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Sample records for affects young men

  1. Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay

    2016-10-19

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

  2. The material, moral, and affective worlds of dealing and crime among young men entrenched in an inner city drug scene.

    PubMed

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-03-23

    A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing on longitudinal interviews with 44 young men from 2008 to 2016, and ethnographic fieldwork with a group of approximately 15 of those young men over the same time period, we argue that for these youth, dealing and crime were not solely about economic survival, or even the accrual of highly meaningful forms of "street capital" in the margins. Rather, as "regimes of living," dealing and crime also opened up new value systems, moral logics, and affects in relation to the tremendous risks, potential rewards, and crushing boredom of life in the margins. These activities were also understood as a way into deeply desired forms of social spatial belonging in the city, which had previously only been imagined. However, across time dealing and crime ultimately "embedded" young men in cycles of incarceration, destitution, addictions, and mental health crises that ultimately reinforced their exclusion-from legal employment, but also within the world of crime. The findings of this study underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in order to meaningfully address the harms associated with involvement in dealing and crime among youth in our setting.

  3. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  4. Making Informed Decisions: How Attitudes and Perceptions Affect the Use of Crystal, Cocaine and Ecstasy among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Although the use of illicit substances, particularly those commonly categorized as “club drugs”, among men who have sex with men (MSM), is well established in the literature, little is known about the decision making process that is used in deciding whether or not to use a particular substance. In this study, we examine the positive and negative attitudes and perceptions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in regards to three specific drugs: crystal methamphetamine, cocaine and ecstasy. The findings reported here emerged from the baseline quantitative interviews and an accompanying qualitative phase of the Healthy Young Men’s study (HYM), a longitudinal study examining risk and protective factors for substance use and sexual risk among an ethnically diverse sample of YMSM. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how service providers and others can design new and innovative interventions to prevent young men from initiating substance use. PMID:18852843

  5. Resistance exercise volume affects myofibrillar protein synthesis and anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation in young men

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Nicholas A; Holwerda, Andrew M; Selby, Keegan C; West, Daniel W D; Staples, Aaron W; Cain, Nathan E; Cashaback, Joshua G A; Potvin, James R; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine if any mechanistic differences exist between a single set (1SET) and multiple sets (i.e. 3 sets; 3SET) of resistance exercise by utilizing a primed constant infusion of [ring-13C6]phenylalanine to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and Western blot analysis to examine anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Eight resistance-trained men (24 ± 5 years, BMI = 25 ± 4 kg m−2) were randomly assigned to perform unilateral leg extension exercise at 70% concentric one repetition maximum (1RM) until volitional fatigue for 1SET or 3SET. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken in the fasted state (Fast) and fed state (Fed; 20 g of whey protein isolate) at rest, 5 h Fed, 24 h Fast and 29 h Fed post-exercise. Fed-state MPS was transiently elevated above rest at 5 h for 1SET (2.3-fold) and returned to resting levels by 29 h post-exercise. However, the exercise induced increase in MPS following 3SET was superior in amplitude and duration as compared to 1SET at both 5 h (3.1-fold above rest) and 29 h post-exercise (2.3-fold above rest). Phosphorylation of 70 kDa S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) demonstrated a coordinated increase with MPS at 5 h and 29 h post-exercise such that the extent of p70S6K phosphorylation was related to the MPS response (r = 0.338, P = 0.033). Phosphorylation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p90RSK) and ribosomal protein S6 (rps6) was similar for 1SET and 3SET at 24 h Fast and 29 h Fed, respectively. However, 3SET induced a greater activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2Bɛ (eIF2Bɛ) and rpS6 at 5 h Fed. These data suggest that 3SET of resistance exercise is more anabolic than 1SET and may lead to greater increases in myofibrillar protein accretion over time. PMID:20581041

  6. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  7. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  8. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  9. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  10. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar; Nonboe, Pernille; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-03-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115 g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha concentration compared with the control, P < 0.0001. We observed no other significant differences in the effect of the interventions diets. In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

  11. Cohabiting and marriage during young men's career-development process.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Valerie Kincade

    2003-02-01

    Using recently released cohabitation data for the male sample of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, first interviewed in 1979, I conducted multinomial discrete-time event-history analyses of how young men's career-development process affects both the formation and the dissolution of cohabiting unions. For a substantial proportion of young men, cohabitation seemed to represent an adaptive strategy during a period of career immaturity, whereas marriage was a far more likely outcome for both stably employed cohabitors and noncohabitors alike. Earnings positively affected the entry into either a cohabiting or marital union but exhibited a strong threshold effect. Once the men were in cohabiting unions, however, earnings had little effect on the odds of marrying. Men with better long-run socioeconomic prospects were far more likely to marry from either the noncohabiting or cohabiting state, and this was particularly true for blacks.

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Their Association with Condom Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and their correlation to condom usage…

  13. Using Biography to Counsel Gifted Young Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    1995-01-01

    The use of biographies in counseling young men who are gifted is recommended, to assist them in dealing with such issues as underachievement, self-inflicted pressure in athletics, cultural alienation, and father-son relationships. Biographical works that may be used and strategies for using this counseling approach are examined, including case…

  14. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  15. Young addicted men hormone profile detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieliński, Paweł; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Leszczyńska, Bożena; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Hormone parameters were determined in the serum of young addicted men in order to compare them with those obtained from the group of healthy subjects. Three groups were investigated which were named opiates, mixed and control group. Statistical and data mining methods were applied to obtain significant differences. R package was used for all computation. The determination of hormones parameters provide important information relative to impact of addiction.

  16. Fatherhood, marriage and HIV risk among young men in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sanyukta; Higgins, Jenny A; Thummalachetty, Nityanjali; Rasmussen, Mariko; Kelley, Laura; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to a large body of work on how gender may affect young women's vulnerability to HIV, we know little about how masculine ideals and practices relating to marriage and fertility desires shape young men's HIV risk. Using life-history interview data with 30 HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men aged 15-24 years, this analysis offers an in-depth perspective on young men's transition through adolescence, the desire for fatherhood and experience of sexual partnerships in rural Uganda. Young men consistently reported the desire for fatherhood as a cornerstone of masculinity and transition to adulthood. Ideally young men wanted children within socially sanctioned unions. Yet, most young men were unable to realise their marital intentions. Gendered expectations to be economic providers combined with structural constraints, such as limited access to educational and income-generating opportunities, led some young men to engage in a variety of HIV-risk behaviours. Multiple partnerships and limited condom use were at times an attempt by some young men to attain some part of their aspirations related to fatherhood and marriage. Our findings suggest that young men possess relationship and parenthood aspirations that - in an environment of economic scarcity - may influence HIV-related risk.

  17. The Sexual Networks of Racially Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Latkin, Carl; Muth, Stephen; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at increased risk for HIV. Research with older men and high risk populations suggests that network dynamics may contribute to the spread of infectious disease and HIV, but little is known about the sexual networks of young men who have sex with men. Utilizing a unique dataset, this study presents novel descriptive data about the sexual networks of racially diverse 17- to 23-year-old young men who have sex with men. Additionally, individual, partner, and network characteristics of these young men who have sex with men were examined as potential drivers of HIV, STI, and unprotected intercourse. Results indicated several partner- and network-level factors associated with HIV and associated outcomes. PMID:26201650

  18. Soy protein supplementation increases serum insulin-like growth factor-I in young and old men but does not affect markers of bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Dania A; Lucas, Edralin A; Juma, Shanil; Smith, Brenda J; Payton, Mark E; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2002-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that soy protein (SP) protects bone in women; however, its effects on bone metabolism in men have not been investigated. Healthy men (59.2 +/- 17.6 y) were assigned to consume 40 g of either SP or milk-based protein (MP) daily for 3 mo in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel design. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which is associated with higher rates of bone formation, was greater (P < 0.01) in men supplemented with SP than in those consuming MP. Serum alkaline phosphatase and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities, markers of bone formation, and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion, a specific marker of bone resorption, were not different between the SP and MP groups. Furthermore, because substantial reductions in bone density occur in men at approximately 65 y of age, data were analyzed separately for men >/=65 y and those <65 y of age. The response to protein supplementation was consistent in the two age groups. The effects of SP on serum IGF-I levels suggest that SP may positively influence bone in men. Longer-duration studies examining the effects of SP or its isoflavones on bone turnover and bone mineral density and content in men are warranted.

  19. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  20. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  1. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men.

    PubMed

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  2. Out of Harmony: Health Problems and Young Native American Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Jennie R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the health of young Native American males using data from a survey of existing literature, noting that studies of the current health status of healthy young Native American men are rare. The article presents information on accidents, suicide, homicide, cancer, heart disease, and alcohol use and abuse among young Native American males. (SM)

  3. Young men's vulnerability in constituting hegemonic masculinity in sexual relations.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Abbey; Drennan, Jonathan; Howlett, Etaoine; Brady, Dympna

    2009-09-01

    This article reports on a qualitative analysis of the accounts of young men on their experiences of heterosexual encounters. Based on data collected in Ireland using 17 focus groups with 124 young men aged between 14 and 19 years (a subsection of a wider study), the manner in which intricate peer group mechanisms acted as surveillance strategies in regulating the young men toward presenting themselves in ways consistent with hegemonic manifestations of masculinity is explored. However, there were also elements of resistance to such a culture in the way in which sexual pleasure for some young men was derived relationally through giving pleasure rather than merely through mechanical, emotionally detached sexual acts that characterize hegemonic masculinity. In emphasizing male vulnerabilities such as uncertainty, fear, and rejection in the realm of sexuality, it is proposed that one must not lose sight of the broader context of male sexual dominance for which, as data indicate, men themselves pay a price.

  4. A single night of partial sleep loss impairs fasting insulin sensitivity but does not affect cephalic phase insulin release in young men.

    PubMed

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Lampola, Lauri; Axelsson, Emil K; Liethof, Lisanne; Hassanzadeh, Sara; Yeganeh, Adine; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The present study sought to investigate whether a single night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would alter fasting insulin sensitivity and cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans. A rise in circulating insulin in response to food-related sensory stimulation may prepare tissues to break down ingested glucose, e.g. by stimulating rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes. In addition, given insulin's anorexigenic properties once it reaches the brain, the CPIR may serve as an early peripheral satiety signal. Against this background, in the present study 16 men participated in two separate sessions: one night of PSD (4.25 h sleep) versus one night of full sleep (8.5 h sleep). In the morning following each sleep condition, subjects' oral cavities were rinsed with a 1-molar sucrose solution for 45 s, preceded and followed by blood sampling for repeated determination of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations (-3, +3, +5, +7, +10 and +20 min). Our main result was that PSD, compared with full sleep, was associated with significantly higher peripheral insulin resistance, as indicated by a higher fasting homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (+16%, P = 0.025). In contrast, no CPIR was observed in any of the two sleep conditions. Our findings indicate that a single night of PSD is already sufficient to impair fasting insulin sensitivity in healthy men. In contrast, brief oral cavity rinsing with sucrose solution did not change serum insulin concentrations, suggesting that a blunted CPIR is an unlikely mechanism through which acute sleep loss causes metabolic perturbations during morning hours in humans.

  5. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... RSS feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men ... Using functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in ...

  6. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  7. Affect and Sexual Responsivity in Men With and Without a History of Sexual Aggression.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amber N; Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-04-07

    Despite increased attention to understanding risk factors for sexual aggression, knowledge regarding the emotional and sexual arousal patterns of sexually aggressive men remains limited. The current study examined whether sexually aggressive men exhibit unique profiles of affective responsivity, in particular to negatively valenced stimuli, as well as sexual arousal patterns that differentiate them from nonaggressive men. We presented 78 young men (38 sexually aggressive; 40 nonaggressive) with a series of videos designed to induce positive, sad, or anxious affect. Affect and subjective sexual arousal were assessed following each film and erectile responses were measured continuously. Sexually aggressive men reported significantly higher levels of sexual arousal following both the positive and negative conditions as compared to nonaggressive men. Erectile responses of sexually aggressive men were significantly greater than nonaggressive men's following the positive affect induction. Self-reported positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant predictor of subjective sexual arousal for both groups of men. Compared to nonaggressive men, sexually aggressive men showed significantly weaker correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Findings suggest that generalized heightened propensity for sexual arousal may be a risk factor for sexually aggressive behavior.

  8. Young Men's Reentry after Incarceration: A Developmental Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arditti, Joyce A.; Parkman, Tiffaney

    2011-01-01

    We apply a life course perspective to study young men's transition to adulthood within the context of their return to family after a period of incarceration. Our phenomenological analysis was based on 9 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with formerly incarcerated men between the age of 18 and 24. Our findings revealed that reentry was a…

  9. Men Who Teach Young Children: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, David

    2014-01-01

    Few men around the world work in daycare settings, nursery schools or kindergartens. Yet wherever they are found, men who are perceived to have crossed the gender boundary in their choice of profession are widely acclaimed as gifted educators and excellent caregivers. Policy makers who care about providing quality education for young children need…

  10. Experiences of HIV-related stigma among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Dowshen, Nadia; Binns, Helen J; Garofalo, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) represent an increasing number of new HIV infections in many communities. Many individuals still hold beliefs that may lead to discrimination against HIV-positive individuals. HIV stigma is associated with negative health and psychosocial outcomes and may lead to greater challenges for this marginalized population. This study describes stigma experienced by HIV-positive young MSM, explores its relationship to psychosocial measures, and tests the hypothesis that stigma scores will be higher in those diagnosed less than 1 year ago versus more than 1 year. From August 2004 to September 2005 young MSM completed a questionnaire including demographic information and psychosocial measures. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of association were used to interpret data from the total stigma scale and four subscales: personalized stigma (PS), public attitudes (PA), negative self-image (NSI), and disclosure concerns (DC). Index scores were calculated by standardizing each subscale for direct comparisons. The 42 participants were: mean 21.3 years; 45% black, 24% Hispanic, 26% white; 14% transgender; and 50% diagnosed HIV-positive less than 1 year. Participants reported HIV-related stigma across all domains with mean index subscale scores: PS 0.57, PA 0.61, NSI 0.63, DC 0.75 indicating that disclosure concerns were prevalent in comparison to other forms of HIV-related stigma. Stigma scores correlated with depression, social support, self-esteem, and romantic loneliness. Stigma scores did not differ for those diagnosed less than 1 year ago versus more than 1 year ago. Providers should address HIV-related stigma concerns, particularly disclosure, throughout the trajectory of the illness when caring for HIV-positive young MSM as a factor affecting health outcomes and psychosocial functioning.

  11. Experiences of HIV-Related Stigma Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Helen J.; Garofalo, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Young men who have sex with men (MSM) represent an increasing number of new HIV infections in many communities. Many individuals still hold beliefs that may lead to discrimination against HIV-positive individuals. HIV stigma is associated with negative health and psychosocial outcomes and may lead to greater challenges for this marginalized population. This study describes stigma experienced by HIV-positive young MSM, explores its relationship to psychosocial measures, and tests the hypothesis that stigma scores will be higher in those diagnosed less than 1 year ago versus more than 1 year. From August 2004 to September 2005 young MSM completed a questionnaire including demographic information and psychosocial measures. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of association were used to interpret data from the total stigma scale and four subscales: personalized stigma (PS), public attitudes (PA), negative self-image (NSI), and disclosure concerns (DC). Index scores were calculated by standardizing each subscale for direct comparisons. The 42 participants were: mean 21.3 years; 45% black, 24% Hispanic, 26% white; 14% transgender; and 50% diagnosed HIV-positive less than 1 year. Participants reported HIV-related stigma across all domains with mean index subscale scores: PS 0.57, PA 0.61, NSI 0.63, DC 0.75 indicating that disclosure concerns were prevalent in comparison to other forms of HIV-related stigma. Stigma scores correlated with depression, social support, self-esteem, and romantic loneliness. Stigma scores did not differ for those diagnosed less than 1 year ago versus more than 1 year ago. Providers should address HIV-related stigma concerns, particularly disclosure, throughout the trajectory of the illness when caring for HIV-positive young MSM as a factor affecting health outcomes and psychosocial functioning. PMID:19320600

  12. Space: The New Frontier in HIV Prevention for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Delia; Iverson, Ellen; Cribbin, Melissa; Wilson, Erin; Weiss, George

    2007-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of the United States continue to be vulnerable to HIV infection. Qualitative data collected with participants in a community level HIV intervention in West Hollywood and Orange County, California, suggest that space--both actual physical space and the concept of having space--should be an…

  13. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  14. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  15. Exploring Sexual Health among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, A. J.; Valera, P.; Bockting, W. O.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent <1% of the population. Few interventions exist that address their unique needs, and those that do adopt a narrow, risk-based framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were…

  16. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men.

  17. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  18. Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

    2007-01-01

    Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

  19. When Jobs Move, Do Black and Latino Men Lose? The Effect of Growth in Job Decentralisation on Young Men's Jobless Incidence and Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the U.S. Census of Industries (1982) to examine the growth in metropolitan job decentralization on the incidence and duration of joblessness among young males. Overall, growth in job decentralization negatively affects the employment patterns of young minority men. (SLD)

  20. A New Normal: Young Men of Color, Trauma, and Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Thompson, Carlyle; Schwartz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will center on the continuing impact of systemic and persistent educational trauma experienced by Black and Latino males and how trauma affects their current learning. The young men's counterstories from a phenomenological study and documentary are included.

  1. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  2. Homonegativity, Religiosity, and the Intersecting Identities of Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Homonegativity, or the stigma associated with homosexuality, may be an important social factor influencing racial disparities in HIV. This research, conducted using an intersectional framework, examines experiences of homonegativity among YBMSM with a particular emphasis on the influence of the Black Church. We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with YBMSM ages 16-24. Interview transcripts were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis, guided by principles of grounded theory and constant comparative method. The Black Church is an integral aspect of YBMSM's identity, history, family, and community life. As such, the Church's construction of homosexuality dominated throughout YBMSM's lives. The expectations of masculinity facing YBMSM emphasize expectations of physical and sexual dominance, which are viewed as incompatible with homosexuality. Participants describe complex decision-making around whether to disclose their sexuality and to whom, and weigh the consequences of disclosure and non-disclosure. For many YBMSM, their multiple, intersecting identities significantly influenced their experiences with homonegativity and their decisions about disclosing their sexual orientation. Findings lend support for the need to develop community-, family-, and church-based stigma reduction interventions that address homonegativity among YBMSM.

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  4. Population screening for prostate cancer and emerging concepts for young men.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W

    2003-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men, accounting for > 29% of all diagnosed cancers and approximately 13% of all cancer deaths. Nearly 1 of every 6 men will be diagnosed with the disease at some time in their lives. In 2003 alone, an estimated 221000 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and > 28000 will die of the disease. An elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is correlated with the presence of prostate cancer, and since 1989 we have been living in the "PSA era," in which the PSA screening test is widely used in clinical practice. This article summarizes what has been learned about the use of PSA screening, including the intricacies of free PSA, PSA doubling time, and various factors that may affect PSA and confound screening in young men. Although population-based screening for prostate cancer has yet to be definitively proven to affect disease-specific mortality, PSA testing is detecting cancers in younger men and at earlier stages of disease progression and, partly as a result, 5-year cancer-specific survival is increasing. Even though this lead-time effect may not translate into long-term improvement, these changes are very promising and are a necessary prerequisite to effective screening. For patients at high risk with a family history of the disease and for black men, a strategy consisting of an annual PSA blood test and digital rectal examination for men >or=40 years of age appears to be prudent. Use of age- and race-specific reference ranges for PSA based on sensitivity, or maximal cancer detection, is the most appropriate approach in this high-risk group. Specifically among black men 40-49 years of age, those with a PSA value > 2.0 ng/mL should consider further evaluation. Many men at low/average risk aged 40-49 years also request testing and it is reasonable to offer testing and risk assessment to these young men. The exact screening threshold for total PSA in these men is unknown, but 95

  5. Predictors of Risky Sexual Behavior Among Young African American Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Trevor; Peterson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 758 young African American men who have sex with men. A quarter of the sample reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past 3 months; nonsupportive peer norms and not carrying condoms predicted risky sexual behavior. Effective interventions are needed that promote the use of condoms by changing peer norms and encouraging carrying condoms. PMID:15226130

  6. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  7. Examining body dissatisfaction in young men within a biopsychosocial framework.

    PubMed

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Cass, Kamila M; Ford, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    This study examined biopsychosocial factors related to body dissatisfaction in young men within multivariate and moderator contexts. A female sample was included as a gender comparison. Male (n=111) and female (n=236) undergraduates filled out self-report questionnaires assessing body mass index (BMI), media influence, a history of weight-related teasing, and socially prescribed perfectionism, along with various indices of body dissatisfaction. Perceived pressure from the media was consistently related to body dissatisfaction in men whereas multiple biopsychosocial variables accounted for body dissatisfaction in women. Socially prescribed perfectionism and a history of weight teasing each moderated the relationship between BMI and male body dissatisfaction, identifying men low in body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate that applying a biopsychosocial framework to the study of body dissatisfaction in men is useful and suggest the need for including other factors, such as male peers and sports involvement, in understanding contributors to male body image.

  8. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  9. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  10. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Jacqueline M; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  11. Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and HPV Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Keglovitz, Kristin; Lancki, Nicola; Walsh, Tim; Schneider, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Limited data are available on anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young, Black populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of and relationships between ASILs and high-risk HPV infection in a young (<30 years of age), predominantly Black, men who have sex with men (MSM) population. Methods: Results of anal cytology and HPV DNA were gathered for 83 individuals. Results: Forty-two percent of individuals (35) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 33% (27) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion by cytology. Only 9% tested positive for both high-risk HPV subtypes 16 and 18. Conclusion: Low rates of infection with both HPV types 16 and 18 may provide further evidence that we should continue to vaccinate young, Black MSM against HPV. PMID:27673362

  12. "How to Be a Rural Man": Young Men's Performances and Negotiations of Rural Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses…

  13. Reproductive Physiology in Young Men Is Cumulatively Affected by FSH-Action Modulating Genetic Variants: FSHR -29G/A and c.2039 A/G, FSHB -211G/T

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Žilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevičius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n = 982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2±2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P = 0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (−7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect −1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (−16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (−2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n = 641, Estonians; aged 31.5±6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs

  14. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  15. Aggressive Policing and the Mental Health of Young Urban Men

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeffrey; Tyler, Tom; Link, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed young men on their experiences of police encounters and subsequent mental health. Methods. Between September 2012 and March 2013, we conducted a population-based telephone survey of 1261 young men aged 18 to 26 years in New York City. Respondents reported how many times they were approached by New York Police Department officers, what these encounters entailed, any trauma they attributed to the stops, and their overall anxiety. We analyzed data using cross-sectional regressions. Results. Participants who reported more police contact also reported more trauma and anxiety symptoms, associations tied to how many stops they reported, the intrusiveness of the encounters, and their perceptions of police fairness. Conclusions. The intensity of respondent experiences and their associated health risks raise serious concerns, suggesting a need to reevaluate officer interactions with the public. Less invasive tactics are needed for suspects who may display mental health symptoms and to reduce any psychological harms to individuals stopped. PMID:25322310

  16. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  17. The prevalence of premature ejaculation in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Karabakan, M; Bozkurt, A; Hirik, E; Celebi, B; Akdemir, S; Guzel, O; Nuhoglu, B

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in young Turkish men and to evaluate PE in a population having good physical and mental health. A total of 1230 healthy university graduates aged between 24 and 30 attending the police academy having no physical or mental problems were included in the study. To identify the presence of PE, the participants were asked to complete the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). The mean ages in the PE and non-PE group were 27.3 and 26.7 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups concerning age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and alcohol consumption (P > 0.05). The PE prevalence was found to be 9.2%. The mean PEDT score was calculated as 6.3. Of the participants, 92 scored 11 and higher (9.2%), 66 scored 9 and 10 (6.6%), and the remaining 842 obtained a score equal to or lower than 8 (84.2%). The lower prevalence of PE in young Turkish men compared to the results of studies in the literature can be attributed to the physical and mental well-being of the participants. This study showed that the prevalence of PE in young men with good physical and mental health is lower than that found in the literature.

  18. Science and scepticism: Drug information, young men and counterpublic health.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Adrian; Fraser, Suzanne

    2016-02-10

    It is perhaps no surprise that young people can be sceptical of the drug-related information they receive in school-based health education, health promotion and the media. Significant societal anxiety surrounds young people's drug consumption, so it is tempting to approach this scepticism as a problem to be solved. In this article, we look closely at a group of young Australian men (n = 25), all of whom hold deeply sceptical views about the drug information they received in schools, social marketing campaigns and public speech generally. We do not approach their scepticism as a problem to be solved in itself, however. Instead, we analyse its origins and how it relates to the way knowledge is constructed in drug education, health promotion and media accounts of drug use. To conceptualise this scepticism, we draw on Irwin and Michael's analysis of the changing relationship between science and society, Warner's theorisation of publics and counterpublics, and Race's related notion of 'counterpublic health'. The article organises the data into three key themes: scepticism about the accuracy of the claims made about drug risks and dangers, scepticism about representations of drug users, and scepticism about the motivations behind the health messages and drug policy in general. We then draw these different aspects of scepticism together to argue that the young men can be seen to constitute a health 'counterpublic', and we consider the implications of this approach, arguing for what has been described as a more diplomatic engagement between science and publics.

  19. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    PubMed

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  20. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men

    PubMed Central

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens’ registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions. PMID:27838919

  1. Pornography, sexual socialization, and satisfaction among young men.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Busko, Vesna; Landripet, Ivan

    2010-02-01

    In spite of a growing presence of pornography in contemporary life, little is known about its potential effects on young people's sexual socialization and sexual satisfaction. In this article, we present a theoretical model of the effects of sexually explicit materials (SEM) mediated by sexual scripting and moderated by the type of SEM used. An on-line survey dataset that included 650 young Croatian men aged 18-25 years was used to explore empirically the model. Descriptive findings pointed to significant differences between mainstream and paraphilic SEM users in frequency of SEM use at the age of 14, current SEM use, frequency of masturbation, sexual boredom, acceptance of sex myths, and sexual compulsiveness. In testing the model, a novel instrument was used, the Sexual Scripts Overlap Scale, designed to measure the influence of SEM on sexual socialization. Structural equation analyses suggested that negative effects of early exposure to SEM on young men's sexual satisfaction, albeit small, could be stronger than positive effects. Both positive and negative effects-the latter being expressed through suppression of intimacy-were observed only among users of paraphilic SEM. No effect of early exposure to SEM was found among the mainstream SEM users. To counterbalance moral panic but also glamorization of pornography, sex education programs should incorporate contents that would increase media literacy and assist young people in critical interpretation of pornographic imagery.

