the ratio of augmented pressure and pulse pressure. Peak FBF of FH(+) was 19% lower than the FH(-) (p = 0.02). Also FH(+) had 17% higher peak FVR compared to FH(-) (p = 0.04). However, there were no significant differences between groups for cardiopulmonary, carotid baroreceptor sensitivity, and augmentation index. These results suggest that peripheral vascular dysfunction appears earlier than abnormal baroreceptor sensitivity in young males with a family history of hypertension.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub-scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between-group differences were also observed in change of BIS-11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders.

  7. Low testosterone levels and unimpaired melatonin secretion in young males with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robeva, R; Kirilov, G; Tomova, A; Kumanov, P

    2006-12-01

    The interrelations between testosterone, insulin and melatonin levels in males with metabolic syndrome (MS) are still not clarified, especially in young age groups. The aim of the present study was to compare the testosterone serum levels in young men with MS to those in healthy controls, and to determine the possible changes in their melatonin rhythm, as well as the relation between melatonin, insulin and lipid profile. Fasting insulin and testosterone concentrations were measured in 10 healthy nonobese and 10 MS patients. Blood samples for melatonin, insulin and luteinizing hormone (LH) were collected at 19.00, 03.00 and 11.00 hours. A significant difference was found between the testosterone levels in controls and patients. Luteinizing hormone levels in both groups were similar, however, higher night LH levels in MS patients were observed. No changes in the melatonin concentrations of the two groups were found. In conclusion, total testosterone levels were significantly lower in young men with MS compared with healthy age-matched controls. Mild hypoandrogenia in hyperinsulinaemic patients was not related with changes in their melatonin levels. No alterations in the endogenous melatonin rhythm of the MS patients were found.

  8. Increased extra-pair paternity in broods of aging males and enhanced recruitment of extra-pair young in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Forsman, Anna M.; Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Johnson, L. Scott; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite keen interest in extra-pair mating in birds, its adaptive significance remains unresolved. Here, we use a multi-year dataset to test whether traits of a female’s social mate influence her propensity to produce extra-pair offspring in a population of house wrens, and whether producing extra-pair young has consequences for a female’s fitness through effects on offspring survival. Females were most likely to produce extra-pair offspring when paired with old males and when paired with males on poor-quality territories, although this latter effect was marginally non-significant. Among offspring, the cutaneous immunity of within-pair young decreased as the age of their sires increased, but cutaneous immunity of extra-pair young was not affected by the age of their extra-pair sires or by the age of the males rearing them. Extra-pair offspring were more likely than within-pair offspring to return as breeding adults to the local population, with extra-pair sons being more likely to return as a breeder for multiple years. Our findings support the hypothesis that females produce extra-pair offspring to enhance their inclusive fitness beyond what they are capable of given the male with which they are socially paired. PMID:26258950

  9. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  10. The effect of red wine consumption on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.

  11. Dads Who Do Diapers: Factors Affecting Care of Young Children by Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Although many fathers today spend more time with children than was the case in the past, physical care of young children remains primarily mothers' work. Yet some fathers claim that they do work traditionally seen as the "mother's job" every day. Using subsample data from the male respondent file of the National Survey of Family Growth 2002 (n =…

  12. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    PubMed

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  13. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (p<0.05) than ambulatory controls. However, HLS had no effect on prostate (0.65 +0.09g vs 0.69 +0.12g) or seminal vesicles (1.01 +0.35g vs 0.75 +0.22g) weights compared to controls. The absence of effects on plasma T in this study contrasts previous reports of reduced plasma T in HLS male rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  14. Complete rectal prolapse in young Egyptian males: Is schistosomiasis really condemned?

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A; ElAbbassy, Islam H; Kamal, Ahmed M; Somaie, Dina A

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the assumption that schistosomiasis is the main cause of rectal prolapse in young Egyptian males. METHODS Twenty-one male patients between ages of 18 and 50 years with complete rectal prolapse were included in the study out of a total 29 patients with rectal prolapse admitted for surgery at Colorectal Surgery Unit, Ain Shams University hospitals between the period of January 2011 and April 2014. Patients were asked to fill out a specifically designed questionnaire about duration of the prolapse, different bowel symptoms and any past or present history of schistosomiasis. Patients also underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy and four quadrant mid-rectal biopsies documenting any gross or microscopic rectal pathology. Data from questionnaire and pathology results were analyzed and patients were categorized according to their socioeconomic class. RESULTS Twelve patients (57%) never contracted schistosomiasis and were never susceptible to the disease, nine patients (43%) had history of the disease but were properly treated. None of the patients had gross rectal polyps and none of the patients had active schistosomiasis on histopathological examination. Fifteen patients (71%) had early onset prolapse that started in childhood, majority before the age of 5 years. Thirteen patients (62%) were habitual strainers, and four of them (19%) had straining dating since early childhood. Four patients (19%) stated that prolapse followed a period of straining that ranged between 8 mo and 2 years. Nine patients (43%) in the present study came from the low social class, 10 patients (48%) came from the working class and 2 patients (9%) came from the low middle social class. CONCLUSION Schistosomiasis should not be considered the main cause of rectal prolapse among young Egyptian males. Childhood prolapse that continues through adult life is likely involved. Childhood prolapse probably results from malnutrition, recurrent parasitic infections and diarrhea that induce

  15. Mechanistic or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may determine robustness in young male mice at the cost of accelerated aging

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, Olga V.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Males, who are bigger and stronger than females, die younger in most species from flies to mammals including humans. Cellular mass growth is driven in part by mTOR (Target of Rapamycin). When developmental growth is completed, then, instead of growth, mTOR drives aging, manifested by increased cellular functions, such as hyper-secretion by fibroblasts, thus altering homeostasis, leading to age-related diseases and death. We hypothesize that MTOR activity is elevated in male mice compared with females. Noteworthy, 6 months old males were 28 % heavier than females. Also levels of phosphorylated S6 (pS6) and phospho-AKT (p-AKT, Ser 473), markers of the mTOR activity, were higher in male organs tested. Levels of pS6 were highly variable among mice and correlated with body weight and p-AKT. With age, the difference between levels of pS6 between sexes tended to minimize, albeit males still had hyperactive mTOR. Unlike fasting, the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of rapamycin eliminated pS6 in all organs of all females measured by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry without affecting p-AKT and blood insulin. Although i.p. rapamycin dramatically decreased levels of pS6 in males too, it was still detectable by immunoblotting upon longer exposure. Our study demonstrated that both tissue p-AKT and pS6 were higher in young males than young females and were associated with increased body weight and insulin. These data can explain larger body size and faster aging in males. Our data suggest higher efficacy of rapamycin compared to fasting. Higher sensitivity of females to rapamycin may explain more pronounced life extension by rapamycin observed in females compared to males in several studies. PMID:23443503

  16. High and low contraceptive use amongst young male offenders: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Buston, Katie; Parkes, Alison; Wight, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There are high rates of fatherhood and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young incarcerated men. Here we focus on a sample of men incarcerated in a Scottish Young Offender Institution, analysing their accounts of their contraceptive use. Those who report low or no use of contraception are compared with those who report high use. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 40 young male offenders, aged 16–21 years. Participants were purposively sampled using answers from a questionnaire administered to 67 inmates. Data from those men (n=31) reporting either high (n=14) or low/no use (n=17) of contraception are analysed here. Results Low users emphasise their desire for pleasure and appear fatalistic about both pregnancy and disease prevention. High users report a strong desire to protect themselves and their ‘manliness’ by using condoms to avoid the risk of STIs and, to a lesser extent, pregnancy. Both sets of men present themselves in a traditionally masculine way, with high users emphasising power, authority and self-control to justify their non-risk-taking contraceptive behaviour. Conclusions The masculine narrative regarding self-protection, utilised by the high users, may be an effective method of intervention with potential and actual low users. Conventional masculinity valorises risk-taking but if particular forms of risk avoidance – condom use – can be legitimised as confirming one's masculinity it may be possible to persuade low users to adopt them. The opportunity to work with young men whilst incarcerated should be grasped. PMID:24736230

  17. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  18. A prospective series of musculoskeletal system rehabilitation of arthropathic joints in young male hemophilic patients.

    PubMed

    Gurcay, Eda; Eksioglu, Emel; Ezer, Ustun; Cakir, Banu; Cakci, Aytul

    2008-04-01

    The study aims to evaluate prospective results of physical therapy interventions and rehabilitation of arthropathic joints in young male hemophilic patients. Given that the effectiveness of the therapy would be higher if therapy is provided at early ages, a series of males aged 18 years or younger were included in the study. The study is a descriptive case series of 31 hemophilic children who consecutively referred to the physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic from the pediatric hematology clinic of the same hospital over a period of 12 months. After getting their oral informed consent, all the patients underwent an intensive, 4-week clinical rehabilitation program, concomitant with factor replacement treatment. A total of 65 arthropathic joints were evaluated in the study and physical therapy interventions were applied 5 days a week for 1 h daily. The range of motion (ROM), pain, clinical evaluation and disability scores were compared and contrasted before and after the 4-week physiotherapy program. The ROM of all involved joints improved (at knee, ankle and elbow) and the scores of pain, clinical evaluation and disability revealed statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001). A multidisciplinary approach is important in the management of hemophilic arthropathy and appropriate physiotherapy combined with adequate replacement factor therapy promotes maintenance of the musculoskeletal function in male hemophilic patients.

  19. How gender and task difficulty affect a sport-protective response in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Lipps, David B.; Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response of raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon (‘low difficulty’), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least 5 of 8 balls (‘high difficulty’). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants’ left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (p = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (p = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (p < .001) and acceleration (p = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (p < .001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296

  20. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  1. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  2. Increased Air Velocity Reduces Thermal and Cardiovascular Strain in Young and Older Males during Humid Exertional Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Wright Beatty, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been reported to have a lower evaporative heat loss capacity than younger adults during exercise when full sweat evaporation is permitted. However, it is unclear how conditions of restricted evaporative and convective heat loss (i.e., high humidity, clothing insulation) alter heat stress. to the purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress responses of young and older males during and following exercise in a warm/humid environment under two different levels of air velocity. Ten young (YOUNG: 24±2 yr) and 10 older (OLDER: 59±3 yr) males, matched for body surface area performed 4×15-min cycling bouts (15-min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in warm/humid conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (Low) and 3.0 (High) m·s(-1) air velocity while wearing work coveralls. Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MTsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate, % max skin blood flow (SkBF) (recovery only), and blood pressure (recovery only) were measured. High air velocity reduced core and skin temperatures (p < 0.05) equally in YOUNG and OLDER males (p > 0.05) but was more effective in reducing cardiovascular strain (absolute and % max HR; p < 0.05) in YOUNG males (p < 0.05). Greater increases in local dry heat loss responses (% max SkBF and cutaneous vascular conductance) were detected across time in OLDER than YOUNG males in both conditions (p < 0.05). Local dry heat loss responses and cardiovascular strain were attenuated during the High condition in YOUNG compared to OLDER (p < 0.05). High air velocity reduced the number of males surpassing the 38.0°C Tre threshold from 90% (Low) to 50% (High). Despite age-related local heat loss differences, YOUNG and OLDER males had similar levels of heat stress during intermittent exercise in warm and humid conditions while wearing work coveralls. Increased air velocity was effective in reducing heat stress equally, and cardiovascular strain to a greater extent, in YOUNG and OLDER

  3. The synthetic progestogen, Levonorgestrel, but not natural progesterone, affects male mate calling behavior of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Frauke; Kloas, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 100 million women use hormonal contraceptives, which act through progestogenic modes of action. These man-made hormones can enter the aquatic environment as they are excreted via feces and urine. Xeno-progestins are able to interfere with the endocrine system of female aquatic vertebrates impairing oogenesis and reproduction. However, data on progestogenic effects on reproductive behavior of male aquatic vertebrates are lacking. To evaluate whether progestins affect the mating behavior of male Xenopus laevis, we exposed male frogs to three environmentally relevant concentrations (10(-7) M, 10(-8) M and 10(-10) M) of the synthetic progestin Levonorgestrel (LNG) and the corresponding natural steroid progesterone (PRG), respectively. LNG at all exposure concentrations increased the proportions of advertisement calling, indicating a sexually aroused state of the males. Furthermore LNG at 10(-7) M decreased the relative proportions of rasping, a call type indicating a sexually unaroused state of the male. PRG, on the other hand, did not affect any of those parameters. Temporal and spectral features of the advertisement call itself were not affected by any of the two exposure treatments. Since LNG exhibits slight androgenic activity, the results suggest that LNG effects on male mate calling behavior of X. laevis are due to its moderate androgenic but not to its progestogenic activities. However, although males' sexual arousal seems to be enhanced by LNG, the adverse effects of LNG on female reproduction presumably outweigh these enhancing effects and LNG exposure nonetheless might result in reduced reproductive success of these animals.

  4. PPARα L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males

    PubMed Central

    Uthurralt, Julieta; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Bradbury, Meg; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Devaney, Joseph; Harmon, Brennan; Reeves, Erica K; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hansen, Barbara C; Seip, Richard L; Thompson, Paul D; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Gordon, Paul M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2007-01-01

    Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation). Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs) for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPARα L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004). Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001), but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002), indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARα L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPARα and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004), and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037). PMID:17705849

  5. Normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdong; Liu, Tieyan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Jingyi; Chen, Yuefeng; Sun, Pengyu; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this research, the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males has been studied. Methods: The sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted non-fat suppressed fast spin-echo images of pelvic cavities of 86 Chinese young males were studied. Result: Urethral sphincter complex threaded through the prostate and divided it into 2 parts: transition zone (TZ), periurethral glands internal to the urethral sphincter and peripheral zone (PZ), central zone (CZ), anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFS) zone external to the urethral sphincter. The length of urethral striated sphincter is 12.26-20.94 mm (mean 16.59 mm) at membranous urethra. Conclusions: In this paper, we summarized the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males with no urinary control problems. PMID:26629244

  6. Does allergic rhinitis affect communication skills in young adults?

    PubMed

    Cingi, Can Cemal; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence in the general population. The symptoms of AR can impair the cognitive capabilities of the affected people. The study of communication skills and AR interaction has not been adequately discussed. We aimed to analyze Social Communication Skills of university students with AR. Fifty patients suffering from AR and 50 healthy subjects were studied. All participants completed two questionnaires [Social Communication Skills Rating Scale (SCSRS) and Communication Questionnaire] for the assessment of social communication skills. Total scores of both SCSRS and Communication Questionnaire were higher in participants with AR than controls. When the questions of SCSRS were compared between the groups one by one, significant difference was observed between the groups for questions numbered 1-9 and 11, 12 (p < 0.05). Also, significant differences were observed between the groups for questions numbered 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of Communication Questionnaire (p < 0.05). Results of our study indicate that AR could negatively affect the social communication skills of the patients with AR. More research is however needed to validate this hypothesis.

  7. Perfectionism and risk for disordered eating among young French male cyclists of high performance.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Brunet, Emmanuel

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between dimensions of perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms among 42 young male amateur cyclists (M=21.8 yr., SD=3.7) over the three performance categories (Elite, National, Regional). They completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed athletes in the performance categories did not differ on dimensions of perfectionism. Only the National category differed from the Regional and the Elite categories in log-transformed Oral Control. Regression analyses showed that Other Oriented Perfectionism significantly contributed 15%, 12%, and 14% of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT, Dieting, and Bulimia scores. Socially Prescribed Perfectionism was the significant predictor of log-transformed Oral Control scores, accounting for 16% of the variance. This study highlights the relevance of interpersonal facets of the perfectionism construct to eating disorder symptoms.

  8. Risk of completed suicide in 89,049 young males assessed by a mental health professional.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Goldberg, Shira; Werbeloff, Nomi; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Shelef, Leah; Large, Matthew; Davidson, Michael; Fruchter, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    In an individual who seeks help or is referred to a mental health professional it is common sense and clinical practice to assume that suicidal thoughts and previous attempts constitute risk factors for imminent suicide. However, this assumption has not been supported by large, population-based longitudinal studies. The current study investigated whether reports of current suicidal ideation and a history of suicide attempts indeed increase risk for later completed suicide in a historical prospective study design. Sequential records on 89,049 young males assessed by mental health professionals were screened for suicidal ideation and a history of suicide attempts. The data were linked with death records from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Over a follow-up period ranging from 2 months to 9.8 years, 54 individuals died by suicide, constituting an average suicide rate of 6.48 per 100,000 person-years. Overall, neither reporting current suicidal ideation (without a history of suicide attempts; HR=1.29, 95% CI=0.57-2.90) nor reporting a history of suicide attempts (with or without current suicidal ideation; HR=1.67, 95% CI=0.71-3.97) were significantly associated with increased risk for later completed suicide. However, young males with a previously diagnosed psychiatric disorder who reported current suicidal ideation (HR=4.52, 95% CI=1.08-18.91) or a history of suicide attempts (HR=6.43, 95% CI=1.54-26.90) were at increased risk of death by suicide. These findings indicate that in this particular population reports of current suicidal ideation or of a history of suicide attempts are helpful in predicting future suicide only among those with a previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder.

  9. Reproduction and marriage among male survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gunnes, M W; Lie, R T; Bjørge, T; Ghaderi, S; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Moster, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased survival after cancer in young age has made long-term follow-up studies of high external validity important. In this national cohort study, we explored the impact of cancer in young age on reproduction and marital status in male survivors. Methods: Hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) of reproductive and marital outcomes were studied for male survivors of cancer in young age (<25 years) and cancer-free male comparisons, born during 1965–1985, by linking compulsory national registries in Norway. Results: Male cancer survivors (n=2687) had reduced paternity (HR: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.76). This was most apparent in survivors of testicular cancer, brain tumours, lymphoma, leukemia and bone tumours, and when diagnosed with cancer before 15 years of age. Male cancer survivors were more likely to avail of assisted reproduction (RR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.68–4.11). There was no increased risk of perinatal death, congenital malformations, being small for gestational age, of low birth weight or preterm birth in their first offspring. Male cancer survivors were less likely to marry (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86–1.00), in particular brain tumour survivors. Conclusions: In this national cohort study, we demonstrated reduced paternity and increased use of assisted reproduction among male cancer survivors, but no adverse outcome for their first offspring at birth. PMID:26794280

  10. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.

  11. When Virtual Muscularity Enhances Physical Endurance: Masculinity Threat and Compensatory Avatar Customization Among Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee-Won, Roselyn J; Tang, Wai Yen; Kibbe, Mackenzie R

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity-threatened men attempt to resolve the negative states caused by the threat through compensatory behavior such as public display of muscularity, which constitutes one way in which men physically establish masculinity. Avatars serve as a key means for self-presentation in technology-mediated environments, and compensatory motives can drive avatar customization. Noting this, the present research examined whether masculinity-threatened young men engage in compensatory avatar customization and whether such customization can be self-affirming. Specifically, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of masculinity threat on customization of avatar muscularity and physical endurance on a task that represents behavioral self-regulation. Data from 238 male college students revealed that masculinity-threatened young men customized their avatar to have greater muscle definition than did their nonthreatened counterparts, and greater muscle definition of the customized avatar predicted greater physical endurance on a handgrip task. Furthermore, muscle definition of the customized avatar significantly mediated the relationship between masculinity threat and physical endurance. None of these effects were moderated by masculine norm conformity, which suggested that the effects overrode individual differences in the extent to which participants conformed to masculine norms and expectations. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Recognition of Intensive Valence and Arousal Affective States via Facial Electromyographic Activity in Young and Senior Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hang; Walter, Steffen; Hrabal, David; Rukavina, Stefanie; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Hoffman, Holger; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that interaction between humans and digital environments characterizes a form of companionship in addition to technical convenience. To this effect, humans have attempted to design computer systems able to demonstrably empathize with the human affective experience. Facial electromyography (EMG) is one such technique enabling machines to access to human affective states. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of valence emotions on facial EMG activity captured over the corrugator supercilii (frowning muscle) and zygomaticus major (smiling muscle). The arousal emotion, specifically, has not received much research attention, however. In the present study, we sought to identify intensive valence and arousal affective states via facial EMG activity. Methods Ten blocks of affective pictures were separated into five categories: neutral valence/low arousal (0VLA), positive valence/high arousal (PVHA), negative valence/high arousal (NVHA), positive valence/low arousal (PVLA), and negative valence/low arousal (NVLA), and the ability of each to elicit corresponding valence and arousal affective states was investigated at length. One hundred and thirteen participants were subjected to these stimuli and provided facial EMG. A set of 16 features based on the amplitude, frequency, predictability, and variability of signals was defined and classified using a support vector machine (SVM). Results We observed highly accurate classification rates based on the combined corrugator and zygomaticus EMG, ranging from 75.69% to 100.00% for the baseline and five affective states (0VLA, PVHA, PVLA, NVHA, and NVLA) in all individuals. There were significant differences in classification rate accuracy between senior and young adults, but there was no significant difference between female and male participants. Conclusion Our research provides robust evidences for recognition of intensive valence and arousal affective states in young and senior adults. These

  13. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  14. Suicide rates and religious commitment in young adult males in Utah.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sterling C; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Lyon, Joseph L

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have used population data to demonstrate an inverse association between suicide rates and religious commitment. This report examines Utah suicide rates for young men aged 15-34 years, stratified by their membership in and commitment to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), the predominant religion in Utah. All state death records for males from 1991 to 1995 were obtained and linked to LDS church deceased membership records to obtain a measure of religious commitment that is not self-reported. Religious commitment for LDS church members was determined by age-appropriate priesthood office. Of the 27,738 male deaths reported, 15,555 (56%) linked to an LDS church record using a probabilistic linking program. Using active (high religious commitment) LDS as the reference group, the less-active (low religious commitment) LDS group had relative risks of suicide ranging from 3.28 (ages 15-19 years) to 7.64 (ages 25-29 years); nonmembers of the LDS church had relative risks ranging from 3.43 (ages 15-19 years) to 6.27 (ages 20-24 years). Although the mechanism of the association is unclear, higher levels of religiosity appear to be inversely associated with suicide.

  15. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  16. Young males' experiences of sperm banking following a cancer diagnosis - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Hale, Juliet P; Sloper, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Existing research into sperm banking by young males following a cancer diagnosis is predominantly quantitative; little is known about personal experiences, psychosocial and attitudinal barriers to it amongst patients and/or professionals, or the later impact of potential or actual subfertility when banking has or has not taken place. This qualitative study used single in-depth interviews with 16 males aged 13 to 20 at diagnosis (16 to 30 years at interview) to report retrospectively on their experiences, concerns and satisfactions. There was support for sperm banking, including among those who declined to bank or failed to do so successfully. Many reported that, when successful, it eased any later fertility-related concerns by offering a possible alternative route to biological fatherhood. There was satisfaction with levels of understanding, recall and decision making, though lack of clarity about consent conditions. Sperm bank professionals were less likely than oncology staff to achieve good rapport. Improvements to consent arrangements, facilities, written information and sharing of results were suggested. Small numbers from minority ethnic or disabled communities meant that any uniqueness in their experiences could not be identified. While some improvements to the process of sperm banking and follow-up can be acted upon with minimal implications, others may be more complex.

  17. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  18. Non-defendable resources affect peafowl lek organization: a male removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Loyau, Adeline; Jalme, Michel Saint; Sorci, Gabriele

    2007-01-10

    A lekking mating system is typically thought to be non-resource based with male providing nothing to females but genes. However, males are thought to clump their display sites on areas where they are more likely to encounter females, which may depend on non-defendable resource location. We tested this hypothesis on a feral population of peacocks. In agreement, we found that, within the lek, display site proximity to food resources had an effect on female visitation rate and male mating success. The attractiveness of display sites to male intruders was explained by the distance to the feeding place and by the female visitation rate. We randomly removed 29 territorial males from their display sites. Display sites that were more attractive to male intruders before removal remained highly attractive after removal and display sites closer to the feeding area attracted the attention of intruders significantly more after removal. Similarly, display sites that were more visited by females before removal remained more visited after removal, suggesting again that the likelihood of encountering females is determined by the display site location. Overall, these results are in agreement with non-defendable resources affecting lek spatial organization in the peafowl.

  19. Testosterone may increase selective attention to threat in young male macaques.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; King, Hanna M; Kurdziel, Laura B; Partan, Sarah R; Caldwell, Kaelyn M; Chiavetta, Margaret R; Millette, Matthew M; Meyer, Jerrold S; Grow, Daniel R

    2010-11-01

    Animal studies indicate that sex hormones have widespread effects on the brain, cognition and emotion, but findings in humans are inconsistent. Well-controlled studies in nonhuman primates are crucial to resolve these discrepancies. In this study, we examined the effects of testosterone (T) on emotion in male rhesus monkeys. Six young adult males were tested on two emotional tasks during three hormonal conditions in a crossover design: when intact at baseline and when pharmacologically hypogonadal with add-back of T or placebo. The emotional tasks were the Approach-Avoidance task, which tested behavioral responses to three categories of objects (familiar, novel, and negative) and a Social Playback task which tested behavioral responses to scenes of unfamiliar conspecifics engaged in three types of social activities (neutral, positive, or negative). Following a 4-week baseline period, monkeys were treated with Depot Lupron, 200μg/kg before being randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Depot Lupron+Testosterone Enanthate (TE, 20mg/kg) or Depot Lupron+oil vehicle. In each treatment group, monkeys received one injection of Lupron and one injection of TE or one injection of Lupron and one injection of oil at the onset of a 4-week testing period, before crossing over to the alternate treatment for an additional 4weeks of testing. TE treatment had no effect on behavioral measures in the Approach-Avoidance task. For the Social Playback task, however, TE significantly increased watching time of video clips which depicted fights between unfamiliar conspecifics. The enhancing effect of T on watching time for negative social scenes is consistent with human data suggesting that T decreases aversion or facilitates approach to threatening social stimuli. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which T may mediate responsiveness to social threat in male primates.

  20. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  1. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  2. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  3. "Dulling the Edges": Young Men's Use of Alcohol to Deal With Grief Following the Death of a Male Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…

  4. The Most Blessed Room in the City: The Influence of a Youth Development Program on Three Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Malcolm H.; Martin, Justin F.; Hill, R. LeRoi; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The social and educational life risks associated with being a Black male in the United States are not novel concerns. However, researchers, policymakers, educators, and other stakeholders have yet to consistently identify programs and interventions that can mediate the inequities that confront young Black men. Some researchers have indicated that…

  5. Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Magalhaes Sales, Marcelo; Victor de Sousa, Caio; Barbosa Sampaio, Wellington; Ernesto, Carlos; Alberto Vieira Browne, Rodrigo; Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes, Jose; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Rocha Moraes, Milton; Eugene Lewis, John; Gustavo Simões, Herbert; Martins da Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP) control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. Objectives The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK) session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults. Patients and Methods Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm) and underwent one CK session (50 minutes) and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions), as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery. Results The systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05), with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg); DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg)] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session. Conclusions A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults. PMID:27826399

  6. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images.

  7. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  8. Examining the Affects of Literacy Enablers and Obstacles African-American Males Face in an Arkansas College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    African American male students at an Arkansas College inspired this investigation of their life experiences and the affects of literacy enablers and obstacles African American males face in an Arkansas College. The selection process for participants incorporated convenient sampling of African American male students at an Arkansas College. The…

  9. A Prospective Analysis of the Injury Incidence of Young Male Professional Football Players on Artificial Turf

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to

  10. Young People's Time-of-Day Preferences Affect Their School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…

  11. Understanding the Cycle of Military Deployment: How It Affects Young Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of children and families experiencing military life and affected by deployment are astounding. Many children who have an uncle, aunt, brother, or other family member serving in the military live near a military duty station, but others live far from other military families. Caregivers and teachers of young children share a common…

  12. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  13. Predictive and Prognostic Value of High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young Male Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Huang, Ji; Li, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an important risk indicator and used in risk factor counting and quantitative risk assessment; however, the effect of HDL-C in young male patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HDL-C in young male patients. Methods: We recruited 267 consecutive young male patients (≤44 years) diagnosed with AMI. Other 247 participants free from coronary heart disease were enrolled as controls. HDL-C levels of AMI patients and controls were evaluated to analyze the predictive value on AMI. According to the cutoff point of 1.04 mmol/L HDL-C, patients of AMI were divided into two subgroups (normal HDL-C group and low HDL-C group) and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical end points included all major adverse coronary events (MACEs): the main cause of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, readmissions for acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, or revascularization. The prognostic value of HDL-C was evaluated using Cox regression according to MACE. Results: Patients of AMI had decreased proportion in normal HDL-C group compared to controls (47.2% vs. 57.9%; P = 0.017). Logistic regression analysis showed that there was an inverse relationship between HDL-C and AMI in young males. In the low HDL-C subgroup of AMI patients (n = 141), 34 (24.1%) patients experienced a MACE during the 2-year follow-up, compared with 15 (11.9%) patients in normal HDL-C subgroup (n = 126). The Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C was an independent predictor of a MACE during the follow-up period (hazard ratio = 0.354, P = 0.006). Conclusion: HDL-C was an important parameter for predicting the risk and the clinical outcomes of AMI in young male patients. PMID:28051027

  14. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  15. Underwater psychophysical audiogram of a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J

    2012-05-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data are commonly obtained in air while sea lions are under gas anesthesia; a procedure that precludes the measurement of underwater hearing sensitivity. This is a substantial limitation considering the importance of underwater hearing data in designing criteria aimed at mitigating the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure. To determine if some aspects of underwater hearing sensitivity can be predicted using rapid aerial AEP methods, this study measured underwater psychophysical thresholds for a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) for which previously published aerial AEP thresholds exist. Underwater thresholds were measured in an aboveground pool at frequencies between 1 and 38 kHz. The underwater audiogram was very similar to those previously published for California sea lions, suggesting that the current and previously obtained psychophysical data are representative for this species. The psychophysical and previously measured AEP audiograms were most similar in terms of high-frequency hearing limit (HFHL), although the underwater HFHL was sharper and occurred at a higher frequency. Aerial AEP methods are useful for predicting reductions in the HFHL that are potentially independent of the testing medium, such as those due to age-related sensorineural hearing loss.