  2. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  3. Initiation into Methamphetamine Use For Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Kelly, Brian C.; Weiser, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Research over the past ten years has suggested that methamphetamine use has become a significant problem and is associated with risky sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. In order to better understand initiation into methamphetamine use among gay and bisexual men, qualitative analyses were performed on a sample of young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29) in New York City. Participants were recruited as part of a larger study which used time-space sampling to enroll club-going young adults who indicated recent club-drug (ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, methamphetamine, cocaine, and/or LSD) use. The data for this paper are derived from the qualitative interviews of 54 gay and bisexual male methamphetamine users. At initiation (1) Methamphetamine was used in a social, non-sexual setting for a majority of the participants; (2) participants expressed limited knowledge of methamphetamine; and (3) many participants used cocaine as a basis for comparison when describing various effects of the drug. The understanding that at initiation methamphetamine was not solely used as a sexual enhancement for members of this community may enable health workers to more accurately target potential users when putting forth intervention efforts. Future research should aim to gain a better understanding into the role that methamphetamine plays in non-sexual contexts, particularly among gay and bisexual men who may not be part of the club “scene.” The relationship between attitudes towards methamphetamine and other drugs, particularly cocaine, among gay and bisexual men should be explored. PMID:17398040

  4. Height at Late Adolescence and Incident Diabetes among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Furer, Ariel; Afek, Arnon; Beer, Zivan; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Reichman, Brian; Twig, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    Background Short stature was suggested as a risk factor for diabetes onset among middle age individuals, but whether this is the case among young adults is unclear. Our goal was to assess the association between height and incident diabetes among young men. Methods and Findings Incident diabetes was assessed among 32,055 men with no history of diabetes, from the prospectively followed young adults of the MELANY cohort. Height was measured at two time points; at adolescence (mean age 17.4±0.3 years) and grouped according to the US-CDC percentiles and at young adulthood (mean age 31.0±5.6 years). Cox proportional hazards models were applied. There were 702 new cases of diabetes during a mean follow-up of 6.3±4.3 years. There was a significant increase in the crude diabetes incidence rate with decreasing adolescent height percentile, from 4.23 cases/104 person-years in the <10th percentile group to 2.44 cases/104 person-years in the 75th≤ percentile group. These results persisted when clinical and biochemical diabetes risk factors were included in multivariable models. Compared to the 75th≤ percentile group, height below the 10th percentile was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.64 (95%CI 1.09–2.46, p = 0.017) for incident diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, white blood cells count, socioeconomic status, country of origin, family history of diabetes, sleep quality and physical activity. At age 30 years, each 1-cm decrement in adult height was associated with a 2.5% increase in diabetes adjusted risk (HR 1.025, 95%CI 1.01–1.04, p = 0.001). Conclusions Shorter height at late adolescence or young adulthood was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes among young men, independent of BMI and other diabetes risk factors. PMID:26305680

  5. Does being overweight affect seminal variables in fertile men?

    PubMed

    Taha, Emad A; Sayed, Sohair K; Gaber, Hisham D; Abdel Hafez, Hatem K; Ghandour, Nagwa; Zahran, Asmaa; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-12-01

    The effect of being overweight on seminal variables was assesed in 165 fertile men. Participants were divided into three groups: fertile men with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), fertile overweight men (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and fertile obese men (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). Medical history was taken, a clinical examination conducted. Semen analysis was undertaken and BMI measured. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by chemiluminescent assay, sperm vitality by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and sperm DNA fragmentation by propidium iodide staining with flowcytometry. Fertile obese men had significantly lower sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility and sperm normal morphology, with significantly higher seminal ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation compared with fertile normal-weight men and overweight men (all P < 0.05). BMI was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.091; P = 0.014), progressive sperm motility (r = -0.697; P = 0.001), normal sperm morphology (r = -0.510; P = 0.001), sperm vitality (r = -0.586; P = 0.001), but positively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation percentage (r = 0.799; P = 0.001) and seminal ROS (r = 0.673; P = 0.001). Increased BMI was found to affect semen parameters negatively even in fertile men.

  6. Predictors of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gerend, Mary A.; Madkins, Krystal; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that causes anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at particularly high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related disease. HPV vaccination is currently recommended for all MSM in the U.S. through age 26 years, yet little is known about HPV vaccine uptake in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of HPV vaccine uptake and barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination that may be unique to young MSM. Methods Men aged 18–26 years (N=336) were recruited via advertisements placed on a geospatial smartphone dating application designed for MSM. Participants completed an online survey. Correlates of vaccine uptake and provider recommendation for HPV vaccine were identified using logistic regression. Results In total, 21% of participants had received ≥1 dose of HPV vaccine. Provider recommendation was the strongest predictor of uptake such that MSM with a recommendation were over 40 times more likely to have been vaccinated. Additional predictors of uptake included age and HPV vaccine attitudes. Predictors of provider recommendation included sexual identity, race/ethnicity, condomless anal sex, and HIV status. Psychosocial correlates and barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination among unvaccinated men were also identified. Conclusions Findings highlight potential disparities in HPV vaccine uptake, as well as disparities in provider recommendation practices for HPV vaccination. Future interventions should aim to clarify misconceptions, modify psychosocial beliefs, and address barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine uptake specific to young MSM. PMID:26859806

  7. Molecular analysis allows inference into HIV transmission among young men who have sex with men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WHITESIDE, Y. Omar; SONG, Ruiguang; WERTHEIM, Joel O.; OSTER, Alexandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the spread of HIV among and between age and racial/ethnic groups of men who engage in male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM) in the United States. Design Analysis of HIV-1 pol sequences for MSM collected through the U.S. National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) during 2001–2012. Methods Pairwise genetic distance was calculated to determine potential transmission partners (those with very closely related nucleotide sequences, i.e., distance ≤1.5%). We described race/ethnicity and age of potential transmission partners of MSM. Results Of 23,048 MSM with HIV sequences submitted to NHSS during 2000–2012, we identified potential transmission partners for 8,880 (39%). Most potential transmission partners were of the same race/ethnicity (78% for blacks/African Americans, 64% for whites, and 49% for Hispanics/Latinos). This assortative mixing was even more pronounced in the youngest age groups. Significantly fewer young black/African American and Hispanic/Latino MSM had older potential transmission partners compared with young white MSM. Conclusion Black/African American MSM, who are more profoundly affected by HIV, were more likely to have potential HIV transmission partners who were of the same race/ethnicity and similar in age, suggesting that disparities in HIV infections are in large part not due to age-disassortative relationships. Concerted efforts to increase access to pre-exposure prophylaxis, quality HIV care, and effective treatment are needed to interrupt transmission chains among young, black/African American MSM. PMID:26558547

  8. Do scientific theories affect men's evaluations of sex crimes?

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J; Cheung, Benjamin Y; Schaller, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology accounts of gender differences in sexual behaviors in general and men's sexual aggression, in particular, has been criticized for legitimizing males' sexual misconduct. To empirically assess such critiques, two studies examined how men's judgments of male sex crimes (solicitation of sex from a prostitute; rape) are influenced by exposure to (a) evolutionary psychological theories and (b) social-constructivist theories. Across two studies, a consistent pattern emerged compared with a control condition (a) exposure to evolutionary psychology theories had no observable impact on male judgments of men's criminal sexual behavior, whereas (b) exposure to social-constructivist theories did affect judgments, leading men to evaluate sex crimes more harshly. Additional results (from Study 2) indicate that this effect is mediated by perceptions of male control over sexual urges. These results have implications for journalists, educators, and scientists. Aggr. Behav. 37:440-449, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    PubMed

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  10. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity.

  11. Stress fracture injury in young military men and women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David W; Rue, John-Paul H; Wilckens, John H; Frassica, Frank J

    2004-09-01

    Approximately 5% of all military recruits incur stress fracture injuries during intense physical training, predominately in the lower extremity. We compared young men and women with stress fracture injury (subjects) to a matched group of uninjured volunteers (controls) during a summer training program at the United States Naval Academy to identify possible risk factors for stress fracture injury. The subject group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes with training-induced stress fracture injury verified by plain radiographs and/or nuclear bone scan. The control group was composed of 13 female and 18 male plebes who remained without injury during plebe summer training but who were matched with the 31 injured plebes for the Initial Strength Test (1-mi run time, means: women, 7.9 min; men, 6.4 min) and body mass index (means: women, 23.4; men, 23.8). We found that the subjects lost significant body weight (mean, 2.63 +/- 0.54 kg) between Day 1 and the date of their diagnosis of a stress fracture (mean, Day 35) and that they continued to lose weight until the date of their DEXA scan (mean, Day 49). Among female plebes, there was no evidence of the female athlete triad (eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, or low bone density). Thigh girth was significantly smaller in female subjects than in female controls and trended to be lower in male subjects than in male controls. Total body bone mineral content was significantly lower in the male subjects than in male controls. Bone mineral density of the distal tibia and femoral neck were not significantly different between the groups. DEXA-derived structural geometric properties were not different between subjects and controls. Because, on average, tibias were significantly longer in male subjects than in male controls, the mean bone strength index in male subjects was significantly lower than that of male controls. We conclude that significant, acute weight loss combined with regular daily physical training among

  12. Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D

    2010-08-01

    We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use.

  13. Sexting among young men who have sex with men: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Yeagley, Emily; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We know little about the prevalence of sexting behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) or its association with their sexual behaviors. Methods To address these gaps, we used data from an online study examining the partner-seeking behaviors of single YMSM (N=1,502; ages 18–24) in the U.S. Most participants (87.5%) reported sexting, with 75.7% of the sample reporting having sent and received a sext. Results Sexting was more frequent among sexually-active YMSM, with YMSM who had sent and received a sext being more likely to report insertive anal intercourse, with and without condoms, than those who had not sexted. We found no association between sexting and receptive anal intercourse. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexting may vary by YMSM’s sexual roles. We discuss our findings with attention to their implications for sexual health promotion. PMID:24361235

  14. Acceptability of smartphone application-based HIV prevention among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Rice, Eric; Gibbs, Jeremy; Winetrobe, Hailey; Dunlap, Shannon; Rhoades, Harmony

    2014-02-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are increasingly using mobile smartphone applications ("apps"), such as Grindr, to meet sex partners. A probability sample of 195 Grindr-using YMSM in Southern California were administered an anonymous online survey to assess patterns of and motivations for Grindr use in order to inform development and tailoring of smartphone-based HIV prevention for YMSM. The number one reason for using Grindr (29 %) was to meet "hook ups." Among those participants who used both Grindr and online dating sites, a statistically significantly greater percentage used online dating sites for "hook ups" (42 %) compared to Grindr (30 %). Seventy percent of YMSM expressed a willingness to participate in a smartphone app-based HIV prevention program. Development and testing of smartphone apps for HIV prevention delivery has the potential to engage YMSM in HIV prevention programming, which can be tailored based on use patterns and motivations for use.

  15. 'But I'm not like that': young men's navigation of normative masculinities in a marginalised urban community in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; Andes, Karen L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Young men often define themselves and their masculine identity through romantic and sexual relationships, and their resulting sexual decisions can affect their successful transition into adulthood, as well as STI, HIV and pregnancy rates. This paper looks at how young Paraguayan men's peer groups, family and masculine identity formation influence their behaviours in sexual and romantic relationships. In Asunción, Paraguay, we conducted five focus-group discussions (FGDs) examining neighbourhood norms in 2010, with male peer groups ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. We then interviewed half the members from each peer group to examine their relationships with friends, family and young women and their beliefs about existing gender norms. Young men described two types of masculine norms, 'partner/provider' and macho, and two types of romantic relationships, 'casual' and 'formal'. The language used to describe each spectrum of behaviours was often concordant and highlights the connection between masculine norms and romantic relationships. The perceived norms for the neighbourhood were more macho than the young men's reported behaviours. Norms cannot change unless young men speak out about their non-normative behaviours. This provides evidence for more research on the formation, meaning and transformation of male gender norms.

  16. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance.

  17. Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

  18. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  19. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health.…

  20. Vernacular Knowledge and Critical Pedagogy: Conceptualising Sexual Health Education for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, Alexander J.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 years after HIV was first recognised in the USA, the epidemic continues to pose a disproportionate threat to vulnerable and marginalised populations. Increasing HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men has spurred debate around the content and approach to HIV prevention interventions directed towards this vulnerable population.…

  1. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  2. Motivations for prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Corliss, Heather L.; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse (i.e. opioids, tranquilizers and stimulants) has become the fastest growing area of substance abuse among young adults. Limited studies focus on prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM, aged 18–29 years). Furthermore, little is known about YMSM’s motivations for misuse. The purpose of this study was to explore personal motivations for prescription drug misuse among YMSM, including the possible connection between misuse and sexual behaviors. Methods As part of a larger mixed methods study of 191 YMSM recruited in Philadelphia during 2012–2013, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 25 of these participants to gather additional contextual information about their prescription drug misuse. We conducted thematic analysis of qualitative data. Results While our results corroborated previous literature on motives for misuse of prescription drugs, our data yielded some distinct motivations specific among YMSM. These motives included social/recreational motives, facilitating sex with other men (including motives such as use of opioids for less painful anal receptive sex), and psychological motives such as depression, stress management, coping with everyday hardships (opioids and tranquilizers) or feeling more energized (stimulants). Prescription drugs were commonly misused within the broader contexts of participants' polysubstance use, adding to the significance of this problem. Conclusions Our findings offer insights into YMSM’s motivations for prescription drug misuse, and point to the importance of recognizing and addressing them. While substance use is likely related to various psychosocial issues impacting YMSM, it also may lead to significant health consequences. Results support the need to include prescription drugs and polysubstance use in harm reduction messages and treatment approaches aimed at substance using YMSM. PMID:25936445

  3. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.

  4. Sexual attitudes and number of partners in young British men.

    PubMed

    Kupek, E

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between sexual attitudes and number of heterosexual partners in a survey-based and nationally representative random sample of 551 British men aged 16-25 years was examined. The main predictor of the number of partners in the last 5 years was the time since the first sexual intercourse, whereas age, marital status, education, social class, smoking, and alcohol consumption contributed on a smaller but significant level. Sexual attitudes were summarized in terms of three underlying dimensions which could be described as permissiveness, attitudes toward sexual relations of same-sex partners, and importance of orgasm for sex. None of these was a significant predictor of the number of partners in the last 5 years. Both permissiveness and number of partners were associated with the age of first sexual intercourse and other background variables indicating opportunities for social contact. In conclusion, common factors of sexual attitudes and the number of sexual partners are not directly related but rather jointly predicted by a very similar set of background variables such as age, time since first sexual intercourse, social class, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Given the absence of a significant relationship between sexual attitudes and number of young men's partners, promoting safer sex may be a more sensible strategy than trying to change these attitudes.

  5. Access to health care and religion among young American men.

    PubMed

    Gillum, R Frank; Jarrett, Nicole; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2009-12-01

    In order to elucidate cultural correlates of utilization of primary health services by young adult men, we investigated religion in which one was raised and service utilization. Using data from a national survey we tested the hypothesis that religion raised predicts access to and utilization of a regular medical care provider, examinations, HIV and other STD testing and counseling at ages 18-44 years in men born between 1958 and 1984. We also hypothesized that religion raised would be more predictive of utilization for Hispanic Americans and non-Hispanic Black Americans than for non-Hispanic White Americans. The study included a national sample of 4276 men aged 18-44 years. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to assess the hypotheses using data on religion raised and responses to 14 items assessing health care access and utilization. Compared to those raised in no religion, those raised mainline Protestant were more likely (p < 0.01) to report a usual source of care (67% vs. 79%), health insurance coverage (66% vs. 80%) and physical examination (43% vs. 48%). Religion raised was not associated with testicular exams, STD counseling or HIV testing. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounders, significant associations of religion raised with insurance coverage, a physician as usual source of care and physical examination remained which varied by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, although religion is a core aspect of culture that deserves further study as a possible determinant of health care utilization, we were not able to document any consistent pattern of significant association even in a population with high rates of religious participation.

  6. Role flexing: how community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A

    2012-12-01

    While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.

  7. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  8. The Self-Perceptions of Young Men as Singers in Singaporean Pre-University Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freer, Patrick K.; Tan, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of young men in choral singing activity has been widely studied in North America, with emerging parallel research in Europe (Freer, 2013; Harrison & Welch, 2012). There has been little such research in Asia. This study, of 12 young men enrolled in Singapore's pre-university schools, collected both written narratives and drawn…

  9. Cultivating Capital: Latino Newcomer Young Men in a U.S. Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Martinez-Wenzl, Mary; Aldana, Ursula S.; Gándara, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Newcomer young men confront numerous obstacles that limit their chances for attainment and achievement. Using social and cultural capital frameworks and a case study methodology, this article examines how four Latino newcomer young men navigated an urban U.S. high school. It reveals how teachers and a counselor cultivated capital and how the young…

  10. Meeting the Needs of Marginalised Young Men: An Analysis of Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiri, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    Recent research into the needs of marginalised young men in the inner west of Sydney found that there are serious problems related to service accessibility for this group. This article explores some of these key issues related to accessibility including: the help-seeking behaviour of disadvantaged young men; organisational barriers, such as the…

  11. Rules of Engagement: Boys, Young Men and the Challenge of Effective Sex and Relationships Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Max

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade, the relationship between boys, young men and sex and relationships education (SRE) is one that has been characterised by a history of problematising. One of the main difficulties lies with young men's engagement with the subject, and in this article I make a retrospective examination of recent classroom experience with young…

  12. School and "Madrasah" Education: Gender and the Strategies of Muslim Young Men in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…

  13. 32 CFR 643.40 - Policy-Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.40 Policy—Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). Title... by the YMCA on military reservations, of such buildings as their work for the promotion of the...

  14. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  15. Father Involvement and Young, Rural African American Men's Engagement in Substance Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Barton, Allen W; Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations of biological father and social father involvement during childhood with African American young men's development and engagement in risk behaviors. With a sample of 505 young men living in the rural South of the United States, a dual mediation model was tested in which retrospective reports of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers were linked to young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through men's relational schemas and future expectations. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that levels of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers predicted young men's relational schemas; only biological fathers' involvement predicted future expectations. In turn, future expectations predicted levels of substance misuse, and negative relational schemas predicted multiple sexual partnerships. Biological fathers' involvement evinced significant indirect associations with young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through both schemas and expectations; social fathers' involvement exhibited an indirect association with multiple sexual partnerships through relational schemas. Findings highlight the unique influences of biological fathers and social fathers on multiple domains of African American young men's psychosocial development that subsequently render young men more or less likely to engage in risk behaviors.

  16. Father Involvement and Young, Rural African American Men's Engagement in Substance Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations of biological father and social father involvement during childhood with African American young men's development and engagement in risk behaviors. With a sample of 505 young men living in the rural South, a dual mediation model was tested in which retrospective reports of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers were linked to young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through men's relational schemas and future expectations. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that levels of involvement from biological fathers and social fathers predicted young men's relational schemas; only biological fathers' involvement predicted future expectations. In turn, future expectations predicted levels of substance misuse, and negative relational schemas predicted multiple sexual partnerships. Biological fathers' involvement evinced significant indirect associations with young men's substance misuse and multiple sexual partnerships through both schemas and expectations; social fathers' involvement exhibited an indirect association with multiple sexual partnerships through relational schemas. Findings highlight the unique influences of biological fathers and social fathers on multiple domains of African American young men's psychosocial development that subsequently render young men more or less likely to engage in risk behaviors. PMID:26362297

  17. Impact of religiosity on the sexual risk behaviors of young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Hidalgo, Marco; Gayles, Travis; Kwon, Soyang; Muldoon, Abigail L; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM), particularly Black YMSM, bear a disproportionate burden of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States. Several studies support the positive and protective role of religion in health and the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, little empirical research has been conducted looking at religion with the context of YMSM and HIV prevention. We examined the impact of religious attendance and faithfulness on sexual risk among a community-based sample of 450 YMSM in Chicago ages 16 to 20. Participants were mostly racial/ethnic minorities, that is, Black (53.4%) and Latino (19.9%). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that faithfulness in combination with frequent formal religious attendance was associated with a decrease in reported number of unprotected anal sex acts, including unprotected receptive anal sex with male partners. These association trends were also found for the Black YMSM in our sample, suggesting that religious involvement and faithfulness is a potential protective factor for the acquisition of HIV among this high-risk population.

  18. Sexual Partner Typologies Among Single Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2015-06-01

    Using data from a sample of single young men who have sex with men (N = 1,359, ages 18-24, 65 % White, 93 % gay), we examined whether the number of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners with differed across relationship typologies (e.g., friends with benefits, hookups, romantic interests). We then examined how safer sex self-efficacy, decisional balance to forego condoms, ideal relationship attributes (i.e., intimacy, passion and commitment), and limerence were associated with UAI. Different partner types were associated with greater UAI partners; single partner types were associated with fewer UAI partners, irrespective of how they were categorized. UAI partners was associated with decisional balance (OR = 1.89, p < 0.001), passion ideation (OR = 1.38, p < 0.001), and difficulty negotiating safer sex with romantic partners (OR = 1.16, p < 0.001). Odds of UAI partners decreased with higher scores of commitment ideation (OR = 0.91, p < 0.05) and difficulty negotiating safer sex with casual partners (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05). We discuss the importance of acknowledging how different sexual partnerships, alongside its motivational correlates, influence UAI risk in order to inform HIV-prevention interventions.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Difference in HIV-related Knowledge among Young Men who have Sex with Men and their Association with Condom Errors

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Gayles, Travis; Bottone, Paul Devine; Ryan, Dan; Kuhns, Lisa M; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, and knowledge about HIV transmission is one factor that may play a role in high rate of infections for this population. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in HIV knowledge among young men who have sex with men in the USA and its correlation to condom usage errors. Design Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 344 young men who have sex with men screened from an ongoing longitudinal cohort study. Eligible participants were between the ages of 16 and 20 years, born male, and had previously had at least one sexual encounter with a man and/or identify as gay or bisexual. This analysis is based on cross-sectional data collected at the baseline interview using computer assisted self-interviewing (CASI) software. Setting Chicago, IL, USA Method We utilised descriptive and inferential statistics, including ANOVA and Tukey’s Post hoc analysis to assess differences in HIV knowledge by level of education and race/ethnicity, and negative binomial regression to determine if HIV knowledge was associated with condom errors while controlling for age, education and race/ethnicity. Results The study found that Black men who have sex with men scored significantly lower (average score=67%; p<.05) than their White counterparts (average score=83%) on a measure of HIV knowledge (mean difference=16.1%, p<.001). Participants with less than a high school diploma and those with a high school diploma/GED only had lower knowledge scores, on average (66.4%, 69.9%, respectively) than participants who had obtained post-high school education (78.1%; mean difference=11.7%, 8.2% respectively, ps<.05). In addition, controlling for age, race and level of education, higher HIV knowledge scores were associated with fewer condom errors (Exp B =.995, CI 0.992-0.999, p<0.05). Conclusion These findings stress the need to for increased attention to HIV transmission-related educational activities targeting

  20. An exploration of religion and spirituality among young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men in the USA.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L; Okeke, Janice O; Gelaude, Deborah J; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Oster, Alexandra M; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Although religion and spirituality can promote healthy behaviours and mental well-being, negative religious experiences may harm sexual minority men's health. Despite increasing vulnerability to HIV infection among young gay and bisexual men, few studies examine how religion and spirituality might affect them. To this end, we interviewed young gay and bisexual men who were diagnosed with HIV infection during January 2006-June 2009. Questionnaires assessed religious service attendance, disclosure of sexuality within religious communities, and beliefs about homosexuality being sinful. A subset described religious and spiritual experiences in qualitative interviews. We calculated the prevalence of religion- and spirituality-related factors and identified themes within qualitative interviews. Among men completing questionnaires, 66% currently attended religious services, 16% believed they could disclose their sexuality at church, and 37% believed homosexuality was sinful. Participants who completed qualitative interviews commonly discussed religious attendance and negative experiences within religious settings. They often expressed their spirituality through prayer, and some used it to cope with adverse experiences. These data suggest that religion and spirituality are notable factors that shape young, HIV-infected gay and bisexual men's social contexts. Programmes and interventions that constructively engage with religious institutions and are sensitive to spiritual beliefs may promote these men's health.

  1. Attention and recognition biases associated with stature dissatisfaction among young men in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Hong; Gao, Xiao; Meng, Rui; Jackson, Todd

    2014-09-01

    This research evaluated information-processing biases related to height dissatisfaction among young Chinese men. In Study 1, 32 highly stature dissatisfied (HSD) men and 36 less stature dissatisfied (LSD) men performed a dot probe task featuring height-related words and neutral words. HSD men were significantly slower than LSD men were in responding to probes that followed short stature words, but the groups did not differ in response speeds to probes that followed tall stature or neutral words. In Study 2, 33 HSD men and 34 LSD men completed an implicit learning task followed by a word recognition task. HSD men recognized significantly more short stature words from the initial task, but recognition accuracy for other word types did not differ between groups. Together, these findings suggest that HSD men are more inclined than LSD men to selectively avoid cues that reflect shortness in stature and to selectively recognize such cues later.

  2. Sperm chromatin integrity in young men with no experiences of infertility and men from idiopathic infertility couples.

    PubMed

    Rybar, R; Markova, P; Veznik, Z; Faldikova, L; Kunetkova, M; Zajicova, A; Kopecka, V; Rubes, J

    2009-06-01

    Damage to the genetic component of spermatozoa seems to play the main role in a majority of cases where current approaches fail to reveal the specific cause of male infertility. In this study, we compared semen quality in men assigned to two defined groups: men from couples with unexplained infertility - idiopathic infertility (A) and young men with no experiences of infertility (B). All samples were examined by standard ejaculate analysis and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Sperm chromatin damage was significantly higher in men from group A than in those from group B. Similar results were obtained by comparison of men from group A (all men were normozoospermic) with normozoospermic men from group B. According to these results, we can suppose that chromatin disorders may be the causal factor of subfertility or infertility in some of these men. No evidence for a strong association between chromatin disorders and standard parameters of ejaculates was found. We failed to confirm a relationship between smoking and sperm quality in men from any of the investigated groups. SCSA is a method that facilitates the identification of infertile men who otherwise show normal semen variables.

  3. Influences on HIV Testing among Young African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men and the Moderating Effect of the Geographic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger; Miller, Robin L.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, knowledge, and psychosocial variables on HIV testing among a sample (n = 551) of young African-American men who have sex with men (MSM) from three cities--Atlanta (n = 241), Birmingham (n = 174), and Chicago (n = 136). Among the entire sample of young men, age,…

  4. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses.

  5. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) Facebook Project.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Allen, Julie Ober; Goodwill, Janelle R; Noel, Blake

    2016-12-15

    The Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) project is a Facebook-based intervention that provides mental health education and social support to young Black men. The YBMen project was created to better understand and address the pressures and needs of young Black men, particularly with regard to issues related to their conceptualization of masculinity and mental health. Black men from a 2-year liberal arts college in the Midwest (United States) enrolled in the YBMen pilot project. The purpose of this study is to report what participants in the YBMen pilot project liked and disliked about the intervention, along with their suggestions for improvement. Qualitative results from the 8 Black men who actively participated in the YBMen Facebook intervention and completed the postintervention interview are reported. A systematic analysis identified 9 subthemes that described participants' reactions to different components and characteristics of the Facebook intervention. Results indicated that opportunities for relationship building and connectivity, coupled with engaging popular culture references used in the intervention encouraged young Black men to actively participate in the YBMen Facebook intervention. The YBMen project has potential to improve the health and well-being of young Black men by providing nontraditional resources that are easily accessible, culturally sensitive, and gender-specific. Implications of the YBMen project as an effective Internet-based program that promotes mental health and increases social support among young Black men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Evaluation of young men with organic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulos, Dimitri; Khare, Narenda; Nehra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in men under the age of 40 was once thought to be entirely psychogenic. Over the last few decades, advances in our understanding of erectile physiology and improvements in diagnostic testing have restructured our understanding of ED and its etiologies. Although psychogenic ED is more prevalent in the younger population, at least 15%-20% of these men have an organic etiology. Organic ED has been shown to be a predictor of increased future morbidity and mortality. As such, a thorough work-up should be employed for any man with complaints of sexual dysfunction. Oftentimes a treatment plan can be formulated after a focused history, physical exam and basic lab-work are conducted. However, in certain complex cases, more testing can be employed. The major organic etiologies can be subdivided into vascular, neurologic, and endocrine. Specific testing should be directed by clinical clues noted during the preliminary evaluation. These tests vary in degree of invasiveness, precision, and at times may not affect treatment. Results should be integrated into the overall clinical picture to assist in diagnosis and help guide therapy.

  7. Homelessness and Drug Abuse among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Preliminary Epidemiological Trajectory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…

  8. Young Men Have Equivalent Biochemical Outcomes Compared With Older Men After Treatment With Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Burri, Ryan J.; Ho, Alice Y.; Forsythe, Kevin; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the biochemical outcomes of young men treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2005, 1,665 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy {+-} hormone therapy (HT) {+-} external beam radiotherapy and underwent {>=}2 years of follow-up. Patients were stratified on the basis of age: {<=}60 (n = 378) and >60 years (n = 1,287). Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/mL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association of variables with freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF). Results: Median follow-up was 68 months (range, 24-180) for men {<=}60 years and 66 months (range, 24-200) for men >60. For the entire group, the actuarial 5- and 8-year FFbF rates were 94% and 88%, respectively. Men {<=}60 demonstrated similar 5- and 8-year FFbF (95% and 92%) compared with men >60 (93% and 87%; p = 0.071). A larger percent of young patients presented with low-risk disease; lower clinical stage, Gleason score (GS), and pretreatment PSA values; were treated after 1997; did not receive any HT; and had a high biologic effective dose (BED) of radiation (all ps <0.001). On multivariate analysis, PSA (p = 0.001), GS (p = 0.005), and BED (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with FFbF, but age was not (p = 0.665). Conclusion: Young men achieve excellent 5- and 8-year biochemical control rates that are comparable to those of older men after prostate brachytherapy. Young age should not be a deterrent when considering brachytherapy as a primary treatment option for clinically localized prostate cancer.

  9. Improving mental health and wellbeing for young men in the building and construction industry.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Statistics on causes of death gathered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010) report that suicide was the leading cause amongst young men in Australia between the ages of 15-24. The figures have been similarly high for over a decade. In Australia these alarming statistics have led to the funding of a range of programmes tackling youth suicide and more recently programmes that are aimed at improving help-seeking behaviours of young men. The programme reported in this paper is one such programme that is working with young men in the building and construction industry who are regarded at even greater risk of poor mental health outcomes. The research that was undertaken uncovered some of the impact of a universal programme on improving the protective factors of young men in this industry. Young men can present themselves in a very positive light as robust and resilient human beings, contrary to much of the research that has been undertaken with a focus on young men in building and construction and living in rural and remote communities. This paper discusses the data and uses the material to consider how resilient young men in this industry can become key informants and informal peer mentors.