  16. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males.

    PubMed

    Heydari, M; Freund, J; Boutcher, S H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P < 0.001) by 15% for the exercising group. Exercisers compared to controls experienced significant weight loss of 1.5 kg (P < 0.005) and a significant reduction in total fat mass of 2 kg (P < 0.001). Abdominal and trunk adiposity was also significantly reduced in the exercising group by 0.1 kg (P < 0.05) and 1.5 kg (P < 0.001). Also the exercise group had a significant (P < 0.01) 17% reduction in visceral fat after 12 weeks of HIIE, whereas waist circumference was significantly decreased by week six (P < 0.001). Fat free mass was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the exercising group by 0.4 kg for the leg and 0.7 kg for the trunk. No significant change (P > 0.05) occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  17. Clinical significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in young male asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hea Yon; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Ji Eun; Rhee, Chin Kook

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of angiogenesis. However, little is known about the potential use of serum levels of VEGF as a biomarker for asthma. We investigated the differences in VEGF levels among normal controls, stable asthma patients, and those with exacerbation of acute asthma. All subjects were young males. Methods We measured VEGF levels in each patient group, and examined any serial changes in those with acute exacerbation. Results VEGF levels were significantly higher in stable asthmatic patients and even more so in acute asthmatic patients, compared to healthy controls. However, there was no correlation between VEGF levels and forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients with stable asthma. In addition, there were no correlations between VEGF levels and asthma control test scores. In patients with acute exacerbation, VEGF levels significantly increased during the acute period; their levels decreased gradually at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Conclusions Compared to normal control patients, the serum levels of VEGF were elevated in stable asthma patients and even more elevated in patients with acute exacerbation. However, the role of VEGF as a biomarker in stable asthma is limited. In patients with acute exacerbation, VEGF levels were associated with clinical improvements. PMID:26996348

  18. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed.

  19. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young male and female athletes: is the game to blame?

    PubMed

    Harmer, P A

    2010-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by young athletes has been a primary concern of sports governing bodies because of the implications for unfair advantage in performance and the potential for adverse side effects. Research over several decades indicated a lifetime prevalence of AAS use for adolescent males of 4-6% and for females of 1.5-3%, indicating a problem involving millions of athletes and a potential epidemic of AAS-related pathologies. However, recent studies have questioned the presumption that participation in organised sport is the primary risk factor for AAS use in adolescents as well as the extant estimates of the magnitude of the problem. Increasing evidence indicates that AAS use is associated with non-athletes and is linked to a broader syndrome of problem behaviours rather than efforts to achieve sporting success, and that sports participation may be protective against AAS use. Moreover, employing lifetime prevalence to gauge AAS use limits accurate evaluation of the personal and public health risk as the majority of respondents are not habitual users. Previous studies may have also inflated prevalence values through ambiguously worded survey questions and other design flaws, and few data are available on actual dosages. Prevention efforts need to be focused beyond organised sport and target the general adolescent population rather than athletes and should be founded on interventions with demonstrated efficacy for delinquent, antisocial and self-destructive behaviours rather than the ethical imperative of fair play.

  20. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and social cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (Puzzle Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current behaviour (DIPC-R) and aggression disposition (AQ). It was predicted that dispositional aggression would be predicted by implicit cognitive aggression, and that implicit cognitive aggression would predict current engagement in aggressive behaviour. It was also predicted that more impulsive implicit cognitive processing would associate with aggressive behaviour whereas cognitively effortful implicit cognitive processing would not. Implicit aggressive cognitive processing was associated with increased dispositional aggression but not current reports of aggressive behaviour. Impulsive implicit cognitive processing of an aggressive nature predicted increased dispositional aggression whereas more cognitively effortful implicit cognitive aggression did not. The article concludes by outlining the importance of accounting for implicit cognitive processing among prisoners and the need to separate such processing into facets (i.e. impulsive vs. cognitively effortful). Implications for future research and practice in this novel area of study are indicated.

  1. Recognition of pain as another deficit in young males with high callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susanne; Centifanti, Luna C Muñoz

    2014-08-01

    Prior research on callous-unemotional (CU) traits supports a deficit in recognizing fear in faces and body postures. Difficulties recognising others' emotions may impair the typical behavioural inhibition for violent behaviour. However, recent research has begun to examine other distress cues such as pain. The present study examined emotion recognition skills, including pain, of school-excluded boys aged 11-16 years (N = 50). Using dynamic faces and body poses, we examined the relation between emotion recognition and CU traits using the youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI) and the inventory of CU traits. Violent delinquency was covaried in regression analyses. Although fearful facial and fearful bodily expressions were unrelated to CU traits, recognition of dynamic pain facial expressions was negatively related to CU traits using the YPI. The failure to replicate a fear and sad deficit are discussed in relation to previous research. Also, findings are discussed in support of a general empathy deficit for distress cues which may underlie the problem behaviour of young males with CU traits.

  2. Decreased pituitary response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in young lean male patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Huckova, M; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Koska, J

    2006-07-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with changes in central catecholaminergic pathways which might also be reflected in the pituitary response to stress stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine whether the response of pituitary hormones, cortisol, plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamines to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia is changed in hypertension. We studied 22 young lean male patients with newly diagnosed untreated essential hypertension and 19 healthy normotensive, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. All subjects underwent an insulin tolerance test (0.1 IU insulin/kg body weight intravenously) with blood sampling before and 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min after insulin administration. Increased baseline levels of norepinephrine (P<0.05), increased response of norepinephrine (P<0.001) and decreased response of growth hormone (P<0.001), prolactin (P<0.001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (P<0.05) and cortisol (P<0.001) were found in hypertensive patients when compared to normotensive controls. Increased norepinephrine levels and a decreased pituitary response to metabolic stress stimuli may represent another manifestation of chronically increased sympathetic tone in early hypertension.

  3. Increase in upper extremity fractures in young male soccer players in the Netherlands, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    de Putter, C E; van Beeck, E F; Burdorf, A; Borsboom, G J J M; Toet, H; Hovius, S E R; Selles, R W

    2015-08-01

    Young male soccer players have been identified as a target group for injury prevention, but studies addressing trends and determinants of injuries within this group are scarce. The goal of this study was to analyze age-specific trends in hospital-treated upper extremity fractures (UEF) among boys playing soccer in the Netherlands and to explore associated soccer-related factors. Data were obtained from a national database for the period 1998-2009. Rates were expressed as the annual number of UEF per 1000 soccer players. Poisson's regression was used to explore the association of UEF with the number of artificial turf fields and the number of injuries by physical contact. UEF rates increased significantly by 19.4% in boys 5-10 years, 73.2% in boys 11-14 years, and 38.8% in boys 15-18 years old. The number of injuries by physical contact showed a significant univariate association with UEF in boys 15-18 years old. The number of artificial turf fields showed a significant univariate association with UEF in all age groups, and remained significant for boys aged 15-18 years in a multivariate model. This study showed an increase of UEF rates in boys playing soccer, and an independent association between artificial turf fields and UEF in the oldest boys.

  4. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  5. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies.

  6. Why Don't They Want a Male-Dominated Job? An Investigation of Young Women Who Changed Their Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frome, Pamela M.; Alfeld, Corinne J.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined 2 hypotheses regarding why some young women do not maintain their espoused occupational aspirations in male-dominated fields from late adolescence through young adulthood. The first hypothesis concerns attitudes towards math and science; the second concerns the desire for job flexibility. The sample of young women (N=104) was taken…

  7. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  8. Young-Adult Male Rats' Vulnerability to Chronic Mild Stress Is Reflected by Anxious-Like instead of Depressive-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    José Jaime, Herrera-Pérez; Venus, Benítez-Coronel; Graciela, Jiménez-Rubio; Tania, Hernández-Hernández Olivia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone. We found that CMS (1) did not affect sucrose preference, immobility behavior in the forced swimming test, or serum corticosterone; (2) decreased body weight gain; and (3) increased the rat's entries into closed arms of the plus maze and the cumulative burying behavior. These data indicate that young male rats' vulnerability to CMS is reflected as poor body weight gain and anxious-like instead of depressive-like behaviors. PMID:27433469

  9. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  10. Anabolic androgenic steroids differentially affect social behaviors in adolescent and adult male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y; Montalto, Pamela R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2008-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone used by over half a million adolescents in the United States for their tissue-building potency and performance-enhancing effects. AAS also affect behavior, including reports of heightened aggression and changes in sexual libido. The expression of sexual and aggressive behaviors is a function of complex interactions among hormones, social context, and the brain, which is extensively remodeled during adolescence. Thus, AAS may have different consequences on behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Using a rodent model, these studies directly compared the effects of AAS on the expression of male sexual and aggressive behaviors in adolescents and adults. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or in adulthood (63-77 days of age). The day after the last injection, males were tested for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or agonistic behavior with a male intruder. Adolescent males treated with AAS showed significant increases in sexual and aggressive behaviors relative to vehicle-treated adolescents. In contrast, AAS-treated adults showed significantly lower levels of sexual behavior compared with vehicle-treated adults and did not show heightened aggression. Thus, adolescents, but not adults, displayed significantly higher behavioral responses to AAS, suggesting that the still-developing adolescent brain is more vulnerable than the adult brain to the adverse consequences of AAS on the nervous system and behavior.

  11. Maternal Predictors of Anxiety Risk in Young Males with Fragile X

    PubMed Central

    Tonnsen, Bridgette; Cornish, Kim M.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) demonstrate high rates of anxiety disorders, with 65–83% meeting diagnostic criteria. The severity of anxiety symptoms in FXS has been shown to be partially predicted by elevated negative affect across early childhood (Tonnsen, Malone, et al., 2013). This association suggests that biologically-driven vulnerability emerges early in development, as is reported in non-clinical populations. However, anxiety emergence is likely moderated by multifaceted genetic, biological and environmental risk and protective factors. Mothers with the FMR1 premutation have been shown to exhibit elevated parenting stress and internalizing symptoms, which have each been associated with child behavior problems (Bailey, et al., 2008). Despite these findings, it is unclear whether maternal factors directly relate to anxiety vulnerability in high-risk children with FXS, a question essential to informing targeted, family-sensitive treatment. The present study examines how maternal protective and risk factors relate to child inhibition reflected in (1) child anxiety symptoms, (2) child trajectories of negative affect, and (3) the association between child anxiety and negative affect. Primary predictors include maternal parenting stress, indicators of mental health risk (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and maternal optimism. We also examine genetic correlates in mothers (CGG repeats, activation ratio, mRNA). Our findings suggest that behavioral inhibition in young children with FXS is associated with higher parenting stress and lower optimism, and higher parenting stress is associated with lower maternal X-activation ratio. These findings underscore the need for family-sensitive treatment strategies for anxiety disorders in children with FXS. PMID:24832235

  12. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

  13. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood.

  14. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  15. The beliefs which motivate young male and female drivers to speed: a comparison of low and high intenders.

    PubMed

    Horvath, C; Lewis, I; Watson, B

    2012-03-01

    In Australia, young drivers aged 17-24 years, and particularly males, have the highest risk of being involved in a fatal crash. Investigation of young drivers' beliefs allows for a greater understanding of their involvement in risky behaviours, such as speeding, as beliefs are associated with intentions, the antecedent to behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to conceptualise beliefs using a scenario based questionnaire distributed to licenced drivers (N=398). The questionnaire measured individual's beliefs and intentions to speed in a particular situation. Consistent with a TPB-based approach, the beliefs of those with low intentions to speed ('low intenders') were compared with the beliefs of those with high intentions ('high intenders') with such comparisons conducted separately for males and females. Overall, significant differences in the beliefs held by low and high intenders and for both females and males were found. Specifically, for females, it was found that high intenders were significantly more likely to perceive advantages of speeding, less likely to perceive disadvantages, and more likely to be encouraged to speed on familiar and inappropriately signed roads than female low intenders. Females, however, did not differ in their perceptions of support from friends, with all females reporting some level of disapproval from most friends and all females (i.e., low and high intenders) reporting approval to speed from their male friends. The results for males revealed that high intenders were significantly more likely to speed on familiar and inappropriately signed roads as well as having greater perceptions of support from all friends, except from those friends with whom they worked. Low and high intending males did not differ in their perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of speeding, with the exception of feelings of excitement whereby high intenders reported speeding to be more exciting than low intenders. The findings are

  16. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark ET

    2015-01-01

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m−2) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b2 pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2–8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0–6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults. PMID:26240669

  17. Walking economy at simulated high altitude in human healthy young male lowlanders

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Handa, Yoko; Abe, Daijiro; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We measured oxygen consumption during walking per unit distance (Cw) values for 12 human healthy young males at six speeds from 0.667 to 1.639 m s−1 (four min per stage) on a level gradient under normobaric normoxia, moderate hypoxia (15% O2), and severe hypoxia (11% O2). Muscle deoxygenation (HHb) was measured at the vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy. Economical speed which can minimize the Cw in each individual was calculated from a U-shaped relationship. We found a significantly slower economical speed (ES) under severe hypoxia [1.237 (0.056) m s−1; mean (s.d.)] compared to normoxia [1.334 (0.070) m s−1] and moderate hypoxia [1.314 (0.070) m s−1, P<0.05 respectively] with no differences between normoxia and moderate hypoxia (P>0.05). HHb gradually increased with increasing speed under severe hypoxia, while it did not increase under normoxia and moderate hypoxia. Changes in HHb between standing baseline and the final minute at faster gait speeds were significantly related to individual ES (r=0.393 at 1.250 m s−1, r=0.376 at 1.444 m s−1, and r=0.409 at 1.639 m s−1, P<0.05, respectively). These results suggested that acute severe hypoxia slowed ES by ∼8%, but moderate hypoxia left ES unchanged. PMID:27744292

  18. Physiological Responses During Multiplay Exergaming in Young Adult Males are Game-Dependent.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Stephen; Willems, Mark Et

    2015-06-27

    Regular moderate-intensity exercise provides health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine whether the selected exercise intensity and physiological responses during exergaming in a single and multiplayer mode in the same physical space were game-dependent. Ten males (mean ±SD, age: 23 ±5 years, body mass: 84.2 ±15.6 kg, body height: 180 ±7 cm, body mass index: 26.0 ±4.0 kg·m(-2)) played the games Kinect football, boxing and track & field (3 × ∼10 min, ∼ 2 min rest periods) in similar time sequence in two sessions. Physiological responses were measured with the portable Cosmed K4b(2) pulmonary gas exchange system. Single play demands were used to match with a competitive opponent in a multiplay mode. A within-subjects crossover design was used with one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc t-test for analysis (p<0.05). Minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and the heart rate were at least 18% higher during a multiplayer mode for Kinect football and boxing but not for track & field. Energy expenditure was 21% higher during multiplay football. Single play track & field had higher metabolic equivalent than single play football (5.7 ±1.6, range: 3.2-8.6 vs 4.1 ±1.0, range: 3.0-6.1, p<0.05). Exergaming in a multiplayer mode can provide higher physiological demands but the effects are game-dependent. It seems that exergaming with low intensity in a multiplayer mode may provide a greater physical challenge for participants than in a single play mode but may not consistently provide sufficient intensity to acquire health benefits when played regularly as part of a programme to promote and maintain health in young adults.

  19. Effect of Sequencing Strength and Endurance Training in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Issam; Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Laurencelle, Louis; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effects of strength and endurance training sequence (strength before or after endurance) on relevant fitness variables in youth soccer players. Fifty-seven young elite-level male field soccer players (13.7 ± 0.5 years; 164 ± 8.3 cm; 53.5 ± 8.6 kg; body fat; 15.6 ± 3.9%) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14, CG) and 3 experimental training groups (twice a week for 12 weeks) strength before (SE, n = 15), after (ES, n = 14) or on alternate days (ASE, n = 14) with endurance training. A significant (p = 0.001) intervention main effect was detected. There were only trivial training sequence differences (ES vs. SE) for all variables (p > 0.05). The CG showed large squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and medium sprint, change of direction ability, and jump improvements. ASE demonstrated a trivial difference in endurance performance with ES and SE (p > 0.05). Large to medium greater improvements for SE and ES were reported compared with ASE for sprinting over 10 and 30 m (p < 0.02). The SE squat 1RM was higher than in ASE (moderate, p < 0.02). Postintervention differences between ES and SE with CG fitness variables were small to medium (p ≤ 0.05) except for a large SE advantage with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (p < 0.001, large). This study showed no effect of intrasession training sequence on soccer fitness-relevant variables. However, combining strength and endurance within a single training session provided superior results vs. training on alternate days. Concurrent training may be considered as an effective and safe training method for the development of the prospective soccer player.

  20. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  1. Affect is central to patient safety: the horror stories of young anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Iedema, Rick; Jorm, Christine; Lum, Martin

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyses talk produced by twenty-four newly qualified anaesthetists. Data were collected from round table discussions at the Young Fellows Conference of the Australia and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists 2006. The talk consisted to an important extent of narratives about experiences of horror. The paper isolates three themes: the normalization of horror, the functionalisation of horror for pedagogic purposes, and the problematization of horror. The last theme provides a springboard into our argument that confronting the affect invested in coping with medical-clinical failure is central to enabling young doctors, and clinicians generally, to address and resolve such adverse events. We conclude that the negotiation of affect through shared or 'dialogic' narrative is central to enabling doctors to deal with adverse events on a personal level, and to enabling them at a collective level to become attentive to threats to patients' safety.

  2. Sperm competition affects male behaviour and sperm output in the rainbow darter

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow darters, Etheostoma caeruleum, are promiscuous fish with moderate rates of group spawning (between one and five males may simultaneously mate with one female). In this study, I examined male sperm output and male willingness to spawn under different levels of sperm competition intensity. One male and one female were allowed to spawn in an aquarium where they had visual and olfactory access to one of four treatments: four males, one male, zero males, or one female. Theory predicts that males should reduce sperm output when there are more than the average number of males at a group spawning (four-male treatment) and should increase sperm output when there are fewer than average males at a group spawning (one-male treatment). Mean sperm output did not differ among treatments. However, males released more sperm when spawning in the presence of competing males (four-male and one-male treatments pooled) than when spawning in the absence of competing males (zero-male and one-female treatments pooled). Males were also most likely to forego spawning opportunities when sperm competition intensity was high. Furthermore, male willingness to spawn was size dependent. Large males were more likely to forego spawning opportunities under high sperm competition intensity. Large males may be better off waiting for future spawning opportunities when there is a lower potential for sperm competition intensity.

  3. Brain size affects female but not male survival under predation threat

    PubMed Central

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zala, Sarah M; Corral-Lopez, Alberto; Penn, Dustin J; Kolm, Niclas; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in brain size among vertebrates, but surprisingly little is known about how ecological species interactions impact the evolution of brain size. Using guppies, artificially selected for large and small brains, we determined how brain size affects survival under predation threat in a naturalistic environment. We cohoused mixed groups of small- and large-brained individuals in six semi-natural streams with their natural predator, the pike cichlid, and monitored survival in weekly censuses over 5 months. We found that large-brained females had 13.5% higher survival compared to small-brained females, whereas the brain size had no discernible effect on male survival. We suggest that large-brained females have a cognitive advantage that allows them to better evade predation, whereas large-brained males are more colourful, which may counteract any potential benefits of brain size. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that trophic interactions can affect the evolution of brain size. PMID:25960088

  4. Contribution of central versus sweat gland mechanisms to the seasonal change of sweating function in young sedentary males and females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Maki

    2011-03-01

    In summer and winter, young, sedentary male ( N = 5) and female ( N = 7) subjects were exposed to heat in a climate chamber in which ambient temperature (Ta) was raised continuously from 30 to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C min-1 at a relative humidity of 40%. Sweat rates (SR) were measured continuously on forearm, chest and forehead together with tympanic temperature (Tty), mean skin temperature ( {overline {{T}} {{s}}} ) and mean body temperature ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) . The rate of sweat expulsions (Fsw) was obtained as an indicator of central sudomotor activity. Tty and ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) were significantly lower during summer compared with winter in males; SR was not significantly different between summer and winter in males, but was significantly higher during summer in females; SR during winter was higher in males compared with females. The regression line relating Fsw to ( {overline {{T}} {{b}}} ) shifted significantly from winter to summer in males and females, but the magnitude of the shift was not significantly different between the two subject groups. The regression line relating SR to Fsw was steepened significantly from winter to summer in males and females, and the change in the slope was significantly greater in females than in males. Females showed a lower slope in winter and a similar slope in summer compared to males. It was concluded that sweating function was improved during summer mediated by central sudomotor and sweat gland mechanisms in males and females, and, although the change of sweat gland function from winter to summer was greater in females as compared with males, the level of increased sweat gland function during summer was similar between the two subject groups.

  5. Evaluation of unexplained dyspnea in a young athletic male with pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Tardie, Gregory B; Dorsey, David A; Kaeferlein, Bernhard H

    2005-09-01

    Pectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall associated with reduced exercise capacity. Uncertainty exists over the nature of physiologic impairment in PE. Evidence suggests that myocardial compression exerted by the displaced sternum on the right heart chambers, disables the ability of the heart to augment stroke volume during exercise. This case study describes the evaluation of an athletic 20 year old Caucasian male, lifelong non-smoker, with severe pectus deformity and previous fixation procedure to repair a sternal fracture. The patient performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test to determine the etiology of his dyspnea with exertion. The patient demonstrated normal work output and normal aerobic capacity but displayed dynamic hyperinflation. Mechanical restriction of tidal volume expansion appeared to be the major contributors to exercise limitation. These results are compared and contrasted with similar cases reported in the literature. Key PointsPectus excavatum (PE) is a relatively common phenomenon affecting approximately 1 in 300 births, with a 9:1 ratio of male to female rate of incidence.The etiology or exercise limitation is most frequently due to cardiovascular limitation due to the compression of the sternum upon the myocardium, impairing the ability to augment stroke volume.The Pectus Severity Index (PSI) is a useful indicator of pectus severity.Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides useful data to distinguish between cardiovascular limitation, ventilatory limitation, or deconditioning in the evaluation of PE.In this case study, ventilatory limitation was due to the mechanical restriction of the thoracic cavity.

  6. Seven types of nonsexual romantic physical affection among Brigham young university students.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Andrew K; Stahmann, Robert F; Wilson, Colwick M

    2004-10-01

    College students from Brigham Young University (N= 186; 68 men, 118 women, M age=22.7 yr., SD=3.5) completed a survey regarding nonsexual, romantic physical affection-defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver or the recipient. Respondents included both dating and married individuals, although this was not specified on the questionnaire. This descriptive study reports the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of the seven physical affection types: backrubs/massages, caressing/stroking, cuddling/holding, holding hands, hugging, kissing on the face, and kissing on the lips. Grouped frequency distributions further describe the amounts of each type of physical affection. Although physical affection has been underrepresented in the literature, studies have shown it to be associated with relationship satisfaction, partner satisfaction, psychological intimacy, feeling understood, the development of attachment bonds, modulating cardiovascular arousal, and easier conflict resolution.

  7. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  8. Glitch game testers: The design and study of a learning environment for computational production with young African American males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy

    The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors. Through analysis of cultural values and digital game play practices, the program was designed to intertwine authentic game development practices and computer science learning. The resulting program employed 25 African American male high school students to test pre-release digital games full-time in the summer and part-time in the school year, with an hour of each day dedicated to learning introductory computer science. Outcomes for persisting in computer science education are remarkable; of the 16 participants who had graduated from high school as of 2012, 12 have gone on to school in computing-related majors. These outcomes, and the participants' enthusiasm for engaging in computing, are in sharp contrast to the crisis in African American male education and learning motivation. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the formative research that shaped the design of Glitch, the evaluation of the implementation of Glitch, and a theoretical investigation of the way in which participants navigated conflicting motivations in learning environments.

  9. Human skeletal muscle creatine transporter mRNA and protein expression in healthy, young males and females.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robyn M; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Mehan, Kate A; Cameron-Smith, David; McKenna, Michael J; Spriet, Lawrence L; Hargreaves, Mark; Snow, Rodney J

    2003-02-01

    The present study investigated whether there were any differences between males and females in respect to creatine transporter (CreaT) gene expression and/or total creatine (TCr) content in human vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle obtained from young healthy male (n = 13, age: 23.2 +/- 5.0 years) and female subjects (n = 12, age: 21.7 +/- 4.3 years) was analyzed for CreaT mRNA, CreaT protein and TCr content. Total CreaT protein content in the muscle was similar (p > 0.05) between the sexes. Two bands (approximately 55 and 73 kDa) of the CreaT protein were detected in all muscle samples. Both the 55 and the 73 kDa bands were present in similar (p > 0.05) amounts in males compared with females. The 73 kDa band was in greater abundance (p < 0.05) than the 55 kDa band, irrespective of gender. In addition, CreaT mRNA expression relative to beta-actin mRNA and the TCr content (males: 117.8 +/- 2.2, females: 125.3 +/- 4.3 mmol.kg(-1) dry mass) were also unaffected (p > 0.05) by gender. These data demonstrate that gender does not influence skeletal muscle TCr content and CreaT gene expression in young human subjects.

  10. The effects of fasting and refeeding on serum parathormone and calcitonin concentrations in young and old male rats.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, Z; Myśliwski, A; Wyrzykowska, M; Hoppe, A

    2001-05-01

    Although fasting and refeeding reveal the existence of age-related changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, the effects of aging on mineral metabolism in refed animals are unknown. We therefore investigated hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in young (4 months) and old (26 months) male rats fasted for 48 hours and then refed for 4 or 24 hours. Serum concentrations of total and ionized calcium and parathormone were similar in control young and old rats. Serum calcitonin level was higher, and the concentrations of albumin and inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase activity were lower in fed old rats. In young fasted rats, the serum ionized and total calcium was decreased, and phosphate concentration was increased. In old rats, fasting resulted in the increase of serum parathormone level. Fasting reduced serum alkaline phosphatase activity to a similar extent in both age groups. In young rats, refeeding for 24h normalized serum calcium and phosphate levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, and decreased serum concentrations of PTH and calcitonin. In old refed rats, serum calcitonin concentration was raised by 77% compared to fed or fasted animals, whereas parathormone levels were normalized. Our results indicate that old fasted or refed rats maintain normal serum calcium concentration in a different way than young animals, possibly through the increase in serum levels of parathormone and/or calcitonin. Thus, dietary manipulations such as fasting and refeeding constitute an interesting model for the investigation of the effects of aging on the hormonal regulation of serum calcium level.

  11. The influence of inhibitory processes on affective theory of mind in young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Vetter, Nora; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Löcher, Carolin; Krautschuk, Susan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of an inhibition manipulation on the effect of age on theory of mind (ToM) in an ecologically valid, affective ToM task. Participants were 30 young and 30 old adults. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery was used to measure ToM; in addition, measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence were taken. Participants were subjected to three levels of inhibitory demand during ToM reasoning: emotional inhibition, non-emotional inhibition, and no inhibition. Old adults performed worse than young adults. The emotional and non-emotional inhibition conditions resulted in worse ToM performance compared to the no inhibition condition. There were no differences in the impact of the inhibition conditions on old and young adults. Regression analyses suggested that old adults' crystallized intelligence was a significant predictor of ToM performance, whereas it did not predict young adults' ToM performance. Results are discussed in terms of verbal ability as a possible compensatory mechanism in coping with verbal inhibitory load in ToM reasoning.

  12. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  13. Evidence for cyclooxygenase-dependent sweating in young males during intermittent exercise in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Naoto; McGinn, Ryan; Stapleton, Jill M; Paull, Gabrielle; Meade, Robert D; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Our recent work implicated nitric oxide (NO) in the control of sweating during intermittent exercise; however, it is unclear if cyclooxygenase (COX) is also involved. On separate days, ten healthy young (24 ± 4 years) males cycled in the heat (35°C). Two 30 min exercise bouts were performed at either a moderate (400 W, moderate heat load) or high (700 W, high heat load) rate of metabolic heat production and were followed by 20 and 40 min of recovery, respectively. Forearm sweating (ventilated capsule) was evaluated at four skin sites that were continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), (2) 10 mm ketorolac (a non-selective COX inhibitor), (3) 10 mm NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor) or (4) a combination of 10 mm ketorolac + 10 mml-NAME. During the last 5 min of the first exercise at moderate heat load, forearm sweating (mg min−1 cm−2) was equivalently reduced with ketorolac (0.54 ± 0.08), l-NAME (0.55 ± 0.07) and ketorolac+l-NAME (0.56 ± 0.08) compared to Control (0.67 ± 0.06) (all P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for the second exercise at moderate heat load (all P < 0.05). However, forearm sweating was similar between the four sites during exercise at high heat load and during recovery regardless of exercise intensity (all P > 0.05). We show that (1) although both COX and NO modulate forearm sweating during intermittent exercise bouts in the heat at a moderate heat load, the effects are not additive, and (2) the contribution of both enzymes to forearm sweating is less evident during intermittent exercise when the heat load is high and during recovery. PMID:25326453

  14. Pituitary and testis responsiveness of young male sheep exposed to testosterone excess during fetal development.

    PubMed

    Recabarren, Mónica P; Rojas-Garcia, Pedro P; Einspanier, Ralf; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces reproductive disturbances in both female and male sheep. In females, it alters the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis. In males, prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility. Focusing on males, this study tested whether pituitary LH responsiveness to GNRH is increased in prenatal testosterone-exposed males and whether testicular function is compromised in the testosterone-exposed males. Control males (n=6) and males born to ewes exposed to twice weekly injections of 30  mg testosterone propionate from days 30 to 90 and of 40  mg testosterone propionate from days 90 to 120 of gestation (n=6) were studied at 20 and 30 weeks of age. Pituitary and testicular responsiveness was tested by administering a GNRH analog (leuprolide acetate). To complement the analyses, the mRNA expression of LH receptor (LHR) and that of steroidogenic enzymes were determined in testicular tissue. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations were higher in the testosterone-exposed-males. While LH response to the GNRH analog was higher in the testosterone-exposed males than in the control males, testosterone responses did not differ between the treatment groups. The testosterone:LH ratio was higher in the control males than in the testosterone-exposed males of 30 weeks of age, suggestive of reduced Leydig cell sensitivity to LH in the testosterone-exposed males. The expression of LHR mRNA was lower in the testosterone-exposed males, but the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes did not differ between the groups. These findings indicate that prenatal testosterone excess has opposing effects at the pituitary and testicular levels, namely increased pituitary sensitivity to GNRH at the level of pituitary and decreased sensitivity of the testes to LH.