  10. Pakistani and Bangladeshi Young Men: Re-Racialization, Class and Masculinity within the Neo-Liberal School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men's experiences of schooling to examine what inclusion/exclusion means to them. Qualitative research was undertaken with 48 Pakistani and Bangladeshi young men living in areas of the West Midlands, England. The young men highlighted three key areas: the emergence of a schooling regime…

  11. Boys' and young men's perspectives on violence in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing, to experiencing, to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.

  12. Providing meaningful care: learning from the experiences of suicidal young men.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Joanne; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; Cutcliffe, John; Stevenson, Chris; Slater, Paul; McGowan, Iain

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about young suicidal men's preferences for care. Using a broad interpretive approach, we interviewed 36 formerly suicidal young men in a study addressing the development and provision of mental health services. Our analysis yielded three core categories: widening access and bolstering proactive outreach, on becoming a man, and equipping young men for future challenges. Collectively, these categories suggest key features and processes of appropriate service configuration and clinical care: (a) services that reach out proactively serve to encourage young men's initial and ongoing engagement; (b) care delivered over the long term ensures a necessary focus on a meaningful future life; (c) mental health professionals (MHPs) are centrally involved alongside significant others, including those with personal experience of suicide; and (d) the development of a vital interpersonal connection is based on MHPs actively communicating their empathy, open-mindedness, and interest in a young man's unique biography.

  13. "Hedge Your Bets": Technology's Role in Young Gay Men's Relationship Challenges.

    PubMed

    McKie, Raymond M; Milhausen, Robin R; Lachowsky, Nathan J

    2017-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly pervasive role among young gay men in the process of meeting potential romantic or sexual partners. We investigated challenges posed by technology related to young gay men's relationships. Focus groups (n = 9) of young gay men aged 18-24 (n = 43) were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was used to identify two major themes regarding challenges to relationship development and maintenance. Subthemes include unrealistic expectations of relationships, inauthentic self-presentation online, sexual primacy over romance, increased opportunities for infidelity, and jealousy. The implications of this study for sexual education and sexual health promotion are discussed.

  14. Factors influencing young men's decision to undergo health screening in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Chin Hai; Ng, Chirk Jenn; White, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Uptake of health screening is low in men, particularly among those aged <40 years. This study aimed to explore factors that influence health screening behaviour in younger men. Design This qualitative study employed an interpretive descriptive approach. Two trained researchers conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) using a semi-structured topic guide, which was developed based on literature review and behavioural theories. All IDIs and FGDs were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers analysed the data independently using a thematic approach. Participants and setting Men working in a banking institution in Kuala Lumpur were recruited to the study. They were purposively sampled according to their ethnicity, job position, age and screening status in order to achieve maximal variation. Results Eight IDIs and five FGDs were conducted (n=31) and six themes emerged from the analysis. (1) Young men did not consider screening as part of prevention and had low risk perception. (2) The younger generation was more receptive to health screening due to their exposure to health information through the internet. (3) Health screening was not a priority in young men except for those who were married. (4) Young men had limited income and would rather invest in health insurance than screening. (5) Young men tended to follow doctors' advice when it comes to screening and preferred doctors of the same gender and ethnicity. (6) Medical overuse was also raised where young men wanted more screening tests while doctors tended to promote unnecessary screening tests to them. Conclusions This study identified important factors that influenced young men's screening behaviour. Health authorities should address young men's misperceptions, promote the importance of early detection and develop a reasonable health screening strategy for them. Appropriate measures must be put in place to reduce low value screening practices. PMID

  15. Young Men, Help-Seeking, and Mental Health Services: Exploring Barriers and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Louise; Long, Maggie; Moorhead, Anne

    2016-06-29

    International research has identified young men as reluctant to seek help for mental health problems. This research explored barriers and solutions to professional help seeking for mental health problems among young men living in the North West of Ireland. A qualitative approach, using two focus groups with six participants each and five face-to-face interviews, was conducted with men aged 18 to 24 years (total N = 17). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Seven key themes of barriers to professional help seeking were identified: "acceptance from peers," "personal challenges," "cultural and environmental influences," "self-medicating with alcohol," "perspectives around seeking professional help," "fear of homophobic responses," and "traditional masculine ideals." Five key themes of solutions to these barriers included "tailored mental health advertising," "integrating mental health into formal education," "education through semiformal support services," "accessible mental health care," and "making new meaning." Interesting findings on barriers include fear of psychiatric medication, fear of homophobic responses from professionals, the legacy of Catholic attitudes, and the genuine need for care. This study offers an in-depth exploration of how young men experience barriers and uniquely offers solutions identified by participants themselves. Youth work settings were identified as a resource for engaging young men in mental health work. Young men can be encouraged to seek help if services and professionals actively address barriers, combining advertising, services, and education, with particular attention and respect to how and when young men seek help and with whom they want to share their problems.

  16. EPIDEMIC TREMOR, AN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS AFFECTING YOUNG CHICKENS

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. Elizabeth

    1934-01-01

    A new disease having a characteristic and well defined symptom complex is described as occurring in young chickens in four New England states. Tremor, principally of the head and neck, and progressive ataxia are the characteristic symptoms, either or both of which may be present in a single bird. Age at onset in field epidemics ranges from 3 days to 6 weeks, with a majority of cases reported at 3 weeks. Morbidity in commercial flocks ranges from 5 to 50 per cent; mortality in affected hatches may be 50 per cent. The disease may or may not recur in successive hatches, and in the same flock in successive years. Although birds may survive an attack of the disease, nervous symptoms persist in a majority of cases. There is no evidence that nutritional factors are involved. Normal chickens have not contracted the disease by contact with affected birds. The disease has been reproduced in normal chickens by intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from affected birds. Twenty brain-to-brain passages have been made up to the present time. The incubation period in laboratory passages ranges from 6 to 44 days with symptoms appearing usually between 21 and 28 days. The proportion of inoculated birds developing symptoms has increased with successive passages. The infective agent in the brain has survived in 50 per cent glycerine for 69 days. No organism has been cultivated. The disease has been reproduced after inoculation with bacteriologically sterile filtrates obtained with Seitz and Berkefeld N filters. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the infective agent in the chicken embryo have been inconclusive. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by birds which had survived the disease were not infected, nor were they immune to inoculation at 6 weeks of age. The characteristic lesion of the disease consists of microscopic focal collections of glia cells, perivascular infiltration, degeneration of Purkinje's cells, and degeneration of nerve cells. Foci of infiltration are

  17. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  18. Condom Breakage Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: An In-Depth Investigation Including Men Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2016-02-01

    Correlates of condom breakage (reported by 19% of 398 young black who have sex with men) for anal insertive sex included the following: condoms drying out (P = 0.018), erection loss during application (P = 0.03), and using erection-enhancing drugs (P = 0.003). Breakage was 2.7 times greater for HIV-positive men (P = 0.001). Breakage was associated with testing positive for urethral infections (P = 0.012).

  19. Girl Friends as Significant-Others: Their Influence on Young Men's Career Aspirations and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.

    1977-01-01

    Girl friends are significant-others who influence young men's career aspirations and achievements. Girl friends and same sex peers evaluate a youth's educational potential using broader criteria than do parents. (Author/MV)

  20. No influence of lower leg heating on central arterial pulse pressure in young men.

    PubMed

    Kosaki, Keisei; Sugawara, Jun; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Central arterial pulse pressure (PP), a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease, mainly consists of an incident wave generated by left ventricular ejection and a late-arriving reflected wave emanating from the lower body. We have tested the hypothesis that a reduction in leg vascular tone by heat treatment of the lower leg attenuates the central arterial PP. Pressure and wave properties of the peripheral and central arteries were measured in eight young men before and after heat treatment of the lower leg (temperature approx. 43 °C) for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Following the lower leg heat trial, leg (femoral-ankle) pulse wave velocity (PWV) was significantly decreased, but aortic (carotid-femoral) PWV and parameters of wave reflection and carotid arterial PP did not change significantly. No significant changes were observed in these parameters in the control trial. These results suggest that the reduction in leg vascular tone induced by heat treatment of the lower leg may not affect wave reflection and central arterial PP in young men.

  1. Antagonist mechanical contribution to resultant maximal torque at the ankle joint in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Emilie M; Billot, Maxime; Martin, Alain; Van Hoecke, Jacques

    2009-04-01

    A recorded muscular torque at one joint is a resultant torque corresponding to the participation of both agonist and antagonist muscles. This study aimed to examine the effect of aging on the mechanical contributions of both plantar- and dorsi-flexors to the resultant maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torques exerted at the ankle joint, in dorsi-flexion (DF) and plantar-flexion (PF). The estimation of isometric agonist and antagonist torques by means of an EMG biofeedback technique was made with nine young (mean age 24 years) and nine older (mean age 80 years) men. While there was a non-significant age-related decline in the measured resultant DF MVC torque (-15%; p=0.06), there was a clear decrease in the estimated agonist MVC torque exerted by the dorsi-flexors (-39%; p=0.001). The DF-to-PF resultant MVC torque ratio was significantly lower in young than in older men (0.25 vs. 0.31; p=0.006), whereas the DF-to-PF agonist MVC torque ratio was no longer different between the two populations (0.38 vs. 0.35; p>0.05). Thus, agonist MVC torques in PF and DF would be similarly affected by aging, which could not be deduced when only resultant torques were examined.

  2. Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Experiences from Clark County, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, Jennifer R.; Lough, Nancy L.; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2016-01-01

    Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly. PMID:26925893

  3. Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Experiences from Clark County, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Pharr, Jennifer R; Lough, Nancy L; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-11-03

    Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly.

  4. Velocity dependence of eccentric strength in young and old men: the need for speed!

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2015-07-01

    Older adults better maintain eccentric strength relative to isometric strength, as indicated by a higher ratio of eccentric:isometric torque as compared with younger adults. The effect of increasing angular velocities (>200°/s) on the age-related maintenance of eccentric strength has not been tested and thus it is unknown whether the eccentric:isometric ratio is velocity dependent in old age. The purpose of this study was to investigate eccentric strength of the ankle dorsiflexors over a large range of lengthening angular velocities in young and older men. Isometric neuromuscular properties were assessed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. Nine young (∼24 years) and 9 older (∼76 years) healthy men performed maximal voluntary eccentric contractions at angular velocities of 15-360°/s. Despite near full voluntary activation (>95%), the older men were ∼30% weaker than the young men for isometric strength (P < 0.05). Across all lengthening velocities, older men had a greater eccentric:isometric ratio than young men (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a velocity dependence of strength in both young and older men: eccentric strength increased as velocity increased up to 120°/s (P < 0.05) and plateaued thereafter. In young and older men, eccentric strength at 15°/s was ∼20% and ∼40% greater than isometric strength (P < 0.05), while at 360°/s eccentric strength was ∼50% and ∼90% greater, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that with increasing angular velocity, both young and older men have considerable increases in the eccentric:isometric ratio of torque production.

  5. The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color: A Review of Research, Pathways and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Michael, Jr.; Ransom, Tafaya

    2011-01-01

    This report seeks to give a balanced view of the issues that exist for young men of color as identified by the research. Its particular value is that it looks at six distinct pathways that young men of color--and all students--take after high school and arranges the research in this way, and for the first time synthesizes the literature for males…

  6. Callous-Unemotional Traits Robustly Predict Future Criminal Offending in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Byrd, Amy L.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2013-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of empathy, deficient guilt/remorse, and shallow affect) are a circumscribed facet of the adult psychopathic personality. Although several studies have found that adult psychopathy is a robust predictor of future criminal offending, research exploring the predictive utility of CU traits and future offending are lacking. Moreover, empirical studies examining the predictive utility of psychopathic features often neglect to account for other well-documented risk factors (e.g., prior offending, delinquent peers, marital status), and thus the incremental predictive utility of CU traits remains uncertain. To address these limitations, the current study examined the unique contribution of CU traits in the prediction of future criminal offending in a large ethnically diverse community sample of young adult males (Mean Age = 25.76, SD = .95). Official criminal record information was collected approximately 3.5 years later using multiple sources. Results indicated that after controlling for several other well-established predictors of future offending, men with elevated CU traits had a greater number of arrests and criminal charges and were more likely to be charged with a serious offense and obstruction of justice. CU traits also predicted future theft for Caucasian men, but not African American men. Overall, the results support the notion that CU traits significantly add to the prediction of future offending, even after controlling for several other risk factors. PMID:22731505

  7. Between '0' and '1': safer sex and condom use among young gay men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Fung, Tsz Hin

    2016-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men are becoming the most at-risk subgroup for HIV incidence in Hong Kong. To understand how young gay men in Hong Kong interpret and implement safer sex and condom use, focus-group discussions and individual in-depth interviews were held. The 74 participants were nearly all ethnic Chinese gay men aged between 18 and 25 years. Findings indicate that the challenge for health intervention lies in young gay men's inconsistent condom use despite their high level of HIV-related knowledge. Participants described using condoms, testing for HIV and abstaining from anal sex as measures undertaken to prevent HIV infection. However, sociocultural norms and expectations pertaining to '0' (docile, bottom) and '1' (assertive, top) roles and trust between partners complicate the consistent implementation of risk-reduction measures. Influenced by heteronormative and romantic beliefs, sexual behaviours such as condomless anal sex and internal ejaculation hold symbolic meanings - exclusivity, commitment, intimacy, possession - for young gay men in Hong Kong, which override health concerns. These findings support more empowerment-driven HIV programming for young gay men.

  8. Stigma and Sexual Health Risk in HIV-Positive African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Nathan; Hawkins, Linda A.; Gaskins, Clare S.; Beidas, Rinad; Rudy, Bret J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the multiple forms of stigma experienced by young HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men and how they relate to sexual risk behaviors is essential to design effective HIV prevention programs. This study of 40 African American young MSM found that 90% of those surveyed experienced sexual minority stigma, 88% experienced HIV stigma, and 78% experienced dual stigma. Sexual minority stigma was characterized by experiences of social avoidance, and HIV stigma, by shame. Individuals with high HIV stigma were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected sex while high or intoxicated. Associations between stigma and sexual practices were examined; youth endorsing higher levels of sexual minority stigma engaged in less insertive anal intercourse. Individuals endorsing more HIV stigma reported more receptive anal intercourse. These findings support the development of stigma-informed secondary prevention interventions for African American HIV-positive young MSM. PMID:20673080

  9. 'Hardcore drinking': portrayals of alcohol consumption in young women's and men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Dalton, Sue I; Hoy, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three-month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women's and men's drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images--and derided in men's magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults.

  10. Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

  11. Perceptions of sexual responsibility: do young men and women agree?

    PubMed

    Sheehan, M K; Ostwald, S K; Rothenberger, J

    1986-01-01

    A nonprobability, convenience sample of 248 subjects of a large midwestern university agreed to participate in this study designed to investigate the perception of responsibility for contraception among late adolescents (over age 17), to determine whether age, gender, or sexual activity influences perceptions of responsibility, and to explore the relationship between perceived contraceptive responsibility and subsequent contraceptive choice among late adolescent males and females. The students were enrolled in an undergraduate public health class during the 1984 spring quarter. After initial data examination, 28 married subjects were eliminated from analysis. Of the final sample size of 220 students, 131 were female and 89 were male. The majority of the students, 57.5%, were between the ages of 20-22; 19% were between the ages of 17-19; and the remaining 23% were older than 22. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously as part of the development of a slide-tape program entitled "Young Men's Sexual Responsibility." Contraceptive responsibility was defined as perceived responsibility for pregnancy control, perceived responsibility to initiate conversation about contraception in a dating relationship, and perceived responsibility for who should pay for contraceptives. 63% of the students indicated that they had engaged in sexual intercourse at least once. Male students were significantly more likely to have had sexual intercourse than female students. Only 7% of the entire sample reported having had intercourse before the age of 15, but this sample consisted primarily of white, middle-class college students who may not represent students in inner-city school districts reported to have had 1st intercourse at earlier ages. 91% of the students perceived contraceptive responsibility as a shared responsibility. Of the small number of students who perceived 1 sex or the other responsible for pregnancy control, most (7%) perceived that it was the woman

  12. Trends in Job Instability and Wages for Young Adult Men. IEE Working Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette; Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark; Scott, Marc

    To determine whether there has been a secular rise in job instability among young adults over the past 3 decades, a study compared two National Longitudinal Survey cohorts of young white men. The first cohort entered the labor market in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the second during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The study examined…

  13. Socioeconomic Disconnection as a Risk Factor for Increased HIV Infection in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gayles, Travis A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: HIV disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men (YMSM), particularly black YMSM. Increasingly, researchers are turning to social, economic, and structural factors to explain these disproportionate rates. In this study, we explore the relationship between socioeconomic disconnection and HIV status and factors related to HIV infection, including drug use, condomless anal sex, and binge drinking. We operationalize socioeconomic disconnection in this young population as lack of engagement in educational and employment opportunities. Methods: Baseline data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM aged 16–20 years recruited from the Chicago area (N = 450). Bivariate analyses of the association of socioeconomic disconnection and HIV-positive status, drug and alcohol use, and condomless anal sex were assessed using chi-square tests. The relationship of socioeconomic disconnection and HIV-positive status was then examined in multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for age and race/ethnicity and significant behavioral factors. Results: Among study participants, 112 (25%) were not in school, 310 (69%) were not currently working, and 81 (18%) were neither in school nor working. Black MSM were more likely to be socioeconomically disconnected (neither in school nor working; n = 56, 23.3%). The results revealed that disconnected YMSM were more likely to binge drink (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.16, 4.74) and be HIV positive (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.04, 4.83). Subpopulation analysis for black participants revealed similar associations (AOR of binge drinking = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.07, 8.01; AOR of HIV positive = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.03, 5.51). Controlling for substance use, the association between disconnection and HIV-positive status remained significant (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.08, 5.20). Conclusion: Socioeconomic disconnection is significantly and positively associated with HIV status

  14. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels. Mental health Women are more likely to show signs of ... men are. Depression is the most common women’s mental health problem, 5 and more women than men are ...

  15. Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Piel, Marcel; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-16

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to modulate memory in animals and humans. One popular model suggests that stress or GC treatment enhances memory consolidation while impairing delayed memory retrieval. Studies in humans have documented that treatment with GCs impairs delayed memory retrieval. Similar alterations after exposure to stress have not been observed thus far. In the present study, 19 young healthy male subjects were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. After both treatments, retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) containing 10 neutral, 10 negative, and 10 positive words was tested. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory retrieval (free recall) was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that negative and positive words (i.e., emotionally arousing words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. The present study thus demonstrates that psychosocial stress impairs memory retrieval in humans and suggests that emotionally arousing material is especially sensitive to this effect.

  16. Consent Challenges for Participation of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (YMSM) in HIV Prevention Research in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) under 18 years are often excluded from HIV prevention research in Thailand due to cultural attitudes toward youth sexuality, social stigma, and difficulties obtaining guardian permission. Culturally sensitive focus group discussions conducted with parents and YMSM in Bangkok, Thailand identified barriers and facilitators related to minors’ participation in HIV prevention research. Although gender and class differences emerged, mothers and fathers were generally accepting of research to reduce HIV risk, but not in favor of waiver. Youth’s positive attitude toward parental permission was tempered by concerns about harms posed by disclosing same-sex attraction through permission forms. PMID:25750498

  17. Measuring exposure to sexually explicit media among young men who have sex with men: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kimberly; Golden, Matthew R.; Glick, Sara Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption may contribute to sexual risk-taking among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Methods We estimated the prevalence and frequency of SEM consumption as well as associations with contextual and sexual risk characteristics among 61 YMSM. Results All participants (n=61, 100%) reported viewing SEM; 45 (74%) in the past week. There were no significant associations between viewing SEM in the past week and measured characteristics. Conclusion SEM use among YMSM is extremely common. Future research should clarify potential relations between SEM and sexual risk-taking with larger samples of YMSM and specific measures, including SEM content and amount. PMID:26535592

  18. Where are the young men in HIV prevention efforts? Comments on HIV prevention programs and research from young men who sex with men in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Cederbaum, Julie A; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-12-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M(age) = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0 % of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3 % of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0 %), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0 %), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0 %). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM.

  19. Cambodian boys' transitions into young adulthood: exploring the influence of societal and masculinity norms on young men's health.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, Leah; Khorn, Daro; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Sommer, Marni

    2016-11-24

    A growing body of evidence focuses on the experiences of young men in low-income countries, including their health vulnerabilities. Much of this research has been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Limited evidence exists on the norms influencing boys' transitions into young adulthood in Southeast Asia, and in Cambodia in particular. To help fill this gap, we conducted a comparative case study using participatory methods with 16-19-year-old young men in rural and urban Cambodia, and with the adults who intersect in their lives. Findings suggest that in line with their counterparts growing up elsewhere, Cambodian boys welcome becoming young men as a time of newly acquired adult roles and responsibilities, while some may experience growing up as a time of bodily change, burgeoning sexual feelings and limited sources of support and guidance. As a result, some may strive more intensely to conform to the alcohol use and violence modelled by the older men in their environments. Additional research is needed to better understand the vulnerabilities of boys' transition into young adulthood in Cambodia today, and how to prevent or reduce engagement with these more negative practices.

  20. Contraceptive decision-making in sexual relationships: young men's experiences, attitudes and values.

    PubMed

    Raine, Tina R; Gard, Jennifer C; Boyer, Cherrie B; Haider, Sadia; Brown, Beth A; Ramirez Hernandez, F Antonio; Harper, Cynthia C

    2010-05-01

    Much attention has been focused on efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy by improving contraceptive use among high-risk women; however, there is limited information to guide interventions to engage young men in contraceptive decision-making. We conducted focus groups of young men, aged 19-26, from diverse racial backgrounds from low-income communities in the San Francisco Bay Area to examine social norms about sexual relationships and how they impact on contraceptive use. The data were analysed using content analysis. A range of relationships were described, however casual relationships predominated. While young men expressed strong desires to avoid pregnancy in casual relationships, the unpredictable nature of relationships, together with low communication and regard for the women involved, made stressing consistent contraceptive use among partners unlikely. The themes expressed by these young men about sex and behaviour in different relationships illustrate a spectrum of decision-making dilemmas and illustrate the inherent difficulty in fully engaging young men in contraceptive decision-making. A strategy is needed to address relationship values, dynamics and condom use beyond STI-prevention frameworks and young women's ability to make appropriate contraceptive choices in light of the inherent difficulties and uncertainty associated with casual relationships.

  1. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  2. Books Like Clothes: Engaging Young Black Men with Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Using 18 weeks of classroom data from a much larger ethnographic study, Kirkland examines the reading ideologies influencing the literacy engagement of a young Black male, Derrick. (To protect participants' identities, this article uses pseudonyms in place of participants' actual names.) In doing so, Kirkland theorizes about how young Black males…

  3. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among young Asian Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Operario, Don; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Chu, Priscilla Lee; McFarland, Willi; Secura, Gina M; Behel, Stephanie; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda

    2006-03-01

    We examined patterns of substance use among young Asian Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants (N = 496) were recruited from sampled venues and were interviewed on substance use, sexual behaviors, and attendance at MSM social venues. Substance use prevalence was highest for alcohol (94% lifetime, 89% past 6 months), marijuana (61% lifetime, 44% past 6 months), and methylenedioxymethamphetamine or ecstasy (58% lifetime, 47% past 6 months). During the past 6 months, 24% used an illicit substance weekly or more often, 51% used club drugs, and 44% used 3 or more illicit substances. Multivariate models identified common and unique correlates of frequent drug use, club drug use, and polydrug use. Associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviors also emerged. These findings suggest a need to improve substance use and HIV prevention intervention efforts for young API MSM.

  4. Prospective Effects of a Syndemic on HIV and STI Incidence and Risk Behaviors in a Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Phillips, Gregory; Ryan, Daniel T; Swann, Gregory; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Rob

    2017-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men continue to be highly affected by HIV. To improve understanding of the role that multiple co-occurring health issues (i.e., syndemics) play in HIV acquisition, sophisticated modeling methods are needed. The purpose of this study was to use structural equation modeling to understand the structure of the syndemic and to test its longitudinal association with condomless anal sex. Data are from a longitudinal study of 450 YMSM. A primary syndemic component comprised of substance use, violence, and internalizing mental health factors significantly predicted the number of condomless anal sex partners in the full sample. Analyses exploring associations by race/ethnicity found a significant association among White YMSM, but not among Black or Latino YMSM. Higher-order factor modeling suggests these psychosocial factors form a syndemic in all racial/ethnic groups, but the syndemic, as conceptualized here, may be less relevant to racial/ethnic minority YMSM.

  5. Challenging and changing gender attitudes among young men in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ravi K; Pulerwitz, Julie; Mahendra, Vaishali; Khandekar, Sujata; Barker, Gary; Fulpagare, P; Singh, S K

    2006-11-01

    This article presents findings from a pilot intervention in 2005-6 to promote gender equity among young men from low-income communities in Mumbai, India. The project involved formative work on gender, sexuality and masculinity, and educational activities with 126 young men, aged 18-29, over a six-month period. The programme of activities was called Yari-dosti, which is Hindi for friendship or bonding among men, and was adapted from a Brazilian intervention. Pre- and post-intervention surveys, including measures of attitudes towards gender norms using the Gender Equitable Men (GEM) Scale and other key outcomes, qualitative interviews with 31 participants, monitoring and observations were used as evaluation tools. Almost all the young men actively participated in the activities and appreciated the intervention. It was often the first time they had had the opportunity to discuss and reflect on these issues. The interviews showed that attitudes towards gender and sexuality, as reported behaviour in relationships, had often changed. A survey two months later also showed a significant decrease in support for inequitable gender norms and sexual harassment of girls and women. The results suggest that the pilot was successful in reaching and engaging young men to critically discuss gender dynamics and health risk, and in shifting key gender-related attitudes.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing in a multi-site sample of young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sumartojo, E; Lyles, C; Choi, K; Clark, L; Collins, C; Grey, C Guenther; Lin, L S; Peterson, J L; Remafedi, G

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed HIV testing among 2,621 urban young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Of these, 77% were men of colour, 30% reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), 22% had never tested for HIV and 71% had not tested recently. Ever testing was associated with older age (OR=1.28), being employed (OR=1.34), exposure to more types of HIV preventions (linear trend p=0.02), sex with a main partner (OR=1.92), sex with a non-main partner (OR=1.36), UAI with a non-main partner (OR=0.53), UAI in the last three months (OR=1.32), knowing a comfortable place for testing (OR=5.44) and social support (OR=1.47). Rates of ever testing increased with behavioural risk with main partners; rates were lowest for men reporting high-risk with non-main partners. Recent testing was associated with greater numbers of HIV-prevention exposures (linear trend p = <0.001), sex with a main partner (OR=1.30), knowing a comfortable place for testing (OR=2.31) and social support (OR=1.23). Findings underscore the urgency of promoting testing among YMSM, point to components for the recruitment and retention of young MSM of colour in testing programmes and highlight the need for a theory-based approach to intervention development.

  7. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements.

  8. Relationship Involvement Among Young Adults: Are Asian American Men an Exceptional Case?

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919

  9. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.

  10. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms lean mass and performance in young men.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-González, F Germán; Dorado, Cecilia; Olmedillas, Hugo; Fuentes, Teresa; Pérez-Gómez, Jorge; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara, Ignacio; Guerra, Borja; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Calbet, José A L; Díaz-Chico, B Nicolás

    2011-02-01

    The exon-1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two repeat length polymorphisms which modify either the amount of AR protein inside the cell (GGN(n), polyglycine) or its transcriptional activity (CAG(n), polyglutamine). Shorter CAG and/or GGN repeats provide stronger androgen signalling and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that CAG and GGN repeat AR polymorphisms affect muscle mass and various variables of muscular strength phenotype traits, the length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by PCR and fragment analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples in 282 men (28.6 ± 7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harbouring repeat lengths of ≤ 21 and CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG >21. GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN ≤ 23 or >23, respectively. No significant differences in lean body mass or fitness were observed between the CAG(S) and CAG(L) groups, or between GGN(S) and GGN(L) groups, but a trend for a correlation was found for the GGN repeat and lean mass of the extremities (r=-0.11, p=0.06). In summary, the lengths of CAG and GGN repeat of the AR gene do not appear to influence lean mass or fitness in young men.