  15. Xylitol affects the intestinal microbiota and metabolism of daidzein in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Motoi; Hoshi, Chigusa; Hori, Sachiko

    2013-12-10

    This study examined the effects of xylitol on mouse intestinal microbiota and urinary isoflavonoids. Xylitol is classified as a sugar alcohol and used as a food additive. The intestinal microbiota seems to play an important role in isoflavone metabolism. Xylitol feeding appears to affect the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that dietary xylitol changes intestinal microbiota and, therefore, the metabolism of isoflavonoids in mice. Male mice were randomly divided into two groups: those fed a 0.05% daidzein with 5% xylitol diet (XD group) and those fed a 0.05% daidzein-containing control diet (CD group) for 28 days. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). Urinary amounts of equol were significantly higher in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.05). The fecal lipid contents (% dry weight) were significantly greater in the XD group than in the CD group (p < 0.01). The cecal microbiota differed between the two dietary groups. The occupation ratios of Bacteroides were significantly greater in the CD than in the XD group (p < 0.05). This study suggests that xylitol has the potential to affect the metabolism of daidzein by altering the metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota and/or gut environment. Given that equol affects bone health, dietary xylitol plus isoflavonoids may exert a favorable effect on bone health.

  16. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  17. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I.; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D.; Mank, Judith E.; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice. PMID:28345039

  18. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  19. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  20. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-03-09

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice.

  1. Alcohol Affects Brain Functional Connectivity and its Coupling with Behavior: Greater Effects in Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Tomasi, Dardo; Wiers, Corinde E.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD; N=16; 16 males) and normal controls (NM; N=24; 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default-mode network regions, and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced “neurocognitive coupling”, the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared to NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain functional connectivity density and individual differences in behavioral performance. PMID:27021821

  2. Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-03-29

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 March 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.25.

  3. Argon does not affect cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans

    PubMed Central

    Kazmaier, Stephan; Hoeks, Sanne Elisabeth; Stolker, Robert Jan; Coburn, Marc; Weyland, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating data have recently underlined argon´s neuroprotective potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available on the cerebrovascular effects of argon (Ar) in humans. We hypothesized that argon inhalation does not affect mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca), cerebral flow index (FI), zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe), resistance area product (RAP) and the arterio-jugular venous content differences of oxygen (AJVDO2), glucose (AJVDG), and lactate (AJVDL) in anesthetized patients. Materials and methods In a secondary analysis of an earlier controlled cross-over trial we compared parameters of the cerebral circulation under 15 minutes exposure to 70%Ar/30%O2 versus 70%N2/30%O2 in 29 male patients under fentanyl-midazolam anaesthesia before coronary surgery. Vmca was measured by transcranial Doppler sonography. ZFP and RAP were estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. CPPe was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP. AJVDO2, AJVDG and AJVDL were calculated as the differences in contents between arterial and jugular-venous blood of oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Statistical analysis was done by t-tests and ANOVA. Results Mechanical ventilation with 70% Ar did not cause any significant changes in mean arterial pressure, Vmca, FI, ZFP, CPPe, RAP, AJVDO2, AJVDG, and AJVDL. Discussion Short-term inhalation of 70% Ar does not affect global cerebral circulation or metabolism in male humans under general anaesthesia. PMID:28207907

  4. Factors affecting decision making of low-income young women with unplanned pregnancies in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Naravage, Wanapa; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch C; Van der Putten, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Unplanned pregnancy is one of the most difficult life experiences for young women. Women are often confused and seek help and support. When the problem occurs, a woman has three choices: parenting the baby, planning for adoption, or terminating the pregnancy. Choosing one of these three options is often difficult. This study aimed to identify the factors (variables) influencing women's decision making when choosing the options available to them. The study was conducted in five shelters and low-income communities in the Bangkok area. Data were collected for five months, November 2003 to March 2004. Young women, age 13-24, who experienced an unplanned pregnancy at least once, or currently experiencing an unplanned pregnancy, were recruited into the study. One hundred and twenty volunteer cases were recruited. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the factors that affecting the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies. There were 6 potential influencing variables, in three broad categories of factors that influenced their choices. In this study, the influencing factors from the personal history variables were, age of the most recent unplanned pregnancy. The individual psychosocial variables were: attitude towards unplanned pregnancy, attitude towards contraception, and making a decision without consultation. The relationship variables were: relationship with partner, and consulting partner when having a problem. The results from discriminant analysis yielded 68.3% predictive accuracy. This result was satisfactory compared with a 33% chance of accuracy (classified as chance alone would yield a 33% accuracy). Knowing the influencing factors for the choices of young women with unplanned pregnancies allows us to understand the women's decisions and their utilization of services with some degree of confidence. The program managers or implementers should do as much as possible to support the decision making process in these young women in order to provide

  5. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  6. The interplay between daily affect and sleep: a 2-week study of young women.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Little attention has been paid to the relation between daily affect and sleep, as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of pathological mood in the context of sleep disturbance. However, understanding the transaction between normal variations in emotional experiences and sleep can shed light on the premorbid vulnerabilities that trigger the evolution of affect and sleep into more problematic states. The present study used a 2-week daily sampling approach to examine the impact of day-to-day variations in positive and negative affect on nightly self-reported sleep-onset latency, sleep duration and sleep quality in a sample of young women. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sleep parameters. Specifically, different aspects of both positive and negative affect were uniquely predictive of sleep indices, with sadness and serenity acting as the most consistent predictors. Additionally, better sleep quality was predictive of greater happiness the following day. These results highlight the importance of how our daily emotional experiences influence our nightly sleep and, in turn, how our sleep has an impact on our daily affect. Moreover, our findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sleep as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety and insomnia.

  7. Young Women's use of a microbicide surrogate: the complex influence of relationship characteristics and perceived male partners' evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amanda E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Zimet, Gregory D; Reece, Michael; Graham, Cynthia A; Murray, Maresa

    2010-06-01

    Currently in clinical trials, vaginal microbicides are proposed as a female-initiated method of sexually transmitted infection prevention. Much of microbicide acceptability research has been conducted outside of the United States and frequently without consideration of the social interaction between sex partners, ignoring the complex gender and power structures often inherent in young women's (heterosexual) relationships. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to build on existing microbicide research by exploring the role of male partners and relationship characteristics on young women's use of a microbicide surrogate, an inert vaginal moisturizer (VM), in a large city in the United States. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 young women (18-23 years old; 85% African American; 47.5% mothers) following use of the VM during coital events for a 4 week period. Overall, the results indicated that relationship dynamics and perceptions of male partners influenced VM evaluation. These two factors suggest that relationship context will need to be considered in the promotion of vaginal microbicides. The findings offer insights into how future acceptability and use of microbicides will be influenced by gendered power dynamics. The results also underscore the importance of incorporating men into microbicide promotion efforts while encouraging a dialogue that focuses attention on power inequities that can exist in heterosexual relationships. Detailed understanding of these issues is essential for successful microbicide acceptability, social marketing, education, and use.

  8. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  9. Prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of brown adipose tissue in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jie; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Liu, Han-Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Yan, You-E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure on the morphology and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in male rat offspring. We conducted a morphological assay and gene expression study of interscapular BAT (iBAT) in male rat offspring. The male offspring from nicotine-exposed dams exhibited higher body weight and iBAT weight. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that iBAT from nicotine-exposed male offspring presented a "whitening" phenotype characterized by lipid droplet accumulation and impaired mitochondria with a randomly oriented and fractured cristae. The expression of the iBAT structure and function-related genes all decreased in nicotine-exposed male offspring. These data indicate that prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure affects morphology and function of iBAT in male rat offspring.

  10. Affiliation affects generosity in young children: The roles of minimal group membership and shared interests.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Erin; Schinkel, Meghan G; Moore, Chris

    2017-03-16

    Young children's willingness to share with others is selective, and is affected by their level of affiliation with the recipients of their generosity. We explored affiliation's impact on sharing behavior with two experiments comparing the effects of two distinct affiliative cues-minimal group membership and shared interests. Children (4- to 6-year-olds) completed a resource allocation task, making forced-choice decisions as to how to distribute stickers between themselves and others. In Experiment 1, the sharing partners were minimal in- and out-group members; in Experiment 2, they differed in their opinion of the participants' interests. Both experiments' manipulations affected feelings of affiliation, as indicated by children's stated friendship preferences and perceptions of similarity. More notably, both minimal group membership and interests affected sharing behavior. Children made fewer generous allocations toward out-group members than toward in-group members. Similarly, children made fewer generous allocations when recipients disliked their interests than when recipients shared those interests or when their opinions were unknown. Across experiments, the recipient manipulations' effects on generosity were similar in their pattern and magnitude despite fundamental differences between the two affiliative cues. These findings highlight the broad impact of affiliation on young children's sharing behavior.

  11. An association between the internalization of body image, depressive symptoms and restrictive eating habits among young males.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Dias, Fernanda Coelho; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the relationship between the internalization of body image and depressive symptoms with restrictive eating habits among young males. Three hundred and eighty-three male adolescents, aged between twelve and seventeen, took part in this survey. The "Overall Internalization" and "Athletic Internalization" sub-scales taken from the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) were used to evaluate the internalization of body images. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The "Diet" sub-scale from the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate restrictive eating habits. The logistic regression findings indicated 2.01 times greater chances of youngsters with a high level of overall internalization adopting restrictive eating habits (Wald = 6.16; p = 0.01) when compared with those with low levels. On the other hand, the regression model found no significant association between "Athletic Internalization" (Wald = 1.16; p = 0.23) and depressive symptoms (Wald = 0.81; p = 0.35) with eating restrictions. The findings made it possible to conclude that only overall internalization was related to eating restrictions among young males.

  12. Addressing the Academic and Social Needs of Young Male Students through School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Curtis E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the problem within the U.S. public school system to sustainably meet the academic and social needs of its African American male students. The administrative team of the elementary school in this study desired an evaluation of a school-based male mentoring program that was designed to address these needs. The program, Gentlemen…

  13. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  14. Anatomical glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and symmetric rotational strength in male and female young beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; de Souza, Vivian Lima

    2016-08-01

    Beach volleyball is a sport with a high demand of shoulder structures that may lead to adaptations in range of motion (ROM) and strength like in other overhead sports. Despite of these possible alterations, no study evaluated the shoulder adaptations in young beach volleyball athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the bilateral ROM and rotation strength in the shoulders of young beach volleyball players. Goniometric passive shoulder ROM of motion and isometric rotational strength were evaluated in 19 male and 14 female asymptomatic athletes. External and internal ROM, total rotation motion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), external rotation and internal rotation strength, bilateral deficits and external rotation to internal rotation ratio were measured. The statistical analysis included paired Student's t-test and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significantly lower dominant GIRD was found in both groups (p<0.05), but only 6 athletes presented pathological GIRD. For strength variables, no significant differences for external or internal rotation were evident. Young beach volleyball athletes present symmetric rotational strength and shoulder ROM rotational adaptations that can be considered as anatomical. These results indicate that young practitioners of beach volleyball are subject to moderate adaptations compared to those reported for other overhead sports.

  15. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  16. Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Kristen C; Housh, Terry J; Smith, Cory M; Hill, Ethan C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of isokinetic forearm flexion (FLX) and extension (EXT) peak torque (PT) at 180°·s, height (HT), percent body fat (%BF), and fat-free mass (FFM) to the prediction of estimated propulsive force (EPF) and which of these variables should be a focus of training in young male swimmers. Thirty young male swimmers (mean age ± SD = 12.4 ± 2.7 years) volunteered for this study. The subjects were members of local swimming clubs who competed in the front crawl. The swimmers were measured for FLX and EXT PT at 180°·s, HT, body mass (BM), arm muscle area (AMA), arm circumference, triceps skinfold, %BF, and FFM. Arm muscle area was used to calculate EPF. Zero-order correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of FLX, EXT, HT, %BF, and FFM to the prediction of EPF. Forearm flexion PT at 180°·s, EXT, BM, HT, FFM, AMA, and EPF were significantly intercorrelated (r = 0.83-1.00). In addition, 4 variables contributed significantly to the prediction of EPF (standardized regression coefficients = FFM [1.00], FLX [0.92], EXT [-0.62], and HT [-0.35]). Percent body fat did not contribute to any of the stepwise models. These findings suggested that age-related increases in HT and FFM, as well as training for increases in FLX and EXT strength may improve propulsive force and swimming performance in young male swimmers.

  17. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were 1) to identify proteins with altered expression in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low level exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17β-estradiol (E2) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE2/L for 48 hours showed decreased plasma E2 levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE2 exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE2 including microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. MAPT showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE2 exposure, suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decrease mRNA transcription with increasing MAPT protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE2 can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E2 feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology. PMID:20381887

  18. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  19. Current practice in assessment and treatment of bronchial asthma in young males in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Pantaleo, C; Quatela, M; Fuso, L; Basso, S; Pistelli, R

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate, in a sample of young asthmatics in Italy, the current practice in assessment and treatment of asthma after the publication of guidelines. Young soldiers who declared bronchial asthma at the beginning of the compulsory military service were evaluated. One-hundred and thirty-eight subjects with confirmed asthma were selected. Sixty-seven subjects (48.5%) had had at last one spirometry, and only one subject had underwent peak flow monitoring at home; most of the subjects (96.8%) had had prick tests. More of the 50% of the subjects with bronchial obstruction or with severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness, with clinical moderate or severe asthma, had used only bronchodilators or no therapy at all in the preceding year. In this sample of young asthmatics, the lung function tests were still underutilized for the diagnosis and follow-up of bronchial asthma; moreover, the inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs were still underutilized.

  20. A case of popliteal artery stenosis: masquerading as an infective foot ulcer in a young male traveller

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, D.; McLean, G.; Wilson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a case report of a young male who had been travelling in Thailand. The patient sustained a relatively minor trauma to the soft tissue under his left third metatarsal head on a piece of coral reef. He subsequently developed an infected ulcer, which did not heal despite appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement. Unfortunately, the patient required amputation of the left third toe and metatarsal head due to osteomyelitic destruction. It later transpired that the ulcer was initially ischaemic in nature due to previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic popliteal artery stenosis. PMID:25740905

  1. Examining the operant function of challenging behavior in young males with fragile X syndrome: a summary of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Machalicek, Wendy; McDuffie, Andrea; Oakes, Ashley; Ma, Monica; Thurman, Angela John; Rispoli, Mandy J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-07-01

    This study used experimental functional analyses to examine the operant function of challenging behaviors exhibited by 12 males (ages 27-51 months) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Eight children met criteria for negatively reinforced challenging behavior in the form of escape from demands and/or escape from social interactions. Nine children met criteria for positively reinforced challenging behavior in the form of obtaining access to highly preferred items. Attention was identified as a maintaining consequence for three children. The functional analysis was inconclusive for one child. Results suggest that, for young males with FXS, challenging behaviors may more likely be tangibly and escape maintained than attention maintained. Our findings affirm past research suggesting a unique behavioral phenotype for this population.

  2. A Retrospective Study of Gay Gifted, Young Adult Males' Perceptions of Giftedness and Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedillo, Paul James

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, retrospective study investigated suicidal ideation among 32 young adult men. Participants were asked to report their experiences as adolescents. The primary focus of the study was to discover how gay gifted adolescents dealt with issues of suicide and suicidal ideation. Participants were selected using a purposive sampling…

  3. Effects of Successful Female Role Models on Young Women's Attitudes toward Traditionally Male Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    A study was conducted to examine the effects on young women of reading about nontraditional role models in the sciences and engineering, and discussing various aspects of participating in science and engineering careers with a trained instructor. Subjects for the study were 153 female students enrolled in advanced, elective science courses (10th…

  4. "Role Models" among Elite Young Male Rugby League Players in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Scott; Hardman, Alun; Jones, Carwyn; Sheridan, Heather

    2005-01-01

    There is a taken-for-granted acceptance that sports stars have responsibilities as "role models", yet the concept of a "role model" is unclear. The present study addressed the choice of "role models" amongst elite young British rugby league players, and the reasons for their choices. During the summer of 2002 under-13…

  5. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53), contracted MS (MD=162.7N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.53) and MAS (MD=422.1N/m, p<.001, η(2)=0.23) than males. MAS increased linearly with the external load in both genders with males demonstrating a significantly higher slope (p=0.019) than females. The observed differences outlined above may contribute to the higher knee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males.

  6. Effects of Tai Chi on Pain and Muscle Activity in Young Males with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group’s VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group’s VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  7. Gossypol with methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol male does not affect rat spermatogonial stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cui, G; Zheng, W; Sun, Y; Zhang, Q; Deng, X; Chen, X

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of the regimen of gossypol at 12 mg/kg/day combined with methyltestosterone at 20 mg/kg/day and ethinylestradiol at 100 microg/kg/day for a long term of twenty-four weeks could affect the existence and differentiation of rat spermatogonial stem cell. This was assessed by conducting TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling detection, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and fertility recovery evaluation. Our results showed that spontaneous apoptosis was observed in normal rats' testes from the control group with an apoptotic index (AI) average of 10.24+/-1.52. In the regimen-treated group, the predominant apoptotic cells were spermatocytes and spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. Spermatogonia were not apoptotic (AI averaged 113.42+/-13.24). Two to three months after transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells isolated from regimen-treated rats into recipient nude mice, elongated rat spermatids were identified in the seminiferous tubules of recipient nude mice. Six weeks after withdrawal of the administration, fertility of the regimen-treated rats was recovered compared with that of the control group. The number of litters produced by females mated with regimen-treated males averaged 9.88+/-0.166 matched 10.30+/-0.171 of control group and the litters of the first generation appeared to be normal. These results indicated that the administration of this regimen did not affect the existence and differentiation potential of spermatogonial stem cells of the regimen-treated rats.

  8. Intradermal administration of ATP augments methacholine-induced cutaneous vasodilation but not sweating in young males and females.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Halili, Lyra; Singh, Maya Sarah; Meade, Robert D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-10-15

    Acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves is a key neurotransmitter contributing to heat stress-induced cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. Given that sympathetic cholinergic nerves also release ATP, ATP may play an important role in modulating cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. However, the pattern of response may differ between males and females given reports of sex-related differences in the peripheral mechanisms governing these heat loss responses. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweat rate (ventilated capsule) were evaluated in 17 young adults (8 males, 9 females) at four intradermal microdialysis skin sites continuously perfused with: 1) lactated Ringer (Control), 2) 0.3 mM ATP, 3) 3 mM ATP, or 4) 30 mM ATP. At all skin sites, methacholine was coadministered in a concentration-dependent manner (0.0125, 0.25, 5, 100, 2,000 mM, each for 25 min). In both males and females, CVC was elevated with the lone infusion of 30 mM ATP (both P < 0.05), but not with 0.3 and 3 mM ATP compared with control (all P >0.27). However, 0.3 mM ATP induced a greater increase in CVC compared with control in response to 100 mM methacholine infusion in males (P < 0.05). In females, 0.3 mM ATP infusion resulted in a lower concentration of methacholine required to elicit a half-maximal response (EC50) (P < 0.05). In both males and females, methacholine-induced sweating was unaffected by any concentration of ATP (all P > 0.44). We demonstrate that ATP enhances cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation albeit the pattern of response differs between males and females. Furthermore, we show that ATP does not modulate cholinergic sweating.

  9. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    PubMed

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg(-1)) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p < 0.05) in heart rate (HR) and blood lactate concentrations in both males and females but had no impact on rectal or skin temperatures or on walking time to exhaustion in subjects of either gender. Caffeine decreased (p < 0.05) ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males, but not in females. In females, but not in males, a stronger belief that they had been administered caffeine was associated with a shorter time to exhaustion. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion increases HR and blood lactate levels during exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  10. Large and forgotten in rural Australia: assessment, attitudes and possible approaches to losing weight in young adult males

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Young Adult Males (YAMs) in rural Australia are poorly studied with respect to overweight and obesity. Firstly, we explored the feasibility of recruiting 17–25 year old YAMs to obtain baseline data on overweight and obesity rates, socio-demographics, nutrition, exercise and mobile phone usage. Secondly, we explored the views of YAMs with a waist measurement over 94 cm about using mobile phone text messages to promote weight loss and incentives to promote healthy lifestyles. Methods A two-staged, mixed-methods approach was used to study obesity and overweight issues in Dubbo, a regional city in New South Wales, Australia. In Phase I, socio-demographic, health behaviour and mobile phone usage data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric data collected by direct measurement. In Phase II, YAMs’ views were explored by focus group discussion using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Phase I (145 participants): mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 25.06 ± 5.01; mean waist circumference 87.4 ± 15.4 cm. In total, 39.3% were obese (12.4%) or overweight (26.9%) and 24.1% had an increased risk of metabolic complications associated with obesity. 135 (93.1%) owned a mobile phone and sent on average 17 ± 25 text messages per day and received 18 ± 24. Phase II (30 participants): YAMs acknowledged that overweight and obesity was a growing societal concern with many health related implications, but didn’t feel this was something that affected them personally at this stage of their lives. Motivation was therefore an issue. YAMs admitted that they would only be concerned about losing weight if something drastic occurred in their lives. Text messages would encourage and motivate them to adopt a healthy lifestyle if they were individually tailored. Gym memberships, not cash payments, seem to be the most favoured incentive. Conclusion There is a clear need for an effective health promotion strategy for the almost 40% overweight or obese

  11. The copulatory plug delays ejaculation by rival males and affects sperm competition outcome in house mice.

    PubMed

    Sutter, A; Lindholm, A K

    2016-08-01

    Females of many species mate with multiple males (polyandry), resulting in male-male competition extending to post-copulation (sperm competition). Males adapt to such post-copulatory sexual selection by altering features of their ejaculate that increase its competitiveness and/or by decreasing the risk of sperm competition through female manipulation or interference with rival male behaviour. At ejaculation, males of many species deposit copulatory plugs, which are commonly interpreted as a male adaptation to post-copulatory competition and are thought to reduce or delay female remating. Here, we used a vertebrate model species, the house mouse, to study the consequences of copulatory plugs for post-copulatory competition. We experimentally manipulated plugs after a female's first mating and investigated the consequences for rival male behaviour and paternity outcome. We found that even intact copulatory plugs were ineffective at preventing female remating, but that plugs influenced the rival male copulatory behaviour. Rivals facing intact copulatory plugs performed more but shorter copulations and ejaculated later than when the plug had been fully or partially removed. This suggests that the copulatory plug represents a considerable physical barrier to rival males. The paternity share of first males increased with a longer delay between the first and second males' ejaculations, indicative of fitness consequences of copulatory plugs. However, when males provided little copulatory stimulation, the incidence of pregnancy failure increased, representing a potential benefit of intense and repeated copulation besides plug removal. We discuss the potential mechanisms of how plugs influence sperm competition outcome and consequences for male copulatory behaviour.

  12. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  13. New X linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia: report on eight affected males in the same family.

    PubMed Central

    Camera, G; Stella, G; Camera, A

    1994-01-01

    We report on a probably new form of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) with an X linked inheritance pattern. Eight males were affected in the same family. We were able to examine three adult patients and we studied the skeletal radiological aspect of one of these patients at 2 years 6 months and at 9 years of age. The main clinical features are severe short trunked dwarfism, brachydactyly, normal facies, and normal intelligence. Radiologically, the diaphyses of all the long bones are short and broad. The epiphyses of the distal portion of the femora and those of the proximal and distal portions of the tibia are embedded in their metaphyses and there is marked narrowing of the intercondylar groove. There is moderate platyspondyly. Several vertebrae show an anterior tongue in infancy and severe irregularities of the upper and lower surfaces are present in adulthood. The 11th or 12th thoracic vertebra is wedge shaped. The pelvis is narrow. The distal ulnae and fibulae are disproportionately long. The hands show radial deviation and brachydactyly is present in the hands and feet. This X linked SEMD was not detectable at birth. Images PMID:8064814

  14. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  15. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lu, Beika; Zelle, Kathleen M; Seltzer, Raya; Hefetz, Abraham; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2014-02-15

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment). However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male-male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male-male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  16. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  17. HIV Testing, Perceived Vulnerability and Correlates of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors of Latino and African American Young Male Gang Members

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Stover, Gabriel N.; Barkley, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examined HIV testing behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and correlates of sexual risk behaviors of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members ages 18–26 years old. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviors: had sex with someone they just met (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had an STD (AOR = 4.67), or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR= 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members. PMID:21364062

  18. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; Franks, B. Don; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African-American males. Peak oxygen consumption varied as a function of physical activity, and was significantly higher in the physically active than in the physically inactive subjects (54.5 ± 1.5 vs 36.8 ± 0.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) (P<.05). During the cold pressor test, consisting of immersing the foot in ice water, the change in cardiovascular responses were similar between the physically active and the physically inactive groups. These results suggest that regular physical activity may not contribute to an attenuated blood pressure response to behavioral stress of the cold pressor test in normotensive young adult African-American males. PMID:11455996

  19. HIV testing, perceived vulnerability and correlates of HIV sexual risk behaviours of Latino and African American young male gang members.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R A; Lee, S-J; Stover, G N; Barkley, T W

    2011-01-01

    This study examined HIV testing behaviours, perceived vulnerability to HIV and correlates of sexual risk behaviours of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members aged 18-26 years. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviours: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had a sexually transmitted infection (STI; AOR = 4.67) or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR = 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members.

  20. Male age is not an independent factor to affect the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumtepe, Yakup; Yakin, Kayhan; Kahraman, Semra; Sertyel, Semra; Vanlioğlu, Faruk; Cengiz, Sami; Dönmez, Ersan

    2003-06-01

    Controversy exists whether advanced male age is associated with poor sperm quality and subsequent failure in the assisted reproductive techniques (ART). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of male age on sperm quality and the outcome of ART as well as the association of male age with other relevant factors, particularly with the female age. A retrospective study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of male age on the sperm parameters in 880 routine seminal analyses. Additionally, sperm parameters were also compared among different age groups in 919 cases with male factor infertility who had been included in an ART programme. The laboratory and clinical results of ART (fertilization rate, number and quality of embryos transferred, as well as pregnancy rates) were compared according to different age groups. The results were also evaluated by one-way correlation and also step-wise logistic regression analysis to identify the interactions and correlations between different parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between male age groups in terms of sperm concentration, motility and morphology either in routine seminal analyses or in ART groups. In the ART group, a statistically significant linear correlation was present between male and female ages. Male age was increasing in parallel to female age. Female age was also correlated significantly with ART results. In one-way correlation analysis, male age was found to be correlated with the pregnancy rate, but not with fertilization rate and the quality of the transferred embryos. However, regression analysis revealed that correlation between male age and pregnancy results was simply dependent on the effect of the female age. Seminal parameters did not reveal a significant change with the increasing male age. The effect of male age on ART results in cases with male factor infertility is not a direct effect but a reflection of the negative impact of the parallel increase in

  1. Experiences of being a young male Sami reindeer herder: a qualitative study in perspective of mental health

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Niclas; Ruong, Terje; Renberg, Ellinor Salander

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore experiences of what it is to be a young male Sami reindeer herder in Sweden, a group with previously known stigma and specific health issues, and to understand experiences in perspective of mental health. Methods A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 15 strategically selected reindeer herders aged 18–35 years old. Results The analysis resulted in 5 sub-themes: (a) being “inside” or “outside” is a question of identity; (b) a paradox between being free/bound; (c) an experience of various threats and a feeling of powerlessness; (d) specific norms for how a “real” reindeer herder should be; and (e) the different impacts and meanings of relations. The overarching theme is summarized thus: being a young reindeer herder means so many (impossible) dreams and conditions. Overall, the experience of the informants was that being a reindeer herder is a privileged position that also implies many impossibilities and unjust adversities they have no control over, and that there is nothing they can do but “bite the bullet or be a failure.” Conclusions Knowledge about this group's experiences can be used to understand difficulties faced by young reindeer herders and its consequences regarding mental health problems. This also implies a need for a broader perspective when discussing future interventions aimed at preventing mental health problems in this group. PMID:23853764

  2. Condom-Associated Erection Problems: A Study of High-Risk Young Black Males Residing in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard; Sanders, Stephanie; Milhausen, Robin; Yarber, William L

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that young men may experience condom-associated erection loss and that these problems may lead to inconsistent or incomplete condom use. The primary aim of this study was to assess, using a retrospective recall period of 2 months, correlates of condom-associated erection problems among young Black men attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Data were collected in clinics treating patients with STIs in three southern U.S. cities. Males 15 to 23 years of age who identified as Black/African American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. A total of 494 men participated. Nineteen percent reported that condom-associated erection problems during condom application occurred at least once, and 17.8% indicated erection difficulties occurred during sexual intercourse at least once in the past 2 months. Multivariate analyses identified that condom-associated erection problems were associated with reports of sex with more than one partner during the recall period, reported problems with condom fit and feel, lower motivation to use condoms, and attempts at condom application before having a full erection. Findings suggest that clinic interventions should address possible condom-associated erection problems among young Black men who are at risk of STIs. Encouraging men who may be vulnerable to erection loss when condoms are used to allow sufficient time for sexual arousal to build may be an effective strategy.

  3. Repeated Binge Ethanol Administration During Adolescence Enhances Voluntary Sweetened Ethanol Intake in Young Adulthood in Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M.; Alipour, Kent K.; Michael, Laura A.; Kirstein, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Binge alcohol consumption is a rising concern in the United States, especially among adolescents. During this developmental period alcohol use is usually initiated and has been shown to cause detrimental effects on brain structure and function as well as cognitive/behavioral impairments in rats. Binge models, where animals are repeatedly administered high doses of ethanol typically over a period of three or four days cause these effects. There has been little work conducted aimed at investigating the long-term behavioral consequences of repeated binge administration during adolescence on later ethanol-induced behavior in young adulthood and adulthood. The repeated four-day binge model may serve as a good approximate for patterns of human adolescent alcohol consumption as this is similar to a “bender” in human alcoholics. The present set of experiments examined the dose-response and sex-related differences induced by repeated binge ethanol administration during adolescence on sweetened ethanol (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) intake in young adulthood. In both experiments, on postnatal days (PND) 28–31, PND 35–38 and PND 42–45, ethanol (1.5, 3.0 or 5.0 g/kg) or water was administered intragastrically to adolescent rats. Rats underwent abstinence from PND 46–59. Subsequently, in young adulthood, ethanol and saccharin intake were assessed. Exposure to any dose of ethanol during adolescence significantly enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood. However, while female rats had higher overall g/kg intake, males appear to be more vulnerable to the impact of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequently increased ethanol intake in young adulthood. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence did not alter saccharin consumption in young adulthood in male or female rats. Considering that adolescence is the developmental period in which ethanol experimentation and consumption is usually initiated, the present set of experiments demonstrate the importance of

  4. The construct validity of session RPE during an intensive camp in young male Karate athletes

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Haddad, Monoem; Gevat, Cecilia; Vando, Stefano; Maurino, Lucio; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim of this study was to assess the validity of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and two objective HR-based methods for quantifying karate’s training load (TL) in young Karatekas. Methods: eleven athletes (age 12.50±1.84 years) participated in this study. The training period/camp was performed on 5 consecutive days with two training session (s) per-day (d). Construct validity of RPE method in young Karate athletes, was studied by correlation analysis between RPE session’s training load and both Edwards and Banister’s training impulse score’ method. Results: significant relationship was found between inter-day (n-11 × d-5 × s-2 = 110) sessions RPE and Edwards (r values from 0.84 to 0.92 p < 0.001) and Banister’s (r values from 0.84 to 0.97 p < 0.001), respectively Conclusion: this study showed that session-RPE can be considered a valid method for quantifying karate’s training load in young karate athletes. PMID:25332921

  5. Sexual and Reproductive Health: Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions among Young Unmarried Male Residents of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Anjana; Kishore, Jugal; Ingle, Gopal Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years). Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban) across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners. PMID:26346646

  6. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  7. Different but Similar: Computer Use Patterns between Young Korean Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to identify and describe new trends and gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet in South Korea. In this mixed-method study, both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. Results indicated that both males and females used computers generally for four purposes: social networking, personal…

  8. Early Intervention Practices and Communication Intervention Strategies for Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirrett, Penny L.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Price, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 51 speech-language pathologists serving 41 males (ages 2-9) with fragile X syndrome, found the majority reported the boys exhibit a visually based, experiential or holistic learning preference. Speech goals focused on slowing rate and increasing precision for verbal children and using assistive technology for nonverbal children.…

  9. On the Borders of Sexuality Research: Young People Who Have Sex with Both Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallotta-Chiarolli, Maria

    2006-01-01

    As D'Augelli and Grossman point out, there is an underrepresentation in LGB research of "youth who have had sexual experiences with both males and females." Most of the information on bisexuality has been obtained from studies with adult samples, and it is "unclear to what extent a separate bisexual cultural identity is consolidated…

  10. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  11. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Arvedsen, Sine K; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger; Petersen, Lonnie G; Norsk, Peter; Damgaard, Morten

    2015-11-01

    It is known that arterial pressure correlates positively with body height in males, and it has been suggested that this is due to the increasing vertical hydrostatic gradient from the heart to the carotid baroreceptors. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a higher gravito-inertial stress induced by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171 cm; n = 8) and tall (194-203 cm; n = 10) healthy males (18-41 yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), and cardiac output were measured during +2G centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.0001) and tall (23 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.0001) males, with no significant difference between the groups. HR increased more (P < 0.05) in the tall than in the short group (14 ± 2 vs. 7 ± 2 bpm). Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26 ± 4 ml, P = 0.001) and more so in the tall group (39 ± 5 ml, P < 0.0001; short vs. tall, P = 0.047). During +2Gx, systolic arterial pressure increased (P < 0.001) and SV (P = 0.012) decreased in the tall group only. In conclusion, during +2Gz, MAP increased in both short and tall males, with no difference between the groups. However, in the tall group, HR increased more during +2Gz, which could be caused by a larger hydrostatic pressure gradient from heart to head, leading to greater inhibition of the carotid baroreceptors.

  12. Postural challenge affects motor cortical activity in young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Papegaaij, Selma; Taube, Wolfgang; van Keeken, Helco G; Otten, Egbert; Baudry, Stéphane; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    When humans voluntarily activate a muscle, intracortical inhibition decreases. Such a decrease also occurs in the presence of a postural challenge and more so with increasing age. Here, we examined age-related changes in motor cortical activity during postural and non-postural contractions with varying levels of postural challenge. Fourteen young (age 22) and twelve old adults (age 70) performed three conditions: (1) voluntary contraction of the soleus muscle in sitting and (2) leaning forward while standing with and (3) without being supported. Subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the soleus motor area suppressing ongoing EMG, as an index of motor cortical activity. The area of EMG suppression was ~60% smaller (p<0.05) in unsupported vs. supported leaning and sitting, with no difference between these latter two conditions (p>0.05). Even though in absolute terms young compared with old adults leaned farther (p=0.018), there was no age effect or an age by condition interaction in EMG suppression. Leaning closer to the maximum without support correlated with less EMG suppression (rho=-0.44, p=0.034). We conclude that the critical factor in modulating motor cortical activity was postural challenge and not contraction aim or posture. Age did not affect the motor control strategy as quantified by the modulation of motor cortical activity, but the modulation appeared at a lower task difficulty with increasing age.

  13. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  14. Sex- and Gonad-Affecting Scent Compounds and 3 Male Pheromones in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-β-farnesene and E-α-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones. PMID:18515819

  15. Sex- and gonad-affecting scent compounds and 3 male pheromones in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-09-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-beta-farnesene and E-alpha-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones.

  16. Young Children's Affective Responses to Acceptance and Rejection from Peers: A Computer-Based Task Sensitive to Variation in Temperamental Shyness and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Grace Z.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel task examining young children's affective responses to evaluative feedback--specifically, social acceptance and rejection--from peers. We aimed to determine (1) whether young children report their affective responses to hypothetical peer evaluation predictably and consistently, and (2) whether young children's responses…

  17. Minimal changes of thyroid axis activity influence brain functions in young females affected by subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, D; Sebastiani, L; Comparini, A; Pingitore, A; Ghelarducci, B; L'Abbate, A; Iervasi, G; Gemignani, A

    2013-03-01

    There is evidence of an association between thyroid hormones (TH) alterations and mental dysfunctions related to procedural and working memory functions, but the physiological link between these domains is still under debate, also for the presence of age as a confounding factor. Thus, we investigated the TH tuning of cerebral functions in young females affected by the borderline condition of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and in euthyroid females of the same age. The experiment consisted in the characterization of the affective state and cognitive abilities of the subjects by means of specific neuropsychological questionnaires, and of brain activity (EEG) in resting state and during the passive viewing of emotional video-clips. We found that SH had i) increased anxiety for Physical Danger; ii) better scores for both Mental Control and no-working-memory-related functions; iii) association between anxiety for Physical Danger and fT4 levels. Thus, in young adults, SH increases inward attention and paradoxically improves some cognitive functions. In addition, self-assessed questionnaires showed that SH had a greater susceptibility to unpleasant emotional stimulation. As for EEG data, SH compared to controls showed: i) reduction of alpha activity and of gamma left lateralization in resting state; ii) increased, and lateralized to the right, beta2 activity during stimulations. Both results indicated that SH have higher levels of arousal and greater susceptibility to negative emotion than controls. In conclusion, our study indicates that minimal changes in TH levels produce subtle but well-defined mental changes, thus encouraging further studies for the prediction of pathology evolution.

  18. Fatal extraintestinal toxoplasmosis in a young male cat with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tamara M; Blois, Shauna; Vince, Andrew R

    2016-05-01

    A 22-month-old indoor/outdoor neutered male domestic short-haired cat had a history of progressive lethargy, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular hyperechoic mass in the mid-abdomen. He was unresponsive to symptomatic medical management and was euthanized after 3 days of hospitalization. A diagnosis of disseminated extraintestinal toxoplasmosis was made based on the finding of intracytoplasmic protozoan parasites on histopathological examination of mesenteric lymph nodes, hepatic and intestinal samples, and on immunohistochemistry.

  19. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Spontaneous Dissection of the Right Coronary Artery in a Young Male

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P. Moyssakis, Ioannis; Perakis, Alexandros; Athanasiou, Andreas; Anagnostopoulou, Sophia; Benos, Ioannis; Votteas, Vassilios E.

    2004-09-15

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography performed 3 hours after the episode revealed a dissection involving the middle segment of right coronary artery. Because of a spiral form of dissection and the TIMI 3 flow grade, our patient was treated medically and repeat coronary angiography 6 months later was decided.

  20. Myopia and educational attainment in 421,116 young Singaporean males.

    PubMed

    Tay, M T; Au Eong, K G; Ng, C Y; Lim, M K

    1992-11-01

    Data of 421,116 Singaporean males aged 15 to 25 (mean 17.75) years who underwent compulsory medical examination in 1974-84 and 1987-91 were used to estimate the prevalence of myopia and to study the correlation between the prevalence and severity of myopia and educational attainment. The estimated myopia prevalence rate was 26.3% in 1974-84 and 43.3% in 1987-91. This rise in the rate was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of males who achieved higher levels of education over the same period. The overall myopia prevalence rate was 30.4%. Both the prevalence and severity of myopia were higher as the level of education attained increased. The myopia prevalence rate was 15.4% in males with no formal education and increased steadily through groups with intermediate education to 65.2% among those with GCE 'A' level education, 57.5% among diploma holders and 65.1% among university graduates in 1987-91. Seventy out of 173 (40%) myopes with no formal education compared to 1035 out of 1612 (64%) myopes with university degrees had unaided visual acuity worse than 6/60 in 1987-91. Our findings confirm indications from other sources that the association between the prevalence and severity of myopia and education attainment is real. A combination of genetic and environmental factors may be the cause of this association.

  1. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  2. How Does Functional Soccer Training on Uneven Ground Affect Dynamic Stability of Lower Limbs in Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Plenzler, Marcin; Mrozińska, Natalia; Mierzwińska, Anna; Korbolewska, Olga; Mejnartowicz, Daria; Popieluch, Marcin; Śmigielski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the level of lower limbs’ stability under dynamic conditions in soccer players before and after the preparatory period. The results of young players were compared with the control group’s records. The analysis included, both, the dominant (the one kicking the ball) and the non-dominant (supporting) limb. Methods: 13 players from AGAPE Soccer Academy in Białołęka (year 2002), participated in this study. The control group were 18 young, healthy, and active volunteers (14 male, and 4 female; mean age = 21,4±1,2 years). The dynamic stabilography was recorded on Biodex Balance System device. For data analysis, the bending dispersion in the medial/lateral plane, and anterior/posterior plane, along with the overall stability index (OSI) were tested. The measurements were taken in single-leg stance on the right and left leg respectively. Each testing included 3 repetitions in 30 seconds intervals on the platform’s second level of testing. The preliminary study was performed before the beginning of the season’s preparatory period. During the preparatory period, which lasted 16 weeks, the motor activity training programme was completed (90 minutes, once a week). The programme included elements such as: functional soccer training and stabilization training on an unstable ground, core stability training, dynamic stability exercises, and lower limbs coordination and strength training. After the preparatory period, the health examinations were performed. Test results were statistically analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in order to establish parameters’ changes within the study group, and the U-Mann-Whitney test was applied in order to estimate the variances between the study and control groups. The statistical significance threshold was p≤0,05. Results: The study showed a significant statistical improvement of stability parameters expressed by the overall stability index (OSI) and A/P stability index for

  3. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Kiefer, Sarah; Mortega, Kim G; Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  4. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  5. Fatal extraintestinal toxoplasmosis in a young male cat with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Tamara M.; Blois, Shauna; Vince, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    A 22-month-old indoor/outdoor neutered male domestic short-haired cat had a history of progressive lethargy, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular hyperechoic mass in the mid-abdomen. He was unresponsive to symptomatic medical management and was euthanized after 3 days of hospitalization. A diagnosis of disseminated extraintestinal toxoplasmosis was made based on the finding of intracytoplasmic protozoan parasites on histopathological examination of mesenteric lymph nodes, hepatic and intestinal samples, and on immunohistochemistry. PMID:27152033

  6. Young male patient diagnosed with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa successfully treated with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Valor, Lara; Monteagudo, Indalecio; de la Torre, Inmaculada; Fernández, Carlos González; Montoro, María; Longo, Javier López; Carreño, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is a form of necrotizing vasculitis of small and medium-sized arteries. It is limited to the skin and has a recurrent and chronic course, possibly associated with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and neuropathy, but without visceral involvement. We report the clinical case of a 7-year-old male patient with CPAN refractory to treatment with high doses of corticoids and cyclophosphamide, who was successfully treated with the TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) inhibitor, etanercept, in monotherapy.

  7. Young male patient diagnosed with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa successfully treated with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Valor, Lara; Monteagudo, Indalecio; de la Torre, Inmaculada; Fernández, Carlos González; Montoro, María; Longo, Javier López; Carreño, Luis

    2013-01-30

    Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is a form of necrotizing vasculitis of small and medium-sized arteries. It is limited to the skin and has a recurrent and chronic course, possibly associated with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and neuropathy, but without visceral involvement. We report the clinical case of a 7-year-old male patient with CPAN refractory to treatment with high doses of corticoids and cyclophosphamide, who was successfully treated with the TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) inhibitor, etanercept, in monotherapy.

  8. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation.

  9. Repetitive ritalin treatment modulates the diurnal activity pattern of young SD male rats.

    PubMed

    Algahim, Mohame Fodhl; Yang, Pamela Boi; Burau, Keith Dean; Swann, Allan Craig; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder of children and is treated by psychostimulants. Psychostimulant exposure to children at the time of neuronal development can cause behavioral and physiological changes continuing during adulthood. Most of the studies on psychostimulants investigate the acute effects of the drug. The objective of this study was to investigate whether acute or chronic exposure to methylphenidate (MPD), the drug most often used to treat ADHD in children, will modulate the diurnal activity pattern of young rats. Maintaining the diurnal activity pattern is a physiological process that regulates the internal homeostasis. Dose response protocol was used to study the effect of acute and chronic MPD in four young post natal day 40 (P 40) rat groups, (each N=8), as follows: saline (control) group, and 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg i.p. MPD groups, respectively. The experiment was performed over 11 consecutive days of continuous locomotor activity recording using the open field assay. The data evaluation was divided into four phases as follows: acute, induction, washout and expression phases. There was a dose-dependent increase in the average locomotor activity in the first few hours post-injection. Analysis of the diurnal rhythmic pattern of locomotion in the three dose groups compared to control demonstrated that only the 10.0 mg/kg MPD elicited significant changes in diurnal pattern activity in the washout and the expression phase. In addition, this study indicated that chronic MPD treatment elicits dose dependent anticipation and/or withdrawal and behavioral sensitization.

  10. Postural stability of canoeing and kayaking young male athletes during quiet stance.

    PubMed

    Stambolieva, Katerina; Diafas, Vassilis; Bachev, Vichren; Christova, Lilia; Gatev, Plamen

    2012-05-01

    We studied the postural stability of 23 canoeing and kayaking young athletes and 15 healthy untrained age matched subjects during quiet and sensory conflicted stance (standing on stable and foam support with open and closed eyes). We measured with a force platform the center of pressure excursions and applied mean sway amplitude (MA), mean sway velocity (SV) and their Romberg ratios, and sway dispersion index to evaluate standing balance. During standing with eyes open, the athletes in comparison to non-athletes showed in sagittal and frontal plane greater MA and SV when the support was stable and smaller MA and SV when it was unstable. During standing with eyes closed, there were no differences between groups when the support was stable, however, the athletes sway faster and have smaller MA than controls while standing on the foam support. During standing on stable support, Romberg ratios for MA and SV revealed that unlike non-athletes the athletes' MA and SV were vision independent. However, while standing on unstable support the athletes' MA and SV became vision dependent and even greater for the medio-lateral sway. Canoeists' SV vision dependency in both planes was greater than for other groups. These results are in line with our hypothesis that young kayaking and canoeing athletes have a different from non-athletes model of sensory integration due to their specific sporting activity. One possible mechanism of this model may be a subtle re-adaptation deficit after disembarking to stable ground with diminished sensitivity of vision and vestibular apparatus.

  11. Spelling consistency affects reading in young Dutch readers with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Anna M T; Vonk, Wietske; van Zwam, Margriet

    2006-12-01

    Lexical-decision studies with experienced English and French readers have shown that visual-word identification is not only affected by pronunciation inconsistency of a word (i.e., multiple ways to pronounce a spelling body), but also by spelling inconsistency (i.e., multiple ways to spell a pronunciation rime). The aim of this study was to compare the reading behavior of young Dutch readers with dyslexia to the behavior of readers without dyslexia. All students participated in a lexical-decision task in which we presented pronunciation-consistent words and pseudowords. Half of the pronunciation-consistent stimuli were spelling consistent and the other half were spelling inconsistent. All three reader groups, that is, students with dyslexia, age-match students, and reading-match students, read spelling-consistent words faster than spelling-inconsistent words. Overall reading speed of students with dyslexia was similar to that of reading-match students, and was substantially slower than that of age-match students. The results suggest that reading in students with or without dyslexia is similarly affected by spelling inconsistency. Subtle qualitative differences emerged, however, with respect to pseudoword identification. The conclusion was that the findings were best interpreted in terms of a recurrent-feedback model.

  12. Nutritional status of young children in AIDS-affected households and controls in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Andrea; Kipp, Walter; Jhangri, Gian S; Laing, Lory; Konde-Lule, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    This study conducted in Uganda assessed the nutritional status of young children and their disease history in the 3-month period before the study. Two groups of children were randomly selected: the first group consisted of 105 children living in homes where a family member fell sick of AIDS, whereas the second group consisted of 100 children who were living in homes where nobody was affected by AIDS. Acute malnutrition (wasting) was rare. There was no difference in the severity of stunting in the two groups (Z scores, -2.1 versus -2.2, P = 0.70). In those children living in AIDS-affected homes, disease episodes were longer (15.7 versus 11.3 days, P = 0.014), but the frequency of disease occurrence was similar in both groups. Fifty-five percent of all children suffered from moderate to severe malnutrition (stunting). The high stunting rate in early childhood suggests a public nutritional intervention program is recommended.

  13. Moderate-intensity intermittent work in the heat results in similar low-level dehydration in young and older males.

    PubMed

    Wright, Heather E; Larose, Joanie; McLellan, Tom M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Older individuals may be more susceptible to the negative thermal and cardiovascular consequences of dehydration during intermittent work in the heat. This study examined the hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 14 Young (Y, Mean ± SE; 25.8 ± 0.8 years), Middle-age (MA, 43.6 ± 0.9 years), and Older (O, 57.2 ± 1.5 years) healthy, non-heat acclimated males matched for height, mass, body surface area, and percent body fat. Rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), and hydration indices were measured during 4 × 15-min moderate to heavy cycling bouts at 400 W heat production, each followed by a 15-min rest period, in Warm/Dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity [RH]) and Warm/Humid (35°C, 60% RH) heat. No differences were observed between the age groups for Tre, Tre change, HR, LSR, mass change, urine specific gravity, and plasma protein concentration in either condition, irrespective of the greater level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced in the Warm/Humid environment. Plasma volume changes (Dry Y: -5.4 ± 0.7, MA: -6.2 ± 0.9, O: -5.7 ± 0.9%, Humid Y: -7.3 ± 1.0, MA: -7.9 ± 0.8, O: -8.4 ± 1.0%) were similar between groups, as were urine specific gravity and plasma protein concentrations. Thus, physically active Young, Middle-age, and Older males demonstrate similar hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses during moderate- to high-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat.

  14. Interrelationships among Jumping Power, Sprinting Power and Pubertal Status after Controlling for Size in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Giovani S; Cumming, Sean P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Duarte, João P; Silva, Gustavo; Dourado, Antonio C; Leites, Gabriela T; Gaya, Adroaldo C; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    This study examined power output on jumping and sprinting tests in young soccer players of differing pubertal status, while controlling for body size with allometric scaling exponents. A total of 46 males aged 12-18 years (14.17 years) were divided into three groups: pre-pubescent ( n = 12), pubescent ( n = 22), and post-pubescent ( n = 12). Participants performed a series of tests, including the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 10-meter and 30-meter sprint test protocols. The Post-PUB group was older ( F = 112.411, p < 0.001), more experienced in competitive soccer ( F = 8.055, p = 0.001), taller ( F = 28.940, p < 0.001), and heavier ( F = 20.618, p < 0.001), when compared to peers in the other groups. Mean differences in jumping and sprinting performances suggested a significant effect for pubertal status on performance in the 10-meter sprint (large effect size, F = 8.191, p < 0.001) and 30-meter sprint (large effect size, F = 8.093, p < 0.001) after allometric scaling. Power output derived from SJ (small effect size, F = 0.536, p = 0.001) and CMJ (small effect size, F = 1.058, p = 0.356) showed no significant differences across players of varying pubertal status. Biological maturation showed a large effect on maximal power output for sprints, but not for jumps, when the effect of body size was adjusted by statistically derived allometric exponents in young male soccer players.

  15. Photoperiodic effects on seasonal physiology, reproductive status and hypothalamic gene expression in young male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, F M; Thomson, L M; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J; Helfer, G

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal or photoperiodically sensitive animals respond to altered day length with changes in physiology (growth, food intake and reproductive status) and behaviour to adapt to predictable yearly changes in the climate. Typically, different species of hamsters, voles and sheep are the most studied animal models of photoperiodism. Although laboratory rats are generally considered nonphotoperiodic, one rat strain, the inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat, has been shown to be sensitive to the length of daylight exposure by changing its physiological phenotype and reproductive status according to the season. The present study aimed to better understand the nature of the photoperiodic response in the F344 rat. We examined the effects of five different photoperiods on the physiological and neuroendocrine responses. Young male F344 rats were held under light schedules ranging from 8 h of light/day to 16 h of light/day, and then body weight, including fat and lean mass, food intake, testes weights and hypothalamic gene expression were compared. We found that rats held under photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day showed increased growth and food intake relative to rats held under photoperiods of ≤ 10 h of light/day. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis confirmed that these changes were mainly the result of a change in lean body mass. The same pattern was evident for reproductive status, with higher paired testes weight in photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day. Accompanying the changes in physiological status were major changes in hypothalamic thyroid hormone (Dio2 and Dio3), retinoic acid (Crabp1 and Stra6) and Wnt/β-Catenin signalling genes (sFrp2 and Mfrp). Our data demonstrate that a photoperiod schedule of 12 h of light/day is interpreted as a stimulatory photoperiod by the neuroendocrine system of young male F344 rats.

  16. A female's past experience with predators affects male courtship and the care her offspring will receive from their father.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Katie E; Feng, Sally; Leasure, Sagan; Bell, Alison M

    2015-11-22

    Differential allocation occurs when individuals adjust their reproductive investment based on their partner's traits. However, it remains unknown whether animals differentially allocate based on their partner's past experiences with predation risk. If animals can detect a potential mate's experience with predators, this might inform them about the stress level of their potential mate, the likelihood of parental effects in offspring and/or the dangers present in the environment. Using threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we examined whether a female's previous experience with being chased by a model predator while yolking eggs affects male mating effort and offspring care. Males displayed fewer conspicuous courtship behaviours towards females that had experienced predation risk in the past compared with unexposed females. This differential allocation extended to how males cared for the resulting offspring of these matings: fathers provided less parental care to offspring of females that had experienced predation risk in the past. Our results show for the first time, to our knowledge, that variation among females in their predator encounters can contribute to behavioural variation among males in courtship and parental care, even when males themselves do not encounter a predator. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that maternal predator exposure can influence offspring development both directly and indirectly, through how it affects father care.

  17. Extra-pair young in house wren broods are more likely to be male than female

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L. Scott; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Neuhäuser, Markus; Johnson, Bonnie G.P.; Soukup, Sheryl Swartz; Forsythe, Shannon Janota; Masters, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory predicts that females should preferentially produce offspring of the sex with greater fitness potential. In socially monogamous animal species, extra-pair mating often increases the variance in fitness of sons relative to daughters. Thus, in situations where offspring sired by a female's extra-pair mate(s) will typically have greater fitness potential than offspring sired by the within-pair mate, sex-allocation theory predicts that females will bias the sex of offspring sired by extra-pair mates towards male. We examined the relationship between offspring sex and paternity over six breeding seasons in an Illinois population of the house wren (Troglodytes aedon), a cavity-nesting songbird. Out of the 2345 nestlings that had both sex and paternity assigned, 350 (15%) were sired by extra-pair males. The sex ratio of extra-pair offspring, 0.534, was significantly greater than the sex ratio of within-pair offspring, 0.492, representing an increase of 8.5 per cent in the proportion of sons produced. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of female birds increasing their production of sons in association with extra-pair fertilization. Our results are consistent with the oft-mentioned hypothesis that females engage in extra-pair mating to increase offspring quality. PMID:19324727

  18. Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Young Adult African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Charles R.; Goodson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Racial disparities in health among African American men (AAM) in the United States are extensive. In contrast to their White counterparts, AAM have more illnesses and die younger. AAM have colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than White men. Due to CRC’s younger age at presentation and high incidence among AAM, CRC screening (CRCS) is warranted at the age of 45 rather than 50, but little is known about younger AAM’s views of CRCS. Employing survey design, the purpose of the study was to describe the male role norms (MRN), knowledge, attitudes, perceived subjective norms, and perceived barriers associated with screening for CRC among a non-random sample of 157 young adult AAM (ages 19–45). Sixty-seven percent of the study sample received a passing knowledge score (85% or better), yet no significant differences were found among the three educational levels (i.e., low, medium, high). More negative attitudes toward CRCS correlated with the participants’ strong perceptions of barriers, but no extremely negative or positive MRN and perceived subjective norms were found. The factors significantly associated with attitudes were family history of cancer (unsure), work status, and perceived barriers. Findings from this study provide a solid basis for developing structured health education interventions that address the salient factors shaping young adult AAM’s view of CRC and early detection screening behaviors. PMID:25506049

  19. Thermal plasticity in young snakes: how will climate change affect the thermoregulatory tactics of ectotherms?

    PubMed

    Aubret, F; Shine, R

    2010-01-15

    Climate change will result in some areas becoming warmer and others cooler, and will amplify the magnitude of year-to-year thermal variation in many areas. How will such changes affect animals that rely on ambient thermal heterogeneity to behaviourally regulate their body temperatures? To explore this question, we raised 43 captive-born tiger snakes Notechis scutatus in enclosures that provided cold (19-22 degrees C), intermediate (19-26 degrees C) or hot (19-37 degrees C) thermal gradients. The snakes adjusted their diel timing of thermoregulatory behaviour so effectively that when tested 14 months later, body temperatures (mean and maximum), locomotor speeds and anti-predator behaviours did not differ among treatment groups. Thus, the young snakes modified their behaviour to compensate for restricted thermal opportunities. Then, we suddenly shifted ambient conditions to mimic year-to-year variation. In contrast to the earlier plasticity, snakes failed to adjust to this change, e.g. snakes raised at cooler treatments but then shifted to hot conditions showed a higher mean body temperature for at least two months after the onset of the new thermal regime. Hence, thermal conditions experienced early in life influenced subsequent thermoregulatory tactics; the mean selected temperature of a snake depended more upon its prior raising conditions than upon its current thermoregulatory opportunities. Behavioural plasticity thus allows snakes to adjust to suboptimal thermal conditions but this plasticity is limited. The major thermoregulatory challenge from global climate change may not be the shift in mean values (to which our young snakes adjusted) but the increased year-to-year variation (with which our snakes proved less able to deal).

  20. Nothing good ever happens after midnight: observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nights among young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensing country.