  11. Human affection exchange: VI. Further tests of reproductive probability as a predictor of men's affection with their adult sons.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Sargent, Jack E; Di Corcia, Mark

    2004-04-01

    The authors examined the communication of affection in men's relationships with their fathers. Drawing from Affection Exchange Theory, the authors advanced four predictions: (a) heterosexual men receive more affection from their own fathers than do homosexual or bisexual men, (b) fathers communicate affection to their sons more through supportive activities than through direct verbal statements or nonverbal gestures, (c) affectionate communication between fathers and sons is linearly related to closeness and interpersonal involvement between them, and (d) fathers' awareness of their sons' sexual orientation is associated with the amount of affection that the fathers communicate to them. Participants were 170 adult men who completed questionnaires regarding affectionate communication in their relationships with their fathers. Half of the men were self-identified as exclusively heterosexual, and the other half were self-identified as exclusively homosexual or bisexual. The results supported all predictions substantially.

  12. Men Caring for the Young: An Androgynous Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Challenges the assumption that males should be employed to counterbalance the "feminized" environment in early education. An argument is made for recruitment of androgynous men to break the stereotype, perpetuated in the educational literature and the media, that the male is valued solely for his macho image. (Author)

  13. Sexual abuse, social stigma and HIV vulnerability among young feminised men in Lahore and Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W; Schunter, Bettina T; Iqbal, Qasim

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of 10 young feminised men in Pakistan. They face high levels of stigma, violence and sexual abuse. The average age of first sex was 11 years old and all reported having been been raped during childhood and early adolescence, often several times. While some mothers and siblings were quietly supportive, young feminised men often end up running away from home, finding support as a member of a hijra dera, a 'pseudo-household' led by an older feminised man or guru, in which they find employment as dancers or sex workers. After their entry into sex work there is little or no opportunity to use condoms. The hijra dera offer an important entry point for improved social support and sexual health programmes, including efforts to ensure young feminised men postpone their sexual debut and/or improve their sexual health, retain access to education, explore alternative forms of employment and improve access to health care.

  14. [Clinico-functional features of mitral valve prolapse in young military men].

    PubMed

    Gorbachenko, A V; Shalimov, P M

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-six young military man with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) aged 19.2+/-0.8 years were examined. Complex system approach to health status was applied to study clinico-functional features of this condition in young military men. The study found that clinico-functional manifestations of MVP in young military men reflected a multifocal character of dysadaptation during the first stages of military service. Conditions of professional military activity potentiate permanent progress of crisp prolapse as well as the severity of mitral regurgitation, structural and functional myocardial alterations, and myocardial electric instability increasing in the presence of abnormal cardiac chords under the influence of a prominent vegetative dysfunction. The reserve of the cardiorespiratory system and the entire organism in military men with MVP was lowered. The study registered inadequate hemodynamic responses to functional orthostatic test and physical load test, typical for hyperventilation syndrome.

  15. Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Celentano, David D; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Hylton, John; Torian, Lucia V; Guillin, Vincent; Koblin, Beryl A

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns of HIV prevalence in young racial/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young Men's Survey (YMS), an anonymous, cross-sectional survey of 351 MSM in Baltimore and 529 MSM in New York City, aged 15-22, to determine whether race/ethnicity differences exist in the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors. Potential participants were selected systematically at MSM-identified public venues. Venues and associated time periods for subject selection were selected randomly on a monthly basis. Eligible and willing subjects provided informed consent and underwent an interview, HIV pretest counseling, and a blood draw for HIV antibody testing. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for city of recruitment and age, HIV seroprevalence was highest for African Americans [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 12.5], intermediate for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity (AOR = 8.6), and moderately elevated for Hispanics (AOR = 4.6) as compared to whites. Stratified analysis showed different risk factors for HIV prevalence in each ethnic group: for African Americans, these were history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and not being in school; for Hispanics, risk factors were being aged 20-22, greater number of male partners and use of recreational drugs; and for those of "other/mixed" race/ethnicity, risk factors included injection drug use and (marginally) STDs. These findings suggest the need for HIV prevention and testing programs which target young racial/ethnic minority MSM and highlight identified risk factors and behaviors.

  16. Testosterone administration does not affect men's rejections of low ultimatum game offers or aggressive mood.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom J; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Correlative evidence suggests that testosterone promotes dominance and aggression. However, causal evidence is scarce and offers mixed results. To investigate this relationship, we administered testosterone for 48h to 41 healthy young adult men in a within-subjects, double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. Subjects played the role of responders in an ultimatum game, where rejecting a low offer is costly, but serves to destroy the proposer's profit. Such action can hence be interpreted as non-physical aggression in response to social provocation. In addition, subjects completed a self-assessed mood questionnaire. As expected, self-reported aggressiveness was a key predictor of ultimatum game rejections. However, while testosterone affected subjective ratings of feeling energetic and interested, our evidence strongly suggests that testosterone had no effect on ultimatum game rejections or on aggressive mood. Our findings illustrate the importance of using causal interventions to assess correlative evidence.

  17. Creating REAL MEN: Description of an Intervention to Reduce Drug Use, HIV Risk, and Rearrest Among Young Men Returning to Urban Communities From Jail

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Jessie; Crum, Martha; Ramaswamy, Megha; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the life circumstances and risk behaviors of 552 adolescent males returning home from jail. Most young men reported several sources of support in their lives and many had more tolerant views toward women and intimate relationships than portrayed in mainstream media. They also reported high levels of marijuana and alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and prior arrests. Investigators designed the Returning Educated African American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN) program, a jail and community program to reduce drug use, HIV risk, and rearrest. By helping participants examine alternative paths to manhood and consider racial/ethnic pride as a source of strength, REAL MEN addressed the assets of these young men as well as their challenges. Our findings suggest that interventions that emphasize the assets of these young men may be better able to engage them than programs that seek to impose adult values. PMID:19346408

  18. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05), increased protein expression for gp91(phox) and p47(phox) (e.g., p47(phox): 1.1 ± 0.2, black men vs. 0.4 ± 0.1, white men, P < 0.05) in PBMCs and higher circulating protein carbonyl levels (22 ± 4 vs. 14 ± 2 nmol/ml; black men vs. white men, P < 0.05). Interestingly, a positive family history of hypertension in black men did not further enhance PBMC-derived intracellular superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  19. Transactional Sex With Regular and Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S

    2015-10-05

    Transactional sex refers to the commodification of the body in exchange for shelter, food, and other goods and needs. Transactional sex has been associated with negative health outcomes including HIV infection, psychological distress, and substance use and abuse. Compared with the body of research examining transactional sex among women, less is known about the prevalence and correlates of transactional sex among men. Using data from a cross-sectional survey of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29) living in the Detroit Metro Area (N = 357; 9% HIV infected; 49% Black, 26% White, 16% Latino, 9% Other race), multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between transactional sex with regular and casual partners and key psychosocial factors (e.g., race/ethnicity, education, poverty, relationship status, HIV status, prior sexually transmitted infections [STIs], mental health, substance use, and residential instability) previously identified in the transactional sex literature. Forty-four percent of the current sample reported engaging in transactional sex. Transactional sex was associated with age, employment status, relationship status, and anxiety symptoms. When stratified, transactional sex with a regular partner was associated with age, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status, anxiety, and alcohol use. Transactional sex with a casual partner was associated with homelessness, race/ethnicity, employment status, and hard drug use. The implications of these findings for HIV/STI prevention are discussed, including the notion that efforts to address HIV/STIs among young men who have sex with men may require interventions to consider experiences of transactional sex and the psychosocial contexts that may increase its likelihood.

  20. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2015-09-07

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  1. Serving God and Country? Religious Involvement and Military Service among Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, Amy M.; Elder, Glen H.; Benson, Janel; Wang, Victor; Hill, Terrance

    2012-01-01

    Despite important connections between religion and military action throughout world history, scholars have seldom explored the association between religiosity and military enlistment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we used a person-oriented analysis to categorize young men according to patterns of adolescent religious involvement. Youth indentified as “highly religious evangelical” are more likely to enlist in the military compared to their “highly religious non-evangelical” and “non-religious” counterparts; however, these findings hold only for those young men without college experience. These findings are discussed along with study limitations and promising directions for future research. PMID:22984296

  2. Homicide among young Black men in Toronto: an unrecognized public health crisis?

    PubMed

    Khenti, Akwatu A

    2013-01-08

    This commentary addresses the high homicide rates among young Black men in Toronto, Ontario. It posits that homicide among this population is an unrecognized major public health crisis that should be a priority for the field. The author suggests that the dramatic rate of Black homicides in Toronto is a consequence of income inequality, poverty, poor quality of life, mental health risks, and sustained racism. The commentary calls upon public health scientists to prioritize research about violence and homicide among young Black men in Toronto. It suggests that current and future policy making would be better served by their enquiries into the nature and causes of the persisting dilemma.

  3. Searching for Autonomy: Young Black Men, Schooling and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Ian; Finney, Sarah; Swann, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between being young and black, and educational and career aspirations, drawing on new research evidence from two recent studies carried out in two urban locations in Northern England. The first of these studies forms part of a wider research project concerned with analysing the connections between aspects of…

  4. The factors influencing transactional sex among young men and women in 12 sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Minki; Murray, Nancy; London, David; Anglewicz, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Transactional sex may put young women and young men in sub-Saharan Africa at increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. This behavior may also put young women at higher risk of pregnancy and childbearing. Policymakers and program managers need to know what factors put youth at increased risk. We investigated this issue using logistic regression analyses of data from male and female modules of Demographic and Health Surveys from 12 sub-Saharan African countries. We found that young men and young women are at greater risk of engaging in transactional sex than are older people. Unmarried young women and young men were significantly more likely to engage in transactional sex than married youth. Based on these results, our conclusions were that programs geared toward reducing the incidence of transactional sex or protecting men and women already in transactional sexual relationships should be aimed at both young women and young men. Due to our finding that unmarried young women and young men are more vulnerable to experiencing transactional sex, programs to prevent transactional sex should be specifically directed to this subgroup of young people.

  5. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  6. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  7. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae.

  8. Two decades after vaccine license: hepatitis B immunization and infection among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, D A; Valleroy, L A; Secura, G M; McFarland, W; Shehan, D; Ford, W; LaLota, M; Celentano, D D; Koblin, B A; Torian, L V; Thiede, H; Janssen, R S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated hepatitis B immunization coverage and the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among young men who have sex with men (MSM), a group for whom hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended since 1982. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3432 MSM, aged 15 to 22 years, randomly sampled at 194 gay-identified venues in 7 US metropolitan areas from 1994 through 1998. Participants were interviewed, counseled, and tested for serologic markers of HBV infection. RESULTS: Immunization coverage was 9% and the prevalence of markers of HBV infection was 11%. HBV infection ranged from 2% among 15-year-olds to 17% among 22-year-olds. Among participants susceptible to HBV infection, 96% used a regular source of health care or accessed the health care system for HIV or sexually transmitted disease testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 2 decades, our findings suggest that few adolescent and young adult MSM in the United States are vaccinated against hepatitis B. Health care providers should intensify their efforts to identify and vaccinate young MSM who are susceptible to HBV. PMID:11392942

  9. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marco A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16–20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae. PMID:26002599

  10. A focus on pleasure? Desire and disgust in group work with young men

    PubMed Central

    McGeeney, Ester

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of persuasive arguments as to why sexual pleasure should be included in sexual health work with young people, including the suggestion that this would provide young people with accounts of gender and sexuality that are more critical and holistic than those presented in the popular media, pornography and current sex education curricula. This paper considers the possibilities for engaging young men in critical group work about sexual pleasure in research and education contexts, drawing on a mixed-methods study of young people's understandings and experiences of ‘good sex’. The paper provides a reflexive account of one focus group conducted with a group of heterosexual young men and two youth educators. It explores some of the challenges to building relationships with young men and creating ‘safe spaces’ in which to engage in critical sexuality education in socially unequal contexts. In this case study, adult-led discussion elicits rebellious, ‘hyper-masculine’ performances that close down opportunities for critical or reflective discussion. Although there are some opportunities for critical work that move beyond limited public health or school-based sex education agendas, there is also space for collusion and the reinforcement of oppressive social norms. The paper concludes by imagining possibilities for future research and practice. PMID:25985279

  11. A focus on pleasure? Desire and disgust in group work with young men.

    PubMed

    McGeeney, Ester

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of persuasive arguments as to why sexual pleasure should be included in sexual health work with young people, including the suggestion that this would provide young people with accounts of gender and sexuality that are more critical and holistic than those presented in the popular media, pornography and current sex education curricula. This paper considers the possibilities for engaging young men in critical group work about sexual pleasure in research and education contexts, drawing on a mixed-methods study of young people's understandings and experiences of 'good sex'. The paper provides a reflexive account of one focus group conducted with a group of heterosexual young men and two youth educators. It explores some of the challenges to building relationships with young men and creating 'safe spaces' in which to engage in critical sexuality education in socially unequal contexts. In this case study, adult-led discussion elicits rebellious, 'hyper-masculine' performances that close down opportunities for critical or reflective discussion. Although there are some opportunities for critical work that move beyond limited public health or school-based sex education agendas, there is also space for collusion and the reinforcement of oppressive social norms. The paper concludes by imagining possibilities for future research and practice.

  12. The 374 clinic: an outreach sexual health clinic for young men

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D; McDonald, A; Thompson, G; Bingham, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the establishment of a community based walk-in outreach genitourinary medicine clinic, the "374 clinic," in south London to target young men under 25 in an area with high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: The outreach clinic was set up within a Brook advisory centre, which already had gained the trust of local young people. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained retrospectively for the first 24 weeks of the service. Results: 134 attendances were recorded, including 94 new and 10 rebook events. The age range of the young men seen was 12–27 years (mean 18.2 years), the patients were mainly from black and ethnic minority groups, and all but one were heterosexual. Most men had heard about the clinic by "word of mouth," recommendation by Brook staff or through clinic promotional material. Condoms were used more frequently with non-regular sexual partners than with regular partners. The uptake of screening for gonococcal and chlamydial infections, mostly by urine based molecular techniques, was 98%. The uptake for HIV testing in men aged 16 or more was 72%. An overall STI prevalence rate of 26% was detected in the clinic population, which consisted almost equally of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The most prevalent STI was chlamydial infection (12%). Conclusions: The young men who attended the outreach clinic were happy to undergo both non-invasive urine based testing for gonorrhoea and chlamydia as well as phlebotomy to test for HIV and syphilis. The 374 clinic approach may prove to be a useful model for further outreach services to combat poor sexual health of young men in inner city areas. PMID:15572619

  13. Material deprivation affects high sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households.

  14. Trends in sexual risk-taking among urban young men who have sex with men, 1999-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Guenther-Grey, Carolyn A.; Varnell, Sherri; Weiser, Jennifer I.; Mathy, Robin M.; O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Remafedi, Gary

    2005-01-01

    As part of an HIV prevention study, 15-25 year-old young men who have sex with men (YMSM) were surveyed in community settings annually from 1999 to 2002. Data are presented from six comparison communities in the study; these communities recruited Latinos (Jackson Heights, NYC; San Gabriel Valley, CA), African Americans (Atlanta, GA); Asians/Pacific Islanders (San Diego, CA); and primarily white men (Detroit, MI and Twin Cities, MN). Men were asked about unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months with male partners. The prevalence of UAI reported in these six communities ranged 27-35% in 1999, compared with 14% to 39% in 2002. Significant reductions in UAI over time were observed in Jackson Heights and San Gabriel Valley. A quadratic trend was noted in Detroit, with a significant increase in UAI from 1999 to 2000 followed by a significant decrease in UAI from 2000 to 2002. There was a nonsignificant increase in UAI in the Twin Cities, and no significant trends in UAI in Atlanta or San Diego. Behavioral trends among YMSM vary considerably across subpopulations and highlight the necessity of local behavioral surveillance and culturally tailored prevention efforts for specific racial and ethnic groups. PMID:16080456

  15. HIV status disclosure, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Valera, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The rate of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is increasing in the United States, and targeted research is needed to inform interventions aimed at reducing HIV transmission in this population. This study aims to understand the association between HIV status disclosure and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive YMSM. A particular focus is given to depressive symptoms and their potential role in explaining the association between HIV disclosure and sexual risk behavior. In a sample of 991 YMSM receiving care at 20 clinics across the United States, Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore these associations. Approximately one-half (52.4 %) of participants reported disclosing to their current sexual/romantic partner. Disclosure to family members was negatively associated with sexual risk behavior. Also, depressive symptoms were positively associated with sexual risk behavior. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research and intervention. PMID:25773478

  16. Effect of vitamin C on copper retention in young men

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, R.A.; Omaye, S.T.; Skala, J.H.; Taylor, P.C.; Turnlund, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    Previous work suggests that supplemental ascorbic acid (AA) may inhibit intestinal copper absorption by stabilizing the less absorbable cuprous state. The authors studied copper absorption in healthy men (age 19-32) fed a constant diet with different amounts of ascorbic acid supplements. The 6 men were confined to a metabolic unit for the entire 14 week study. The basal diet consisted of a 7 day rotating menu which provided an average of 2.1 mg Cu/d and was adequate in all other nutrients except AA (5 mg/d). The basal diet was supplemented with either zero, 60, or 600 mg of AA daily, added to grape juice and consumed at each meal. All feces were collected. Blood was taken weekly for monitoring AA and copper status. Copper absorption was determined by both balance and /sup 65/Cu stable isotope techniques. As determined by fecal Cu excretion, varying intakes of AA between 0.1 to 10 times the RDA had no significant effect on copper retention. This is consistent with the lack of change in serum ceruloplasmin and serum Cu throughout the study.

  17. Stress differentially affects fear conditioning in men and women.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Stress and fear conditioning processes are both important vulnerability factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. In behavioral studies considerable sex differences in fear learning have been observed after increases of the stress hormone cortisol. But neuroimaging experiments, which give insights into the neurobiological correlates of stress × sex interactions in fear conditioning, are lacking so far. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) compared to a control condition influenced subsequent fear conditioning in 48 men and 48 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). One of two pictures of a geometrical figure was always paired (conditioned stimulus, CS+) or never paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus). BOLD responses as well as skin conductance responses were assessed. Sex-independently, stress enhanced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the hippocampus in early acquisition but attenuated conditioned responses in the medial frontal cortex in late acquisition. In early acquisition, stress reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in the nucleus accumbens in men, but enhanced it in OC women. In late acquisition, the same pattern (reduction in men, enhancement in OC women) was found in the amygdala as well as in the anterior cingulate. Thus, psychosocial stress impaired the neuronal correlates of fear learning and expression in men, but facilitated them in OC women. A sex-specific modulation of fear conditioning after stress might contribute to the divergent prevalence of men and women in developing psychiatric disorders.

  18. The Quality of Life of Young Men with Asperger Syndrome: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennes-Coussens, Marieke; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Koning, Cyndie

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing quality of life for persons with Asperger syndrome are not yet understood. Men, ages 18 to 21, completed the World Health Organization Quality Of Life measure, the Perceived Support Network Inventory, and a semi-structured interview. Asperger syndrome affects quality of life beyond the obvious social impact. The 12 men with…

  19. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and the Opportunity. Issue Brief: Focus on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kisha; Bryant, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief was prepared for the "Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity" briefing held in June 2014 that was co-sponsored by National Council of La Raza, PolicyLink, the Executive Alliance to Expand Opportunities for Boys and Young Men of Color, and the Institute for Black Male Achievement. The…

  20. Promising Opportunities for Black and Latino Young Men: Findings from the Early Implementation of the Expanded Success Initiative. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villavicencio, Adriana; Klevan, Sarah; Guidry, Brandon; Wulach, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the New York City Mayor's Office, the Open Society Foundations, Bloomberg Philanthropies, and over 20 local agencies launched the Young Men's Initiative (YMI), a citywide effort to improve outcomes for Black and Latino young men in the areas of education, health, employment, and criminal justice. YMI is one of the single largest…

  1. Trust, Respect and Friendship: The Key Attributes of Significant Others in the Lives of Young Working Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 146 male construction industry apprentices (predominantly young men) in Australia self-reported on their significant relationships, as well as the key attributes of these relationships. The findings indicated that the young men shared events, disclosed confidences and looked for help and support from family, romantic partners and close…

  2. Gene Expression Differences in Prostate Cancers between Young and Old Men

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Charles; Liu, Xueli; van Iterson, M.; Wu, Xiwei; Nelson, Rebecca; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is increasing in younger men. We investigated whether men diagnosed with Gleason 7 (3+4) T2 prostate cancer at younger ages (≤ 45 years, young cohort) had different mRNA and miRNA expression profiles than men diagnosed at older ages (71–74 years, older cohort). We identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to tumor-normal differences between the cohorts. Subsequent pathway analysis of DEGs revealed that the young cohort had significantly more pronounced inflammatory and immune responses to tumor development compared to the older cohort. Further supporting a role of inflammation-induced immune-suppression in the development of early-onset prostate cancer, we observed significant up-regulation of CTLA4 and IDO1/TDO2 pathways in tumors of the young cohort. Moreover, over-expression of CTLA4 and IDO1 was significantly associated with biochemical recurrence. Our results provide clues on the mechanisms of tumor development and point to potential biomarkers for early detection and treatment for prostate cancer in young men. PMID:28027300

  3. Boosting the Life Chances of Young Men of Color: Evidence from Promising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimer, Christopher; Bloom, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress on many fronts, young men of color still face many obstacles to success in American society and suffer disproportionately from economic and social disadvantage. In recent years, foundations and state and local governments have launched major initiatives to address this pressing issue. For example, in 2011, the City of New York…

  4. Career Thresholds: Longitudinal Studies of the Educational and Labor Market Experiences of Young Men. Volume Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

    This volume focuses on young men whose ages span the years of transition from adolescence to adulthood, and analyzes a number of facets of their educational and labor market experiences over the period from 1966 to 1971. It is based on data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, collected by annual personal interviews with the same national…

  5. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  6. Listening to Echoes: Teaching Young Black Men Literacy and the Problem of ELA Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The default image to which many ELA standards adhere lacks the complexity and sensitivity to account for the diverse range of students that occupy ELA classrooms. For young Black men, such standards poise a unique threat as they fail to reflect the social and cultural dimensions that factor into Black male literacy practices. In so doing, Kirkland…

  7. Imprisoned Generation: Young Men under Criminal Custody in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Association of New York, New York.

    New York State's prisons today are a brooding omnipresence hanging over poor African American and Latino communities in the large urban centers of the state. On any given day, nearly 1 in 4 (over 23%) of young African American men is under control of the criminal justice system, which is 2 times more than all full-time Black male college enrollees…

  8. Investing in Boys and Young Men of Color: The Promise and Opportunity. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda; Harris, Linda; Bird, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) created the Forward Promise initiative within its Vulnerable Populations Portfolio to place a strategic emphasis on the needs of middle school- and high school-aged young men of color. RWJF's goal is to strengthen educational opportunities, pathways to employment, and health outcomes for these…

  9. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  10. Outsiders or Insiders? Identity, Educational Success and Muslim Young Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the experiences of Muslim students attending secondary schools and an elite university in England. The research explores how Muslim young men's identities are defined by their social and cultural locations. It is argued that identity is multi-dimensional. It intersects and overlaps with several categories of difference…

  11. "Looking at the Real Thing": Young Men, Pornography, and Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the sexually explicit comments and references to pornography in young men's answers to a survey about sexuality education. Instead of viewing these remarks as simply impertinent and therefore discountable, I argue that they offer insights into the constitution of masculine identity and an erotic deficit in sexuality…

  12. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  13. The Relationship Between Hypertension and Psycho-Social Functioning in Young Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre, Thelma

    1976-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with relating psycho-social functioning (i.e. family life, like or dislike for school or occupation, self concept, job stability, environmental stress, and adaptability to depressive reactions/frustrations) to primary hypertension in young black men. (AM)

  14. Transforming the Educational Experience of Young Men of Color. School Counseling Series. Volume 2: Increase Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy launched a journal series to support and build awareness of the issues and challenges raised by the College Board Advocacy & Policy Center's research report, "The Educational Experience of Young Men of Color" (youngmenofcolor.collegeboard.org.) The intent of the series is to…

  15. Differences in bone quality and strength between Asian and Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kepley, A L; Nishiyama, K K; Zhou, B; Wang, J; Zhang, C; McMahon, D J; Foley, K F; Walker, M D; Edward Guo, X; Shane, E; Nickolas, T L

    2017-02-01

    This is a cross-sectional study to assess differences in bone quality in young Asian and Caucasian (n = 30/group) men between 25 and 35 years. We found that Asians had smaller bones, thicker and denser cortices, and more plate-like trabeculae, but stiffness did not differ between groups.

  16. Educational Work of the Young Men's Christian Associations, 1916-1918. Bulletin, 1919, No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, William

    1919-01-01

    At the time when the first Young Men's Christian Associations in North America were organized in 1851, at Montreal and Boston, there appears to have been little thought of including a definite educational program in the work of these associations. Such educational work as was done was limited to reading rooms libraries, a few lectures, and, from…

  17. Sinking, like Quicksand: Expanding Educational Opportunity for Young Men of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Noel S.; Larson, Colleen L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this interpretive case study is to examine the assumptions underpinning one Upward Bound program to understand how the program attempts to increase educational opportunity for poor urban youth and how this approach plays out in the lived experiences of three young men who participate in the program. Research Design: This…

  18. Hallway Fears and High School Friendships: The Complications of Young Men (Re)negotiating Heterosexualized Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a larger ethnographic study of four high school young men, this paper foregrounds high school male-male friendships as a context for examining how heterosexism and homophobia operate to limit and delimit the ways masculinities are constructed. I begin this article by first highlighting an inconsistency between recent school initiatives…

  19. Muscularity, Mateship and Malevolent Masculinities: Experiences of Young Men with Hearing Disabilities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeser, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Across the analysis of interview fragments from two young men with hearing disabilities who attended secondary schools in Australia, this paper will demonstrate that masculinity in the schoolyard frequently emerges within and as a collective form of violence and malevolence against the disabled body. Yet while certain individuals or groups may…

  20. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.

    Selevan SG, Borkovec L, Slott VL, Zudova Z, Rubes J, Evenson DP, Perreault SD.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA.

    This study of male repr...

  1. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  2. Serum relaxin levels in young athletic men are comparable with those in women.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Cameron, Kenneth L; Clifton, Kari B; Owens, Brett D

    2013-02-01

    Relaxin was originally described as a reproductive hormone that mediated joint laxity in pregnant women and has been minimally studied in men. The purpose of this descriptive laboratory and clinical study was to evaluate serum relaxin in a young, primarily male population and compare levels between the sexes. In addition, the authors evaluated the relationship between relaxin and generalized laxity.

  3. Effects of Extensive Group Therapy on Incarcerated Young Men's Attitudes toward Themselves and Prison Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Deborah A.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the effects of extensive group therapy (treatment for drug abusers) on the attitudes of 67 incarcerated young men. Results indicated no significant differences in attitude between the treatment and no-treatment groups, suggesting that group therapy treatment had no rehabilitative advantage over vocational training. (JAC)

  4. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  5. Career Placement and Economic Life Chances of Young Men from Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzeller, Harry K.

    Young men enrolled in the eighth grade during the 1949-50 school year in 11 eastern Kentucky counties were subjects of a follow-up study on the effects of migration and education on careers and opportunities. The study was limited to those individuals residing in the same 11 counties plus the Ohio Valley-Kentucky area. Some 307 subjects were…

  6. Classrooms of Spatial Justice: Counter-Spaces and Young Men of Color in a GED Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joni

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on an ethnographic study of an urban General Education Development (GED) program, suggests that for some marginalized young men of color, Adult education programs are counter-spaces of spatial justice in opposition to previous negative school spaces. Framed by critical race theory (CRT) and drawing on critical geography and…

  7. My Brother as "Problem": Neoliberal Governmentality and Interventions for Black Young Men and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that the Obama Administration's My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative serves as an exemplar of neoliberal governmentality, in which Black young men and boys are constructed as essentially damaged, as problems in need of a technocratic public--private solution. More than simply an ideological imposition from above…

  8. Long-Term Oncological Outcomes for Young Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venclovas, Zilvinas; Gudinaviciene, Inga; Zviniene, Kristina; Matjosaitis, Aivaras Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to describe PCa characteristics and long-term outcomes in young men aged ≤55 years after radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare them with older men cohort. Methods. Among 2,200 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized PCa at our centre between 2001 and 2015, 277 (10.3%) men aged ≤55 years were identified. All preoperative and pathological parameters were compared between groups. Biochemical progression free survival (BPFS) and disease progression free survival (DPFS) were assessed at 5 and 10 years. Results. Men aged ≤55 years had similar pathological tumor characteristics and biochemical recurrence rate (BCR) compared to their older counterparts. Disease progression rate 2.5% versus 0.4% was higher in older patients (p = 0.026). BPFS rate was not different in both study groups. Estimated 10-year DPFS was 98.8% in younger men compared to 89.2% in their older counterparts (p = 0.031). Multivariate Cox regression showed that Gleason score lymph-nodes and surgical margins status were significant predictors for disease progression. Conclusions. In our cohort, men aged ≤55 years had similar pathological PCa characteristics and BCR rate in comparison with older men. RP can be performed with excellent long-term DPFS results in men with localized PCa at ≤55 years of age. PMID:28299340

  9. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.