    PubMed

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Twisk, Divera

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other countries, also in the Netherlands young male drivers (ages between 18 and 24 years) are overrepresented in crashes during weekend nights, thereby fatally injuring one or more of their passengers. This overrepresentation may be due to two contributing factors: (a) a higher exposure-to-risk because of dangerous trip condition, and (b) a higher tendency to take risks. Studies on these factors, mostly carried out in jurisdictions where youngsters are licensed at an earlier age than in Europe, suggest a strong -often negative- influence from peer-aged passengers. Given that in adolescence susceptibility to peer pressure reduces with age, these findings may not be applicable to late licensing countries, such as in Europe. In the Netherlands -a late licensing country- youngsters are licensed after the age of 18 years, followed by a 5 year probation period with a legal alcohol limit of 0.2g/L. Further, designated driver schemes are in place since 2001, alcohol limits are enforced by random breath testing schemes, and no passenger and night time restrictions are in force. Against this background, we examined the incidence of dangerous trip conditions and risk taking among young male drivers and compared those with a reference group with a low passenger fatality rate. To that end, data on trip conditions and risk behavior were obtained from a data base on 18,608 randomly selected drivers during weekend nights in 2010, between 22:00 and 06:00. This data base held information for each randomly selected on breath alcohol concentration (BAC), license status, driver characteristics (age and gender), number of passengers, time of night, and level of urbanization. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed the overrepresentation of young male drivers in traffic, carrying more frequently passengers than the reference group, especially after midnight. Urbanization level was not a modifying factor, but 'time of night' was, with riskier conditions after midnight in

  1. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1–1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors. PMID:26640081

  2. A barley PHD finger transcription factor that confers male sterility by affecting tapetal development.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gómez, José; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-08-01

    Controlling pollen development is of major commercial importance in generating hybrid crops and selective breeding, but characterized genes for male sterility in crops are rare, with no current examples in barley. However, translation of knowledge from model species is now providing opportunities to understand and manipulate such processes in economically important crops. We have used information from regulatory networks in Arabidopsis to identify and functionally characterize a barley PHD transcription factor MALE STERTILITY1 (MS1), which expresses in the anther tapetum and plays a critical role during pollen development. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis, rice and Brachypodium genomes was used to identify conserved regions in MS1 for primer design to amplify the barley MS1 gene; RACE-PCR was subsequently used to generate the full-length sequence. This gene shows anther-specific tapetal expression, between late tetrad stage and early microspore release. HvMS1 silencing and overexpression in barley resulted in male sterility. Additionally, HvMS1 cDNA, controlled by the native Arabidopsis MS1 promoter, successfully complemented the homozygous ms1 Arabidopsis mutant. These results confirm the conservation of MS1 function in higher plants and in particular in temperate cereals. This has provided the first example of a characterized male sterility gene in barley, which presents a valuable tool for the future control of male fertility in barley for hybrid development.

  3. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-12-07

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1-1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors.

  4. Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Male and Female Young Adults: 1990 versus 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Laura; Nicodemus, Teresa; Pomante, Michael; Binasiewicz, Megan; Dheer, Rahul; Dugan, Amy; Madaras, Janice; Chambliss, Catherine

    The increase in maternal employment has affected society and children. Indications are that the increased numbers of working mothers had impacted the size of families and the birth intervals within them. In addition, as children experience life with a working mother, personal constructs of adult roles and attitudes towards maternal employment can…

  5. Papular Acantholytic Dyskeratosis Localized to the Perineal and Perianal Area in a Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shyam B

    2013-01-01

    A case of Papular acantholytic dermatosis restricted to the perianal area is being reported in a 26 year old male without involvement of the genitalia, groin and upper thighs for the first time in English literature. The patient presented with long standing grayish white confluent papules with eroded areas in the perianal region which were asymptomatic for a long time before the area got macerated. He did not respond to many weeks of topical steroids but is now showing improvement with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily. This entity appears to be very uncommon and also underreported. It is also suggested that this entity be included in the long list of non venereal anogenital lesions as it may mimic perianal warts or molluscum contagiosum. PMID:24082188

  6. Young male survivor of a spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection treated with surgery

    PubMed Central

    Endara, Santiago A.; Ayala, Andres V.; Davalos, Gerardo A.; Moscoso, Juan; Montero, R. Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries is a rare disease with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from angina to myocardial infarction (MI); its pathophysiology has not yet been fully established. In this paper, we present the case of a 31-year-old male with an acute coronary syndrome. The initial results of the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were consistent with MI. However, a coronary angio-tomography revealed a dissection of the left main coronary artery and the patient underwent emergent surgery with coronary artery bypass grafting. The treatment of spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries depends on the anatomical location and the patient's clinical presentation. Coronary revascularization is associated with good results. PMID:24964467

  7. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats

    PubMed Central

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S.; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Morris, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR p<0.05). Pathway Enrichment Analysis also identified significant effects in 20 pathways, dominated by amino acid, sterol and fatty acid metabolism. Most changes were interpretable within the context of male sexual development, and changed following neutering in the CN group. Felinine metabolism in CN cats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion. PMID:27942045

  8. Factors associated with obesity: a case-control study of young adult Singaporean males.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyuan; Jiang, Bo; Wei Sim, Joshua Dao; Chum, Zhi Zhen; Ali, Noreffendy Bin; Toh, Mun Heng

    2014-10-01

    A case-control study among Singapore Armed Forces' newly enlisted Servicemen was conducted to examine factors associated with male obesity. Four hundred and fifty-nine individuals from the Obese Basic Military Training program were selected as "cases" (average age: 19.5, body mass index: 30.4) and another 340 individuals were selected from the Normal Basic Military Training program as "controls" (average age: 19.3, body mass index: 21.4). Information such as family background, socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle practices were captured using facilitator-led questionnaires. Several variables were significantly associated with obesity after adjustments for possible confounders. These include childhood obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06), less than an hour of exercise per day (OR = 2.97), Indian ethnicity (OR = 2.22), specific education backgrounds (especially that of Institute of Technical Education-OR = 2.75), father's employment at nonmanagerial/professional jobs (OR = 1.52), mother's employment at managerial/professional jobs (OR = 2.02), regular smoking (OR = 1.73) and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.26), 6 hours or less of sleep (OR = 3.73), obesity among family members (OR = 1.86 for mother; OR = 2.98 for siblings), parental history of diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.22 for father; OR = 2.70 for mother), and eating at inexpensive local food stalls (OR = 1.82). Our study found that a number of factors, ranging from personal and family backgrounds to lifestyle choices, were significantly associated with obesity among male youths.

  9. Cuticular Hydrocarbon Content that Affects Male Mate Preference of Drosophila melanogaster from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Aya; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Itoh, Masanobu; Ozaki, Mamiko; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in mating signals and preferences can be a potential source of incipient speciation. Variable crossability between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans among different strains suggested the abundance of such variations. A particular focus on one combination of D. melanogaster strains, TW1(G23) and Mel6(G59), that showed different crossabilities to D. simulans, revealed that the mating between females from the former and males from the latter occurs at low frequency. The cuticular hydrocarbon transfer experiment indicated that cuticular hydrocarbons of TW1 females have an inhibitory effect on courtship by Mel6 males. A candidate component, a C25 diene, was inferred from the gas chromatography analyses. The intensity of male refusal of TW1 females was variable among different strains of D. melanogaster, which suggested the presence of variation in sensitivity to different chemicals on the cuticle. Such variation could be a potential factor for the establishment of premating isolation under some conditions. PMID:22536539

  10. Alterations in Blood Coagulation and Viscosity Among Young Male Cigarette Smokers of Al-Jouf Region in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almarshad, Hassan A; Hassan, Fathelrahman M

    2016-05-01

    Hemorheology, a measure of rheological properties of blood, is often correlated with cerebral blood flow and cardiac output; an increased blood viscosity may increase the risk of thrombosis or thromboembolic events. Previous studies have reported a large variation in hemorheological properties of blood among smokers. This prompted us to conduct coagulation experiments to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on hematological parameters, like cell counts, and coagulation parameters among young males in Al-Jouf region, Saudi Arabia. The hematological and coagulation parameters were used to relate the changes in viscosity and coagulation to smoking. A total of 321 male participants (126 nonsmokers and 195 smokers) were enrolled into the study as randomized sample. Complete blood count was measured by hematology analyzer, and coagulation tests were performed by coagulation analyzer. Thettest analysis was performed to compare the relationships of variables between the 2 groups. The results confirmed that smoking alters some hematology parameters leading to significant deterioration in blood flow properties. Smoking also increased the hematocrit (HCT), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and plasma viscosity (PV) but decreased the international normalized ratio (INR). The decrease in INR was found to be associated with the increase in WBV, PV, and HCT. Further investigations are necessary to assess the reversibility of such changes in cessation of smoking or other elements of influence.

  11. Age changes of facial measurements in European young adult males: implications for the identification of the living.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, D; Mapelli, A; Obertovà, Z; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ratnayake, M; Tutkuviene, J; Sforza, C; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2012-12-01

    Metric and morphological analyses of facial features are currently applied in cases of personal identification of the living on images acquired from video surveillance systems. However, facial assessment in the forensic context needs to be based on reliable comparative data for facial measurements. Facial changes in the age range of early adulthood (20-30 years) have been rarely described so far, although such knowledge would be beneficial for comparative personal identification on images. This study investigates changes in facial measurements in European males aged between 20 and 30 years in order to identify metric characters that can be used for personal identification in young adults. A sample of 404 males of European ancestry, aged between 20 and 30 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania were recruited for this project. Fourteen facial measurements were taken and correlation coefficients were calculated for each cranial measurement with age. Only two measurements - labial width and physiognomic ear length - seem to change between 20 and 30 years with a positive statistically significant correlation (p<0.05). These results suggest caution for what may concern personal identification by assessment of ear and mouth morphology.

  12. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels. PMID:28212346

  13. A Young Drosophila Duplicate Gene Plays Essential Roles in Spermatogenesis by Regulating Several Y-Linked Male Fertility Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yuan; Zhao, Ruoping; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Guojie; Dong, Yang; Yu, Haijing; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Gene duplication is supposed to be the major source for genetic innovations. However, how a new duplicate gene acquires functions by integrating into a pathway and results in adaptively important phenotypes has remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanism of the young kep1 gene family in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup to understand the origin and evolution of new genes with new functions. Sequence and expression analysis demonstrates that one of the new duplicates, nsr (novel spermatogenesis regulator), exhibits positive selection signals and novel subcellular localization pattern. Targeted mutagenesis and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis provide evidence that nsr is required for male reproduction associated with sperm individualization, coiling, and structural integrity of the sperm axoneme via regulation of several Y chromosome fertility genes post-transcriptionally. The absence of nsr-like expression pattern and the presence of the corresponding cis-regulatory elements of the parental gene kep1 in the pre-duplication species Drosophila yakuba indicate that kep1 might not be ancestrally required for male functions and that nsr possibly has experienced the neofunctionalization process, facilitated by changes of trans-regulatory repertories. These findings not only present a comprehensive picture about the evolution of a new duplicate gene but also show that recently originated duplicate genes can acquire multiple biological roles and establish novel functional pathways by regulating essential genes. PMID:21203494

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  15. Physical growth and changes in intermittent endurance run performance in young male Basque soccer players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José António; Amado, Markos; Figueiredo, António J; Gil, Susana M

    2014-01-01

    The present 4-year longitudinal study examined physical growth and development of intermittent endurance run performance in young Basque soccer players aged 10-15 years applying multilevel regression modeling. Anthropometry, predicted adult stature and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) of players from the under-11 teams from the Athletic Club of Bilbao were measured at pre- and end-season (two measurements per year of study, n = 33 considered for analysis). A non-linear effect of age on intermittent endurance run was observed, with significantly higher increases in Yo-Yo IR1 between 10-11 year-old and 14-15 year-old players. The development of Yo-Yo IR1 performance in all the years of the study was influenced positively by training exposure during the seasons (P < 0.01) and independent of maturity status and body size (P > 0.05). The steady development of intermittent endurance run performance during pubertal years in adolescent Basque soccer players is partially influenced by training exposure.

  16. The physique of young males in east Africa from the biosocial point of view.

    PubMed

    Rebacz, Ewa

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to show the correlation between the physique of Africans from Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and the conditions of their biosocial environment. All the young men examined were from Kenya (N=423), Tanzania (N= 153) and Sudan (N=154) aged 18 to 30. Based on the taken measurements (height, weight, sitting height, physiognomic leg length and chest, waist, hip, left thigh and left arm circumferences) the following indices were calculated: Body Mass Index (BMI), Rohrer's index and skelic index. The birth date, the number of children per ménage (in family), and the birth sequence of the examined subject were inquired. The measurement results were elaborated (worked out) statistically in accordance with commonly accepted standards. All the information contained in the collected material within the analysed countries was compared. On the basis of the measured traits and calculated indices it was found that the morphological constitution of the men from Sudan differed. Typical for this group are the largest stature length and the lowest weight and waist measurements. Kenyans are similar to Tanzanians, although the latter have higher weight, hip and thigh measurements and lower chest circumference. The characteristics of the examined Africans' morphological structure were analysed in comparison with the data available in literature and relating to the number of children in family, population density, illiteracy and the growth of income and of the HIV/AIDS problem.

  17. Experimal study of young male drivers' responses to vehicle collision using EMG of lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenhai; Li, Chuzhao; Hu, Hongyu; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chaoyang; Yu, Huili

    2015-01-01

    A driver's response to a front-coming vehicle collision consists of braking reaction time and braking behavior. The purpose was to investigate drivers' responses at different speeds, relative distances, and particularly the behavior on the accelerator at the collision moment. Twelve young men participated in driving simulator tests. Vehicle parameters and electromyograms (EMGs) of the drivers' tibialis anterior muscles were recorded and responses were analyzed. The drivers' braking reaction time windows were divided into pre-motor time, muscle activation time, accelerator release time, and movement time. By comparing the reaction times and collision times, braking behaviors were investigated. It was found that movement times (r = -0.281) decreased with speed. Pre-motor times (r = 0.326) and muscle activation times (r = 0.281) increased with relative distance. At the collision moment, the probability of the driver's lower extremity being on the accelerator, in the air, and on the brake pedal was 7.4%, 18.9%, and 73.7%, respectively. With higher speeds and smaller distances, the lower extremity was more likely to be in the air or even on the accelerator in different muscle activation states. The driver will collide in normal driving postures which muscles are not or not fully activated in very urgent situation.

  18. Attentionally modulated effects of cortisol and mood on memory for emotional faces in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Van Honk, J; Kessels, R P C; Putman, P; Jager, G; Koppeschaar, H P F; Postma, A

    2003-10-01

    Heightened cortisol levels due to stress or acute administration seem to enhance memory for emotional material, independently of emotional valence. An arousal-driven neurobiological mechanism involving the amygdala has been proposed. The relation between pre-task salivary measures of cortisol (by convention named 'basal levels') and emotionally modulated memory has not been investigated yet. Given the association between higher basal levels of cortisol and indices of low mood, valence-specific effects on emotionally modulated memory could be expected (e.g. mood-congruent or stimulus-specific forms of processing). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between basal levels of salivary cortisol, self-reported mood and spatial memory for neutral, happy and angry facial expressions in healthy young volunteers (N=31). Memory performance was indexed using a modified version of a computerized object-relocation task, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Results showed a significant relation between cortisol and depressive mood. More importantly, both the levels of cortisol and depressive mood were inversely related to the memory performance for the happy facial expressions, while a similar relationship between cortisol and memory performance on angry faces neared significance. An explanation in terms of the down-regulation of social behavior by elevated basal cortisol levels is postulated.

  19. Laterality of Stance during Optic Flow Stimulation in Male and Female Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Persiani, Michela; Piras, Alessandro; Squatrito, Salvatore; Raffi, Milena

    2015-01-01

    During self-motion, the spatial and temporal properties of the optic flow input directly influence the body sway. Men and women have anatomical and biomechanical differences that influence the postural control during visual stimulation. Given that recent findings suggest a peculiar role of each leg in the postural control of the two genders, we investigated whether the body sway during optic flow perturbances is lateralized and whether anteroposterior and mediolateral components of specific center of pressure (COP) parameters of the right and left legs differ, reexamining a previous experiment (Raffi et al. (2014)) performed with two, side-by-side, force plates. Experiments were performed on 24 right-handed and right-footed young subjects. We analyzed five measures related to the COP of each foot and global data: anteroposterior and mediolateral range of oscillation, anteroposterior and mediolateral COP velocity, and sway area. Results showed that men consistently had larger COP parameters than women. The values of the COP parameters were correlated between the two feet only in the mediolateral axis of women. These findings suggest that optic flow stimulation causes asymmetry in postural balance and different lateralization of postural controls in men and women. PMID:26539509

  20. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Norris, A L; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2010-12-15

    The large body size and high rates of metabolic heat production associated with male mating success in polygynous systems creates potential thermoregulatory challenges for species breeding in warm climates. This is especially true for marine predators carrying large blubber reserves intended for thermoregulation in cold water and fuel provision during extended fasts. Thermographic images were used to measure changes in skin temperature (T(S)) in adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) over the breeding season. Environmental variables, primarily ambient temperature and solar radiation, were the principal determinants of mean and maximum T(S). When controlled for environmental variables, dominance rank significantly impacted mean T(S), being highest in alpha males. Behavioral activity significantly influenced T(S) but in a counter-intuitive way, with inactive males exhibiting the highest T(S). This was likely due to strong impacts of environmental variables on the kinds of behavior exhibited, with males being less active on warm, humid days at peak solar radiation. We classified thermal windows as areas in which T(S) was one standard deviation greater than mean T(S) for the individual seal within a thermograph. Thermal features suggest active physiological thermoregulation during and after combat and significant circulatory adaptations for heat dumping, as evidenced by recurring locations of thermal windows representing widely varying T(S) values. Frequent observations of localized T(S) above 37°C, particularly after combat, suggest the production of thermoregulatory stress during breeding behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of environmental drivers in shaping activity patterns during breeding and provide evidence for thermoregulatory costs of successful breeding in large polygynous males.

  1. Asperger syndrome in adolescent and young adult males. Interview, self- and parent assessment of social, emotional, and cognitive problems.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative follow-up studies of young adult males with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood, using both interview, self- and parent assessment instruments for the study of aspects of emotional well-being, social functioning, and cognitive-practical skills have not been performed in the past. One-hundred males with AS diagnosed in childhood were approached for the assessment using the Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Interview (ASDI), (personal and parent interview), the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). About 75% of the targeted group participated. The ASDI results came out significantly different at personal vs parent interviews in several key domains. In contrast, the Leiter-R-Questionnaires, showed no significant differences across the individuals with AS and their parents in the scoring of cognitive/social and emotional/adaptive skills. The BDI proved to be an adequate screening instrument for depression in that it correctly identified the vast majority of cases with clinical depression in the AS group. The DEX results suggested an executive function deficit problem profile in males with AS as severe as that reported in groups of individuals with traumatic brain injury and schizophrenia. Interviews (personal and collateral), and self-rating and parent-rating questionnaires all have a role in the comprehensive diagnostic process in AS and other autism spectrum disorders, and could be used as adjuncts when evaluating whether or not individuals meeting diagnostic symptom criteria for the condition have sufficient problems in daily life to warrant a clinical diagnosis of AS.

  2. Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Mathisen, Gunnar; Pettersen, Svein Arne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration) and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50), 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50), and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24), with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30). In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50) and 20 m sprint (r=0.52), as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50) and agility performance (r=0.28). In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38) and 10–20 m (r=0.45) sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35) in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33) and 10–20 m (r=0.35) sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. PMID:26604842

  3. Impaired handgrip exercise-induced brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in young obese males.

    PubMed

    Slattery, David J; Stuckless, Troy J R; King, Trevor J; Pyke, Kyra E

    2016-05-01

    Flow mediated dilation (FMD) stimulated by different shear stress stimulus profiles may recruit distinct transduction mechanisms, and provide distinct information regarding endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether obesity influences brachial artery FMD differently depending on the shear stress profile used for FMD assessment. The FMD response to a brief, intermediate, and sustained shear stress profile was assessed in obese (n = 9) and lean (n = 19) young men as follows: brief stimulus, standard reactive hyperemia (RH) following a 5 min forearm occlusion (5 min RH); intermediate stimulus, RH following a 15 min forearm occlusion (15 min RH); sustained stimulus, 10 min of handgrip exercise (HGEX). Brachial artery diameter and mean shear stress were assessed using echo and Doppler ultrasound, respectively, during each FMD test. There was no group difference in HGEX shear stress (p = 0.390); however, the obese group had a lower HGEX-FMD (5.2 ± 3.0% versus 11.5 ± 4.4%, p < 0.001). There was no group difference in 5 min RH-FMD (p = 0.466) or 15 min RH-FMD (p = 0.181); however, the shear stress stimulus was larger in the obese group. After normalization to the stimulus the 15 min RH-FMD (p = 0.002), but not the 5 min RH-FMD (p = 0.118) was lower in the obese group. These data suggest that obesity may have a more pronounced impact on the endothelium's ability to respond to prolonged increases in shear stress.

  4. Multiple signals and male spacing affect female preference at cocktail parties in treefrogs

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Effective acoustic communication in the face of intense conspecific background noise constitutes a constant sensory challenge in chorusing and colonial species. An evolutionary approach suggests that behavioural and environmental constraints in these species should have shaped signal design and signalling behaviour to enable communication in noisy conditions. This could be attained both through the use of multicomponent signals and through short-term adjustments in the spatial separation of calling males. We investigated these two hypotheses in a chorusing anuran, the hylid Hyla arborea, through a series of phonotaxis experiments conducted within a six-speaker arena in a high background noise situation, by presenting females with male calls containing either single or multiple attractive call components, and by modifying distances between speakers. We found that female ability to discriminate attractive calls increased when several attractive call components were available, providing novel evidence that the use of multicomponent signals enhances communication in complex acoustic conditions. Signal discrimination in females also improved with speaker separation, demonstrating that within natural choruses, spatial unmasking conditioned by male density and spatial separation probably improves female discrimination of competing males. Implications of these results for the accuracy of mate choice within choruses are discussed. PMID:20018785

  5. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  6. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln's sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Kendra B; Dankoski, Elyse C; Sockman, Keith W

    2010-08-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer's condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa, social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment, we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to 1 week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity, and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects' AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate sociosexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS), and the preoptic area. We found that high-quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low-quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment.

  7. Physical Condition Does Not Affect Gravity-Induced Loss of Consciousness during Human Centrifuge Training in Well-Experienced Young Aviators

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhee; Yun, Chul; Kang, Seungcheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Consensus on whether physical condition affects the risk of gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) has not been reached, and most previous studies about the issue did not include well-experienced aviators. We compared the physical conditions of well-experienced young aviators according to the occurrence of G-LOC during human centrifuge training. Methods Among 361 young male aviators on active flight duty with experience in high performance aircrafts for at least 2 years, 350 had full data available and were reviewed in this study. We divided the aviators into the G-LOC group and the non-G-LOC group according to their human centrifuge training results. We then compared their basic characteristics, body composition, physical fitness level, and pulmonary function. Results Twenty nine aviators (8.3%) who experienced G-LOC during human centrifuge training in their first trials were classified into the G-LOC group. There was no difference in physical condition of aviators between the two groups. Conclusions Young aviators with experience in G-LOC showed no difference in physical condition such as muscle mass, strength, and general endurance from the aviators with no such experience. Although more studies are needed, physical condition does not seem to be a significant determinant of G-LOC among the experienced aviators. PMID:26812597

  8. Evaluation of selected biochemical parameters in the saliva of young males using mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Samak, Mahmoud; Aljaberi, Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The biochemical status in the saliva of 12 males before/after using mobile phone has been evaluated. Radio frequency signals of 1800 MHz (continuous wave transmission, 217 Hz modulate and Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM - non-DTX]) with 1.09 w/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) value were used for 15 and 30 min. Cell phone radiation induced a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD); there was a statistically significant effect of talking time on the levels of SOD, F(2, 33) = 8.084, p < 0.05, ω = 0.53. The trend analysis suggests a significant quadratic trend, F(1, 33) = 4.891, p < 0.05; indicating that after 15 min of talking the levels of SOD increased, but as talking time increased the SOD activity started to drop. In contrast to this, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the level of salivary albumin, cytochrome c, catalase or uric acid. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation may exert an oxidative stress on human cells as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva of cell phone users.

  9. Maternal Obesity in Pregnancy Developmentally Programs Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Young, Lean Male Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Alfaradhi, Maria Z.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Pantaleão, Lucas C.; Carr, Sarah K.; Ferland-McCollough, David; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Bushell, Martin; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy has a long-term effect on the health of the offspring including risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Using a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity, we employed a genome-wide approach to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) and miRNA transcription profile in adipose tissue to understand mechanisms through which this occurs. Male offspring of diet-induced obese mothers, fed a control diet from weaning, showed no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 weeks of age. However, offspring from the obese dams had up-regulated cytokine (Tnfα; P < .05) and chemokine (Ccl2 and Ccl7; P < .05) signaling in their adipose tissue. This was accompanied by reduced expression of miR-706, which we showed can directly regulate translation of the inflammatory proteins IL-33 (41% up-regulated; P < .05) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D (30% up-regulated; P < .01). We conclude that exposure to obesity during development primes an inflammatory environment in adipose tissue that is independent of offspring adiposity. Programming of adipose tissue miRNAs that regulate expression of inflammatory signaling molecules may be a contributing mechanism. PMID:27583789

  10. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin; Oladipo, Olamide; Frasier, Samuel; Putko, Robert; Chronister, Stacy; Marovich, Mary

    2012-12-01

    A 26-year-old male was presented to a military treatment facility in Afghanistan shortly after taking a weight-lifting supplement called Jack3d with a severe headache and was subsequently found to have suffered a Dejerine-Roussy variant right thalamic hemorrhagic stroke. Jack3d active ingredients include geranamine, schizandrol A, caffeine, beta-alanine, creatine monohydrate, and L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate. A literature search revealed case reports suggesting some of the constituent ingredients may predispose to stroke and hemorrhage and also revealed a substantial paucity of data existed regarding schizandrol A, a herb used in traditional eastern medicine. The product has no readily apparent disclaimer or warning regarding the risks or lack of data regarding the components. Jack3d is sold as a nutritional supplement and is therefore not subject to same FDA regulation and scrutiny that a pharmaceutical receives. The potential adverse effect was reported to the FDA via MedWatch in accordance with the recently passed Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act.

  11. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure.

  12. [Acute renal failure in a young male with cellulitis in the lower leg].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Martelo Villar, F

    2008-06-01

    Necrotizing fascitiis due to Streptococcus Pyogenes has a high mortality rate. Detection of the infection before it developes to the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is quite challenging and its one of the main goals of its management because at this final stage the treatment is in most of the cases ineffective. In a secuence of events of the progression of the infection to shock, renal failure occurs before hipotension very often. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient affected by a fulminant necrotizing fascitiis by Streptococcus Pyogenes which presented at admission with lower leg cellulitis and acute renal failure.

  13. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  14. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    PubMed Central

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  15. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis: VII. Factors Affecting the Spectral Sensitivity of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Young Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, A L; Walsh, L

    1979-05-01

    Light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis is a typical high irradiance response (HIR) of plant photomorphogenesis. The spectral sensitivity of this response in young seedlings of cabbage and tomato is strongly affected by the length and mode of application of the light treatments. This observation suggests that the different experimental conditions, used in different action spectroscopy studies, might have been responsible, at least in part, for some of the reported differences in the characteristics of the HIR action spectra of different response-system combinations. In both cabbage and tomato, the values of the far red/blue, far red/red, and blue/red action ratios increase with increasing durations of the light treatments; this finding is in agreement with hypotheses of K. M. Hartmann (1966, 1967) and E. Schäfer (1975) for phytochrome action in the HIR. The similarity in the trend of change of the values of the action ratios suggests the possibility that the photomorphogenic pigment system, involved in the photoregulation of anthocyanin synthesis, may be the same in cabbage and tomato, even though there are some differences in the spectral sensitivity of the response between the two species.

  16. Christian Commitment and Personal Well Being: Exploring the Connection between Religious Affect and Global Happiness among Young Churchgoers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess the connection between religious affect (as a measure of Christian commitment) and global happiness (as a measure of personal well being) among a sample of 6,194 young churchgoers in Australia between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a…

  17. Very Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS: How are they Living?: A Case Study from Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Otaala, Barnabas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a recent study conducted jointly by the authors in the Khomas Region of Namibia. The study developed and trialled research and documentation methods regarding very young children who had been infected or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Because of the stigma attached to the disease, effective methods for assessing…

  18. Cocaine differentially affects synaptic activity in memory and midbrain areas of female and male rats: an in vivo MEMRI study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Pablo D; Hall, Gabrielle; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Febo, Marcelo

    2017-02-24

    Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been previously used to determine the effect of acute cocaine on calcium-dependent synaptic activity in male rats. However, there have been no MEMRI studies examining sex differences in the functional neural circuits affected by repeated cocaine. In the present study, we used MEMRI to investigate the effects of repeated cocaine on brain activation in female and male rats. Adult female and male rats were scanned at 4.7 Tesla three days after final treatment with saline, a single cocaine injection (15 mg kg(-1), i.p. × 1 day) or repeated cocaine injections (15 mg kg(-1), i.p. × 10 days). A day before imaging rats were provided with an i.p. injection of manganese chloride (70 mg kg(-1)). Cocaine produced effects on MEMRI activity that were dependent on sex. In females, we observed that a single cocaine injection reduced MEMRI activity in hippocampal CA3, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and median Raphé, whereas repeated cocaine increased MEMRI activity in dentate gyrus and interpeduncular nucleus. In males, repeated cocaine reduced MEMRI activity in VTA. Overall, it appeared that female rats showed a general trend towards increase MEMRI activity with single cocaine and reduced activity with repeated exposure, while male rats showed a trend towards opposite effects. Our results provide evidence for sex differences in the in vivo neural response to cocaine, which involves primarily hippocampal, amygdala and midbrain areas.