  10. Romance and sex: pre-marital partnership formation among young women and men, Pune district, India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Mallika; Garda, Laila; Kanade, Savita; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ganatra, Bela

    2006-11-01

    Using qualitative and survey data in a rural and an urban slum setting in Pune district, India, this paper describes patterns of pre-marital romantic partnerships among young people aged 15-24, in spite of norms that discourage opposite-sex interaction before marriage. 25-40% of young men and 14-17% of young women reported opposite-sex friends. Most young people devised strategies to interact with others, largely from the same neighbourhood. There were wide gender differences with regard to making or receiving romantic proposals, having a romantic partner and experiencing hand-holding, kissing and sexual relations. For those who engaged in sexual relations, the time from the onset of the partnership to having sexual relations was short. Sex most often took place without protection or communication, and for a disturbing minority of young women only after persuasion or without consent. Among those who were unmarried, a large percentage had expected to marry their romantic partner, but for a third of young women and half of young men the relationship had been discontinued. Partnership formation often leads to physical intimacy, but intimacy should be wanted, informed and safe. Findings call for programmes that inform youth in non-threatening, non-judgmental and confidential ways, respect their sexual rights and equip them to make safe choices and negotiate wanted outcomes.

  11. Angry Young Men: How Parents, Teachers, and Counselors Can Help "Bad Boys" Become Good Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Aaron

    This book examines conceivable links between young male criminality and physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; lack of mentoring by older males; the inculcation of shame by adults; child poverty and neglect; social and political disenfranchisement; inappropriate, inadequate, and ineffectual education; spiritual impoverishment; father absence; lack…

  12. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  13. "God Made Me Gay for a Reason": Young Men Who Have Sex with Men's Resiliency in Resolving Internalized Homophobia from Religious Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the role of religion in the lives of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is limited. Given the unique developmental stage of emerging adults and the fact that most religions have restrictions on homosexual behavior, it is important to understand how YMSM integrate their sexual and religious/spiritual identities. Drawing…

  14. HIV Prevention with Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: Parents Know and Parents Matter; Is it Time to Develop Family-Based Programs for This Vulnerable Population?

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian; Donenberg, Geri

    2008-01-01

    We examined the potential for a family-based HIV prevention approach for gay and bisexually-identified young men who have sex with men (MSM). The majority of our urban, ethnically-diverse sample disclosed their sexual orientation to parents, who were generally supportive. Family connectedness significantly decreased the odds of an HIV positive status. PMID:18639797

  15. Demographic and Behavioral Determinants of Self-Reported History of Sexually-Transmitted Diseases (STDs) among Young Migrant Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Liu, Yingjie; Jiang, Shulin; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sexually-transmitted disease (STD) is a facilitating cofactor that contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Previous studies indicated a high prevalence of STDs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. To date, limited data are available for correlates of STD infection among young migrant MSM in China. The…

  16. HIV Testing Trends and Correlates among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two U.S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Hudes, Esther S.; Proctor, Kristopher; Han, Chung-Sook; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of recent HIV testing (within the past year) among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) in two U.S. cities. We conducted serial, cross-sectional, interviewer-administered surveys of 908 API MSM aged 15-25 years, sampled from randomly selected…

  17. A Novel, Self-Guided, Home-Based Intervention to Improve Condom Use among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emetu, Roberta E.; Marshall, Alexandra; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Yarber, William L.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Crosby, Richard A.; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief, novel, theory-driven, self-guided, home-based intervention designed to promote condom use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Participants: Thirty YMSM were recruited from a large public US midwestern university during spring of 2012. Methods: The intervention was tested using a…

  18. Comparison of Resilience, Positive/Negative Affect, and Psychological Vulnerability Between Iranian Infertile and Fertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Abbas; Rajabi, Saied; Sheikhi, Moslem; Kiamarsi, Azar; Sadrolmamaleki, Vida

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare resilience, positive/negative effect, and psychological vulnerability between fertile and infertile men. Methods: The research sample consisted of 40 fertile and 40 infertile men who were selected among men who presented to an infertility clinic. To collect data, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Positive/Negative Affect Schedule, and Brief Symptoms Inventory were used. Results: The MANOVA results showed that infertile men had higher mean (SD) score for negative affect (46.15±8.31 vs. 23.10±8.50) and psychological vulnerability (37.90±12.39 vs. 23.30±6.40) than fertile men (P= 0.001); while infertile men had lower resilience (59.35±14.25 vs. 82.17±13.03) and positive affect (43.01±10.46 vs. 61.85±8.14) than fertile men (P= 0.001).The results of multiple regressions showed that resilience and negative affect had the highest significant contribution in prediction of psychological vulnerability in the infertile. Conclusion: Resilience and negative effects are the best predicators for mental vulnerability of infertile men. These factors may be addressed in future studies in infertile men. Declaration of Interest: None. PMID:24644494

  19. Motivational Interviewing Targeting Risky Sex in HIV-Positive Young Thai Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Wang, Bo; Naar-King, Sylvie; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Panthong, Apirudee; Koken, Juline A.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to reduce sexual risks among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HMSM) in the U.S. We conducted a randomized trial of Healthy Choices, a 4-session MI intervention, targeting sexual risks among 110 HIV-positive youth ages 16–25 years in Thailand. Risk assessments were conducted at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months post-intervention. This report presents the analysis of 74 HMSM in the study. There were 37 HMSM in the Intervention group and 37 in the control group. The proportions of participants having anal sex and having sex with either HIV-uninfected or unknown partners in past 30 days were significantly lower in Intervention group than in control group at 6 months post-intervention (38% vs. 65%, p = .04; and 27% vs. 62%, p < .01, respectively). There were no significant differences in general mental health scores and HIV stigma scores between the two groups at any study visit. Thirty-five (95%) HMSM in the Intervention group vs. 31 (84%) in control group attended ≥3 sessions. Loss to follow-up was 8% and 30%, respectively (p = .04). Healthy Choices for young Thai HMSM was associated with sexual risk reduction. Improvements in mental health and HIV stigma were noted in Intervention group. Healthy Choices is a promising behavioral intervention and should be further developed to serve the needs of young HMSM in resource-limited countries. PMID:24668304

  20. Network Centrality and Geographical Concentration of Social and Service Venues that Serve Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Turner, Rolf; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kim, Ju Yeong; Zhao, Jing; Schneider, John A

    2017-02-20

    This study examines network centrality of inter-venue networks formed by collaboration, competition, and sponsorship relationships among venues that serve young men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 16-29 years in relation to their geographical concentrations in Chicago, Illinois, and Houston, Texas. Our data on the physical venues comprised 116 venues in Chicago and 102 venues in Houston. We examined the relationship between the network centrality of different relations and the geographical intensity among these venues, and considered neighborhood-level socioeconomic determinants of health. The results indicate that young MSM-serving social and service venues found in close physical proximity to one another tend to have large centrality indegree values based on competition in both cities, and based on collaboration only in Chicago. No evidence, however, was found that occupying a central position in the sponsorship networks was related to geographic concentration. Combined, these results suggest that HIV prevention interventions should consider the organizing force for competition. Such a strategy could result in better services. However there may still be potential for overlap and redundancy in services at the expense of under-served regions where proven interventions could have the greatest impact.

  1. HIV in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Review of Epidemiology, Risk, and Protector Factors, and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Bois, Steve Nicholas Du; Garcia, Steve C.; Grov, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) represent the majority of young people infected with HIV annually in the U.S. Further, they are one of the few risk groups to show an increase in the rate of infections in recent years. In addition to these disparities in prevalence and infection rates, there is an inequity in prevention and intervention research on this population. The purpose of this article is to review the existing YMSM literature on HIV epidemiology, correlates of risk, and intervention research. We conclude that promising future directions for basic research include a focus on multiple clustering health issues, processes that promote resiliency, the role of family influences, and the development of parsimonious models of risk. In terms of intervention research, we suggest that promising future directions include Internet-based intervention delivery, integration of biomedical and behavioral approaches, and interventions that go beyond the individual level to address partnership, structural, community, and network factors. PMID:21409715

  2. Photovoice as a Tool to Adapt an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives HIV rates for African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) have reached as much as 14.7%, compared to 2.5% and 3.5% among Caucasian and Latino YMSM. However, there remains a lack HIV prevention interventions for this population. This study describes the use of Photovoice in the adaptation process of an evidence-based intervention (Adult Identity Mentoring) to make it developmentally and culturally appropriate for AAYMSM. Methods Thirty-six AAYMSM (ages 18–24) participated in weekly working group sessions to conduct a community, youth and data-driven adaptation process. Photovoice was used as a technique to facilitate guided discussions on topics that were identified for the new curriculum. Results Through Photovoice discussions, we identified a new focus for the adapted intervention, Young Men’s Adult Identity Mentoring (YM-AIM): development and maintenance of healthy intimate relationships. This new focus and resulting curriculum are rooted in the voices and perceptions of the target population. Conclusions Including youth was integral to the adaptation process and the use of techniques such as Photovoice helped ensure that the resulting adaptation was relevant to the target population. PMID:21460254

  3. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Ingelhart, Kara N.; Janssen, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Methods Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18–24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Results Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being ‘turned on’ enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Conclusions Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions – particularly among men who experience CAEP. PMID:26166025

  4. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained Muslim men

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of sleep deprivation and dietary irregularities during Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained male Muslim individuals. Methods 77 untrained Muslim men were recruited in the study. They were divided into the experimental group (EG; n=37, age: 22.62±1.77 years) and the control group (CG; n=40, age: 23.00±1.48 years). EG was undergoing RIF while CG abstained. Aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity or high-intensity efforts (HIEs), agility, flexibility, vertical jump height and handgrip strength were measured on 8 separate occasions—15 days before RIF, 7 days before RIF, 1st day of RIF, 7th day of RIF, 15th day of RIF, 21st day of RIF, last day of RIF and 15 days after RIF. Results Aerobic fitness and HIE showed a significant difference (p<0.05) during RIF in EG. Agility and flexibility score showed a significant decrease in EG during RIF, whereas changes in the vertical jump score (VJT) and handgrip strength were statistically insignificant. Studied parameters showed an insignificant variation in CG during RIF. Aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility showed a significant intergroup variation during different experimental trials. Conclusions The present investigation revealed that RIF had adverse effects on aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility of young untrained Muslims of Kolkata, India. VJT, waist-hip ratio and handgrip strength were not affected by RIF in the studied population. Mild but statistically insignificant reduction in body mass was also reflected after the mid-Ramadan week. PMID:27900122

  5. The Mpowerment Project: a community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men.

    PubMed Central

    Kegeles, S M; Hays, R B; Coates, T J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Since young gay men are engaging in alarmingly high rates of unsafe sex and few seek help for changing risky behaviors, community-level programs to prevent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among them are urgently needed. METHODS. We developed and implemented a community-level HIV prevention program in a midsized Oregon community. The peer-led program had three components: out-reach, small groups, and a publicity campaign. Independently from the prevention program, a cohort of young gay men (n = 300) was surveyed in this and in a similar comparison community pre- and postintervention. RESULTS. Following intervention, the proportion of men engaging in any unprotected anal intercourse decreased from 41.0% to 30.0% (-27% from baseline), decreased from 20.2% to 11.1% (-45% from baseline) with nonprimary partners, and decreased from 58.9% to 44.7% (-24% from baseline) with boyfriends. No significant changes occurred in the comparison community over the same period. CONCLUSIONS. This prevention approach effectively led to HIV risk reduction. To reach risk-taking young gay men, HIV prevention activities must be embedded in social activities and community life. PMID:8712273

  6. Educational status and young Dutch gay men's beliefs about using condoms.

    PubMed

    Janssen, M; de Wit, J; Hospers, H J; van Griensven, F

    2001-02-01

    The higher levels of HIV risk behaviour that have been found in young gay men with lower socio-economic status (SES, among others defined as educational achievement) may result from unequal effects of safer sex interventions. We conducted semi-structured focus group interviews with an educationally diverse sample of 113 young gay men living in The Netherlands. The objective was to bring to light men's salient ('accessible') beliefs about using condoms since information about beliefs might facilitate the formulation of 'personally relevant' safer sex messages that enhance in-depth message processing. We found several educational differences in the areas of knowledge about HIV preventive behaviour, cognitive schemas about the factors involved in HIV transmission, perceived pros and cons of using condoms, perceived social pressure to use condoms and feelings of being in control of protective action. This may suggest that, for intervention efforts to be effective in motivating the diversity of young gay men to engage in safer sex, interventions should convey tailor-made messages that match recipients' educational degree. Several implications for the formulation of such messages are discussed.

  7. Internet Use and Sexual Health of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C.

    2010-01-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18–24 year old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM. PMID:20182787

  8. Internet use and sexual health of young men who have sex with men: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Lyons, Tom; Garcia, Steve C

    2011-04-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experience sexual health disparities due to a lack of support in settings that traditionally promote positive youth development. The Internet may help to fill this void, but little is known about how it is used for sexual health purposes among young MSM. This mixed-methods study reports quantitative results of a large survey of 18- to 24-year-old MSM in an HIV testing clinic (N = 329) as well as qualitative results from interviews. Level of Internet use was high in this sample and the majority of participants reported using the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Black and Latino youth used the Internet less frequently than White youth, and after controlling for age, education, and frequency of Internet use, Black youth were 70% less likely to use the Internet to find HIV/AIDS information. Qualitative analyses identified themes related to the role of the Internet in finding sexual health information, sexual minority identity development, and sexual risk taking behaviors. Participants reported that the Internet filled an important and unmet need for sexual health education. It allowed for connections to the gay community and support during the coming out process, but also exposure to homophobic messages. There was no evidence of increased risk behaviors with partners met online, but at the same time the potential for the use of the Internet to facilitate safer sex communication was largely untapped. Our findings generally present an optimistic picture about the role of the Internet in the development of sexual health among young MSM.

  9. Variability in HOMA-IR, Lipoprotein Profile and Selected Hormones in Young Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake. PMID:24348155

  10. Seven types of nonsexual romantic physical affection among Brigham young university students.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Andrew K; Stahmann, Robert F; Wilson, Colwick M

    2004-10-01

    College students from Brigham Young University (N= 186; 68 men, 118 women, M age=22.7 yr., SD=3.5) completed a survey regarding nonsexual, romantic physical affection-defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver or the recipient. Respondents included both dating and married individuals, although this was not specified on the questionnaire. This descriptive study reports the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of the seven physical affection types: backrubs/massages, caressing/stroking, cuddling/holding, holding hands, hugging, kissing on the face, and kissing on the lips. Grouped frequency distributions further describe the amounts of each type of physical affection. Although physical affection has been underrepresented in the literature, studies have shown it to be associated with relationship satisfaction, partner satisfaction, psychological intimacy, feeling understood, the development of attachment bonds, modulating cardiovascular arousal, and easier conflict resolution.

  11. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction

    PubMed Central

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2011-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842

  12. Collective efficacy, alcohol outlet density, and young men's alcohol use in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction.

  13. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction.

    PubMed

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2008-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.

  14. [Factors affecting young mothers' social and family relations after pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Thatiana Araújo; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; Silva, José Mário Nunes da

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors affecting social and family relations of young mothers in the two-year postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study of 464 young mothers in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, who gave birth during the first four months of 2006 in six maternity hospitals. Data were collected from May to December 2008 after identifying the young women in the maternity hospital records. Multivariate analysis used multinomial logistic regression. Married young women (including those in common-law marriages) were 80% less likely to have negative relations with their partners. Participants 20 to 22 years of age related 2.4 times better with their mothers than those 17 to 19 years of age. Young women not attending school showed 97% higher odds of negative changes in relations with friends, and Catholics were 50% less likely to have worse relations with friends following childbirth. Measures are needed to orient individuals living with young mothers (especially their partners and mothers) concerning the importance of support in this phase of life, particularly encouraging them to stay in school.

  15. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men: Association with Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Joensen, Ulla N.; Main, Katharina M.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. Objectives: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. Methods: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate associations between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. Results: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th–95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59–14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above the lowest quartile had higher concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and free testosterone compared with the lowest quartile (ptrend ≤ 0.02). Men in the highest quartile of BPA excretion had on average 18% higher total testosterone (95% CI: 8, 28%), 22% higher LH (95% CI: 6, 39%), and 13% higher estradiol (95% CI: 4, 24%) compared with lowest quartile. Men in the highest quartile of BPA also had significantly lower percentage progressive motile spermatozoa compared with men in the lowest quartile (–6.7 percentage points, 95% CI: –11.76, –1.63). BPA was not associated with other semen parameters. Adjusting for dietary patterns did not influence the results. Conclusions: The pattern of associations between BPA and reproductive hormones could indicate an antiandrogenic or antiestrogenic effect, or both, of BPA on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal hormone feedback system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested

  16. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  17. Gun Carrying and Drug Selling Among Young Incarcerated Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying. PMID:16736375

  18. Peer social support is associated with recent HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hyman M; Pollack, Lance; Rebchook, Gregory M; Huebner, David M; Peterson, John; Kegeles, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Resiliency factors such as social support have been associated with more frequent HIV testing among MSM. We examined the association between social support and delayed HIV testing in the context of structural discrimination and individual factors among young Black MSM. We combined two independent cross-sectional samples recruited 1 year apart from a venue-based, modified time-location sampling study of young Black MSM aged 18-29 years in the US South. Our subsample (N = 813) was men who self-reported not being HIV positive and who indicated they had one or more male sex partners in the past 2 months. Using a social epidemiology framework we estimated associations of structural (racism and homophobia), social (social support from other Black MSM friends) and individual factors with delayed HIV testing (>6 months ago) using logistic regression. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that individual level variables as well as experiences of racism (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41) and homophobia (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.02-2.17) were associated with higher risk of delayed HIV testing. Receiving social support from other Black MSM friends was associated with lower risk of delayed HIV testing (OR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.67-0.95). In multivariable models, social support remained significantly associated with lower risk of delayed HIV testing after inclusion of structural and individual level variables. Social support has a positive and robust association with HIV testing among young Black MSM. Whether community building and development of resiliency factors can overcome structural, social, and individual-level barriers to HIV prevention and care for young Black MSM warrants further study.

  19. Masculinity in young men's health: exploring health, help-seeking and health service use in an online environment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard E; Williams, Sarah

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-eight young men took part in two online focus groups exploring understandings of health, help-seeking and health service use. Techniques from Foucauldian discourse analysis were used to elucidate how the young men framed health-related practices within gendered identities in online environments. The discourses are discussed within three discursive themes: 'conceptualising health: everyday health versus "cover man" health', 'help-seeking: the restrictions of masculinity' and 'using health care: legitimising help-seeking through masculine identity'. Young men are interested in their health and construct their health practices as justified while simultaneously maintaining masculine identities surrounding independence, autonomy and control over their bodies.

  20. Predictors of day-level sexual risk for young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Botsko, Michael; Golub, Sarit A

    2013-05-01

    As HIV infection rates remain high among young gay and bisexual men, investigations into determinants of sexual risk are paramount. This study examined independent and interactive effects of substance use, mental health, perceived benefits of unprotected sex, and type of sex partner on odds of not using condoms. Analyses included 188 high-risk substance using HIV-negative and unknown status young gay and bisexual men (ages 18-29). Substance use and endorsing favorable attitudes towards unprotected sex strongly predicted sexual risk. Mental health moderated the relationship between partner type (main vs. casual) and condom use such that increased anxiety and depression were associated with increased odds of using condoms with main partners and not using condoms with casual partners. Understanding how these determinants of HIV risk converge to predict unprotected anal sex can identify essential risk relationships for prevention, obtain effects sizes of greater magnitude and prolonged sustainability, and build robust couples-based interventions.

  1. Expanding hegemonic masculinity: the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic experiences.

    PubMed

    Korobov, Neill

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic and sexual experiences. Because romantic experiences are central in the constitution of a heterosexual self, and because they are increasingly formulated in relation to traditional masculine norms and the simultaneous avowal and disavowal of effeminacy, they reveal an oscillation between complicity and resistance to hegemonic masculine norms. This oscillation is explored in stories about promiscuity, seduction, and vulnerability. Critical discursive analyses reveal how young men discursively pivot between complicity and resistance to traditional masculine norms, how this oscillation functions in the accomplishment of their romantic identities, how a sense of conventional masculinity is reclaimed, and what these processes reveal about the shifting nature of hegemonic masculinity in contemporary culture.

  2. Triceps surae contractile properties and firing rates in the soleus of young and old men.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian H; Harwood, Brad; Davidson, Andrew W; Rice, Charles L

    2009-12-01

    Mean maximal motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) of the human soleus are lower (5-20 Hz) than other limb muscles (20-50 Hz) during brief sustained contractions. With healthy adult aging, maximal MUFRs are 20-40% lower and twitch contractile speed of lower limb muscles are 10-40% slower compared with young adults. However, it is unknown whether the inherently low maximal MUFRs for the soleus are further reduced with aging in association with age-related slowing in contractile properties. The purpose of the present study was to compare the changes in triceps surae contractile properties and MUFRs of the soleus throughout a variety of contraction intensities in six old ( approximately 75 yr old) and six young ( approximately 24 yr old) men. Neuromuscular measures were collected from the soleus and triceps surae during repeated sessions (2-6 sessions). Populations of single MUFR trains were recorded from the soleus with tungsten microelectrodes during separate sustained 6- to 10-s isometric contractions of varying intensities [25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC)]. The old men had weaker triceps surae strength (MVC; 35% lower) and slower contractile properties (contraction duration; 20% longer) than the young men. However, there was no difference in average MUFRs of the soleus at 75% and 100% MVC ( approximately 14.5 Hz and approximately 16.5 Hz, respectively). At 25% and 50% MVC, average rates were 10% and 20% lower in the old men compared with young, respectively. Despite a significant slowing in triceps surae contraction duration, there was no age-related change in MUFRs recorded at high contractile intensities in the soleus. Thus the relationship between the whole muscle contractile properties and MUFRs found in other muscle groups may not exist between the triceps surae and soleus and may be muscle dependent.

  3. Maximal eccentric and concentric strength discrepancies between young men and women for dynamic resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Daniel B; Kraemer, Robert R; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Ramadan, Zaid G; Reeves, Greg V; Francois, Michelle; Hebert, Edward P; Tryniecki, James L

    2007-02-01

    Although research has demonstrated that isokinetic eccentric (ECC) strength is 20-60% greater than isokinetic concentric (CON) strength, few data exist comparing these strength differences in standard dynamic resistance exercises. The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in maximal dynamic ECC and CON strength for 6 different resistance exercises in young men and women. Ten healthy young men (mean +/- SE, 25.30 +/- 1.34 years), and 10 healthy young women (mean +/- SE, 23.40 +/- 1.37 years) who were regular exercisers with resistance training experience participated in the study. Two sessions were performed to determine CON and ECC 1 repetitions maximum for latissimus pull-down (LTP), leg press (LP), bench press (BP), leg extension (LE), seated military press (MP), and leg curl (LC) exercises. Maximal ECC and maximal CON strength were determined on weight stack machines modified to isolate ECC and CON contractions using steel bars and pulleys such that only 1 type of contraction was performed. Within 2 weeks, participants returned and completed a retest trial in a counterbalanced fashioned. Test-retest reliability was excellent (r = 0.99) for all resistance exercise trials. Men demonstrated 20-60% greater ECC than CON strength (LTP = 32%, LP = 44%, BP = 40%, LE = 35%, MP = 49%, LC = 27%). Women's strength exceeded the proposed parameters for greater ECC strength in 4 exercises, p < 0.05 (LP = 66%, BP = 146%, MP = 161%, LC = 82%). The ECC/CON assessment could help coaches capitalize on muscle strength differences in young men and women during training to aid in program design and injury prevention and to enhance strength development.

  4. β-Adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in young men and women: cyclooxygenase restrains nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2016-03-15

    We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P < 0.01), and this effect was not different between men and women (P = 0.41). l-NMMA infusion had no effect on isoproterenol-mediated dilation in men (P > 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P < 0.01) and women (P = 0.04) and this rise was lost with subsequent l-NMMA infusion (men, P < 0.01; women, P < 0.05). β-Adrenergic vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease.

  5. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  6. Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?

    PubMed

    Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition.

  7. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants.

  8. Ethnic and gay community attachments and sexual risk behaviors among urban Latino young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann

    2002-12-01

    Culturally relevant prevention programs are required to reduce HIV risk exposure of Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM). As part of Hermanos Jóvenes, 465 Latino YMSM were surveyed at community venues of New York City outside the gay-identified area of lower Manhattan. We examined factors that influence ethnic and gay community attachments; the association between community attachments and social support in sexual matters; and the relationship between levels of attachment, social support in sexual matters, and sexual risk behaviors. Sixty-eight percent felt closely connected to their ethnic community; about 34% were highly attached to both neighborhood and New York City gay communities. Greater social support in sexual matters was associated with ethnic and gay community attachments. Latino YMSM connected to their ethnic community were about 40% less likely to report recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a male partner, and 60% less likely to have engaged in UAI during the last sexual contact with a nonmain male partner. Gay community attachment was not significantly related to risk behaviors. Findings point to the importance of ethnic ties and involving ethnic community organizations in HIV prevention efforts.

  9. An HIV Intervention Tailored for Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in the House Ball Community

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Hotton, Anna L.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Telander, Kyle; Bell, Margo; Footer, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Black young men who have sex with men (BYMSM) are the group most disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States and most in need of efficacious interventions to address community-level factors that increase their vulnerability to HIV. The House Ball Community (HBC) is a distinct social network within the larger BYMSM community that may be particularly vulnerable to social norms and stigma around HIV. This study tailored an evidence-based, community-level popular opinion leader (OL) intervention for use within the HBC. The intervention, called POSSE, was then piloted to evaluate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy. Recruiting opinion leaders from the community and training them to deliver risk reduction messages was found to be feasible and highly acceptable. Community-level surveys (n=406) were completed over 5 waves of data collection. Overall exposure to the intervention increased across waves. Statistically significant (p < .05) declines were observed for multiple sexual partners, condomless anal intercourse with any male partners and with male partners of unknown HIV status. HIV stigma declined as well, but the trend was not statistically significant. PMID:25300319

  10. Transition to Adulthood and Antiretroviral Adherence Among HIV-Positive Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; Chakraborty, Rana; del Rio, Carlos; Malebranche, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a qualitative study of HIV-positive young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) to explore their experiences of living with HIV and adhering to antiretroviral medications (ARVs) within the developmental context of their transition to adulthood. Methods. We conducted life history interviews with 20 HIV-positive YBMSM in Atlanta, Georgia, engaged in outpatient HIV care. We addressed these questions: (1) How do YBMSM living with HIV experience the transition to adulthood? and (2) What are the important sociocontextual influences on ARV adherence for YBMSM? Results. Successful transition to adulthood and optimal ARV adherence were inextricably linked. HIV’s detrimental impact on development was moderated by the degree of physical illness at diagnosis. Many participants described resilient trajectories while coping with HIV. Adherence problems occurred primarily among participants who were not meeting their developmental goals. Conclusions. Our findings support the need for early diagnosis and linkage to care, as well as the need to develop holistic, resilience-based interventions focusing on transition to adulthood. These findings have implications for individual clinical outcomes as well as ARV-based prevention efforts among YBMSM. PMID:24922167

  11. Communicating With School Nurses About Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H; Robin, Leah

    2015-10-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected from Black and Latino YMSM aged 13-19 through web-based questionnaires (N = 415) and interviews (N = 32). School nurses were the staff members youth most often reported willingness to talk to about HIV testing (37.8%), STD testing (37.1%), or condoms (37.3%), but least often reported as safe to talk to about attraction to other guys (11.4%). Interviews revealed youth reluctance to talk with school staff including nurses when uncertain of staff members' perceptions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people or perceiving staff to lack knowledge of LGBTQ issues, communities, or resources. Nurses may need additional training to effectively reach Black and Latino YMSM.