  19. Swimming training increases the post-yield energy of bone in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Hsieh, Sandy S; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Shang-Chih; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of non-weight-bearing exercise on growing bone. Male Wistar rats (7 week-old) were assigned to one baseline control group, one control group and two swimming training groups, which were trained with 2 and 4% body-weight mass added, respectively. After an 8-week training period, three groups showed significant development compared to the baseline control group. Among the three 15-week-old groups, swimming-trained rats were lower in body weight (BW), densitometry and size-related measurements. In femoral biomechanical testing, swimming training groups were significantly lower in yield moment and ultimate moment, which may be due to a significantly lower long bone cross-sectional moment of inertia. However, the two swimming groups were higher in post-yield energy absorption and displacement. Further, in estimated tissue-level biomaterial properties, no differences were shown in yield stress, strain or toughness among the three groups. Using BW as a covariate, results of ANCOVA showed no differences in size-related parameters among the three groups, and some parameters were even higher in the two swimming groups. Regarding Pearson's correlation, size-related parameters correlated well to BW and whole bone strength but not to tissue post-yield behaviors. In conclusion, when compared to age-matched control group, swimming rats showed lower bone strength and lower yield energy absolutely at the structural level, but similar yield stress and yield toughness at the tissue level. Moreover, swimming training benefited growing bone in post-yield behaviors. Further studies should investigate the parameters that contribute to this exercise-induced post-yield behavior.

  20. Acute effects of plyometric jumping and intermittent running on serum bone markers in young males.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Fu; Huang, Tsang-hai; Tu, Kuo-Cheng; Lin, Linda L; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different modes of single-bout exercise would cause different responses in short-term bone metabolism. 24 untrained male college students (19.1 ± 0.1 years old) were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups: (1) a single-bout plyometric exercise group (the PL group, n = 8), (2) a 200-meter × 10 intermittent running group (the IR group, n = 8) and (3) a sedentary control group, which followed the same time schedule of experimentation without performing any exercise (the CON group, n = 8). Serial blood samples were collected before (baseline) and 5 min, 15 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after exercise trials. Within 15 min of exercise, the PL and IR groups showed significantly higher serum phosphorus than did the control group (P < 0.05). Osteocalcin levels were significantly higher in the PL group at 5 min and 1 h after exercise (P < 0.05), while serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) showed no differences among groups. Exercises with different mechanical impact levels responded differently in serum bone formation markers as shown by osteocalcin. Because the increase in osteocalcin in the PL group was revealed shortly after the exercise bout, the changes might due to an exercise-induced mechanical impact rather than bone cellular activities.

  1. Physiological and psychological responses of young males during spring-time walks in urban parks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that contact with the natural environment can improve physical and mental health. Urban green spaces may provide city residents with these benefits; however, there is a lack of empirical field research on the health benefits of urban parks. Methods This field experiment was performed in May. Seventeen males aged 21.2 ± 1.7 years (mean ± standard deviation) were instructed to walk predetermined 15-minute courses in an urban park and a nearby city area (control). Heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured to assess physiological responses. The semantic differential (SD) method, Profile of Mood States (POMS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure psychological responses. Results Heart rate was significantly lower while walking in the urban park than while walking in the city street. Furthermore, the urban park walk led to higher parasympathetic nervous activity and lower sympathetic nervous activity compared with the walk through the city street. Subjective evaluations were generally in accordance with physiological reactions, and significantly higher scores were observed for the ‘comfortable’, ‘natural’, and ‘relaxed’ parameters following the urban park walk. After the urban park walk, the score for the ‘vigor’ subscale of the POMS was significantly higher, whereas that for negative feelings such as ‘tension-anxiety’ and ‘fatigue’ was significantly lower. The score for the anxiety dimension of the STAI was also significantly lower after the urban park walk. Conclusions Physiological and psychological results from this field experiment provide evidence for the physiological and psychological benefits of urban green spaces. A brief spring-time walk in an urban park shifted sympathetic/parasympathetic balance and improved mood state. PMID:24887352

  2. Sex Differences in Somatotrope Dependency on Leptin Receptors in Young Mice: Ablation of LEPR Causes Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency and Abdominal Obesity in Males

    PubMed Central

    Odle, Angela; Haney, Anessa; Childs, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Leptin receptor (LEPR) signaling controls appetite and energy expenditure. Somatotrope-specific deletion of the LEPRb signaling isoform causes GH deficiency and obesity. The present study selectively ablated Lepr exon 1 in somatotropes, which removes the signal peptide, causing the loss of all isoforms of LEPR. Excision of Lepr exon 1 was restricted to the pituitary, and mutant somatotropes failed to respond to leptin. Young (2–3 mo) males showed a severe 84% reduction in serum GH levels and more than 60% reduction in immunolabeled GH cells compared with 41%–42% reductions in GH and GH cells in mutant females. Mutant males (35 d) and females (45 d) weighed less than controls and males had lower lean body mass. Image analysis of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging showed that young males had a 2-fold increase in abdominal fat mass and increased adipose tissue density. Young females had only an overall increase in adipose tissue. Both males and females showed lower energy expenditure and higher respiratory quotient, indicating preferential carbohydrate burning. Young mutant males slept less and were more restless during the dark phase, whereas the opposite was true of females. The effects of a Cre-bearing sire on his non-Cre-recombinase bearing progeny are seen by increased respiratory quotient and reduced litter sizes. These studies elucidate clear sex differences in the extent to which somatotropes are dependent on all isoforms of LEPR. These results, which were not seen with the ablation of Lepr exon 17, highlight the severe consequences of ablation of LEPR in male somatotropes. PMID:26168341

  3. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    PubMed

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic.

  4. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E.; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads. PMID:25934616

  5. Methoprene and 20-OH-ecdysone affect male production in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J K; Kashian, D R; Dodson, S I

    2001-03-01

    Exposure of Daphnia pulex to the insecticide and juvenile hormone-mimic methoprene resulted in a decrease in the incidence of all-male broods and an increase in the incidence of all-female broods compared with controls. These effects were observed at nominal concentrations of 10 and 100 microg/L, within the upper range of concentrations at which methoprene is applied in the environment. Because methoprene has been found to bind to the mammalian retinoid X receptor, we also tested the effects of retinoic acid on Daphnia reproduction. Neither 9-cis-retinoic acid nor all-trans-retinoic acid had any observable effect. Because juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids interact in many insect systems, we also exposed Daphnia to 20-OH-ecdysone. Exposure to the crustacean hormone 20-OH-ecdysone at levels of 1 and 10 microg/L resulted in an increase in all-male broods and a decrease in all-female broods, but 100 microg/L 20-OH-ecdysone resulted in a decrease in all-male broods and an increase in all-female broods. Our results suggest that juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids might play a role in the Daphnia sex determination system.

  6. Wolbachia Influences the Production of Octopamine and Affects Drosophila Male Aggression.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Chelsie E; Bondy, Elizabeth; Josh, Peter; Riegler, Markus; Eyles, Darryl; van Swinderen, Bruno; Weible, Michael W; Brownlie, Jeremy C

    2015-07-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts that infect approximately 40% of all insect species and are best known for their ability to manipulate host reproductive systems. Though the effect Wolbachia infection has on somatic tissues is less well understood, when present in cells of the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, Wolbachia exerts an influence over behaviors related to olfaction. Here, we show that a strain of Wolbachia influences male aggression in flies, which is critically important in mate competition. A specific strain of Wolbachia was observed to reduce the initiation of aggressive encounters in Drosophila males compared to the behavior of their uninfected controls. To determine how Wolbachia was able to alter aggressive behavior, we investigated the role of octopamine, a neurotransmitter known to influence male aggressive behavior in many insect species. Transcriptional analysis of the octopamine biosynthesis pathway revealed that two essential genes, the tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine β-hydroxylase genes, were significantly downregulated in Wolbachia-infected flies. Quantitative chemical analysis also showed that total octopamine levels were significantly reduced in the adult heads.

  7. "Never Really Had a Good Education You Know, Until I Came in Here": Educational Life Histories of Young Adult Male Prisoner Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Jane; Maunsell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational life histories of nine prisoner learners aged between 18 and 21 years which were collated as part of doctoral work which sought to access the life histories of adult male prisoners who were attending a prison school while incarcerated in prison. The nine life histories of the young men were collated not only…

  8. Being Challenged in an Urban Classroom: A Case Study Documenting the Engagement of a Young Male Who Wanted to "Look Smart"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez Leal, Lina; Schorr, Roberta Y.; Warner, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on previous research that investigates the nature of engagement as it occurs "in the moment" in urban classrooms (Goldin, Epstein, Schorr, & Warner, 2011). In this article, we report on a young male student, Eric, who called out an answer in front of all his peers in response to a question posed by the teacher.…

  9. Time Orientation of Young Male First Offenders as a Function of Period of Imprisonment and Race. Criminal Justice Monograph Volume VI, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogan, Paul J.

    This research attempted to identify differences, or lack of them, in time orientation of Caucasian, Black and Chicano young male first offenders at various periods of imprisonment; beginning, middle, and end. The instrument that was chosen to measure time orientation was a combination of two questionnaires--the Time Competence scale of the…

  10. Pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin after oral administration of single and repeat doses in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin in healthy male subjects following single oral administration of doses ranging from 200 to 1200 mg, and following repeated oral administration of 400 and 800 mg doses are reported. Plasma levels of grepafloxacin reached a peak within 2 hours (on average) following drug administration and then declined bi-exponentially with concentrations being detectable (> 5 micrograms/L) in the plasma for at least up to 72 hours postdose. The high values for the apparent volume of distribution (5 to 8 L/kg) suggested extensive distribution of grepafloxacin in the tissues. Only a small percentage of the administered dose (ranging from 6% to 9.5%) was recovered in the urine as unchanged grepafloxacin, suggesting that metabolism, rather than urinary excretion, is the major elimination route. The half-life of grepafloxacin was about 12 hours after single doses and about 15 hours after repeat doses. The trough levels increased significantly over the first 3 days of repeat administration; thereafter, the changes were small, with steady-state being reached by the fifth day. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24 h) values observed on days 7 and 14 of repeat administration, at each dose level, were similar, suggesting that steady-state is maintained. The area values increased more than proportionally after administration of increasing single and repeat doses, suggesting nonlinear kinetics. The elimination half-life and renal clearance did not change with increasing doses. Saturation in the metabolism of grepafloxacin and possibly in the distribution into a peripheral compartment, as suggested by a decrease in the total plasma clearance and in the apparent volume of distribution, could be the origin of the nonlinear kinetics. However, this deviation from linearity is unlikely to be of clinical significance, since it was very small over the recommended range of therapeutic doses (400 to 600 mg once daily). Compared with other quinolones

  11. Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  12. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess water and salt balance in young football players in training during Ramadan. Measurements were made in 92 young male football players before and during the month of Ramadan. Fifty-five participants were observing Ramadan fasting, while the other 37 participants were eating and drinking without restriction. In week 3 of Ramadan, water and salt balance measures were made during a training session of 60-70 min duration that was performed at an ambient temperature of 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50-53%. Body mass was recorded before and after training. Fluid intake was assessed in non-fasting players by weighing drink bottles before and after training, and the volume of any urine output was recorded. Sweat composition was estimated from absorbent patches applied to four skin sites for the duration of training. Mean sweat loss of players amounted to 1.41 litres (s = 0.36) in fasting players and 1.61 litres (s = 0.51) in non-fasting players (P = 0.038). Mean fluid intake during training in non-fasting players was 1.92 litres (s = 0.66). Sweat sodium concentration was 20 mmol . l(-1) (s = 8) in fasting players and 17 mmol . l(-1) (s = 7) in non-fasting players, and total sweat sodium loss during training was 0.67 g (s = 0.41) and 0.65 g (s = 0.37) [corresponding to a salt loss of 1.7 g (s = 1.1) and 1.7 g (s = 0.9)] respectively, with no difference between fasting and non-fasting players. Sweat sodium loss was not related to estimated dietary sodium intake (r = -0.07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals.

  13. Cracking with Affect: Relationality in Young People's Movements in and out of Mainstream Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skattebol, Jennifer; Hayes, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This paper focusses on the schooling stories of two young women who moved from mainstream schooling into alternative learning program set up for Indigenous students and back into mainstream schooling to complete their Year 12 education. The manner in which these young women narrated their stories is understood through the prism of Indigenous…

  14. The Quest for Quality: How YoungStar Is Affecting Child Care in Milwaukee County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Betsy; Peterangelo, Joe; Henken, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The State of Wisconsin's YoungStar system was created by the Legislature and Governor in 2010 to "drive quality improvement in child care throughout the state." YoungStar uses a five-star system to rate child care providers based on several measures of quality, including staff education levels, learning environment, business methods, and…

  15. "I Think Boys Would Rather Be Alpha Male": Being Male and Sexual Health Experiences of Young Men from a Deprived Area in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, F.; Bristow, K.; Robertson, S.; Norman, R.; Litva, A.; Stanistreet, D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the experiences of young men aged 16-19, living in an area of high deprivation, when accessing local sexual health services. Design: A qualitative design drawing on ethnographic methods. Setting: A local college. Methods: A multi-method approach was adopted using: one-to-one semi-structured interviews with young men and…

  16. The impact of postnatal environment on opioid peptides in young and adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lisa; Oreland, Sadia; Hoffmann, Pernilla; Nylander, Ingrid

    2008-04-01

    Early environmental influences can change the neuronal development and thereby affect behavior in adult life. The aim in the present study was to thoroughly examine the impact of early environmental factors on endogenous opioids by using a rodent maternal separation (MS) model. The endogenous opioid peptide system is not fully developed at birth, and short- and/or long-term alterations may occur in these neural networks in animals exposed to manipulation of the postnatal environment. Rat pups were subjected to one of five rearing conditions; 15 min (MS15) litter (l) or individual (i), 360 min (MS360) l or i daily MS, or housed under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions during postnatal days 1-21. Measurements of immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels in the pituitary gland and in a number of brain areas, were performed at three and 10 weeks of age, respectively. MS-induced changes were more pronounced in ir MEAP levels, especially in individually separated rats at three weeks of age and in litter-separated rats at 10 weeks of age. The enkephalin and dynorphin systems have different developmental patterns, dynorphin appearing earlier, which may point at a more sensitive enkephalin system during the early postnatal weeks. The results provide evidence that opioid peptides are sensitive for early environmental factors and show that the separation conditions are critical and also result in changes manifesting at different time points. MS-induced effects were observed in areas related to stress, drug reward and dependence mechanisms. By describing effects on opioid peptides, the study addresses the possible role of a deranged endogenous opioid system in the previously described behavioral consequences of MS.

  17. Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the ulnar nerve fascicular number and cross-sectional area in young males

    PubMed Central

    Bedewi, Mohamed Abdelmohsen; Yousef, Ahmed M.M.; Abd-Elghany, Amr Adel; el-sharkawy, Mohamed Sherif; Awad, Ezzat M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the number of fascicles and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site by ultrasound in healthy young adult males. The demographic and physical characteristics of 50 adult male volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The subjects were positioned supine with the elbow flexed at 90° and the palm of the hand placed on a hard surface. The ulnar nerve was scanned bilaterally 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle in projection of the cubital tunnel. The number of fascicles and mean CSA of the ulnar nerve were identified. In addition, the side-to-side differences of the estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. The mean fascicular number was 5.66 ± 1.48, the mean ultrasound-estimated CSA of the ulnar nerve was 6.54 ± 1.67 mm2 and both sides were comparable in the mean CSA and fascicular number (6.43 ± 1.80 mm2 and 5.88 vs 6.64 ± 1.55 mm2 and 5.44, for right and left side, respectively). No significant correlations were observed between CSA and fascicles number and age, weight, height, or BMI of study subjects. The reference values for the number of fascicles number and the CSA of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site were identified. These values could be used for the sonographic diagnosis and follow-up of the ulnar nerve lesions. PMID:28272211

  18. Aging and exercise affect the level of protein acetylation and SIRT1 activity in cerebellum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Nyakas, Csaba; Bakonyi, Tibor; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Kumagai, Shuzo; Goto, Sataro; Radak, Zsolt

    2010-12-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive and motor functions, the result of complex biochemical processes including pre- and posttranslational modifications of proteins. Sirtuins are NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylases. These enzymes modulate the aging process by lysine deacetylation, which alters the activity and stability of proteins. Exercise can increase mean life-span and improve quality of life. Data from our laboratories revealed that 4 weeks of treadmill running improves performance in the Morris Maze test for young (4 months, old) but not old (30 months, old) male rats, and the exercise could not prevent the age-associated loss in muscle strength assessed by a gripping test. The positive correlation between protein acetylation and the gripping test suggests that the age-dependent decrease in relative activity of SIRT1 in the cerebellum impairs motor function. Similarly to the acetylation level of total proteins, the acetylation of ά -tubulin is also increased with aging, while the effect of exercise training was not found to be significant. Moreover, the protein content of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, one of the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, decreased in the young exercise group. These data suggest that aging results in decreased specific activity of SIRT1 in cerebellum, which could lead to increased acetylation of protein residues, including ά-tubulin, that interfere with motor function.

  19. d-Galactose High-Dose Administration Failed to Induce Accelerated Aging Changes in Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory on Young Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Magano, Sara; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The model of accelerated senescence with the prolonged administration of d-galactose is used in anti-aging studies because it mimics several aging-associated alterations such as increase of oxidative stress and decline of cognition. However, there is no standardized protocol for this aging model, and recently some reports have questioned its effectiveness. To clarify this issue, we used a model of high-dose d-galactose on 1-month-old male Wistar rats and studied the hippocampus, one of the most affected brain regions. In one group (n = 10), d-galactose was daily administered intraperitoneally (300 mg/kg) during 8 weeks whereas age-matched controls (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally with saline. A third group (n = 10) was treated with the same dose of d-galactose and with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2 grams/L), a green tea catechin with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. After treatments, animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular layer was quantified. There were no significant alterations when the three groups were compared in the number of doublecortin- and Ki-67–immunoreactive cells, and also on anxiety levels, spatial learning, and memory. Therefore, d-galactose was not effective in the induction of accelerated aging, and EGCG administered to d-galactose–treated animals did not improve behavior and had no effects on neurogenesis. We conclude that daily 300 mg/kg of d-galactose administered intraperitoneally may not be a suitable model for inducing age-related neurobehavioral alterations in young male Wistar rats. More studies are necessary to obtain a reliable and reproducible model of accelerated senescence in rodents using d-galactose. PMID:25936362

  20. D-Galactose High-Dose Administration Failed to Induce Accelerated Aging Changes in Neurogenesis, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory on Young Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Magano, Sara; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2015-12-01

    The model of accelerated senescence with the prolonged administration of d-galactose is used in anti-aging studies because it mimics several aging-associated alterations such as increase of oxidative stress and decline of cognition. However, there is no standardized protocol for this aging model, and recently some reports have questioned its effectiveness. To clarify this issue, we used a model of high-dose d-galactose on 1-month-old male Wistar rats and studied the hippocampus, one of the most affected brain regions. In one group (n = 10), d-galactose was daily administered intraperitoneally (300 mg/kg) during 8 weeks whereas age-matched controls (n = 10) were injected intraperitoneally with saline. A third group (n = 10) was treated with the same dose of d-galactose and with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (2 grams/L), a green tea catechin with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. After treatments, animals were submitted to open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular layer was quantified. There were no significant alterations when the three groups were compared in the number of doublecortin- and Ki-67-immunoreactive cells, and also on anxiety levels, spatial learning, and memory. Therefore, d-galactose was not effective in the induction of accelerated aging, and EGCG administered to d-galactose-treated animals did not improve behavior and had no effects on neurogenesis. We conclude that daily 300 mg/kg of d-galactose administered intraperitoneally may not be a suitable model for inducing age-related neurobehavioral alterations in young male Wistar rats. More studies are necessary to obtain a reliable and reproducible model of accelerated senescence in rodents using d-galactose.

  1. Finger Fractures as an Early Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Among Young Patients: A Case Report of a 30-Year-Old Male With Recurrent Osteoporotic Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Yamagishi, Eiki; Sato, Shunsuke; Tsukada, Manabu; Sawano, Toyoaki; Leppold, Claire; Tsuda, Kenji; Asakura, Takanori; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures represent a substantial health burden, and predominantly affect the elderly. Younger generations may also develop these conditions because of various predisposing conditions, including primary hyperparathyroidism. However, little information is available regarding early skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism.A 30-year-old Japanese male presented with pain in his left wrist, and was diagnosed with a distal radius fracture. During surgery, we noticed decreased bone strength of the fracture site. Further investigation found osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism owing to a solitary parathyroid adenoma, which was resected without significant complications. History revealed that the patient suffered a metacarpal bone fracture of his right fifth bone 6 months earlier. Although serial x-rays at that time had shown rapidly developed cortical bone erosion around the fractured finger, the possibility of primary hyperparathyroidism was overlooked because of poor awareness of the condition, leading to a 6-month delay in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.Clinicians should be aware that finger fractures may be an early skeletal manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism that can help achieve a prompt diagnosis of the condition, especially when they occur in young adults in the absence of major trauma.

  2. Factors affecting computer mouse use for young children: implications for AAC.

    PubMed

    Costigan, F Aileen; Light, Janice C; Newell, Karl M

    2012-06-01

    More than 12% of preschoolers receiving special education services have complex communication needs, including increasing numbers of children who do not have significant motor impairments (e.g., children with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, etc.). In order to meet their diverse communication needs (e.g., face-to-face, written, Internet, telecommunication), these children may use mainstream technologies accessed via the mouse, yet little is known about factors that affect the mouse performance of young children. This study used a mixed factorial design to investigate the effects of age, target size, and angle of approach on accuracy and time required for accurate target selection with a mouse for 20 3-year-old and 20 4-year-old children. The 4-year-olds were generally more accurate and faster than the 3-year-olds. Target size and angle mediated differences in performance within age groups. The 3-year-olds were more accurate and faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target, were faster in selecting the large relative to the medium target, and were faster in selecting targets along the vertical relative to the diagonal angle. The 4-year-olds were faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target. Implications for improving access to AAC include the preliminary suggestion of age-related threshold target sizes that support sufficient accuracy, the possibility of efficiency benefits when target size is increased up to an age-related threshold, and identification of the potential utility of the vertical angle as a context for training navigational input device use.

  3. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C.; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests. There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05). APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  4. Space flight affects magnocellular supraoptic neurons of young prepuberal rats: transient and permanent effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Ovejero, D.; Trejo, J. L.; Ciriza, I.; Walton, K. D.; Garcia-Segura, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of microgravity on postural control and volume of extracellular fluids as well as stress associated with space flight may affect the function of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. Since environmental modifications in young animals may result in permanent alterations in neuroendocrine function, the present study was designed to determine the effect of a space flight on oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic magnocellular hypothalamic neurons of prepuberal rats. Fifteen-day-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-90, Neurolab mission, experiment 150) for 16 days. Age-matched litters remained on the ground in cages similar to those of the flight animals. Six animals from each group were killed on the day of landing and eight animals from each group were maintained under standard vivarium conditions and killed 18 weeks after landing. Several signs of enhanced transcriptional and biosynthetic activity were observed in magnocellular supraoptic neurons of flight animals on the day of landing compared to control animals. These include increased c-Fos expression, larger nucleoli and cytoplasm, and higher volume occupied in the neuronal perikaryon by mitochondriae, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and cytoplasmic inclusions known as nematosomes. In contrast, the volume occupied by neurosecretory vesicles in the supraoptic neuronal perikarya was significantly decreased in flight rats. This decrease was associated with a significant decrease in oxytocin and vasopressin immunoreactive levels, suggestive of an increased hormonal release. Vasopressin levels, cytoplasmic volume and c-Fos expression returned to control levels by 18 weeks after landing. These reversible effects were probably associated to osmotic stimuli resulting from modifications in the volume and distribution of extracellular fluids and plasma during flight and landing. However, oxytocin levels were still reduced at 18 weeks after landing in flight

  5. Migratory stopover conditions affect the developmental state of male gonads in garden warblers (Sylvia borin).

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, Ulf; Van't Hof, Thomas; Biebach, Herbert

    2008-08-01

    Long-distance migrants face the challenge of a short window for reproduction that requires optimal timing and full functional gonads. Male garden warblers (Sylvia borin) meet these demands by initiating testicular recrudescence during spring migration, enabling them to reproduce immediately after arrival at the breeding grounds. In a combined field and laboratory study, we investigated testicular size, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), androstenedione (AE), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone and nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) under different stopover conditions. We manipulated food availability, the duration of stopover and simulated migration by food deprivation. Garden warblers showed significantly retarded testicular development after nine days of stopover under limited food conditions compared to birds that had ad libitum access to food. However, there was no significant difference in Zugunruhe between the two groups. Thus, the degree of Zugunruhe was unaffected by the quality of the stopover site and migration continued independent of the developmental state of the testis. We suggest that male garden warblers face the necessity to either compensate for slowed testicular recrudescence during the subsequent leg of migration and delay arrival at the breeding grounds, or arrive with less developed testes. Either of these may reduce annual reproductive success.

  6. Fecal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) immunoreactivity as a noninvasive index of circulating DHEA activity in young male laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Lambert, Kelly G

    2010-12-01

    Evidence suggests that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plays a key role in stress and coping responses. Fecal sampling permits assessment of hormone-behavior interactions reliably and effectively, but no previous study has compared circadian- or stress-dependent alterations between serum DHEA and its fecal metabolites. In the current study, young (28 d of age) male rats were assigned to either an experimental (n = 6) or control (n = 6) group. Rats in the experimental group were exposed to a forced swim test to assess their behavioral and physiologic response to an environmental stressor; blood samples were drawn before the test (baseline), immediately after the test, and at 2 later time points. Only fecal samples were collected from control animals. Fecal DHEA and corticosterone metabolites were monitored in all animals for 24 h. DHEA metabolites in control rats exhibited significant diurnal variation, showing a similar temporal pattern as that of corticosterone metabolites. In addition, fecal and serum DHEA levels were highly correlated. Significant peaks in both DHEA and corticosterone metabolite levels were detected. These data suggest that measures of fecal DHEA can provide a complementary, noninvasive method of assessing adrenal gland function in rats.

  7. Effects of loaded voluntary wheel exercise on performance and muscle hypertrophy in young and old male C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Soffe, Z; Radley-Crabb, H G; McMahon, C; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age.

  8. Inhibition of Polo kinase by BI2536 affects centriole separation during Drosophila male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Riparbelli, Maria G; Gottardo, Marco; Glover, David M; Callaini, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of Drosophila Polo kinase with BI2536 has allowed us to re-examine the requirements for Polo during Drosophila male gametogenesis. BI2536-treated spermatocytes persisted in a pro-metaphase state without dividing and had condensed chromosomes that did not separate. Centrosomes failed to recruit γ-tubulin and centrosomin (Cnn) and were not associated with microtubule arrays that were abnormal and did not form proper bipolar spindles. Centrioles, which usually separate during the anaphase of the first meiosis, remained held together in a V-shaped configuration suggesting that Polo kinase regulates the proteolysis that breaks centriole linkage to ensure their disengagement. Despite these defects spermatid differentiation proceeds, leading to axoneme formation.

  9. Vocational identity, positive affect, and career thoughts in a group of young adult central nervous system cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lange, Dustin D; Wong, Alex W K; Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to compare levels of career thoughts and vocational identity between young adult childhood central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors and noncancer peers and (b) to investigate the contribution of vocational identity and affect on career thoughts among cancer survivors. Participants included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors and a comparison sample of 60 college students. Participants completed Career Thoughts Inventory, My Vocational Situation, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data in this study. CNS cancer survivors had a higher level of decision-making confusion than the college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vocational identity and positive affect significantly predicted the career thoughts of CNS survivors. The differences in decision-making confusion suggest that young adult CNS survivors would benefit from interventions that focus on providing knowledge of how to make decisions, while increasing vocational identity and positive affect for this specific population could also be beneficial.

  10. Occupational health and safety issues affecting young workers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Marie; Ledoux, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Many overview articles, reports, book chapters and literature reviews have examined the health and safety of young workers. These sources discuss the relationships between the work conditions of young workers and the various indicators of accidents and occupational diseases. Breslin et al. [12,13] conducted two literature reviews of quantitative studies to determine which factors best predicted work accidents and occupational disorders in young people. The present article proposes a review of young people's occupational health and safety (OHS) factors (e.g., demographic, individual, professional, organizational, temporal and operational factors) in both qualitative and quantitative studies. Five types of problems were analyzed in greater depth, namely MSD symptoms, respiratory, allergy and toxicological problems, mental health and well-being, alcohol and drug consumption, and fatigue. This review likewise examines related dimensions that allow us to adopt a more global perspective on this subject by considering such elements as young people's values, their knowledge and attitudes, safety practices in companies, the safe integration of young people, and rehabilitation. A total of 189 scientific articles were selected on the basis of certain criteria. These articles came from refereed OHS journals published between 1994 and 2005.

  11. Mate preference for dominant vs. subordinate males in young female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) following chemically-accelerated ovarian follicle depletion.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Place, Ned J

    2015-12-01

    Life history theory predicts that selectivity for mates generally declines as females age. We previously demonstrated this phenomenon in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), in that older females showed reduced preference for dominant over subordinate males. To test the hypothesis that decreased reproductive quality due to aging reduces mate preference, we decoupled reproductive and chronological age by treating young female hamsters with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian follicle depletion without compromising the general health of rodents. In this study, VCD effectively reduced follicle numbers in young Syrian hamsters. VCD-treated and control females were allowed to choose between a dominant and a subordinate male in a Y-maze on the day of proestrus. Both VCD-treated and control females demonstrated preference for the dominant male by leaving a greater proportion of vaginal scent marks near him, which is a behavior that females display when soliciting prospective mates. However, there was no effect of treatment on the proportion of vaginal scent marks left for the dominant male. Furthermore, ovarian follicle numbers were not significantly correlated with any behaviors in either group. We conclude that accelerated ovarian follicle depletion does not reduce mate preference in young female hamsters.