  12. Parental Monitoring, Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex, and Sexual Risk among Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including “coming out” to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14–19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group. PMID:24549462

  13. Early male partnership patterns, social support, and sexual risk behavior among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist on the early sexual behavior patterns of contemporary young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the social context of these patterns, and which of these factors influence risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We enrolled 94 YMSM (age 16–30) into a one-year cohort study with serial online retrospective surveys and HIV/STI testing. The first 3 partnerships of YMSM were characterized by relatively high rates of unprotected anal sex and a rapidly expanding sexual repertoire, but also increasing rates of HIV status disclosure. During follow-up, 17% of YMSM reported any nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (NCUAI) and 15% were newly diagnosed with HIV/STI. Sex education in high school and current maternal support were protective against HIV/STI, while isolation from family and friends was associated with recent NCUAI. Social support – including from parents, peers, and school-based sex education – may help mitigate HIV/STI risk in this population. PMID:24356869

  14. Communicating with School Nurses about Sexual Orientation and Sexual Health: Perspectives of Teen Young Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Morris, Elana; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Kroupa, Elizabeth; Topete, Pablo; Carver, Lisa H.; Robin, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. This study informs school-centered strategies for connecting YMSM to health services by describing their willingness, perceived safety, and experiences in talking to school staff about sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected from black and Latino YMSM ages 13–19 through Web-based questionnaires (n=415) and interviews (n=32). School nurses were the staff members youth most often reported willingness to talk to about HIV testing (37.8%), STD testing (37.1%), or condoms (37.3%), but least often reported as safe to talk to about attraction to other guys (11.4%). Interviews revealed youth reluctance to talk with school staff including nurses when uncertain of staff members’ perceptions of LGBTQ people or perceiving staff to lack knowledge of LGBTQ issues, communities, or resources. Nurses may need additional training to effectively reach black and Latino YMSM. PMID:25519713

  15. Substance use network characteristics and drug and alcohol use behaviors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM)

    PubMed Central

    Janulis, Patrick; Birkett, Michelle; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) use alcohol and other drugs at rates higher than their heterosexual peers. While social networks of YMSM have been acknowledged as an important contextual influence on their health behavior, studies have largely focused on social and sexual networks rather than substance use networks, despite the potential importance of substance use alters in shaping substance use behavior. Method Using data collected from a diverse sample of YMSM (n = 156), two multilevel models examined the associations between network (e.g., degree and transitivity), dyadic (e.g., strength of relationship), and individual characteristics and two alter level dependent variables: recent drug use (versus no recent drug use) and frequency of substance use. Results Results indicated that transitivity was associated with both recent drug use (OR = 1.21, p = 0.012) and more frequent substance use (b = 0.08, p = 0.002). Degree was not significantly associated with either variable. Furthermore, participants were also less likely to have recently used drugs (OR = 0.93, p < 0.001) and tended to use substances less frequently (b = −0.01, p = 0.028) with older alters. Conclusions Despite substantial interest in network influences on health, much remains unknown about the impact of network structures on substance use. The current findings suggest that structural characteristics of substance use networks may provide important information regarding the drug and alcohol use behavior of YMSM even when controlling for dyadic and individual characteristics. PMID:26483355

  16. HIV-testing behavior among young migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Liu, Yinjie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies suggested a rapid increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years, from 0.4% in 2004 to 5.8% in 2006. However, some MSM had never been tested for HIV. In order to expand the accessibility to HIV testing, understanding HIV-testing behavior and barriers among MSM is important. Using data collected from 307 young migrant MSM (aged 18-29 years) in 2009 in Beijing, we aimed to identify psychological and structural barriers to HIV testing. MSM were recruited through peer outreach, informal social networks, Internet outreach, and venue-based outreach. Participants completed a confidential self-administered questionnaire. Results show that about 72% of MSM ever had an HIV test. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the HIV-testing behavior was associated with sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use for anal sex) and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Eighty four MSM (28%) who never had an HIV test reported that the psychological barriers mainly were perceived low risk of HIV infection and fears of being stigmatized. The structural barriers reported inconvenience of doing test and lack of confidentiality. Future HIV prevention programs should be strengthened among MSM to increase their awareness of HIV risk. Efforts are needed to increase access to quality and confidential HIV testing among MSM and reduce stigma against MSM.

  17. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex, and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2014-08-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.

  18. Body Dissatisfaction in a Diverse Sample of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Moeller, Robert W.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Kupprat, Sandra A.; Kingdon, Molly J.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2016-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at greater risk for body dissatisfaction, compared to their heterosexual peers. However, differences within YMSM populations are understudied, precluding the identification of YMSM who are at greatest risk. This study examined body dissatisfaction in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of YMSM ages 18–19 in New York City. Using cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM (N = 591), body dissatisfaction was assessed using the Male Body Attitudes Scale. Three outcomes were modeled using linear regression: (1) overall body dissatisfaction, (2) muscularity dissatisfaction, and (3) body fat dissatisfaction. Covariates in the models included race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, BMI, gay community affiliation, and internalized homonegativity. White YMSM experienced greater body dissatisfaction across the three models. Internalized homonegativity was a statistically significant predictor of dissatisfaction across the three models, though its association with body dissatisfaction was relatively small. The findings point to future avenues of research, particularly qualitative research to explore demographic and cultural nuances in body attitudes among YMSM. PMID:26370403

  19. A qualitative analysis of father-son relationships among HIV-positive young black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Sophia A; Gilliard, Danielle; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Andes, Karen; Chakraborty, Rana; Malebranche, David J

    2014-08-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are experiencing high and rising rates of HIV infection, more than any other age-risk group category in the USA. Contributors to HIV risk in this group remain incompletely elucidated. We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 20 HIV-positive YBMSM aged 17-24 and found that father-son relationships were perceived to be important sociocontextual influences in participants' lives. Participants discussed the degree of their fathers' involvement in their lives, emotional qualities of the father-son relationship, communication about sex, and masculine socialization. Participants also described pathways linking father-son relationships to HIV risk, which were mediated by psychological and situational risk scenarios. Our thematic analysis suggests that father-son relationships are important to the psychosocial development of YBMSM, with the potential to either exacerbate or attenuate sexual risk for HIV. Interventions designed to strengthen father-son relationships may provide a promising direction for future health promotion efforts in this population.

  20. INTERGENERATIONAL SEX AS A RISK FACTOR FOR HIV AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A SCOPING REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Stevenson, Benjamin; Gurm, Jasmine; Montaner, Gabriela; Small, Will; Roth, Eric A.; Lima, Viviane D.; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. We applied a scoping review methodology to explore the relationships between age mixing, HIV risk behavior, and HIV seroconversion among YMSM. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: childhood maltreatment, coming of age and sexual identity, and substance use (individual-level factors); family and social support, partner characteristics, intimate partner violence, connectedness to gay community (micro-system factors); and race/ethnicity, economic disparity, and use of the Internet (meso-system factors). These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population. PMID:24272070

  1. Early male partnership patterns, social support, and sexual risk behavior among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Few data exist on the early sexual behavior patterns of contemporary young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the social context of these patterns, and which of these factors influence risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We enrolled 94 YMSM (age 16-30) into a 1-year cohort study with serial online retrospective surveys and HIV/STI testing. The first three partnerships of YMSM were characterized by relatively high rates of unprotected anal sex and a rapidly expanding sexual repertoire, but also increasing rates of HIV status disclosure. During follow-up, 17 % of YMSM reported any nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (NCUAI) and 15 % were newly diagnosed with HIV/STI. Sex education in high school and current maternal support were protective against HIV/STI, while isolation from family and friends was associated with recent NCUAI. Social support-including from parents, peers, and school-based sex education-may help mitigate HIV/STI risk in this population.

  2. Using Peer Ethnography to Address Health Disparities Among Young Urban Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tara; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of peer ethnography to gain insider views on substance use and sex among a diverse range of high-risk substance-using Black and Latino young men who have sex with men. Methods. We recruited 9 peer ethnographers aged 21 to 24 years from youth programs for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in Los Angeles, California, and trained them in ethnography, study protocol, and human participant protection. Peer ethnographers collected 137 single-spaced pages of field notes in 2009 and 2010 derived from observation of 150 members of the target population. Results. Peer ethnography revealed local language and phrasing and provided a window into new and different social contexts. Peers provided valuable information on current trends in substance use, revealing themes that needed to be addressed in further research, such as the use of substances during sex to “clock coin” (exchange sex for money and substances). These data enabled us to refine our recruitment strategies and ask more culturally relevant questions in a later phase of the study. Conclusions. The peer ethnography method can provide a sound basis for further research phases in multistage studies on numerous other social issues and with other hard-to-reach populations. PMID:23488490

  3. Attitudes and Perceptions of Biomedical HIV Prevention Methods: Voices from Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Arauz-Cuadra, Cesar; Kipke, Michele D.

    2015-01-01

    In the third decade of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, the prevalence rates of new HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to increase. As new and emerging HIV prevention method are developed, it is important to understand the perceptions of this vulnerable population –as they may be an ideal target for these intervention methods. This pilot study provides an overview of YMSM of color’s awareness and perceptions of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and rectal microbicides (RM). A total of 6 focus groups were convened with 53 YMSM (23 Latino/Hispanic and 30 Black/African American). Findings indicate a lack of knowledge of biomedical interventions and high perceived acceptability. Concerns regarding PrEP included potential side effects, potential for misinterpretation of its use and cost. RMs were perceived to be more acceptable than PrEP, but the limited knowledge about their potential was emphasized by YMSM. Results are discussed in relation to the need for providers to continue to provide general health education about safe sexual practices. As PrEP and other biomedical interventions are introduced into community settings, caution should be taken with regards to determining the appropriate target user and sufficient education. PMID:25633499

  4. Relations between trait impulsivity, behavioral impulsivity, physiological arousal, and risky sexual behavior among young men.

    PubMed

    Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming.

  5. Relations Between Trait Impulsivity, Behavioral Impulsivity, Physiological Arousal, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen J.; Peters, Jessica R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Walsh, Erin C.; Adams, Zachary W.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  6. A systematic review of literature on psychosocial aspects of gynecomastia in adolescents and young men.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Harrison, Tracie; Caridi, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Gynecomastia represents a serious psychosocial challenge for many adolescent and young adult males, but short of surgery, little attention has been given to this concern. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a systematic review of the literature about psychosocial correlates, psychosocial interventions, and quality of research evidence about young males with gynecomastia. From an initial 233 published papers, 10 studies were identified and reviewed. Five were descriptive case studies and included no statistical analyses. The other studies were all conducted with small samples. Despite the limited evidence, findings suggest that many young men suffer emotional distress concerning gynecomastia, but this distress has received few interventions beyond surgical removal of the breast tissue. Future studies are needed to address this problem more fully so that more aggressive measures such as frequent assessments of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the condition can be done by healthcare professionals.

  7. Extremism, religion and psychiatric morbidity in a population-based sample of young men

    PubMed Central

    Coid, Jeremy W.; Bhui, Kamaldeep; MacManus, Deirdre; Kallis, Constantinos; Bebbington, Paul; Ullrich, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing risk from terrorism following radicalisation of young men. It is unclear whether psychopathology is associated. Aims To investigate the population distribution of extremist views among UK men. Method Cross-sectional study of 3679 men, 18–34 years, in Great Britain. Multivariate analyses of attitudes, psychiatric morbidity, ethnicity and religion. Results Pro-British men were more likely to be White, UK born, not religious; anti-British were Muslim, religious, of Pakistani origin, from deprived areas. Pro- and anti-British views were linearly associated with violence (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.38–1.64, P<0.001, adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.13–1.58, P<0.001, respectively) and negatively with depression (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85, P<0.001, adjusted OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.48–0.86, P = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions Men at risk of depression may experience protection from strong cultural or religious identity. Antisocial behaviour increases with extremism. Religion is protective but may determine targets of violence following radicalisation. PMID:27765774

  8. Seasonal variation in physiological responses to mild cold air in young and older men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nakao, Mikio; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    1995-09-01

    Eight men aged 60 65 years and six men aged 20 25 years, wearing only swimming trunks, were exposed to an air temperature of 17° C and 45% R.H. in each of the four seasons. The increase in the rate of metabolic heat productionleft( {% Δ dot M} right) for the older group in the cold test was significantly higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring ( P<0.05), but did not differ in the young group between seasons. Compared to the young group the% Δ dot M was significantly greater for the older group (due to a marked increase in four individuals) in summer and autumn ( P<0.04). At the end of the period of cold exposure, the decrements of rectal temperature ( ΔT re), mean skin temperature (bar T_{sk} ; due to a marked decrease in four individuals) and foot skin temperature ( T foot) were significantly greater for the older group compared to the young group at all times of the year ( P<0.003). Seasonal variations in the two groups were similar, e.g., the ΔTre gradually became smaller from summer to winter ( P<0.05) and then increased slightly in the spring ( P=0.07). T foot for both groups decreased from summer to autumn ( P<0.01) and remained unchanged subsequently. No seasonal variations were observed forbar T_{sk} in either group. The increase in diastolic blood pressure (BPd) during the test was significantly smaller in winter in both groups ( P<0.05). BPd became larger again during spring in the older group ( P<0.01), but remained low in the young group. The BPd was significantly greater for the older group than the young group in winter and spring ( P<0.05). Compared to young men these results suggest that older men may lose the tolerance acquired by earlier cold acclimatization as seen by the BPd responses, and have a somewhat lower thermoregulatory capability in coping with mild cold air in all seasons.

  9. Correlates of Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Young, Rural African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Junhan; Barnum, Stacey C.; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the social, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with concurrent (i.e., overlapping in time) sexual partnerships among rural African American young men with a primary female partner. Methods We recruited 505 men in rural areas of southern Georgia from January 2012 to August 2013 using respondent-driven sampling; 361 reported having a primary female partner and participating only in heterosexual sexual activity. Men provided data on their demographic characteristics and HIV-related risk behaviors, as well as social, behavioral, and psychological risk factors. Results Of the 361 men with a primary female partner, 164 (45.4%) reported concurrent sexual partners during the past three months. Among the 164 men with a concurrent sexual partner, 144 (92.9%) reported inconsistent condom use with their primary partners, and 68 (41.5%) reported using condoms inconsistently with their concurrent partners. Having concurrent sexual partnerships was associated with inconsistent condom use, substance use before sex, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Bivariate correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships included incarceration, substance use, early onset of sexual activity, impulsive decision-making, and masculinity attitudes (i.e., men's adherence to culturally defined standards for male behavior). In a multivariate model, both masculinity ideology and impulsive decision-making independently predicted concurrent sexual partnerships independent of other risk factors. Conclusion Masculinity attitudes and impulsive decision-making are independent predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships among rural African American men and, consequently, the spread of HIV and other STIs. Developing programs that target masculinity attitudes and self-regulatory skills may help to reduce concurrent sexual partnerships. PMID:26345725

  10. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  11. Comparison of the frequency of atrial fibrillation in young obese versus young nonobese men undergoing examination for fitness for military service.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Morten; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2014-03-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and long-term risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) has not yet been examined for men. We conducted a population-based 36-year cohort study to examine the BMI-associated risk of AF in 12,850 young men who had BMI measured at their examination of fitness for military service. AF was identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals since 1977. We began follow-up on the twenty-second birthday of each subject and continued until the occurrence of AF, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012. We used Cox regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for education and height. The cohort contributed a total of 375,888 person-years of follow-up and the median follow-up time was 26 years (mean 29 years). The incidence of AF per 100,000 person-years was 53 for men of normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), 54 for underweight men (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)), 106 for overweight men (BMI: 25.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), and 144 for obese men (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). With normal weight as the reference group, the adjusted HR for AF was 0.99 (95% CI 0.52 to 1.87) for underweight men, 2.08 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.92) for overweight men, and 2.87 (95% CI 1.46 to 5.62) for obese men. The adjusted HR associating 1 unit increase in BMI with AF was 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.16). In conclusion, overweight and obese young men had more than twice the risk of AF compared with young men of normal weight.

  12. Applying an Occupational Classification to a National Representative Sample of Work Histories of Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Holland's occupational classification was used to analyze the work histories of a national representative sample of young men and women age 14-24. This study extended previous tests of the classification in three ways: (1) It was applied for the first time to a national, representative sample of women, (2) For the sample of men, 3-year…

  13. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  15. "Dulling the Edges": Young Men's Use of Alcohol to Deal With Grief Following the Death of a Male Friend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…

  16. Evidence of social network influence on multiple HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs among young Tanzanian men.

    PubMed

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Hill, Lauren M; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men's social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men's peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n = 1249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men's HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men's social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men's normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men's social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry.

  17. Romantic ideation, partner-seeking, and HIV risk among young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2012-04-01

    Structural changes in the acceptability of same-sex relationships may provide young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) with opportunities to develop expectations about their ideal future relationships. Expectations about the future may act as a promotive factor in youths' lives and reduce HIV risk-taking behaviors; however, few studies have examined the relationship between ideation of a future relationship and sexual behaviors of YGBM. In this study, we examined the relationship between romantic ideation (i.e., intimacy, passion, and commitment) and number of sexual partners in a sample of young men (N = 431; M age = 21.49 years; 88% self-identified as gay) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using multivariate Poisson regressions, we found a negative association between commitment and number of partners for unprotected sex, both receptive and insertive, in the past two months. We found similar results when we examined the association between relationship exclusivity and number of partners. These associations persisted after accounting for age, race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and hours spent seeking casual and romantic partners online. We found no significant association between number of partners and ideation of an intimate or passionate relationship, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to consider and include YGBM's expectations about the future in on-going HIV prevention programs.

  18. Neighborhood-level associations with HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Hatchel, Tyler; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The rising incidence of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is a substantial public health concern. Traditional research on HIV among YMSM has focused largely on individual-level predictors and infrequently accounts for contextual or neighborhood-level factors such as ethnic composition and socioeconomic status. This study used neighborhood-level data from the US Census and other public sources, and individual-level data from a longitudinal cohort of YMSM in Chicago (Crew 450). Of the original 450 YMSM in the cohort, 376 reported living in Chicago (83.6 %) and were included in the analytic sample. A clustering approach was used to group the 77 community areas together by common characteristics, resulting in the identification of 11 distinct clusters. An unconditional model of individual HIV status indicated a significant amount of variance existed between neighborhood clusters (χ (2) = 21.66; p = 0.006). When individual-level variables were added to the model, only having an HIV-positive sex partner (OR = 6.41; CI 2.40, 17.1) and engaging in exchange sex in the past 6 months (OR = 3.25; 95 % CI 1.33, 7.93) were significant predictors of HIV status. Clusters with higher Walk Scores were less likely to contain HIV-positive individuals (OR = 0.94; 95 % CI 0.90, 0.98). Conversely, clusters with a larger proportion of vacant buildings were more likely to contain HIV-positive individuals (OR = 1.19; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.33). Future research among YMSM needs to investigate the mechanisms by which neighborhood of residence might influence engagement in risk behaviors or acquisition of HIV.

  19. Intimate partner violence and substance use risk among young men who have sex with men: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Stults, Christopher B.; Javdani, Shabnam; Greenbaum, Chloe A.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Substance use is prevalent among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and may be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiences of IPV are associated with several adverse health conditions among adult MSM, but there is a gap in knowledge about this relationship among YMSM which warrants further investigation. Methods This study employs baseline data from a prospective cohort study to examine lifetime experiences of IPV in relation to substance use in the previous 30 days among n=528 YMSM in New York City from 2009-11. To examine the extent to which IPV (any experiences, victimization, and perpetration) are related to substance use (alcohol, marijuana, stimulant, and other drugs) in the last 30 days, distinct 2-step multinomial logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic differences, were constructed. Results 44.3% reported lifetime IPV experience, with 39.2% of reporting victimization and 30.5% reporting perpetration. IPV is associated with a 1.6 increased odds of 2 or more instances of alcohol use, a 1.6–1.8 increased odds of 2 or more instances of marijuana use, a 1.8–2.5 increased odds of 2 or more instances of stimulant use, and a 4.1–6.1 increased odds of 2 or more instances of other substance use. Conclusion Findings highlight the strong association between IPV and increased frequency of substance use among YMSM and provide support that violence may exist as part of a syndemic facing YMSM. Prevention and intervention strategies may be improved by addressing substance use in the context of IPV and other related health challenges. PMID:26130334

  20. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  1. Neighborhood-Level Associations with HIV Infection among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gregory; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Hatchel, Tyler; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is a substantial public health concern. Traditional research on HIV among YMSM has focused largely on individual-level predictors and infrequently accounts for contextual or neighborhood-level factors such as ethnic composition and socioeconomic status. This study used neighborhood-level data from the US Census and other public sources, and individual-level data from a longitudinal cohort of YMSM in Chicago (Crew 450). Of the original 450 YMSM in the cohort, 376 reported living in Chicago (83.6%) and were included in the analytic sample. A clustering approach was used to group the 77 community areas together by common characteristics, resulting in the identification of 11 distinct clusters. An unconditional model of individual HIV status indicated a significant amount of variance existed between neighborhood clusters (χ2 = 21.66; p = 0.006). When individual-level variables were added to the model, only having an HIV-positive sex partner (OR = 6.41; CI: 2.40, 17.1) and engaging in exchange sex in the past 6 months (OR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.33, 7.93) were significant predictors of HIV status. Clusters with higher Walk Scores were less likely to contain HIV-positive individuals (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98). Conversely, clusters with a larger proportion of vacant buildings were more likely to contain HIV-positive individuals (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.33). Future research among YMSM needs to investigate the mechanisms by which neighborhood of residence might influence engagement in risk behaviors or acquisition of HIV. PMID:26168977

  2. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling in a study of urban young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence suggests that respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an efficient approach to sampling among varied populations of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) both in the USA and abroad, although no studies have yet evaluated its performance among younger MSM, a population with a steep rise in HIV infection in recent years. Young MSM (YMSM) may differ in terms of their connectedness to other YMSM (e.g., due to evolving sexual identity, internalization of sexual minority stigma, and lack of disclosure to others) and mobility (e.g., due to parental monitoring) which may inhibit the sampling process. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of RDS-based sampling among young urban MSM and to identify factors associated with recruitment success. We hypothesized that demographic, social, behavioral, and network factors, including racial/ethnic minority status, homelessness (i.e., as an indicator of socioeconomic marginalization), HIV-positive status, substance use problems, gay community connectedness, and network size would be positively related to recruitment productivity, while sexual minority stigmatization, environmental barriers (e.g., parental monitoring), and meeting sex partners on the internet (i.e., virtual venue) would be negatively related to recruitment productivity. Between December 2009 and February 2013, we used RDS to recruit a sample of 450 YMSM, ages 16-20. Findings suggest that the use of RDS for sampling among YMSM is challenging and may not be feasible based on the slow pace of recruitment and low recruitment productivity. A large number of seeds (38 % of the sample, n = 172) had to be added to the sample to maintain a reasonable pace of recruitment, which makes use of the sample for RDS-based population estimates questionable. In addition, the prevalence of short recruitment chains and segmentation in patterns of recruitment by race/ethnicity further hamper the network recruitment process. Thus, RDS was not

  3. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  4. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…

  5. Physiological Reactivity in a Community Sample of Sexually Aggressive Young Men: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Zoë D.; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Men’s sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men’s salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men’s sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818

  6. Estimated daily intake and hazard quotients and indices of phthtalate diesters for young danish men.

    PubMed

    Kranich, Selma K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Because of wide exposure to phthalates, we investigated whether simultaneous exposure to several phthalates reached levels that might cause adverse antiandrogenic effects. Thirty three healthy young Danish men each delivered three 24-h urine samples during a three months period. The daily intakes of the sum of di-n-butyl and di-iso-butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-iso-nonyl phthalate, and butylbenzyl phthalate were estimated based on urinary excretion of the metabolites. Based on a hazard quotient (HQ) of the individual phthalate (i.e., the ratio between the daily intake and an acceptable level of exposure), a hazard index (HI) for each man was calculated as the sum of HQs for the individual phthalates. All men were exposed to all phthalates during the urine collection periods. Median HIs were all below 1 (i.e., below an acceptable cumulative threshold) ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 over the three different sample collections. Of the 33 men, 2 men had HIs above 1 in one of their three samples, indicating that occasionally the combined exposure to the investigated phthalates reached a level that may not be considered safe. Besides the phthalates investigated here, humans are exposed to numerous other chemicals that also may contribute to a cumulative antiandrogenic exposure.

  7. Some physiological and psychological characteristics of myopic and non-myopic young men.

    PubMed

    Pärssinen, O; Era, P; Leskinen, A L

    1985-01-01

    As a part of a research project on the health and functional capacity of men at different ages a comparison of selected physiological and psychological characteristics of myopic and non-myopic 31-35 year-old men was made. The random sample studied consisted of 31 myopic and 100 non-myopic men. It was found that the body mass index and fat content were lower among the myopic than among the non-myopic. No significant differences were found in the elastic properties of skin, in blood pressure or in haematological assays studied between the groups. With respect to physical performance it was observed that the myopic had a higher aerobic capacity whereas there were no significant differences in muscular strength between the groups. In the psychological functions the myopic had a higher level in certain tests of intelligence. In the ophthalmological examination there were no significant differences between the groups in corrected vision, in eye tension and in dark adaptation. The amplitude of accommodation was 0.6-0.9 D. wider among the myopic. The results indicated some differences in physical and psychological characteristics between myopic and non-myopic young men. The differences could mainly be explained by differences in education and in physical activity during leisure.

  8. HIV Stigma and the Experiences of Young Men with Voluntary and Routine HIV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Rod; Small, Will; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2015-01-01

    As routine HIV testing approaches are implemented to enhance participation rates in HIV testing, it is often widely believed that these approaches are socially and ethically justifiable given the underlying assumption that these practices will result in the widespread reduction of HIV-related stigma. Nonetheless, a variety of empirical and theoretical gaps regarding how HIV testing practices may impact HIV stigma remain, raising questions about the social underpinnings of the public health rationale. We draw on 50 interviews with 18-24-year-old men to determine how HIV-related stigma is experienced differentially across subgroups of young men in relation to both voluntary and routine testing practices. Men's experiences with routine testing highlight how (mis)interpretations of universal, routine testing practices may serve to (unintentionally) burden disadvantaged population subgroups of men; however, when sufficiently explicated, the universal dimension of a routine offer greatly diminished these concerns. These findings also highlight that, under the right conditions, a routine offer can provide transformative opportunities for individuals to reconceptualise expectations pertaining to HIV and HIV-related stigma. PMID:26382632

  9. Perception of masculinity amongst young Malaysian men: a qualitative study of university students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perception of Masculinity plays an important role in men’s lifestyles and health behaviors. Although, the importance of masculinity has been widely discussed in men’s health literature, very little is known about the meanings of masculinity in the Malaysian setting. This research aimed to explore the meanings of masculinity among Malaysian university men. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 34 young Malaysian university men, aged 20–30 years from three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Thematic analysis approach was used to extract data. NVIVO v8 qualitative software was used for data management. Results From the data collected several concepts emerged that reflected the meanings of masculinity from the participants’ view points. These meanings were associated with a combination of traditional and non-traditional norms that generally benefit men who behave according to culturally dominant role expectations. These included: “Having a good body shape”, “being respected”, “having success with women”, “being a family man”, and “having financial independence”. Socio-cultural factors, such as family environment, religion, public media and popular life style patterns helped to shape and reinforce the meanings of masculinities among university men. Conclusions This study revealed that the university context provided a particular culture for construction and reinforcement of the meanings of masculinities, which should be considered by the educators to help in development of healthy masculinities. PMID:24215138

  10. A qualitative study of Thai HIV-positive young men who have sex with men and transgender women demonstrates the need for eHealth interventions to optimize the HIV care continuum.

    PubMed

    Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Kerr, Stephen J; Muessig, Kathryn E; Promthong, Sangusa; Chomchey, Nitiya; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Chaiyahong, Prachya; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-02-03

    In Thailand, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women (TG) are disproportionately affected by HIV and have suboptimal care continuum outcomes. Although Thai YMSM and young TG are early adopters of emerging technologies and have high Internet and technology access and utilization, the potential of technology has not been harnessed to optimize the HIV treatment cascade. We interviewed 18 behaviorally HIV-infected YMSM and young TG regarding care challenges, identified how eHealth could address care needs, and elicited preferences for eHealth interventions. Participants reported struggling with individual and societal-level stigma which negatively impacted linkage to and retention in care, and antiretroviral therapy adherence. YMSM and young TG described inadequate in-person support services and heavily relied on random online resources to fill information and support gaps, but sometimes viewed them as untrustworthy or inconsistent. Participants universally endorsed the development of eHealth resources and proposed how they could ameliorate individual-level fears over stigma and improve public perceptions about HIV. Personalized and integrated eHealth interventions with interactive, user-driven structures, credible content, rewards for engagement, real-time counseling and reminder support could help overcome barriers YMSM and young TG face in traditional HIV healthcare systems and have the potential to improve care outcomes.

  11. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males.

  12. Negative affect words prime beer consumption in young drinkers.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X; Fragopoulos, Fofo; Woodford, Tracy M; MacLeod, Colin M

    2006-01-01

    Negative affect is consistently associated with pathological aspects of alcohol use. Priming of motivation for alcohol by negative affect cues may contribute to this relationship. This study sought to determine whether: (a) exposure to negative affect words primes actual drinking behavior; (b) this effect is related to severity of alcohol problems; and (c) these effects are moderated by gender and anxiety sensitivity. Prime words (negative, positive, neutral) were administered using a synonym generation task. Primed drinking behavior was measured in a taste-test procedure, using placebo beer. Drinking scores were significantly greater in the negative affect condition than in the other two conditions, which did not differ from each other. Problem drinking severity directly predicted priming effects of negative affect words but was unrelated to drinking in the other two word prime conditions. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to drinking in any condition. Even unobtrusive exposure to negative affect cues can prime drinking behavior in young drinkers, and this effect is tied to the severity of alcohol problems.

  13. [THE CORRECTION WITH NOOPHEN OF AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION IN YOUNG MEN WITH HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Knyazkova, I I; Kuzminova, N V; Osovskaya, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antihypertensive therapy with adding of gamma-amino-beta-phenylbutyric acid hydrochloride on the autonornic regulation of tcardiovascular system and the psychoemotional status in young men with hypertension. The study included 58 male with hypertension, aged 18-39 years (mean age 31.7 yearst 2.3 years), of them 28 patients (group I) administered beta-blocker and the other received a complex therapy which included beta-blocker and gamma-amino-beta-phenylbutyric acid hydrochiotide--Noofen ("OlainFarm", Latvia) 250 mg 3 times a day for 4 weeks. The control group consisted of 20 healthy indi&iduals aged 18-39 years (mean age 31.5 years +/- 2.5 years). The examination included of standard clinical; biochemical and instrumental investigatIons. We conducted a clinical measurement of blorid pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), Doppler echocardiography, heart rate variability, autononlic symptoms questionnaire and Spielberger--Hanina Anxiety Scale. Analysis of circadian blbod pressure profile arid autonomic nervous system state in young men with hypertension, in spite of the short disenle history demonstratnl violations of the blood pressure circadian rhythm associated with the violation of the autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system as indreased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity heart tate. In hypertensive patients with autonomic dysfunction we noted a reduction of level of mental health, which was reflected in an increase in'the number of people with high and moderate levels of reactive and personal anxiety It has been demonstratedthat the use of combination therapy with adding Noofen in young hypertensive men and autonomic dysfunction helped significantly improve the HRV parameters and restore autonomic balance on time parameters of heart rate variability reduced the level of reactive anxiety and imprdved the psychoemotional state.

  14. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J; Maurer, David G; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N

    2015-02-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05), indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during nonfatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men.

  15. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation does not augment submaximal forearm exercise hyperemia in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Moore, David J.; Maurer, David G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Basu, Swati; Flanagan, Michael P.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Proctor, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12.9 mmol (0.8 g) of nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet-It Sport) on 2 study visits. At 3 h postconsumption, brachial artery diameter, flow, and blood velocity were measured (Doppler ultrasound) at rest and during 6 exercise intensities. Nitrate supplementation raised plasma nitrate (19.5-fold) and nitrite (1.6-fold) concentrations, and lowered resting arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) versus placebo (all p < 0.05) indicating absorption, conversion, and a biological effect of this supplement. The supplement-associated lowering of PWV was also negatively correlated with plasma nitrite (r = -0.72, p = 0.0127). Despite these systemic effects, nitrate supplementation had no effect on brachial artery diameter, flow, or shear rates at rest (all p ≥ 0.28) or during any exercise workload (all p ≥ 0.18). These findings suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation favorably modifies arterial PWV, but does not augment blood flow or brachial artery vasodilation during non-fatiguing forearm exercise in healthy young men. PMID:25536008

  16. Affective and physiological sexual response patterns: the effects of instructions on sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    Heiman, J R; Rowland, D L

    1983-01-01

    To more clearly characterize the patterns of cognitive-affective and physiological responses concomitant with male sexual dysfunction, the present study compared 14 sexually dysfunctional and 16 sexually functional men. All individuals listened to two sexually explicit tapes and engaged in a self-generated fantasy, while genital, heart rate and scaled cognitive affective responses were recorded. Two types of instructions, a performance demand set and a non-demand sensate focus set, preceded the erotic tapes in counterbalanced order. As predicted, dysfunctional men showed less genital tumescence to tapes preceded by the demand than the non-demand instructions. Contrary to expectation, functional men showed greater penile tumescence to the tapes preceded by demand instructions. Self-reported sexual arousal did not follow the penile tumescence pattern but instead indicated that the dysfunctional sample was significantly less subjectively aroused to the tapes and fantasy. There were other significant differences between the groups. Dysfunctional men showed greater general psychological distress, as measured by the SCL-90, including elevated somaticism, anxiety and depression scores. During the experimental session, dysfunctional men also evidenced greater awareness of a variety of physiological responses, as well as more negative and fewer positive cognitive-affective states. These data are discussed in terms of the interaction of affective and physiological responses, differences in contextual meanings of instructional sets given the presence of a dysfunction, and theoretical and clinical conceptualizations of male sexual functioning.

  17. Perceived Risks and Protective Strategies Employed by Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (YMSM) when Seeking Online Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Giguere, Rebecca; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Eisenberg, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined young men who have sex with men’s (YMSM) perceptions of risk regarding meeting sexual partners through the Internet. YMSM (N = 54; ages 18–29) who reported engaging in bareback sex (“intentional unprotected anal intercourse in high-risk contexts”) completed a structured assessment and a face-to-face interview. Participants reported using the Internet to meet sexual partners at least once per week, having had multiple sexual partners in the past two months (M = 10.50, SD = 9.25), and engaging in occasions of unprotected receptive (M = 5.35, SD = 6.76) and insertive (M = 5.06, SD = 10.11) anal intercourse. A third of the sample reported having had unprotected sex with a partner who was serodiscordant or of unknown serostatus. Despite the obvious HIV risks, the most commonly perceived risks included threats to physical safety and difficulties trusting a stranger. Risk reduction strategies included leaving information about partner and whereabouts with a friend, meeting in a public place, and screening partner through online chatting. YMSM who meet partners online may be at risk for physical violence in addition to HIV/STIs infection. Public health campaigns should increase awareness of safety concerns when meeting sexual partners online and support YMSM’s self-protective actions. PMID:20812127

  18. Are Young Women and Men with Rheumatoid Arthritis at Risk for Fragility Fractures? A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shreyasee; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective Older women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for fractures, but limited information is available on fracture risk in younger individuals with RA, and whether such risk occurs early following disease onset or only when older. We determined the risk for fractures in both young and older women and men following RA diagnosis. Methods We studied a population-based inception cohort with RA from Olmsted County, Minnesota. We identified 822 women and 349 men diagnosed with RA between 1955 and 2007 (308 women and 110 men diagnosed before age 50) and an equal number of paired non-RA subjects, matched by sex and birth year. Incident fractures were collected through review of complete (inpatient and outpatient) medical records available through the linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Results The hazard ratio (HR) [95% CI] for a non-pathologic fracture occurring from no more than moderate trauma was 1.63 [1.36–1.96] for women and 1.40 [1.02–1.93] for men with RA. Findings were consistent for women and men diagnosed with RA at age ≥ 50 years (HR: 1.43 [1.16–1.77] and 1.34 [0.92–1.94], respectively), or at age < 50 years (HR: 2.34 [1.61–3.42] and 1.74 [0.91–3.30], respectively). However, young women, but not young men, with RA were at increased fracture risk even before age 50 years (HR: 1.95 [1.08–3.51] and 0.82 [0.28–2.45], respectively). Conclusion Young men with RA are at increased risk for fractures only when older, whereas young women with RA have an elevated fracture risk even while still young. PMID:23950189

  19. Similar increases in strength after short-term resistance training due to different neuromuscular adaptations in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether differences in neuromuscular performance and muscle hypertrophy occur between young and older men. Twenty-three young (29 ± 9 years) and 26 older men (64 ± 8 years) completed 10 weeks of high-volume, medium load "hypertrophic" resistance training with low frequency (twice per week) with 10 young (34 ± 11 years) and 11 older men (65 ± 3 years) acting as nontraining control subjects. Training consisted of 2-5 sets of 8-14 repetitions (1- to 2-minute rest). Lower-limb dynamic (leg press) and isometric maximum leg extension force, as well as lower-limb lean mass and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area were assessed before and after the training period. Training led to significant increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg press performance in both training groups (young: 13 ± 7%, p < 0.001; older: 14 ± 9%, p < 0.001). Performance improvements were accompanied by increased muscle activation, assessed by voluntary activation level (29 ± 51%, p ≤ 0.05) and electromyography amplitude (35 ± 51%, p < 0.01) in older men only. Conversely, only young men showed significantly increased lower-limb lean mass (2.4 ± 2.5%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, increases in 1RM performance and lower-limb lean mass were significantly related in young men only (r = 0.524, p = 0.01, n = 23). In conclusion, although high-volume, medium load "hypertrophic" resistance training may induce similar improvements in strength between young and older men, it appears that different mechanisms underpin these improvements.

  20. Health and social precursors of unemployment in young men in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S M; Bartley, M J; Cook, D G; Wadsworth, M E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify health and socioeconomic factors in childhood that are precursors of unemployment in early adult life and to examine the hypothesis that young men who become unemployed are more likely to have accumulated risks to health during childhood. DESIGN: Longitudinal birth cohort study. The amount of unemployment experienced in early adult life up to age 32 years was the outcome measure used. Exposure measures to indicate vulnerability to future ill health were: height at age 7 years and the Bristol social adjustment guide (BSAG) at age 11 years, a measure of behavioural maladjustment. Socioeconomic measures were: social class at birth, crowding at age 7, qualifications attained before labour market entry, and region of residence. SETTING: Great Britain. SUBJECTS: Altogether 2256 men with complete data from the national child development study (NCDS). The NCDS has collected data on all men and women born in one week in 1958 and has followed them up using interviews, self completion questionnaires, and medical examinations at birth and at ages 7, 11, 16, 23 and 33 years. RESULTS: A total of 269 men (11.9%) experienced more than one year of unemployment between ages 22 and 32 years. Poor socioeconomic conditions in childhood and a lack of qualifications were associated with an increased risk of unemployment. Geographical region was also significant in determining the risk of unemployment. Men with short stature and poor social adjustment in childhood were more likely to experience unemployment in adult life, even after controlling for socioeconomic background, education, and parental height. These differences remained when those with chronic childhood illnesses were excluded from the analysis. The adjusted relative odds for experiencing more than one year of unemployment between ages 22 and 32 years for men who were in the top fifth of the BSAG distribution (most maladjusted) compared with those in the bottom fifth were 2.36 (95% CI 1.49, 3.73). The

  1. Prospective Study of Rape Perpetration by Young South African Men: Incidence & Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama Shai, Nwabisa; Dunkle, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been very little prospective research on rape perpetration among men. This paper describes the incidence and risk factors for new rape and attempted rape events among young South African men in an HIV prevention trial. Methods We followed 1,147 men aged 15–26 years who enrolled into a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the HIV prevention behavioural intervention Stepping Stones. Incidence rate ratios for factors associated with incident rape were derived from Poisson models. Results The young men reported 217 incident rapes (completed or attempted) of a girl or woman over 1,914 person years of follow up, yielding a rape incidence of 11.2 per 100 person years. Overall 24.9% of men had previously raped at baseline, and 18.9% did so during the follow up. Among the latter, 61.3% raped for the first time, and 38.7% re-offended. Multivariable Poisson modelling showed a higher incidence of rape perpetration among men who had ever used drugs (IRR 1.86 95%CI 1.39, 2.49), had eight or more lifetime partners (IRR 1.48 95% CI 1.09, 2.01), had been physically violent toward a female partner (IRR 1.50 95%CI 1.11, 2.03) and had disclosed rape perpetration at baseline (IRR 1.45 95%CI 1.07, 1.97). A lower incidence was found among those with greater resistance to peer pressure (IRR 0.85 95%CI 0.74, 0.97). Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of male gender socialisation and addressing delinquent youth sub-cultures in rape prevention. Prevention requires change in hegemonic masculinity, with its emphasis on gender hierarchy, exaggerated performance of heterosexuality and control of women. Interventions are needed to address male socialisation with delinquent peers, by reducing exposure to childhood trauma and strengthening opportunities for gainful employment (in work or recreation). PMID:22675449

  2. Experiences of Antihomosexual Attitudes and Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the South: A Need for Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ricks, JaNelle M.; McGladrey, Margaret; Crosby, Richard A.; Mena, Leandro A.; Ottmar, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In 2012, Jackson, Mississippi, had the third highest incidence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). The goal of this qualitative study (the initial phase of an HIV prevention clinical trial) was to explore how cultural norms regarding antihomosexual attitudes interfere with the safe sex practices and relationship norms of young Black MSM in Mississippi. Methods: Nine focus groups (N = 54) were conducted with young Black MSM aged 18–29. Participants were recruited through medical providers at local sexually transmitted infection clinics and through community organizers at local LGBT outreach programs. The data were analyzed through the use of grounded theory, multiple coders for consistency and intercoder reliability, and a qualitative data analysis software. Results: Three major themes were identified during the analysis: (1) resiliency and condom use, (2) inconsistent condom use among closeted young Black MSM, and (3) intimate partner violence (IPV) among closeted young Black MSM. Black MSM in Mississippi continue to be highly stigmatized within their social networks (i.e., families, sexual partners, and community). Conclusions: The findings suggest that cultural and community norms regarding antihomosexual attitudes may be a barrier to the practices of safe sex and a contributing factor to IPV among young Black MSM. There is a need for tailored interventions that address these cultural norms and establish social and community support for young Black MSM in Mississippi. PMID:26886074

  3. Sex differences in the perception of affective facial expressions: do men really lack emotional sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Montagne, Barbara; Kessels, Roy P C; Frigerio, Elisa; de Haan, Edward H F; Perrett, David I

    2005-06-01

    There is evidence that men and women display differences in both cognitive and affective functions. Recent studies have examined the processing of emotions in males and females. However, the findings are inconclusive, possibly the result of methodological differences. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of emotional facial expressions in men and women. Video clips of neutral faces, gradually morphing into full-blown expressions were used. By doing this, we were able to examine both the accuracy and the sensitivity in labelling emotional facial expressions. Furthermore, all participants completed an anxiety and a depression rating scale. Research participants were 40 female students and 28 male students. Results revealed that men were less accurate, as well as less sensitive in labelling facial expressions. Thus, men show an overall worse performance compared to women on a task measuring the processing of emotional faces. This result is discussed in relation to recent findings.

  4. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.

  5. Risk and protective factors related to HIV-risk behavior: a comparison between HIV-positive and HIV-negative young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Forney, Jason C; Miller, Robin L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among young HIV-negative (n=8064) and HIV-positive (n=171) men who have sex with men (MSM) on predictors of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Using venue-based time-space sampling, 8235 MSM aged 15-25 were anonymously surveyed as a part of the Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY). The Project was conducted in 13 communities across the USA from 1999 to 2002. Forty percent of HIV-positive men and 34% of HIV-negative men reported that they had UAI in the previous 3 months. HIV-positive MSM were more likely than their uninfected peers to have traded sex within the previous year, to have had sex while high during their last sexual encounter, and to have UAI with a greater number of partners. Multivariate analyses indicated that for HIV-negative men, positive peer norms regarding safer sex and being Black or Latino predicted avoidance of UAI. Among HIV-positive men, having social support for safer sex and positive peer norms predicted avoidance of UAI. Young HIV-positive MSM are a relevant subgroup for prevention because they constitute a significant source from which future infections could be generated.

  6. From Fathers to Sons: The Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoffrey L; Kogan, Steven M; Kim, Jihyoung

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of fathering among young, African American fathers in rural communities. A sample of 132 African American young men living in the rural South reported on the quality of their relationship with their biological and social fathers in the family of origin, their own involvement with their young children, and relational schemas of close, intimate relationships. Results of path analyses supported the hypothesized mediational model, such that a better relationship with one's biological (but not social) father predicted increased father involvement in the next generation, and this association was partially mediated through positive relational schema after controlling for a range of covariates. Tests of moderated mediation indicated that the link between relational schema and father involvement was significantly stronger among fathers of girls than fathers of boys. Findings highlight the unique influence of close, nurturing father-child relationships for downstream father involvement, and the role of relational schemas as a mechanism for intergenerational transmission among young, rural, African American fathers of girls.

  7. Anaerobic power of the arms and legs of young and older men.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G D; Paterson, D H; Govindasamy, D; Cunningham, D A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the anaerobic exercise performance of young and older men. Eight healthy, active older (68.5 +/- 2.4 years old, mean S.D.) and eight healthy, active young (30.6 +/- 4.5 years old) subjects were assessed for peak and mean power output (PP and MP, respectively) of the legs and arms, during 30 s Wingate tests. PP during leg exercise was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the young (14.6 +/- 1.6 W kg-1) compared with the older (10.7 +/- 1.0 W kg-1) group. MP of the legs was also greater in the young subjects (10.7 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 W kg-1). These differences in PP and MP remained significant when expressed relative to lean leg volume. PP during arm cranking was significantly greater in the young subjects (8.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.6 W kg-1) as was MP (6.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.7 W kg-1). Post-exercise blood lactate concentration in the older group (7.0 +/- 1.6 mmol l-1) was less (P < 0.05) than in the young group (10.6 +/- 2.0 mmol l-1), for leg work only. The significant loss of anaerobic power in the older group could not be explained by a difference in muscle mass. Power output was also lower in the arms, but to a lesser extent. The results of this study suggest that a reduction in the ability to perform high intensity exercise may be an inevitable consequence of ageing. The extent, however, of this decline varies with different muscle groups.

  8. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Virologically Detectable Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Kahana, Shoshana Y.; Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Harper, Gary W.; Mayer, Kenneth; Wilson, Craig M.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses continue to increase among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Many YMSM living with HIV engage in sexual risk behaviors, and those who have a detectable viral load can transmit HIV to sex partners. Understanding factors that are related to sexual risk taking among virologically detectable (VL+) YMSM can inform prevention and treatment efforts. Objectives To describe differences between virologically suppressed (VL−) and VL+ YMSM living with HIV and to identify correlates of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and serodiscordant CAI among VL+ YMSM. Design, Setting, and Participants In this cross-sectional survey conducted from December 1, 2009, through June 30, 2012, we studied 991 HIV-infected YMSM 15 to 26 years of age at 20 adolescent HIV clinics in the United States. Data analysis was conducted December 1, 2013, through July 31, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures Demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial assessments obtained using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Viral load information was obtained via blood draw or medical record abstraction. Results Of the 991 participants, 688 (69.4%) were VL+ and 458 (46.2%) reported CAI, with 310 (31.3%) reporting serodiscordant CAI in the past 3 months. The VL+ YMSM were more likely than the VL− YMSM to report CAI (detectable, 266 [54.7%]; suppressed, 91 [44.4%]; P = .01) and serodiscordant CAI (detectable, 187 [34.9%]; suppressed, 57 [25.0%]; P < .01). Multivariable analyses indicated that among VL+ YMSM, those reporting problematic substance use were more likely to report CAI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.10) and serodiscordant CAI (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.99). Black VL+ YMSM were less likely to report CAI (AOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44-0.90) or serodiscordant CAI (AOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.94) compared with other VL+ YMSM. In addition, VL+ YMSM who disclosed their HIV status to sex partners were more likely to report CAI compared with

  9. Sexual risk behaviors among apps-using young men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Ng, Yu Leung

    2016-01-01

    This study is among the first to examine the sexual risk behaviors and attendant factors of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Hong Kong using location-aware gay social networking mobile applications ("gay apps"). Among the 213 YMSM (Mage = 21.52, SD = 2.29 years, range 17-25) who reported their recent (past six months) sexual history with male partners and gay apps use, inconsistent condom use (ICU) during anal sex was fairly common (60.2% regular partners, 45.8% non-regular partners). One-fifth of the sample reported condomless internal ejaculation (CIE) during anal sex (19.3% insertive, 19.8% receptive). Frequent "Grindr" and "Jack'd" users were less likely to report anal sex, and hence ICU, with regular [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.72] and non-regular (AOR = 0.62) partners, respectively. Sexual partnering via apps doubled the odds of ICU with both regular (AOR = 1.99) and non-regular (AOR = 2.17) partners. The odds of ICU with regular partners also increased with relationship status (AOR = 2.86 exclusive, AOR = 3.23 non-exclusive) but reduced for those who never had STI/HIV testing (AOR = 0.27). With non-regular partners, YMSM's likelihood of ICU increased with more recent partners (AOR = 3.25) and drug use (AOR = 3.79), but reduced with group sex (AOR = 0.15). The odds of receptive CIE increased with alcohol consumption (AOR = 4.04), non-exclusive relationship (AOR = 4.10), and more recent partners (AOR = 2.47), but reduced with group sex (AOR = 0.15) and older age (AOR = 0.84). For insertive CIE, the odds increased with bisexual YMSM (AOR = 2.89), exclusive relationship (AOR = 3.97), and longtime apps-use (AOR = 1.81). The findings identify meaningful differences among YMSM app-users that inform sexual health intervention and suggest attention on alcohol or drug use during sex and condomless sex with non-exclusive regular partners.

  10. Race-based differentials of the impact of mental health and stigma on HIV risk among young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the US, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, with YMSM of color being the most impacted by the epidemic. Methods To advance prevention research, we examined race-based differences in gay-related stress in conjunction with the moderating role of mental health on substance use and sexual risk among 206 high-risk YMSM, recruited September 2007–2010. Results Negative binomial regressions and three-way interaction graphs indicated that psychological distress and acute gay-related stigma placed all participants at most risk for HIV acquisition. Low psychological distress appeared to “buffer” all YMSM against HIV risk, while the reverse was evidenced for those reporting low gay-related stigma and psychological distress. YMSM of color reported more risk behavior, and less decreases in risk with attenuated psychological distress, compared to white YMSM. We hypothesize these trends to be associated with experiencing multiple stigmatized identities, indicating points of intervention for YMSM of color to achieve positive identity integration. There were sharper increases in HIV risk behavior for white YMSM with increasing gay-related stigma than for YMSM of color, which could be attributed to the latter’s prolonged exposure to discrimination necessitating building coping skills to manage the influx of adversity. Conclusions Emphases on: 1) identity-based interventions for YMSM of color; and 2) skills-based interventions for white YMSM should supplement existing successful HIV-risk reduction programs. Lastly, mental health needs to be a target of intervention, as it constitutes a protective factor against HIV risk for all YMSM. PMID:25545041

  11. Epic Allies: Development of a Gaming App to Improve Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Young HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, Kathryn Elizabeth; McNulty, Tobias; Soni, Karina; Knudtson, Kelly; Lemann, Alex; Nwoko, Nkechinyere; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men (YMSM). For HIV-positive individuals, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for achieving optimal health outcomes and reducing secondary transmission of HIV. However, YMSM often struggle with ART adherence. Novel mobile phone apps that incorporate game-based mechanics and social networking elements represent a promising intervention approach for improving ART adherence among YMSM. Objective This study used a multiphase, iterative development process to create an ART adherence app for YMSM. Methods The three-phase development process included: (1) theory-based concept development jointly by public health researchers and the technology team, (2) assessment of the target population’s ART adherence needs and app preferences and development and testing of a clickable app prototype, and (3) development and usability testing of the final app prototype. Results The initial theory-based app concept developed in Phase One included medication reminders, daily ART adherence tracking and visualization, ART educational modules, limited virtual interactions with other app users, and gamification elements. In Phase Two, adherence needs, including those related to information, motivation, and behavioral skills, were identified. Participants expressed preferences for an ART adherence app that was informational, interactive, social, and customizable. Based on the findings from Phase Two, additional gaming features were added in Phase Three, including an interactive battle, superhero app theme, and app storyline. Other features were modified to increase interactivity and customization options and integrate the game theme. During usability testing of the final prototype, participants were able to understand and navigate the app successfully and rated the app favorably. Conclusions An iterative development process was critical for the

  12. Maximal strength, muscular endurance and inflammatory biomarkers in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Vaara, J P; Vasankari, T; Fogelholm, M; Häkkinen, K; Santtila, M; Kyröläinen, H

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to study associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with inflammatory biomarkers independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in those with and without abdominal obesity. 686 young healthy men participated (25±5 years). Maximal strength was measured via isometric testing using dynamo-meters to determine maximal strength index. Muscular endurance index consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect cycle ergometer test until exhaustion was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). Participants were stratified according to those with (>102 cm) and those without abdominal obesity (<102 cm) based on waist circumference. Inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were analysed from serum samples. Maximal strength and muscular endurance were inversely associated with IL-6 in those with (β=-0.49, -0.39, respectively) (p<0.05) and in those without abdominal obesity (β=-0.08, -0.14, respectively) (p<0.05) adjusted for smoking and cardio-respiratory fitness. After adjusting for smoking and cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal strength and muscular endurance were inversely associated with CRP only in those without abdominal obesity (β=-0.11, -0.26, respectively) (p<0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that muscular fitness is inversely associated with C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations in young adult men independent of cardiorespi-ratory fitness.

  13. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  14. Resilience processes demonstrated by young gay and bisexual men living with HIV: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G; Fernandez, M Isabel; Rood, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed.

  15. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J; Dela, Flemming; Madsbad, Sten; Vaag, Allan A

    2003-06-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp (HI), 40 mU/m(2) x min], 3-(3)H-glucose, indirect calorimetry, and iv glucose tolerance test. Free fatty acid concentrations were similar during basal steady state but 3.7- to 13-fold higher during clamps. P-glucagon increased and the insulin/glucagon ratio decreased at both LI and HI during Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but not in the nonoxidative) glucose metabolism in young healthy men. Moreover, insulin hypersecretion perfectly countered the free-fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Future studies are needed to determine the role of a prolonged moderate lipid load in subjects at increased risk of developing diabetes.

  16. Blood flow-restricted training does not improve jump performance in untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Ochi, E; Tomioka, Y; Nakazato, K; Ishii, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of blood flow-restricted training (BFRT) on jump performance in relation to changes in muscle strength. Seventeen untrained young men were assigned into either BFRT or normal training (NORT) groups and performed low-intensity [30-40% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] resistance exercise (horizontal squat, 3-4 sets × 15-30 repetitions) twice a week for 10 weeks. The BFRT performed the exercise with their proximal thighs compressed by air-pressure cuffs for the purpose of blood flow restriction. Squat 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps femoris, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were measured before and after the 10-wk training period. Squat 1RM increased greater in BFRT than in NORT (19.3% vs. 9.7%, P < 0.01). Although the CSA increase was independent of groups, it tended to be larger in BFRT than in NORT (8.3% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.094). On the other hand, CMJ height did not change after the training (P = 0.51). In conclusion, the present study showed that BFRT induced muscle hypertrophy and strength increase, whereas it did not increase CMJ height in previously untrained young men. It is suggested that BFRT is ineffective in improving jump performance.

  17. Resilience Processes Demonstrated by Young Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rood, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed. PMID:25329778

  18. Masculine norms about emotionality and social constraints in young and older adult men with cancer.

    PubMed

    Darabos, Katie; Hoyt, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Beliefs that men should restrict their display of emotions, or restrictive emotionality, might contribute to adjustment to cancer and this might be sensitive to social receptivity to disclosure. The present research examined relationships of restrictive emotionality, social constraints, and psychological distress in young adults with testicular cancer (N = 171; Study 1) and older men with prostate cancer (N = 66; Study 2). Study 1: positive associations were observed for social constraints and restrictive emotionality with depressive symptoms. Social constraints moderated the relationship, such that high restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms in those with high constraints. Study 2: only social constraints (and not restrictive emotionality) was positively associated with depressive symptoms and cancer-related intrusive thoughts. The social constraints × restrictive emotionality interaction approached significance with depressive symptoms, such with high social constraints low restrictive emotionality was associated with higher depressive symptoms compared to those with less constraints. No significant associations were found for intrusive thoughts in either study. Findings demonstrate unique relationships with psychological distress across the lifespan of men with cancer given perception of constraints and adherence to masculine norms about emotionality.