  12. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    PubMed

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  13. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  14. Dermatoglyphics of digitopalmar complex in forty male patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis--quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Jajić, Zrinka; Jajić, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of digitopalmar ridge count was performed in forty male patients with rheumatoid arthritis to evaluation of genetic factors in that disease. Twenty five variables (ridge count on each of ten fingers, their sum on five and ten fingers, four traits on each palm, i. e. ridge count between a-b, b-c and c-d triradii, their sum on each and both palm and at angle on two palms and their bilateral sum) were determined. The data thus obtained were compared with digitopalmar prints of 200 healthy men who served as a control group. A significant difference from the control group was found in eight variables. Ridge count was increased on the first and fifth finger bilaterally, on the fourth right finger tip, and their sum on each, and both fists. Accordingly, a polygenic system identical in some loci to the polygenic system predisposing to rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility might be found responsible for the dermatoglyphic pattern development. That means that they could used, and that is the aim of this study, as a diagnostic tool in rheumatic diseases.

  15. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect NEI concentration in discrete brain areas of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Carolina; Valdez, Susana Ruth; Morero, María Luján Navarra; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Sanchez, Mónica Silvina; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To date, there has been only one in vitro study of the relationship between neuropeptide EI (NEI) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. To investigate the possible relationship between NEI and the HPT axis, we developed a rat model of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism that allows us to determine whether NEI content is altered in selected brain areas after treatment, as well as whether such alterations are related to the time of day. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, induced in male rats, with 6-propyl-1-thiouracil and l-thyroxine, respectively, were confirmed by determination of triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and thyrotropin levels. All groups were studied at the morning and the afternoon. In rats with hypothyroidism, NEI concentration, evaluated on postinduction days 7 and 24, was unchanged or slightly elevated on day 7 but was decreased on day 24. In rats with hyperthyroidism, NEI content, which was evaluated after 4 days of l-thyroxine administration, was slightly elevated, principally in the preoptic area in the morning and in the median eminence-arcuate nucleus and pineal gland in the afternoon, the morning and afternoon NEI contents being similar in the controls. These results provide the bases to pursue the study of the interaction between NEI and the HPT axis.

  16. Abiotic factors affecting summer distribution and movement of male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, in a prairie reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Fisher, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    Six male paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, were implanted with ultrasonic temperature-sensing transmitters and tracked during June through August 1997 to quantify effects of physicochemical conditions on their distribution and movement in Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma. Paddlefish moved about twice as much during night than day. Movement rate of paddlefish was related to reservoir water level, inflow, and discharge from the reservoir at night; however, none of these variables was significant during the day. Location in the reservoir (distance from the dam) was negatively related to water level and positively related to inflow during day and night periods. Location in the reservoir was negatively related to discharge during the day. Paddlefish avoided the highest available water temperatures, but did not always avoid low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Paddlefish avoided the Cimarron River arm of the reservoir in summer, possibly because of high salinity. Our study demonstrates that distribution of paddlefish during summer and movement in Keystone Reservoir was influenced by physicochemical and hydrologic conditions in the system. However, biotic factors (e.g., food availability) not measured in this study may have been influenced by abiotic conditions in the reservoir.

  17. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s(-2)) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key pointsThis study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  18. Effect of Semi-Rigid and Soft Ankle Braces on Static and Dynamic Postural Stability in Young Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Numano, Shuhei; Morita, Miho; Takeuchi, Takuya; Iwata, Shou; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Ankle braces have been suggested to protect ankle joints from a sprain by restricting inversion and improving proprioception. However, the difference in effects between a semi-rigid brace and a soft brace regarding dynamic postural control after landing is not known. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of soft (SB) and semi-rigid (SRB) ankle braces on static and dynamic postural stability in healthy young men. Altogether, 21 male adults (mean age 24.0 ± 1.5 years) were assessed for one leg while wearing non-brace (NB), SB or SRB. Balance in single-limb stance on a single-force platform with open eyes and closed eyes were assessed for the non-dominant leg under SB, SRB, and NB conditions. Locus length/second (mm/s) and the enveloped area (mm·s-2) surrounded by the circumference of the wave pattern during postural sway were calculated. For assessing dynamic postural stability, the participant jumped and landed on one leg on a force platform, and the Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) and the maximum vertical ground reaction force (vGRFmax) were measured. The data were compared among the three conditions with repeated-measures analysis of variance. The correlations between locus length/second, enveloped area, DPSI values (DPSI, Anterior-Posterior Stability Index, Medial-Lateral Stability Index, and Vertical Stability Index), and vGRFmax were then calculated. The results indicated that locus length/second and enveloped area with open eyes and closed eyes were not significantly different for each condition. However, a significant lower in the DPSI and Vertical Stability Index were observed with the SRB in comparison to the SB and NB. A significant improvement in vGRFmax was also observed with the SRB in comparison to NB. SRB demonstrated a positive effect on dynamic postural stability after landing on a single leg and may improve balance by increasing dynamic postural stability. Key points This study examined the effect of ankle braces on

  19. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  20. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    PubMed

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

  1. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  2. The disturbance by road traffic noise of the sleep of young male adults as recorded in the home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Akselsson, K. R.

    1987-05-01

    Primary effects of road traffic noise on sleep, as derived from EEG, EOG, and EMG, were studied for seven young males (aged 21-27) in their homes along roads with heavy traffic during the night. A more quiet experimental condition was obtained by mounting sound-insulating material in the window openings, thus reducing the interiors noise level by an average of 8 dB(A). The present investigation shows that the subjects had not become completely habituated to the noise, although they had lived at least a year at their residences. The noise reduction caused an earlier onset and a prolonged duration of slow was sleep. No effects on REM sleep were seen. The subjective sleep quality was significantly correlated to the noise dose. The equivalent sound pressure level ( L eq) did not give the most adequate noise dose description. Better characterizations of the noise exposure were found in the number of car per night producing maximum sound pressure levels exceeding 50 or 55 dB(A) in the bedroom. Arousal reactions of type "body movements" and "changes towards lighter sleep" were induced by the noise of car passage but the percentage of cars inducing an effect was only <2% and <0·2% for the two types of reactions, respectively. The number of spontaneous body movements and sleep stage changes per night showed an increase during the more quiet nights as compared to the noisy nights. The sensitivity to arousal reactions was significantly lower in the present field study than the in the laboratory experiments. A description of the continuous sleep process by a few distinct "sleep stages" is too crude a tool for the detection of the rather subtle changes in the sleeping pattern caused by noise. In the present study an increased sensitivity in the analysis was obtained by dividing stage 2 into three substages.

  3. Short-term power output and local muscular endurance of young male soccer players according to playing position.

    PubMed

    Nikolaïdis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2014-06-01

    Although the contribution of anaerobic power in soccer performance is recognized and there is evidence that many anthropometric and physiological characteristics vary according to playing position, the association between playing position and short-term power output, and local muscular endurance is not well studied, especially in young players. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine whether this component of sport-related physical fitness of young soccer players varies according to playing position. Young male (N = 296; aged 10.94-21.00 y), classified in five two-year age-groups, and adults (N = 30; aged 21.12-31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test against braking force 0.075 kg x kg(-1) of body mass. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences between age groups with regard to peak power in absolute, P(peak) (F5,320 = 86.7, p < 0.001), and in relative to body mass values, rP(peak) (F5,320 = 43.27, p < 0.001), mean power in absolute, P(mean) (F5,313 = 108.97, p < 0.001), and in relative values, rP(mean) (F5,313 = 41.64, p < 0.001), while there was no difference with respect to fatigue index, FI (F5,312 = 1.09, p = 0.370). One-way analysis of covariance, considering age as covariate, did not reveal any significant differences among playing position groups with regard to P(peak) (F3,289 = 1.46, p = 0.226), rP(peak) (F3,289 = 0.87, p = 0.457) and P(mean) (F3,283 = 0.31, p = 0.817), while goalkeepers had lower rP(mean) than defenders, midfielders and forwards (F3,283 = 6.32, p < 0.001). One-way ANOVA revealed differences with regard to FI (F3,283 = 5.97, p < 0.001), according to which goalkeepers had higher values than defenders and midfielders. Compared with data from previous studies in general population, participants had superior short-term power output and local muscular endurance. Both these anaerobic parameters were in direct relationship with age (r = 0.64, p < 0

  4. Why don’t urban youth in Zambia use condoms? The influence of gender and marriage on non-use of male condoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Boyer, Christopher B.; Mutombo, Namuunda; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Ngo, Thoai D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%). This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia. Methods A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18–24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use) at most recent sexual intercourse. Results A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15). Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38]), married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73]), and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]). Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]). Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95]) and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91)]). Discussion Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in

  5. Reduced rDNA copy number does not affect "competitive" chromosome pairing in XYY males of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Maggert, Keith A

    2014-03-20

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a "competitive" situation in which complex pairing configurations were possible using males with XYY constitution. Using a common normal X chromosome, one of two different full-length Y chromosomes, and a third chromosome from a series of otherwise-isogenic rDNA deletions, I detected no differences in X-Y or Y-Y pairing or chromosome segregation frequencies that could not be attributed to random variation alone. This work was performed in the context of an undergraduate teaching program at Texas A&M University, and I discuss the pedagogical utility of this and other such experiments.

  6. Reduced rDNA Copy Number Does Not Affect “Competitive” Chromosome Pairing in XYY Males of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Maggert, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays are causal agents in X-Y chromosome pairing in meiosis I of Drosophila males. Despite broad variation in X-linked and Y-linked rDNA copy number, polymorphisms in regulatory/spacer sequences between rRNA genes, and variance in copy number of interrupting R1 and R2 retrotransposable elements, there is little evidence that different rDNA arrays affect pairing efficacy. I investigated whether induced rDNA copy number polymorphisms affect chromosome pairing in a “competitive” situation in which complex pairing configurations were possible using males with XYY constitution. Using a common normal X chromosome, one of two different full-length Y chromosomes, and a third chromosome from a series of otherwise-isogenic rDNA deletions, I detected no differences in X-Y or Y-Y pairing or chromosome segregation frequencies that could not be attributed to random variation alone. This work was performed in the context of an undergraduate teaching program at Texas A&M University, and I discuss the pedagogical utility of this and other such experiments. PMID:24449686

  7. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  8. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Burger, D; Dolivo, G; Marti, E; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C

    2015-05-22

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies.

  9. Transporters involved in pH and K+ homeostasis affect pollen wall formation, male fertility, and embryo development

    DOE PAGES

    Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Czerny, Daniel D.; Levin, Kara A.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Flowering plant genomes encode multiple cation/H+ exchangers (CHXs) whose functions are largely unknown. AtCHX17, AtCHX18, and AtCHX19 are membrane transporters that modulate K+ and pH homeostasis and are localized in the dynamic endomembrane system. Loss of function reduced seed set, but the particular phase(s) of reproduction affected was not determined. Pollen tube growth and ovule targeting of chx17chx18chx19 mutant pollen appeared normal, but reciprocal cross experiments indicate a largely male defect. Although triple mutant pollen tubes reach ovules of a wild-type pistil and a synergid cell degenerated, half of those ovules were unfertilized or showed fertilization of the egg ormore » central cell, but not both female gametes. Fertility could be partially compromised by impaired pollen tube and/or sperm function as CHX19 and CHX18 are expressed in the pollen tube and sperm cell, respectively. When fertilization was successful in self-pollinated mutants, early embryo formation was retarded compared with embryos from wild-type ovules receiving mutant pollen. Thus CHX17 and CHX18 proteins may promote embryo development possibly through the endosperm where these genes are expressed. The reticulate pattern of the pollen wall was disorganized in triple mutants, indicating perturbation of wall formation during male gametophyte development. Lastly, as pH and cation homeostasis mediated by AtCHX17 affect membrane trafficking and cargo delivery, these results suggest that male fertility, sperm function, and embryo development are dependent on proper cargo sorting and secretion that remodel cell walls, plasma membranes, and extracellular factors.« less

  10. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  11. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations.

  12. An Exploratory Study on Initial STEM Classes and African American Freshman Males Who Are STEM Majors at a Large Mid-Atlantic State University: Factors Affecting Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Persistence in the STEM Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, William Jason

    The purpose of this study was to test how well social cognitive career theory (SCCT) explains the effects of an introductory freshman year science course on the career perspectives of African American males at a large, public mid-Atlantic state university. Embracing SCCT as the foundation of this project, the dissertation intended to gather data from these young men to develop insight into how and in what ways their self-efficacy throughout the semester was influenced by their first science course, and changing their outlook on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers while in school and after graduation. To a small number of freshman African American male students who have declared themselves STEM majors, I utilized a qualitative study investigating this phenomenon. The major findings detailed themes that affected these young men including concerns about mathmatics preparation, isolation, balance, microagression, and help-seeking. Results indicate that there was an impact on the confidence, achievement, and goal setting for these young men due to these factors and that social cognitive career theory was an appropriate framework from which to test these questions.

  13. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  14. Manifestations of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness in three daughters of an affected male: Demonstration of homozygosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bech-Hansen, N.T. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Pearce, W.G. )

    1993-01-01

    X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) is a hereditary retinal disorder in which clinical features in affected males usually include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. Electroretinography demonstrates a marked reduction in b-wave amplitude. In the study of a large Mennonite family with CSNB1, three of five sisters in one sibship were found to have manifestations of CSNB1. All the sons of these three sisters were affected. Each of the two nonmanifesting sisters had at least one unaffected son. Analysis of Xp markers in the region Xp21.1-Xp11.22 showed that the two sisters who were unaffected had inherited the same maternal X chromosome (i.e., M2). Two of the daughters who manifested with CSNB had inherited the other maternal X chromosome (M1). The third manifesting sister inherited a recombinant X chromosome with a crossover between TIMP and DXS255, which suggests that the CSNB1 locus lies proximal to TIMP. One of the affected daughters' sons had inherited the maternal M1 X chromosome, a finding consistent with that chromosome carrying a mutant CSNB gene; the other affected sons inherited the grandfather's X chromosome (i.e., P). Molecular analysis of DNA from three sisters with manifestations of CSNB is consistent with their being homozygous at the CSNB1 locus and with their mother being a carrier of CSNB1. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  16. The contribution of parents' driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Musicant, Oren; Lotan, Tsippy; Farah, Haneen

    2014-11-01

    One of the prominent issues in contemporary research on young drivers deals with the mechanisms underlying parents' influences on their offspring's driving behavior. The present study combines two sets of data: the first gathered from in-vehicle data recorders tracking the driving of parents and their teenage sons, and the second derived from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of parents' driving behavior, participation in a parent-targeted intervention, and the teen drivers' perception of the family climate for road safety, to the driving behavior of young drivers during solo driving. The data was collected over the course of 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver, and examined a sample of 166 families who were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups (receiving different forms of feedback) or a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that young male drivers' risky driving events rate was positively associated with that of their parents. In addition, any type of intervention led to a lower rate of risky driving events among young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, a higher perception of parents as not committed to safety and lower perceived parental monitoring were related to a higher risky driving events rate among young drivers. The results highlight the need to consider a complex set of antecedents in parents' attitudes and behavior, as well as the family's safety atmosphere, in order to better understand young drivers' risky driving. The practical implications refer to the effective use of the family as a lever in the attempt to promote safety awareness among young drivers.

  17. Cultural Complexity That Affects Young Children's Contemporary Growth, Change, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook

    Based on the view that the group orientation to multicultural education reinforces group stereotyping and seldom allows acknowledgement of diverse children's unique capabilities and differences or helps children build self-identity while learning to appreciate others, this paper presents and discusses contemporary cultures of young children's…

  18. How Are Young People's Experiences of "Home" Affecting Their Engagement with Schooling and Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Paula; Savelsberg, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the influence of housing tenure on young people's developmental pathways. This paper draws on empirical findings from research conducted in the northern suburbs of Adelaide in 2009 to highlight how secure and quality housing tenure, when combined with familial support and positive relationships with teachers…

  19. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  20. Persistent Fear and Anxiety Can Affect Young Children's Learning and Development. Working Paper #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring that young children have safe, secure environments in which to grow, learn, and develop healthy brains and bodies is not only good for the children themselves but also builds a strong foundation for a thriving, prosperous society. Science shows that early exposure to circumstances that produce persistent fear and chronic anxiety can have…

  1. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  2. Using an Epidemiological Approach to Examine Outcomes Affecting Young Children with Down Syndrome and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; So, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we utilise an approach drawn from the field of epidemiology to explore what is known and unknown about young children with Down syndrome and their families. After describing what we mean by an epidemiological approach, we review basic findings for children with intellectual disabilities, as well as challenges to performing such…

  3. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories.

  4. Repeated psychosocial stress at night affects the circadian activity rhythm of male mice.

    PubMed

    Bartlang, Manuela S; Oster, Henrik; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that molecular rhythms in the murine suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are affected by repeated social defeat (SD) during the dark/active phase (social defeat dark [SDD]), while repeated SD during the light/inactive phase (social defeat light [SDL]) had no influence on PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE explant rhythms in the SCN. Here we assessed the effects of the same stress paradigm by in vivo biotelemetry on 2 output rhythms of the circadian clock (i.e., activity and core body temperature) in wild-type (WT) and clock-deficient Period (Per)1/2 double-mutant mice during and following repeated SDL and SDD. In general, stress had more pronounced effects on activity compared to body temperature rhythms. Throughout the SD procedure, activity and body temperature were markedly increased during the 2 h of stressor exposure at zeitgeber time (ZT) 1 to ZT3 (SDL mice) and ZT13 to ZT15 (SDD mice), which was compensated by decreased activity during the remaining dark phase (SDL and SDD mice) and light phase (SDL mice) in both genotypes. Considerable differences in the activity between SDL and SDD mice were seen in the poststress period. SDD mice exhibited a reduced first activity bout at ZT13, delayed activity onset, and, consequently, a more narrow activity bandwidth compared with single-housed control (SHC) and SDL mice. Given that this effect was absent in Per1/2 mutant SDD mice and persisted under constant darkness conditions in SDD WT mice, it suggests an involvement of the endogenous clock. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that SDD has long-lasting consequences for the functional output of the biological clock that, at least in part, appear to depend on the clock genes Per1 and Per2.

  5. “Dulling the edges”: Young Men’s use of alcohol to deal with grief following the death of a male friend

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective This qualitative study investigated the ways that young men use alcohol in the process of grieving the accidental death of a male friend. Methods Participants included 35 men 19–25 years old, and 22 men, ages 26–35 who participated in individual semi-structured interviews between 2010–2012. Results Methodology informed by grounded theory and narrative analysis was used to analyse and interpret the transcribed interviews, focusing on the ways that men used alcohol in the grief process. Through data analysis we inductively derived three themes: 1) Using Alcohol to Dull the Pain and 2) Using Alcohol to Purge Sadness, and 3) Troubled Drinking. Conclusions This study provides evidence to show that men’s binge drinking following tragic loss is a means to express emotion and connect with others. Health interventions for young men who have lost a male peer need to be sensitive to gendered norms that inform grief practices and work with them to discern pathways toward recovery that promote long term wellness. PMID:26202615

  6. Effects of amphetamine exposure in adolescence or young adulthood on inhibitory control in adult male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Waldman, Alex J.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity is a feature of some psychiatric disorders, including addiction, that also have sex-specific patterns of expression. The relationship between addiction and impulsivity may be driven by drug-induced changes in behavior caused by long term adaptations in signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used a response inhibition task that is sensitive to changes in mPFC function to examine the effects of sex and exposure to amphetamine (AMPH) on impulsive action and vigilance. We also examined drug-induced alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling through challenge injections with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine) and AMPH. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were injected (i.p.) with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH every other day during adolescence (postnatal day (P) 27–45) or adulthood (P85–103). Starting on P125–135, rats were tested for their ability to lever press for a food reward during periods of signaled availability and withhold responding during a “premature response” phase. In experiment 1, rats received challenge injections (i.p.) of MK-801 and AMPH followed by tests of task performance and locomotor activity. In experiment 2, rats received intra-mPFC infusion of MK-801. We found that females had better inhibitory control and poorer vigilance than males and that AMPH exposure had both sex- and age-of-exposure dependent effects on impulsivity. Systemic drug challenges disrupted task performance, particularly in females, and increased impulsivity while intra-mPFC infusions had modest effects. AMPH exposure did not affect responses to drug challenges. Together, these results suggest that sex mediates both trait and drug-induced impulsivity. PMID:24462963

  7. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  8. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism affects quality of life and cardiac morphology and function in young and middle-aged patients.

    PubMed

    Biondi, B; Palmieri, E A; Fazio, S; Cosco, C; Nocera, M; Saccà, L; Filetti, S; Lombardi, G; Perticone, F

    2000-12-01

    To determine the clinical impact of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess and quality of life were assessed in 23 patients (3 males and 20 females; mean age, 43 +/- 9 yr) and 23 age-, sex-, and lifestyle-matched normal subjects by using the Symptoms Rating Scale and the Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires. Because the heart is one of the main target organs of the thyroid hormone, cardiac morphology and function were also investigated by means of standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-h Holter ECG, and complete Doppler echocardiography. Stable endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism had been diagnosed in all patients at least 6 months before the study (TSH, 0.15 +/- 0.1 mU/L; free T(3), 6.9 +/- 1.1, pmol/L; free T(4), 17.2 +/- 2.3, pmol/L). Fifteen patients were affected by multinodular goiter, and eight patients by autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. The mean Symptoms Rating Scale score (9. 8 +/- 5.5 vs. 4.3 +/- 2.2, P: < 0.001) and both the mental (36.1 +/- 9.5 vs. 50.0 +/- 8.5, P: < 0.001) and physical (42.6 +/- 8.0 vs. 55. 6 +/- 4.1, P: < 0.001) component scores of Short Form 36 Health Survey documented a significant prevalence of specific symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess and notable impairment of quality of life in patients. Holter ECG showed a higher prevalence of atrial premature beats in endogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients than in the controls, but the difference was not statistically significant, although the average heart rate was significantly increased in the patients (P: < 0.001). An increase of left ventricular mass (162 +/- 24 vs. 132 +/- 22 g, P: < 0.001) due to the increase of septal (P: = 0.025) and posterior wall (P: = 0.004) thickness was observed in patients. Systolic function was enhanced in patients as shown by the significant increase of both fractional shortening (P: = 0.005) and mean velocity of heart rate-adjusted circumferential fiber shortening

  9. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes.

  10. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Mark E.; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as “activating” egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: 1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? 2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? 3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female’s resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle’s likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the “activating” effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  11. [How generativity affects motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Megumi; Gondo, Yasuyuki

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of "generativity" was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M=68.35 years old, SD=7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.

  12. Resurrecting free play in young children: looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation, and affect.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    We have observed that the nature and amount of free play in young children has changed. Our purpose in this article is to demonstrate why play, and particularly active, unstructured, outdoor play, needs to be restored in children's lives. We propose that efforts to increase physical activity in young children might be more successful if physical activity is promoted using different language-encouraging play-and if a different set of outcomes are emphasized-aspects of child well-being other than physical health. Because most physical activity in preschoolers is equivalent to gross motor play, we suggest that the term "play" be used to encourage movement in preschoolers. The benefits of play on children's social, emotional, and cognitive development are explored.

  13. When sex work becomes your everything: The complex linkages between economy and affection among male sex workers in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A.; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs) and existing studies explore limited sub-groups or offer limited information about MSWs’ perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives and HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs’ perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health and well-being. PMID:24368712

  14. The material, moral, and affective worlds of dealing and crime among young men entrenched in an inner city drug scene.

    PubMed

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-03-23

    A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on longitudinal interviews with 44 young men from 2008 to 2016, and ethnographic fieldwork with a group of approximately 15 of those young men over the same time period, we argue that for these youth, dealing and crime were not solely about economic survival, or even the accrual of highly meaningful forms of "street capital" in the margins. Rather, as "regimes of living," dealing and crime also opened up new value systems, moral logics, and affects in relation to the tremendous risks, potential rewards, and crushing boredom of life in the margins. These activities were also understood as a way into deeply desired forms of social spatial belonging in the city, which had previously only been imagined. However, across time dealing and crime ultimately "embedded" young men in cycles of incarceration, destitution, addictions, and mental health crises that ultimately reinforced their exclusion-from legal employment, but also within the world of crime. The findings of this study underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in order to meaningfully address the harms associated with involvement in dealing and crime among youth in our setting.

  15. Foveal processing difficulty does not affect parafoveal preprocessing in young readers

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Christina; Hawelka, Stefan; Schuster, Sarah; Hutzler, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested that parafoveal preprocessing develops early during reading acquisition, that is, young readers profit from valid parafoveal information and exhibit a resultant preview benefit. For young readers, however, it is unknown whether the processing demands of the currently fixated word modulate the extent to which the upcoming word is parafoveally preprocessed – as it has been postulated (for adult readers) by the foveal load hypothesis. The present study used the novel incremental boundary technique to assess whether 4th and 6th Graders exhibit an effect of foveal load. Furthermore, we attempted to distinguish the foveal load effect from the spillover effect. These effects are hard to differentiate with respect to the expected pattern of results, but are conceptually different. The foveal load effect is supposed to reflect modulations of the extent of parafoveal preprocessing, whereas the spillover effect reflects the ongoing processing of the previous word whilst the reader’s fixation is already on the next word. The findings revealed that the young readers did not exhibit an effect of foveal load, but a substantial spillover effect. The implications for previous studies with adult readers and for models of eye movement control in reading are discussed. PMID:28139718

  16. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  18. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  19. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 < LH < 0.95 IU/24 h and 1.57 < FSH < 3.77 IU/24 h corresponding to pubescent Tanner stage II. At the end of the study (T1), 35 boys remained prepubescent (22 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  20. The correlations of glycated hemoglobin and carbohydrate metabolism parameters with heart rate variability in apparently healthy sedentary young male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cherkas, Andriy; Abrahamovych, Orest; Golota, Sergii; Nersesyan, Armen; Pichler, Christoph; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Zarkovic, Neven; Eckl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular and many other age-related diseases. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the function of regulatory systems of internal organs and may sensitively indicate early metabolic disturbances. We hypothesize that quantitative and qualitative changes of HRV in young subjects may reflect early metabolic derangements responsible for further development of clinically significant disease. Aim The aim of our study was to determine whether the parameters of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting blood glucose, HBA1c and surrogate insulin sensitivity/resistance indices) correlate with anthropometric data and HRV. Methods The study group consisted of 30 healthy sedentary male subjects aged 20–40, nonsmokers, mainly office and research employees, medical staff and students. Athletes, actively training more than one hour per week, severely obese and men of physical work were excluded from the study. HRV parameters were derived from short term ECG records (five minutes intervals) in supine position and during orthostatic test. Anthropometric data included height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and body composition (estimation by bioelectric impedance method). The fasting blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated. Linear correlation coefficient (r) was calculated using Statistica 10.0 software. Results and discussion HOMA-IR index correlated positively with body weight, visceral fat and BMI (p=0.047, 0.027 and 0.017 respectively). In supine position pNN50 positively correlated with glucose/insulin ratio (p=0.011) and heart rate with HOMA-IR (p=0.006). In orthostatic test negative correlations of HBA1c with standard deviation, total and low frequency power were determined (p=0.034, 0.400 and 0.403 respectively), which indicates a gradual worsening of functional capacity of cardiovascular system with low

  1. The Effects of Injury Preventive Warm-Up Programs on Knee Strength Ratio in Young Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Rahnama, Nader; Yusof, Ashril

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+) and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR), dynamic control ratio (DCR) and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR) in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. Methods Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n = 12 per group). These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions). The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. Results After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s−1, 180°.s−1 and 300°.s−1, respectively). The CSR (60°.s−1) increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s−1) in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p = 0.02). As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p = 0.04). For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. Conclusions It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR). Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players. PMID:23226553

  2. Digestibility of a nutritionally-balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs.

    PubMed

    Kamalu, B P

    1991-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the digestibility of a cassava (gari) diet and its effect on growth in young male dogs. Three groups of dogs were fed on diets with rice (control), cassava (gari), and rice + cyanide respectively as the carbohydrate source. Each diet contained 130 g crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25)/kg, was supplemented with vitamins and minerals, and was fed for 14 weeks. Variables measured were body-weight gain, bone growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) activity, total serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and some plasma free amino acids. The apparent digestibilities of dry matter, protein and fat were not significantly different in the three groups, but the digestibility of gari fibre was significantly lower than the digestibility of rice fibre when fed to dogs (P less than 0.05). Proximate analysis of the faeces showed that the group of dogs fed on the gari diet had faeces which had a significantly higher moisture content than the faeces of the other groups (P less than 0.05), and also a significantly higher fibre content (P less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in body-weight gain and bone growth between the control and gari-fed groups of dogs, but these variables were significantly lower in the dogs fed on the rice + cyanide diet (P less than 0.05). At the end of the 14-week experimental period total serum T3 and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity were not significantly different between the control group of dogs and the gari-fed group, but were significantly lower in the rice + cyanide group. Plasma free methionine, leucine, isoleucine and valine concentrations were higher in the rice + cyanide group of dogs than in the control group and the gari group, indicating that these amino acids were accumulating and not being utilized for protein synthesis and growth to the same extent in the rice + cyanide group of dogs as in the other groups. It was concluded that the digestibilities of cassava starch and rice starch

  3. Comparative bioavailability of the microemulsion formulation of cyclosporine (Neoral) with a generic dispersion formulation (Cicloral) in young healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kees, Frieder; Bucher, Michael; Schweda, Frank; Gschaidmeier, Harald; Burhenne, Juergen; Mikus, Gerd; Faerber, Lothar

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of cyclosporine (CyA) from the generic dispersion formulation Cicloral (CIC) with the microemulsion formulation Neoral (NEO) and the original Sandimmune (SIM) capsules after single doses of 100, 300, or 600 mg of drug, respectively. The study was performed according to an open 3-period cross-over design with 12 young healthy male volunteers for each dosage. The concentrations of CyA and its main metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in whole blood and urine up to 48 hours postdosing. Peak concentrations and area under the time-concentration curve were greater for the NEO and CIC formulations compared with SIM, and the mean bioavailability of CIC was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared with NEO. The bioavailability of SIM compared with NEO was 54% to 71%, in agreement with previous results. Bioequivalence was not demonstrated between CIC (test) and NEO (reference) as the 90% confidence intervals were outside the 80% to 125% guidelines based on log-transformed AUCs, and were 75.2% to 87.7% at 100 mg, 79.2% to 91.8% at 300 mg, and 76.6% to 94.5% at 600 mg doses. The respective values for Cmax were 78.9% to 94.6%, 80.7% to 95.0%, and 71.4% to 84.1%. A good correlation was demonstrated between the urinary recovery of CyA and the AUC4. Therefore, the urinary recovery of CyA may be helpful as a surrogate parameter for the systemic exposure of patients to CyA. Whereas the relative amount of hydroxylated metabolites (AM1, AM9, AM1c) was similar for all formulations and doses, the urinary recovery of the N-demethylated metabolite AM4N decreased with increasing dose indicating saturable metabolism. No relationship could be demonstrated between CYP3A activity using dextromethorphan as a probe for the metabolic clearance of CyA.

  4. Behavioral activation and inhibition, negative affect, and gambling severity in a sample of young adult college students.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; Sharp, Carla; Schmitz, Joy; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students is increasing. Few studies have directly examined the relation between reward processing and gambling severity while concurrently examining the effects of co-occurring negative affect in this at risk population. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques to analyze results from an online survey of 352 female and 96 male students age 18-25. Participants completed measures of past year gambling behavior and severity of gambling problems using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Negative affect and reward processing were measured by the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, respectively. Thirty-five percent of participants reported gambling in the previous 12 months, and 11% had gambling severity scores indicative of "moderate-risk" or "problem gambling." Gambling severity was associated with negative affect. Negative affect, in turn, was correlated with the unitary BIS scale and inversely associated with the BAS reward responsiveness scale. Reward responsiveness was also inversely associated with gambling severity. In the SEM models, the association between reward responsiveness and gambling severity was mediated by negative affect among males but not among females. Potential explanations for these findings and their implications for addressing problem gambling are discussed.

  5. Maternal protein restriction in pregnancy and/or lactation affects seminiferous tubule organization in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, G L; Vigueras-Villaseñor, R M; Millán, S; Moran, N; Trejo, R; Nathanielsz, P W; Larrea, F; Zambrano, E

    2012-10-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) during pregnancy impaired the reproduction of male offspring. We investigated, during the first wave of spermatogenesis, whether MPR exerts deleterious effects on germ cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, which was used as a marker for Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. At the beginning of pregnancy (day 0), dams were fed a control diet (C: 20% casein) or a restricted isocaloric diet (R: 10% casein). After birth, four groups were established: CC, RR, CR and RC (first letter diet during pregnancy and second during lactation). Male offspring were studied at postnatal days 14, 21 and 36. At birth, pup body weight was unchanged. Body weight and testis weight were reduced in RR and CR groups at all ages evaluated. MPR delayed the germinal epithelium development at all ages evaluated. On performing Western blot and immunohistochemistry, AR expression was found to be lower in the three restricted groups. The results suggest that MPR during pregnancy and/or lactation delays SC maturation and germ cell differentiation, and affects intratubular organization. These changes might be responsible for the lower fertility rate at older ages.

  6. [Tacit metarepresentation and affective sense of personal identity. An approach to understanding severe psychiatric disorders of adolescence and young adulthood].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The results of present-day research in the field of "Dissociation Paradigm", regarding the capacity of the human mind to perceive, learn, and store information that in appearance passes as unnoticed, support the constructivist hypothesis of the active, selective and constructive condition of consciousness, in addition to the existence of a tacit dimension of knowledge that operates in functional relationship with the former. Unconscious mental states are intrinsically intentional. This is to say that they imply a semantic or cognitive connotation that is capable of affecting phenomenical experience and therefore behavior. In addition, the precocious existence of a tacit metarepresentational system in normally developed children has been proven, which is essential for guaranteeing the deployment of the process of functional coevolution between affectivity and consciousness, by which the experience of personal identity is acquired. These discoveries allow the inference of a "tacit affective metarepresentational recurrence", the organizational foundation on which a unified, sustainable, and continuous sense of the experience of personal identity is structured, and also allow us to hypothesize a "tacit metarepresentational mourning", a specific type of grief which is the chief foundation of the majority of psychopathological disorders. This concept may represent a potential explanation of the severe mental disorders of adolescence and young adulthood. The hypothesis of the present work is that, in the ambiguous context of Postmodern Culture, the prolongation of the adolescent period, facilitated by the welfare state, hinders the dealing with the aforementioned mourning, leading to an increment of depressive states and suicidal behavior among young people.

  7. How various drugs affect anxiety-related behavior in male and female rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Macúchová, E; Ševčíková, M; Hrebíčková, I; Nohejlová, K; Šlamberová, R

    2016-06-01

    Different forms of anxiety-related behavior have been reported after a single drug use of many abused substances, however, less is known about how males and females are affected differently from exposure to various drugs. Furthermore, chronic prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure was shown to predispose the animal to an increased sensitivity to drugs administrated in adulthood. Using the Elevated plus-maze test (EPM), the first aim of the present study was to examine how male and female rats are affected by acute drug treatment with subcutaneously (s.c.) administrated (a) MA (1mg/kg); (b) drugs with a similar mechanism of action to MA: amphetamine (AMP, 1mg/kg), cocaine (COC, 5mg/kg), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 5mg/kg); and (c) drugs with different mechanisms of action: morphine (MOR, 5mg/kg), and Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 2mg/kg). The second aim was to determine if prenatally MA-exposed (5mg/kg) animals show an increased sensitivity to adult drug treatment. The parameters analyzed were divided into two categories: anxiety-related behavior and anxiety-unrelated/exploratory behavior. Our results showed in female rats a decreased percentage of the time spent in the closed arms (CA) after MA, and an increased percentage of the time spent in the open arms (OA) after MA, AMP, and COC treatment, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. In females, MDMA and THC treatment increased the percentage of the time spent in the CA. An increased percentage of the time spent in the CA was also seen after MOR treatment in females as well as in males, indicating an anxiogenic-like effect. As far as the interaction between prenatal MA exposure and adult drug treatment is concerned, there was no effect found. In conclusion, it seems that: (a) in some cases female rats are more vulnerable to acute drug treatment, in terms of either anxiogenic- or anxiolytic-like effects; (b) prenatal MA exposure does not sensitize animals to the anxiety-related effects of any of the

  8. Aggregation of adverse behaviors and its affecting factors among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Der-Min; Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Lai, Hsiang-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of the aggregation in common lifestyle habits, namely, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel-nut chewing and the demographic correlates of individual aggregation in these lifestyle behaviors among young military conscripts in Taiwan. Cross-sectional screening was conducted among conscripts in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan from Aug. 1st to Dec. 31st 2001. Totally, 3913 conscripts who had more than 1 month of service were included in this multistage sampling study. Information on smoking, drinking, and betel-nut chewing habits were ascertained as part of a self-administered questionnaire completed by examinees at the service unit. Aggregation in lifestyle habits was studied by comparing the observed and expected proportions (O/E ratio) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for zero, one, two, and three simultaneously occurring lifestyle habits. The study results showed a significant clustering of lifestyle habits studied; the number of subjects was greater than expected in groups with two (for cigarette smoking and betel-nut chewing, O/E ratio=1.17, 95%CI=1.06-1.28), and three (O/E ratio=5.63, 95%CI=5.06-6.20) lifestyle habits. Determinants for this clustering of lifestyle habits included lower educational levels and residential area in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan. There was a significant individual aggregation in lifestyle habits including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel-nut chewing in the health survey among young military conscripts. In addition, young military conscripts with low educational levels and residential area in southern and eastern sections of Taiwan had an apparent tendency toward the aggregation in these lifestyle habits.

  9. Is Affect Aversive to Young Children with Autism: Behavioral and Cardiac Responses to Experimenter Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Arbelle, Shoshana; Wellington, Peter; Sigman, Marian

    1998-01-01

    Compared attention, behavioral reaction, facial affect, and cardiac responses of 22 autistic and 22 mentally retarded preschoolers to emotional displays. Found that both groups looked more at the experimenter and displayed more interest and concern when the experimenter showed strong distress than when she showed neutral affect. Autistic…

  10. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  11. Flow Mediated Dilatation, Carotid Intima Media Thickness, Ankle Brachial Pressure Index and Pulse Pressure in Young Male Post Myocardial Infarction Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Subhash; Rathi, Vinita; Ranga, Gajender Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Due to increase in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) at a younger age, we should try to diagnose atherosclerotic process and population at risk, at the earliest. Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD), Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index (ABI) are probable markers for early atherosclerosis and may be useful in coronary risk stratification. Aim To compare and correlate the FMD, CIMT, ABI and Pulse Pressure (PP) in young male patients of Myocardial Infarction (MI) with age and sex matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods Eighty male patients of MI aged ≤45 years, who presented to the Cardiac Care Unit and Department of Medicine of Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India, from November 2010 to April 2012 were recruited consecutively for this case control study and same number of age and sex matched healthy controls were also analyzed. Six weeks after MI, FMD of the brachial artery, intima media thickness of carotid artery, ABPI and PP were measured in the cases and compared with healthy controls. Results The FMD was lower among young patients of MI than controls (p<0.001). CIMT was higher among cases than controls (p=0.001). ABI was lower among cases than controls (p<0.001). Compared to controls, PP was higher among cases (p=0.001). In all subjects, a negative correlation between FMD and CIMT (r=–0.220, p=0.005) and a positive correlation between FMD and ABPI (r=0.304, p<0.001) was found. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between endothelial dependent FMD and PP among cases and control groups (r=–0.209, p=0.007). Conclusion Biophysical parameters were deranged in young post MI patients. Majority of our young male patients fell in low risk Framingham risk score but still they manifested with CAD. Despite six weeks of treatment among young male patients of MI, various biophysical parameters were still deranged. PMID:27891375

  12. Does an in-season detraining period affect the shoulder rotator cuff strength and balance of young swimmers?

    PubMed

    Batalha, Nuno M; Raimundo, Armando M; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Marques, Mário A C; Silva, António J

    2014-07-01

    Imbalance in shoulder rotator muscles is a well-documented problem in swimmers, and it is important to implement land-based strength training programs. Meanwhile, the effects of a detraining period on swimmers' shoulder rotator muscles are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a strength training program and detraining on the strength and balance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in young swimmers, despite the continuity of usual water training. An experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20) of young male swimmers with the same characteristics (age, body mass, height, training volume, and maturational state) were evaluated. In both groups, the peak torques of shoulder internal (IR) and external (ER) rotators were assessed during preseason, midseason (16 weeks), and postseason (32 weeks). The experimental group underwent a strength training regimen from baseline to 16 weeks and a detraining period from 16 to 32 weeks. Concentric action at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1 was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The ER/IR strength ratios were obtained. At 60°·s-1, there were significant increments in IR strength and the ER/IR ratio in both shoulders. This trend was the same throughout the competitive season. The tendency was the same at 180°·s-1 because training effects were noted primarily in IR and ER/IR ratios. Moreover, the absence of land-based strength training, from 16 to 32 weeks, revealed a reduction in the ER/IR ratio values in both shoulders. Our findings suggest that young swimmers' coaches should use dry-land strength training protocols, and that it is recommended that these should be conducted on a regular basis (during the whole season).

  13. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    PubMed

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could be that these stands were still young, and canopy closure had not always taken place, i.e. a situation where above- or below-ground competition did not yet exist. Another reason could be that the rooting traits of the tree species did not differ sufficiently to support niche differentiation. Our results suggested that functional group identity (i.e. conifers vs. broadleaved species) can be more important for below-ground biomass and production than the species richness itself, as conifers seemed to be more competitive in colonising the soil volume, compared to broadleaved species.

  14. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs.

  15. Serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in relation to markers of reproductive function in young males from the general Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Richthoff, Jonas; Rylander, Lars; Jönsson, Bo A G; Akesson, Heléne; Hagmar, Lars; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Stridsberg, Mats; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2003-04-01

    A time-related deterioration in male reproductive function caused by exposure to endocrine disrupters, including persistent organochlorines (POCs), has been hypothesized. In animal studies, POCs were found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function. However, little is known about the impact of POC exposure on reproductive parameters in men. In a study of 305 young Swedish men 18-21 years old from the general population, we correlated lipid-adjusted serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5' -hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153)--an index substance for POC exposure--to markers of male reproductive function: testis size assessed by ultrasound, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility assessed manually and with a computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA), and serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, testosterone, sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone, and estradiol. We found weak but statistically significant, negative correlations between CB-153 levels and both the testosterone:SHBG ratio (r = -0.25, p < 0.001)--a measure of the biologically active free testosterone fraction--and CASA sperm motility (r = -0.13, p = 0.02). No statistically significant association with other seminal, hormonal, or clinical markers of male reproductive function was found. In previous studies of more highly POC-exposed groups of adult men, the correlation between POC exposure, including CB-153, and free testosterone levels was not statistically significant. The present study gives some tentative support for weak negative effects of CB-153 exposure on sperm motility and free testosterone levels in young men, but further semen studies on more highly exposed groups may give more firm conclusions on the hazard for male reproductive function from dietary POC exposure.

  16. Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

    2014-10-10

    We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain

  17. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  18. Virilization of the male pouch young of the tammar wallaby does not appear to be mediated by plasma testosterone or dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J D; George, F W; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    1999-08-01

    Virilization of the male urogenital tract of all mammals, including marsupials, is mediated by androgenic hormones secreted by the testes. We have previously demonstrated profound sexual dimorphism in the concentrations of gonadal androgens in pouch young of the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii during the interval when the urogenital sinus virilizes. To provide insight into the mechanisms by which androgens are transported from the testes to the target tissues, we measured testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in plasma pools from tammar pouch young from the day of birth to Day 150. Plasma testosterone levels were measurable (0.5-2 ng/ml) at all times studied, but there were no differences between males and females. These low concentrations of plasma testosterone appear to be derived from the adrenal glands and not the testes. Plasma dihydrotestosterone levels in plasma pools from these animals were also low and not sexually dimorphic. We conclude that virilization of the male urogenital tract cannot be explained by the usual transport of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in plasma but may be mediated by the direct delivery of androgens to the urogenital tract via the Wolffian ducts. Alternatively, circulating prohormones may be converted to androgens in target tissues.

  19. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  20. Maize Milling Method Affects Growth and Zinc Status but Not Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy in Male Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Bryan M; Pixley, Kevin V; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles.Objective: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29-35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A-biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status.Methods: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no-vitamin A placebo group (VA-), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment). Study 2 (n = 33) was a 2 × 2 milling-by-zinc [no-zinc placebo group (Zn-) compared with zinc-supplemented group (Zn+)] design, including 2 wk of VA depletion followed by four 3-wk treatments (n = 8-9/treatment). For study 1, positive and negative control groups were given supplemental VA at equimolar amounts to β-carotene equivalents consumed by the orange groups (74 ± 5 nmol/d) or placebo, respectively. For study 2, positive and negative control groups were given 152 μg Zn/d or placebo, respectively.Results: Milling significantly affected zinc concentration, providing 44-45% (whole grain) or 9-14% (refined) NRC requirements. In study 1, orange maize improved liver VA concentrations (mean ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.08 μmol/g) compared with the white maize groups (0.072 ± 0.054 μmol/g). Provitamin A bioefficacy was similar. In study 2, neither zinc nor milling influenced liver retinol. Refined Zn- gerbils weighed less than others by day 14 (46.6 ± 7.1 compared with 56.5 ± 3.5 g, respectively; P < 0.0001). Milling affected pancreas zinc concentrations (refined Zn-: 21.1 ± 1.8 μg Zn/g; whole Zn-: 32.5 ± 5.8 μg Zn/g).Conclusions: Whole-grain intake improved zinc and did not affect provitamin A bioefficacy. Other factors affected by milling (e.g., shelf life, preference, aflatoxin fractioning) need to be considered to maximize health.

  1. Tree species and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale run-off plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species and tree species richness as well as functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 Mg ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion differently, while tree species richness did not affect interrill erosion in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing soil erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced interrill erosion in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased it. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, the remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on interrill erosion. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary, and a wide range of functional tree traits should be considered in future research.

  2. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  3. Subcortical band heterotopia in rare affected males can be caused by missense mutations in DCX (XLIS) or LIS1.

    PubMed

    Pilz, D T; Kuc, J; Matsumoto, N; Bodurtha, J; Bernadi, B; Tassinari, C A; Dobyns, W B; Ledbetter, D H

    1999-09-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are bilateral and symmetric ribbons of gray matter found in the central white matter between the cortex and the ventricular surface, which comprises the less severe end of the lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria-band) spectrum of malformations. Mutations in DCX (also known as XLIS ) have previously been described in females with SBH. We have now identified mutations in either the DCX or LIS1 gene in three of 11 boys studied, demonstrating for the first time that mutations of either DCX or LIS1 can cause SBH or mixed pachygyria-SBH (PCH-SBH) in males. All three changes detected are missense mutations, predicted to be of germline origin. They include a missense mutation in exon 4 of DCX in a boy with PCH-SBH (R78H), a different missense mutation in exon 4 of DCX in a boy with mild SBH and in his mildly affected mother (R89G) and a missense mutation in exon 6 of LIS1 in a boy with SBH (S169P). The missense mutations probably account for the less severe brain malformations, although other patients with missense mutations in the same exons have had diffuse lissencephaly. Therefore, it appears likely that the effect of the specific amino acid change on the protein determines the severity of the phenotype, with some mutations enabling residual protein function and allowing normal migration in a larger proportion of neurons. However, we expect that somatic mosaic mutations of both LIS1 and DCX will also prove to be an important mechanism in causing SBH in males.

  4. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference in density. The mean osteon total area, osteon bone area and vascular space area of both classes A and B were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for all three parameters) in the endosteal than in the periosteal half-cortex. The significant differences between the two layers of the cortex suggest that the osteoclast activity is distributed throughout the whole cortical thickness, with more numerous excavations in the external layer, but larger resorption lacunae closer to the marrow canal. A randomly selected population of 109 intact

  5. Links Among Cognitive Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Affective Perspective Taking by Young Children.

    PubMed

    Bensalah, Leïla; Caillies, Stéphanie; Anduze, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the development of the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of empathy in preschoolers, specifically examining how cognitive empathy is linked to theory of mind and affective perspective taking. Participants were 158 children aged 4-6 years. They listened to narratives and then answered questions about the protagonists' emotions. The affective component was probed with the question, "How do you feel seeing the little girl/boy?"; the cognitive component with the question, "Why do you feel [emotion shared with the character]?"; and the behavioral one with the question, "What would you do if you were next to the little boy/girl [experiencing an emotional scenario]?" Results revealed a developmental sequence in the self-focused attribution of cognitive empathy, and a trend toward a developmental sequence for behavioral empathy, which underwent a slight linear increase between 4 and 6 years old. Affective empathy remained stable. More interestingly, they showed that cognitive empathy is linked to both theory of mind and affective perspective taking.

  6. Comparison of lumbar spine stabilization exercise versus general exercise in young male patients with lumbar disc herniation after 1 year of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chaoqun; Ren, Jixin; Zhang, Jianzheng; Wang, Chongwei; Liu, Zhi; Li, Fang; Sun, Tiansheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The safest and most effective conservative treatment for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lumbar spine stabilization exercise (LSSE) and general exercise (GE) on pain intensity and functional capacity in young male patients with LDH. Methods: Sixty-three young male adults aged 20 to 29 years with the diagnosis of LDH were enrolled and divided into an LSSE group (n=30) and a GE group (n=33). Patients in both groups received low-power laser (LPL) therapy during the first week of the onset of LDH. Patients in the GE group underwent a GE program. Patients in the LSSE group followed an LSSE program for 3 months. All of the patients were subjected to pain intensity and functional capacity evaluations four times: at pre-and post-LPL therapy, and at 3 months and 1 year post-exercise. Pain intensity of the lower back and legs was evaluated with the visual analogue scale (VAS), and functional capacity was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: Both groups showed a significant reduction in VAS and ODI scores at 3 and 12 months post-exercise compared with before treatment (P<0.001). The LSSE group showed a significant reduction in the average score of the VAS for low back pain (P=0.012) and the ODI (P=0.003) at 12 months post-exercise compared with the GE group. Conclusions: LSSE and GE are considered as effective interventions for young male patients with LDH. Moreover, LSSE is more effective than GE, and physical therapy, such as LPL, is required during acute LDH. PMID:26309670

  7. Increased frequency of anxiety, depression, quality of life and sexual life in young hypogonadotropic hypogonadal males and impacts of testosterone replacement therapy on these conditions.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Umit; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Akbulut, Halil; Sonmez, Alper; Yuksel, Servet; Basaran, Yalcin; Uzun, Ozcan; Bolu, Erol; Saglam, Kenan

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as the failure in production of gonadal hormones, thus resulting in lower amounts of testosterone. Depression, anxiety and decreased quality of life are the most common psychopathological conditions in young hypogonadal men. The aim of the present study was to assess the still debated relationship with testosterone levels and psychological symptoms in young male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Thirty-nine young male patients with CHH and 40 age-matched healthy males were enrolled in the present study. The impact of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) on the patients' anxiety and depression levels, sexual function and quality of life were assessed before and after 6 months of treatment using valid and reliable scales, including the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Arizona Sexual Experiences (ASEX). Patients with CHH had significantly higher scores for BDI, BAI, and ASEX than the control subjects at baseline (p=0.011, p=0.036, p<0.001, respectively). The ASEX and BDI scores significantly improved after the TRT (p<0.001 for both), while the improvement in the BAI score was not statistically significant (p=0.135). When compared to the control group, treatment naïve hypogonadal patients had more severe symptoms of sexual dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and worse quality of life. After 6 months of TRT, we observed improvements in the above parameters, suggesting that low endogenous levels of testosterone might be related to the increased incidence of psychological symptoms.

  8. Semen Quality, Hormonal Levels, and Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in a Population of Young Male Volunteers from Two Different Regions of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kamieniczna, Marzena; Fraczek, Monika; Malcher, Agnieszka; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Czernikiewicz, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Semczuk, Marian; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background The population of healthy Polish men has not been frequently and systematically investigated for fertility status. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of semen in a randomly recruited population of young males. The most important task was to find a relationship between semen parameters, sex hormones, and AR gene polymorphism. Material/Methods Semen and blood samples from young men from the Poznan (n=113) and Lublin regions (n=89) were collected for semen analysis, assessment of hormonal concentrations, and calculation of the CAG and GGN repeats of the AR gene. Results Statistical comparisons of the hormones and circulating proteins and the seminological parameters revealed significant differences between the regional groups of males studied. Among the correlations found, we emphasize the positive relationship between inhibin B levels and both the number of spermatozoa per ml (R=0.37; p=0.0001) and the total sperm concentration (R=0.40; p=0.00003). Positive correlations between IGF1 and sperm morphology was also found (R=0.40; p=0.000004). The mean number of CAG repeats in our tested groups was 21.93±2.79, in a range from 16 to 31. The mean number of GGN repeats was 23.2±1.66 and ranged from 16 to 29. Numerous significant correlations were found between CAG or GGN repeats and blood hormones or circulating proteins and semen parameters; however, Spearman’s rank correlations revealed rather weak coefficients. Conclusions This report attempted to determine the quality of semen samples and sex hormones in a population of Polish young men. The results were found to be similar to data obtained in Scandinavia. The calculated means and range of CAG or GGN repeats of the AR gene in Polish males were similar to West European epidemiological data. PMID:26299772

  9. Young children's affective responses to another's distress: dynamic and physiological features.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A J; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children's affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another's distress. In two samples (N(study1) = 75; N(study2) = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy.

  10. The Interactive Effects of Affect Lability, Negative Urgency, and Sensation Seeking on Young Adult Problematic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency. PMID:24826366

  11. Young Children’s Affective Responses to Another’s Distress: Dynamic and Physiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A. J.; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children’s affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another’s distress. In two samples (Nstudy1 = 75; Nstudy2 = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  12. Violence among young men: the importance of a gender-specific developmental approach to adolescent male suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.

  13. Ethnic minority, young onset, rare dementia type, depression: A case study of a Muslim male accessing UK dementia health and social care services.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jemma L

    2016-07-01

    A case study comprised of formal interviews, formal observations and informal discussions investigated the motivations and experiences accessing dementia care health and social care services for a Muslim, Pakistani male with dementia. Motivations derived from 'desperation' and an inability to access support from family or religious community. Experiences of accessing services were mostly negative. Dementia services were ill-informed about how to support persons with young onset dementia, with pre-existing mental health conditions, from an ethnic minority. Education and training to remove barriers to all dementia care services is required for persons with dementia, their families and within dementia services and religious communities.

  14. Anomalous Origination of Right Coronary Artery from Left Sinus in Asymptomatic Young Male Presenting with Positive Ischemic Response on Treadmill Test

    PubMed Central

    Setianto, Budi Yuli; Hartopo, Anggoro Budi; Gharini, Putrika Prastuti Ratna; Taufiq, Nahar

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origination of coronary artery from the opposite sinus (ACAOS) is a rare coronary artery anomaly. Right ACAOS with interarterial course is a type of ACAOS, which conveys a high risk for myocardial ischemia or sudden death. We reported a case of right ACAOS with interarterial course in otherwise healthy young male. He was asymptomatic, until an obligatory medical check-up with treadmill test showed a sign of positive ischemic response. Further work-up revealed that he had right ACAOS with interarterial course. Watchful observation was applied to him, while strenuous physical activity and competitive sport were absolutely prohibited. PMID:26885410

  15. Does Day-Care Experience Affect Young Children's Judgments of Home and School Rules?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Dushka A.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether amount of experience in day care affects children's ability to distinguish moral rules from conventional school-based and home-based rules. Preschoolers were questioned about legitimacy of authority of abolishing a rule and their rating of behaviors permitted and prohibited by an authority. Results revealed that previous day-care…

  16. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17α-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25 ng/L EE2for 14 days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25 ng/L, but not 5 ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25 ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment.

  17. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction developmentally programs affect and risk assessment behaviors in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Chavira, R; Bautista, C J; McDonald, T J; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-02-14

    Developmental programming resulting from a suboptimal intrauterine environment can predispose offspring to a wide-range of lifelong health complications. Little is known about the effects maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation has on offspring neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation would negatively influence male offspring affect and risk assessment behaviors as measured by elevated plus maze and open field tests. Control mothers received 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet) to evaluate effects of maternal diet on offspring risk assessment, anxiety and exploratory behaviors. Elevated plus maze results showed an effect of pre- and/or postnatal diet manipulation in open arm time (p<0.05) with increases seen in the RR (157±22.7s), CR (137±23.2s) and RC (146.8±10.8s) offspring relative to CC (52±8.6s) offspring. This behavior indicates decreased avoidance (less anxiety) and increased exploration by experimental groups. However, in the open field test the RR (17±4.2 entries) offspring entered the center zone less than the CC (35±6.6 entries) offspring thus exhibiting increased anxiety with no other groups showing effects. Elevated levels of corticosterone were measured before, during and after immobilization in the RR compared to CC offspring. These findings show protein restriction during critical periods of development negatively program offspring behavior. The underlying anatomical structures affected remain to be elucidated.

  18. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  19. EXCRETION OF THIAMINE AND ITS METABOLITES IN THE URINE OF YOUNG ADULT MALES RECEIVING RESTRICTED INTAKES OF THE VITAMIN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Eight young men consuming a 2800-kcal diet consisting of 80 g protein, 100 g fat and 400 g carbohydrate and providing 0.11 to 0.18 mg thiamine/day...change appreciably during thiamine deficiency. The biochemical pattern for thiamine deficiency in human adults is described. (Author)

  20. Doing Masculinity in Narratives about Reporting Violent Crime: Young Male Victims Talk about Contacting and Encountering the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcar, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Reporting criminal victimization to the police is no obvious act. The decision to file a complaint varies depending on the specific situation. This article discusses 10 young Swedish men's narratives about contacting the police when mugged or assaulted. Although all of them have contacted the police it has not been self-obvious. Rather, they…

  1. Negative Affectivity and Effortful Control in Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder and in Their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Mena, Christina G; Macfie, Jenny; Strimpfel, Jennifer M

    2016-07-07

    Research has examined temperament in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but not in their offspring, despite offspring's risk of developing BPD and the importance of temperament in the etiology of BPD. We recruited a low-socioeconomic sample of 36 mothers with BPD and their children ages 4 through 7, and 34 normative comparisons. Replicating prior studies, mothers with BPD reported themselves as having more negative affectivity (frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional control, activation control) than did comparisons. Mothers with BPD also reported that their offspring had more negative affectivity (anger/frustration, fear) and less effortful control (inhibitory control, attentional focusing) than did comparisons. We were concerned about potential bias and shared method variance. We therefore provided validity support for mothers' ratings of their children with teacher ratings of child behavior and child self-report via their story-stem completion narratives. We discuss children's temperamental vulnerability versus differential susceptibility to the environment.

  2. [A sociological stu