  19. Moderate stress enhances immediate and delayed retrieval of educationally relevant material in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Hupbach, Almut; Fieman, Rachel

    2012-12-01

    Retrieval practice is a powerful memory enhancer. However, in educational settings, test taking is often experienced as a stressful event. While it is known that stress can impair retrieval processes, little is known about the delayed consequences of testing memory for educationally relevant material under stressful conditions, which is the focus of the present study. Participants (38 women, 37 men) memorized a scientific text passage on Day 1. On Day 2, they were either exposed to a stressor (cold pressor test; CPS) or a warm water control, and immediately afterward, they were asked to recall the text passage (i.e., retrieval under stress vs. control). Salivary cortisol was measured as an index of the stress response before, and 20 min after the CPS versus control treatment. The delayed effects of testing under stress were assessed with a final recall test on Day 3. In comparison to the control condition, CPS caused significant increases in salivary cortisol, and, surprisingly resulted in enhanced memory in men. Importantly, this enhancement was not only observed in the test that immediately followed the stressor, but also in the delayed test. In women, CPS caused only marginal increases in cortisol concentrations, and retrieval remained unaffected. Our study suggests that moderate stress can improve memory performance for educationally relevant material in a long-lasting manner in healthy young men.

  20. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  1. Effects Of Moderate Sleep Deprivation and Low-Dose Alcohol On Driving Simulator Performance and Perception In Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Vakulin, A.; Baulk, S.D.; Catcheside, P.G.; Anderson, R.; van den Heuvel, C.J.; Banks, S.; McEvoy, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the combined effects of sleep restriction and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance, EEG, and subjective levels of sleepiness and performance in the mid-afternoon. Design: Repeated measures with 4 experimental conditions. Normal sleep without alcohol, sleep restriction alone (4 hours) and sleep restriction in combination with 2 different low blood alcohol concentrations (0.025 g/dL and 0.035 g/dL). Setting: Sleep Laboratory, Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health. Participants: Twenty-one healthy young men, aged 18–30 years, mean (±SD) = 22.5(±3.7) years, BMI = 25(±6.7) kg/m2; all had normal sleep patterns and were free of sleep disorders. Measurements: Participants completed a 70-minute simulated driving session, commencing at 14:00. Driving parameters included steering deviation, braking reaction time, and number of collisions. Alpha and theta EEG activity and subjective driving performance and sleepiness were also measured throughout the driving task. Results: All measures were significantly affected by time. Steering deviation increased significantly when sleep restriction was combined with the higher dose alcohol. This combination also resulted in a significant increase in alpha/theta EEG activity throughout the drive, as well as greater subjective sleepiness and negative driving performance ratings compared to control or sleep restriction alone. Discussion: These data indicate that combining low-dose alcohol with moderate sleep restriction results in significant decrements to subjective alertness and performance as well as to some driving performance and EEG parameters. This highlights the potential risks of driving after consumption of low and legal doses of alcohol when also sleep restricted. Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Anderson R; van den Heuvel CJ; Banks S; McEvoy RD. Effects of moderate sleep deprivation and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance and perception in young men. SLEEP

  2. Magnetic information affects the stellar orientation of young bird migrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weindler, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    WHEN young birds leave on their first migration, they are guided by innate information about their direction of migration. It is generally assumed that this direction is represented twice, namely with respect to celestial rotation and with respect to the Earth's magnetic field1,2. The interactions between the two cue systems have been analysed by exposing hand-raised young birds during the premigratory period to cue-conflict situations, in which celestial rotation and the magnetic field provided different information. Celestial rotation altered the course with respect to the magnetic field3-7, whereas conflicting magnetic information did not seem to affect the course with respect to the stars8,9. Celestial information thus seemed to dominate over magnetic information. Here we report that the interaction between the two cue systems is far more complex than this. Celestial rotation alone seems to provide only a tendency to move away from its centre (towards geographical south), which is then modified by information from the magnetic field to establish the distinctive, population-specific migratory direction.

  3. Erectile dysfunction in fit and healthy young men: psychological or pathological?

    PubMed

    Rastrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam. This is due to the widespread assumption that ED in younger individuals is a self-limiting condition, which does not deserve any clinical evaluation or therapy and can be managed only with patient reassurance. However, evidence shows that, in younger subjects, organic, psychological and relational conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of ED and all these conditions might be evaluated and treated, whenever necessary. Among the organic conditions contributing to the onset of ED, metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are surprisingly of particular relevance in this age group. In fact, in younger men with ED, even more than in older ones, recognizing CV risk factors or conditions suggestive of cardio-metabolic derangements can help identifying men who, although at low absolute risk due to young age, carry a high relative risk for development of CV events. In this view, the assessment of a possible organic component of ED even in younger individuals acquires a pivotal importance, because it offers the unique opportunity to unearth the presence of CV risk factors, thus allowing effective and high quality preventive interventions.

  4. Erectile dysfunction in fit and healthy young men: psychological or pathological?

    PubMed Central

    Rastrelli, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam. This is due to the widespread assumption that ED in younger individuals is a self-limiting condition, which does not deserve any clinical evaluation or therapy and can be managed only with patient reassurance. However, evidence shows that, in younger subjects, organic, psychological and relational conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of ED and all these conditions might be evaluated and treated, whenever necessary. Among the organic conditions contributing to the onset of ED, metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors are surprisingly of particular relevance in this age group. In fact, in younger men with ED, even more than in older ones, recognizing CV risk factors or conditions suggestive of cardio-metabolic derangements can help identifying men who, although at low absolute risk due to young age, carry a high relative risk for development of CV events. In this view, the assessment of a possible organic component of ED even in younger individuals acquires a pivotal importance, because it offers the unique opportunity to unearth the presence of CV risk factors, thus allowing effective and high quality preventive interventions. PMID:28217453

  5. Catch up in bone acquisition in young adult men with late normal puberty.

    PubMed

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Nilsson, Martin; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in relation to peak height velocity (PHV), and to investigate whether late normal puberty was associated with remaining low BMD and BMC in early adulthood in men. In total, 501 men (mean ± SD, 18.9 ± 0.5 years of age at baseline) were included in this 5-year longitudinal study. Areal BMD (aBMD) and BMC, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical bone size were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and pQCT. Detailed growth and weight charts were used to calculate age at PHV, an objective assessment of pubertal timing. Age at PHV was a strong positive predictor of the increase in aBMD and BMC of the total body (R(2) aBMD 11.7%; BMC 4.3%), radius (R(2) aBMD 23.5%; BMC 22.3%), and lumbar spine (R(2) aBMD 11.9%; BMC 10.5%) between 19 and 24 years (p < 0.001). Subjects were divided into three groups according to age at PHV (early, middle, and late). Men with late puberty gained markedly more in aBMD and BMC at the total body, radius, and lumbar spine, and lost less at the femoral neck (p < 0.001) than men with early puberty. At age 24 years, no significant differences in aBMD or BMC of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body were observed, whereas a deficit of 4.2% in radius aBMD, but not in BMC, was seen for men with late versus early puberty (p < 0.001). pQCT measurements of the radius at follow-up demonstrated no significant differences in bone size, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD were 0.7% (p < 0.001) and 4.8% (p < 0.05) lower in men with late versus early puberty. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that late puberty in males was associated with a substantial catch up in aBMD and BMC in young adulthood, leaving no deficits of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total body at age 24 years.

  6. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  7. Deconstructing the complexity of substance use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) by optimizing the role of qualitative strategies in a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative data can be a powerful tool in developing interventions for substance use and other HIV-risk behaviors. Mixed-methods design offers researchers the ability to obtain data that provides both breadth and depth to their research. However, the integration of qualitative data in mixed-methods research has been limited. This paper describes the qualitative design of the Healthy Young Men’s Study, a longitudinal mixed-method study with an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (N=526) in Los Angeles. Integral to this discussion is how a mixed-methods study can address common challenges such as sampling, representation and integration. PMID:20222783

  8. Strategies Used by Gay and Bisexual Young Men to Cope with Heterosexism

    PubMed Central

    McDavitt, Bryce; Iverson, Ellen; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Wong, Carolyn F.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the pervasiveness of heterosexism in the lives of gay and bisexual youth is well established, little is known about the strategies these youth use to cope with stigma and discrimination based on their sexual minority status. In this qualitative study, the authors present findings and implications for clinical practice based on interviews with 43 gay and bisexual young men. Respondents’ coping strategies are discussed in relation to current theory and research on coping with stigma, as well as the emerging field of emotion regulation. The narratives from the current study suggest that the emotion regulation paradigm is well suited to understanding the functions of strategies for coping with heterosexism and similar types of stigma. PMID:20967136

  9. Effects of prolonged hypertrophic resistance training on acute endocrine responses in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Santolamazza, Fabrizio; Kraemer, William; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared with before training (p < .05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = .596, p = .019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared with OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.

  10. Effects of Prolonged Hypertrophic Resistance Training on Acute Endocrine Responses in Young and Older Men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Santolamazza, Fabrizio; Kraemer, William; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-05-02

    The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared to before training (P < 0.05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = 0.596, P = 0.019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared to OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.

  11. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  12. The production of disability culture among young African-American men.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, Patrick J; Albrecht, Gary L; Hertz, Miram

    2007-05-01

    During the past two decades, debate about disability definitions, concepts, models and policies has been led primarily by Western white middle class disability activists and scholars. This paper contributes to the discussion by examining how disability is conceived and disability culture is developed in a poor, African-American community. The recognition of disability as a defining identity and disability culture as a cohesive force is unusual in the African-American community, and we ask what conditions are necessary for such an identity and culture to develop. To address this question, in 1998 we began a 5 year ethnographic research project concerning young African-American men in the spinal cord injury unit of an inner city rehabilitation hospital in Chicago USA. Based on this research, we argue that there are three necessary conditions for a disability culture to emerge in a group of African-Americans who acquired their disability violently. First, is the perception of social alienation from family and fellow gang members. Second, is immersion in a supportive physical and social environment where disability meanings are produced, reinforced and passed on across generations. Third, is the development of personal narratives and metaphors that give meaning to disability, anchor behavioral changes and help to reconcile value conflicts. Our analysis allows us to understand a change in identity among these young men and the emergence of a shared disability culture represented through signs, symbols, language, rules and ceremonies. This analytical framework also permits us to re-examine disability culture in white society and in specific disability cultures such as deaf culture and to suggest that while there are similarities across groups, disability culture is not monolithic.

  13. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  14. Y chromosome gr/gr subdeletion is associated with lower semen quality in young men from the general Japanese population but not in fertile Japanese Men.

    PubMed

    Sato, Youichi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Yamauchi, Aiko; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2014-06-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated whether Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions are associated with spermatogenic failure. However, the relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen quality in general population have not been elucidated. In this study, we assessed relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen parameters in 791 fertile Japanese men and 1221 young men from the general Japanese population. We found that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) was significantly associated with lower semen parameters, especially total motile sperm count (P = 0.00051, beta = -0.097), in men from the general population but not in fertile men. In addition, we found that the gr/gr subdeletion was associated with semen quality and in particular, strongly associated with decreased sperm motility (P = 0.00041, beta = -3.14) and total motile sperm count (P = 0.00031, beta = -0.099) in men from the general population but not in fertile men. The combined analysis of fertile Japanese men and men from the general Japanese population showed that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) and the gr/gr subdeletion were strongly associated with reduced sperm motility (P = 0.00056, beta = -2.71, and P = 7.7 × 10(-5), beta = -3.05, respectively) and that haplogroup O2b1 was strongly associated with elevated sperm motility (P = 0.00089, beta = 2.94). These observations add further support for the view that the gr/gr subdeletion diminishes sperm motility that consequently may result in male infertility.

  15. Utilizing Social Action Theory as a framework to determine correlates of illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Traube, Dorian E; Holloway, Ian W; Schrager, Sheree M; Kipke, Michele D

    2012-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. The final model possessed very good fit statistics (Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.936, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.925, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multitargeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use.

  16. Utilizing Social Action Theory as a Framework to Determine Correlates of Illicit Drug Use Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Traube, Dorian E.; Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to be at elevated risk for substance use; however, models explaining this phenomenon have often focused on a limited array of explanatory constructs. Purpose This study utilizes Social Action Theory (SAT) as a framework to address gaps in research by documenting the social, behavioral, and demographic risk factors associated with illicit drug use among YMSM. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to apply SAT to a cross-sectional sample of 526 men from the Healthy Young Men Study, a longitudinal study of substance use and sexual risk behavior among YMSM in Los Angeles. Results The final model possessed very good fit statistics (CFI = 0.936, TLI = 0.925, RMSEA = 0.040) indicating that SAT is appropriate for use with YMSM. Conclusions Substance use interventions for YMSM could be enhanced by employing SAT as conceptualized in this study and using a multi-targeted strategy for impacting illicit drug use. PMID:21644802

  17. Risks and music - patterns among young women and men in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, M C; Sorbring, E; Widén, S E; Erlandsson, S I

    2011-01-01

    Music and high levels of sound have not traditionally been associated with risk-taking behaviors. Loud music may intensify and bring more power and meaning to the musical experience, but it can at the same time be harmful to hearing. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about young women's and men's risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ was used with additional questions on hearing risks and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behavior scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. Also, the factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender. The results are discussed from a gender- and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behavior needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence.

  18. Information Behavior and HIV Testing Intentions Among Young Men at Risk for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A

    2014-03-01

    Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior-as opposed to knowledge-and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health information. We examine the associations between information behavior and HIV testing intentions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a group with high rates of unrecognized HIV infection. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict intentions to seek HIV testing in an online sample of 163 YMSM. Multiple regression and recursive path analysis were used to test two models: (a) the basic TPB model and (b) an adapted model that added the direct effects of three information behaviors (information exposure, use of information to make HIV-testing decisions, prior experience obtaining an HIV test) plus self-rated HIV knowledge. As hypothesized, our adapted model improved predictions, explaining more than twice as much variance as the original TPB model. The results suggest that information behaviors may be more important predictors of health behavior intentions than previously acknowledged.

  19. Risk factors for distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young men with normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Torre, Peter; Dreisbach, Laura E; Kopke, Richard; Jackson, Ron; Balough, Ben

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of risk factors on distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in young adult men with normal hearing. Four hundred thirty-six United States Marine recruit men (mean age = 19.2 years +/- 1.8 years; age range = 17-29 years) participated in this study. Questionnaires were given to each recruit to obtain demographic data and history of noise exposure, solvent exposure, smoking history, and hearing-related histories. Otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone air-conduction audiometry (2.0-8.0 kHz) and DPOAEs (2.3-8.0 kHz) were measured. DPOAE levels were lower in Not Hispanic or Latino recruits, in heavy smokers, in recruits who reported loud live music exposure and ringing in their ears after noise exposure. These differences were not statistically significant at all frequencies. Recruits with multiple risk factors had the lowest DPOAEs as compared to recruits with fewer, or no, risk factors; these differences were not statistically significant. Obtaining risk factor data as part of an audiometric evaluation is important even though the individual may have normal hearing.

  20. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  1. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Reifenrath, T A; Uhl, N L; Parsons, K A; Sharp, R L; King, D S

    2000-09-01

    The effects of androgen precursors, combined with herbal extracts designed to enhance testosterone formation and reduce conversion of androgens to estrogens was studied in young men. Subjects performed 3 days of resistance training per week for 8 weeks. Each day during Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, subjects consumed either placebo (PL; n = 10) or a supplement (ANDRO-6; n = 10), which contained daily doses of 300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg DHEA, 750 mg Tribulus terrestris, 625 mg Chrysin, 300 mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540 mg Saw palmetto. Serum androstenedione concentrations were higher in ANDRO-6 after 2, 5, and 8 weeks (p <.05), while serum concentrations of free and total testosterone were unchanged in both groups. Serum estradiol was elevated at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 in ANDRO-6 (p <.05), and serum estrone was elevated at Weeks 5 and 8 (p <.05). Muscle strength increased (p <.05) similarly from Weeks 0 to 4, and again from Weeks 4 to 8 in both treatment groups. The acute effect of one third of the daily dose of ANDRO-6 and PL was studied in 10 men (23 +/- 4 years). Serum androstenedione concentrations were elevated (p <.05) in ANDRO-6 from 150 to 360 min after ingestion, while serum free or total testosterone concentrations were unchanged. These data provide evidence that the addition of these herbal extracts to androstenedione does not result in increased serum testosterone concentrations, reduce the estrogenic effect of androstenedione, and does not augment the adaptations to resistance training.

  2. Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dey, M; Soldati, L; Weiss, M G; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2014-10-01

    Personality and its potential role in mediating risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidality are assessed by sexual orientation, using data collected among young Swiss men (n=5875) recruited while presenting for mandatory military conscription. Mental health outcomes were analyzed by sexual attraction using logistic regression, controlling for five-factor model personality traits and socio-demographics. Homo/bisexual men demonstrated the highest scores for neuroticism-anxiety but the lowest for sociability and sensation seeking, with no differences for aggression-hostility. Among homo/bisexual men, 10.2% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for major depression in the past 2weeks, 10.8% for ADHD in the past 12months, 13.8% for lifetime anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and 6.0% attempted suicide in the past 12months. Upon adjusting (AOR) for personality traits, their odds ratios (OR) for major depression (OR=4.78, 95% CI 2.81-8.14; AOR=1.46, 95% CI 0.80-2.65) and ADHD (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.31-3.58; AOR=1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.75) lost statistical significance, and the odds ratio for suicide attempt was halved (OR=5.10, 95% CI 2.57-10.1; AOR=2.42, 95% CI 1.16-5.02). There are noteworthy differences in personality traits by sexual orientation, and much of the increased mental morbidity appears to be accounted for by such underlying differences, with important implications for etiology and treatment.

  3. "I Think Boys Would Rather Be Alpha Male": Being Male and Sexual Health Experiences of Young Men from a Deprived Area in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, F.; Bristow, K.; Robertson, S.; Norman, R.; Litva, A.; Stanistreet, D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the experiences of young men aged 16-19, living in an area of high deprivation, when accessing local sexual health services. Design: A qualitative design drawing on ethnographic methods. Setting: A local college. Methods: A multi-method approach was adopted using: one-to-one semi-structured interviews with young men and…

  4. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  5. Meal patterns and food choices of young African-American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life.

    PubMed

    Savoca, Margaret R; Martine, Tara L; Morton, Tiffany B; Johnson, Lakeisha T; Bell, Nancy M; Aronson, Robert E; Wallace, Debra C

    2011-09-01

    Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American men. This study explored the activities of young African-American men to identify opportunities to increase healthful food choices. A purposive sample was recruited that included five groups of African-American men aged 15 to 22 years (N=106): high school athletes and nonathletes, college athletes and nonathletes, and nonstudents. A structured interview guided participants through a description of their activities, meal patterns, and food choices during the course of a typical weekday. Common elements emerged that provided a contextual view of the participant meal patterns and food choices. These elements were sports team participation, college employment, school as a food source, nonstudent status, and eating dinner at home. These findings suggest opportunities for the design of dietary interventions for young African-American men that take into consideration how school, athletics, and employment may influence opportunities to eat regular meals that include healthful foods.

  6. “What Could Have Been Different”: A Qualitative Study of Syndemic Theory and HIV Prevention among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Thomas; Johnson, Amy K.; Garofalo, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) experience multiple health disparities, including alcohol and drug use, partner violence, victimization due to sexual orientation, and HIV infection. Syndemic theorists explain the clustering of these disparities among adult MSM as a result of cultural marginalization. To date, research on a similar emerging syndemic among young MSM has been limited to quantitative studies. This study seeks to better understand these disparities, and how they may cluster together, via qualitative interviews with 21 ethnically diverse, HIV infected young MSM aged 18–24 years old. These youth report a lack of gay-specific HIV prevention education, absence of role models, and lack of productive future goal-related activities as factors related to their acquisition of HIV, and downplay substance use as a factor. Although not necessarily the components traditionally cited by syndemic theorists, these findings support the notion that multiple factors of cultural marginalization cluster together in the lives of young MSM, and underscore the importance of community-level interventions, such as sexual health education, access to mentors, and assistance with future goal setting and planning. PMID:24244112

  7. The Impact of Child Maltreatment and Family Violence on the Sexual, Reproductive, and Parenting Behaviors of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paluzzi, Patricia; Kahn, Abby

    2007-01-01

    The phrase, "Boys will be Boys" is often given as a tongue-in-cheek response to aggressive or "boyish" behavior; the kind of roughhousing or bullying more often tolerated--or even encouraged--among boys than girls. Such a strict and outmoded definition of masculinity serves as one major barrier to boys and young men who seek the opportunity to…

  8. Tracing Variations within "Rural Habitus": An Explanation of Why Young Men Stay or Leave Isolated Rural Towns in Southwest Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funnell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An explanation is presented about what keeps young men in isolated rural areas. The purpose is to contribute a concrete analysis of habitus as used in educational research. Inadequacies in application of the term are demonstrated in research conducted on school and work by the author in a rural town. An analysis of changes from labour-intensive…

  9. Growing up as "Man of the House": Adultification and Transition into Adulthood for Young Men in Economically Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Messina, Lauren; Smith, Jocelyn; Waters, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Many children in economically disadvantaged communities assume adult roles in their families. Negotiating the responsibilities and expectations associated with becoming what some young men describe as "man of the house" has important implications for how adolescent boys move into adulthood. In this study, we share insights from field…

  10. Improving Education and Employment for Disadvantaged Young Men: Proven and Promising Strategies. Discussion Paper No. 1374-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Low high school graduation rates and sharply declining employment rates among disadvantaged youth have led to increasing numbers of youth who are disconnected from both school and work. What programs and policies might prevent these disconnections and improve educational and employment outcomes, particularly among young men? We review the evidence…

  11. Promising Opportunities for Black and Latino Young Men: Findings from the Early Implementation of the Expanded Success Initiative. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villavicencio, Adriana; Klevan, Sarah; Guidry, Brandon; Wulach, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This appendix describes the data collection and analytic processes used to develop the findings in the report "Promising Opportunities for Black and Latino Young Men." A central challenge was creating an analytic framework that could be uniformly applied to all schools, despite the individualized nature of their Expanded Success…

  12. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  13. Low bone mass in behaviorally HIV-infected young men on antiretroviral therapy: adolescent trials network (ATN) study 021B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peak bone mass is achieved in adolescence/early adulthood and is the key determinant of bone mass in adulthood. We evaluated the association of bone mass with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) during this critical period among behaviorally HIV infected young men and seronegative control...

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Program to Improve the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Louise A.; McCabe, Kathryn; Davenport, Tracey; Burns, Jane M.; Rahilly, Kitty; Nicholas, Mariesa; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the development of WorkOut, an Internet-based program designed to help young men overcome the barriers towards help-seeking and to build the skills they need to understand and manage their own mental health. Information and communication technologies (ICT) hold great potential to significantly improve mental…

  15. Success in These Schools? Visual Counternarratives of Young Men of Color and Urban High Schools They Attend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of published scholarship on urban high schools in the United States focuses on problems of inadequacy, instability, underperformance, and violence. Similarly, across all schooling contexts, most of what has been written about young men of color continually reinforces deficit narratives about their educational possibility.…

  16. Arrests, Recent Life Circumstances, and Recurrent Job Loss for At-Risk Young Men: An Event-History Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from 202 at-risk young men to examine effects of arrests, prior risk factors, and recent life circumstances on job loss across a 7-year period in early adulthood. Repeated failure-time continuous event-history analysis indicated that occurrence of job loss was primarily related to prior mental health problems,…

  17. Long-Term Investments in Youth: The Need for Comprehensive Programs for Disadvantaged Young Men in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah E.

    New programs taking a comprehensive approach to disadvantaged young men in urban areas have met with some success. This paper attempts to define the issues that will influence the development of comprehensive programs and examines the qualities that have made them a promising alternative for the future. Issues that shape the lives of youth include…

  18. "A Safe Way to Explore": Reframing Risk on the Internet Amidst Young Gay Men's Search for Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Leslie-Santana, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Internet use provides a vital opportunity for sexual-minority youth to learn about sexual desires and pursue partnerships otherwise publically stigmatized. Researchers, however, have portrayed the Internet as an inherently risky venue for HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission among young gay men (YGM). We therefore investigated…

  19. LifeSkills for Men (LS4M): Pilot Evaluation of a Gender-Affirmative HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Young Adult Transgender Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Pardee, Dana J; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Rob; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Young adult transgender men who have sex with men (TMSM) engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. To date, no HIV and STI prevention interventions have been developed specifically for young adult TMSM. To address this gap, the current study aimed to (1) adapt a small group-based behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed for young transgender women ("LifeSkills") to address the unique HIV and STI prevention needs of young TMSM ages 18-29 years and (2) conduct a pilot evaluation of the intervention ("LifeSkills for Men"; LS4M). LS4M was carried out in an iterative approach with community input along the way, which allowed for refinement of the intervention manual and enhanced participant acceptability. A LS4M Task Force was convened to guide intervention development/adaptation and study implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted to examine the sexual health needs, concerns, and stressors facing young TMSM (n = 12; mean age = 23.8 years; 16.7% people of color). Next, LS4M was pilot tested (n = 17; mean age = 24.3 years; 23.5% people of color) to assess acceptability with the study population and feasibility of all study procedures. Overall attendance, participation rates, and positive feedback from participants demonstrate that LS4M is highly acceptable and feasible to carry out with young TMSM. Trends in outcome measures across 4 months of follow-up suggest that participation in the intervention may improve mental health, reduce internalized stigma, and reduce HIV- and STI-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention enrolling young TMSM with recent sexual risk behavior at baseline and with a control group is warranted. Lessons learned for future work with young TMSM are discussed.

  20. Masculinities, 'guy talk' and 'manning up': a discourse analysis of how young men talk about sexual health.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Frank, Blye; Ogilvie, Gina

    2012-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infection testing rates among young men remain low, and their disengagement from sexual health services has been linked to enactments of masculinity that prohibit or truncate discussions of sexual health. Understanding how men align with multiple masculinities is therefore important for tailoring interventions that appropriately respond to their needs. We draw on 32 in-depth interviews with 15-24-year-old men to explore the discourses that facilitate or shut down sexual health communication with peers and sex partners. We employ a critical discourse analysis to explore how men's conversations about sexual health are constituted by masculine hierarchies (such as the ways in which masculinities influence men's ability to construct or challenge and contest dominant discourses about sexual health). Men's conversations about sexual health focused primarily around their sexual encounters - something frequently referred to as 'guy talk'. Also described were situations whereby participants employed a discourse of 'manning up' to (i) exert power over others with disregard for potential repercussions and (ii) deploy power to affirm and reify their own hyper-masculine identities, while using their personal (masculine) power to help others (who are subordinate in the social ordering of men). By better understanding how masculine discourses are employed by men, their sexual health needs can be advanced.

  1. Gender differences in associations of sexual and romantic stimuli: do young men really prefer sex over romance?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2012-08-01

    Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.

  2. Generational changes in the meanings of sex, sexual identity and stigma among Latino young and adult men.

    PubMed

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18-60. This study asks how the bisexual identity and experience of stigma is different for Latino men along the generational spectrum and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18-25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles, and men aged 26-60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate or otherwise negative.

  3. Generational Changes in the Meanings of Sex, Sexual Identity and Stigma among Latino Young and Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18–60. This study asks how is the bisexual identity and experience of stigma different for Latino men along the generational spectrum, and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18–25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles; and men aged 26–60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate, or otherwise negative. PMID:23651224

  4. Evidence of social network influence on multiple HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs among young Tanzanian men

    PubMed Central

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J.; Hill, Lauren; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J.; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men’s social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men’s peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n= 1,249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men’s HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men’s social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men’s normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men’s social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry. PMID:26874081

  5. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

  6. Clothing preference affects vitamin D status of young women.

    PubMed

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Esin, Kubra; Hizli, Hilal; Sunal, Nihal; Yigit, Pakize; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases, which include cardiovascular, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Several factors such as exposure to sunlight, skin color, dietary habits, and cultural factors affect serum vitamin D levels. We hypothesized that serum vitamin D levels in young women are associated with clothing styles and investigated this via a cross-sectional study that included 100 female students at Istanbul Medipol University. Our study used a questionnaire in order to collect demographic information. Serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined via standard laboratory tests. We deployed bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition, and we then determined the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total body fat values. The mean age was 20.9 ± 2.1 years. Subjects' data were divided into 2 groups based on their clothing styles: covered (Muslim style clothing) and uncovered. Muslim style clothing, which covers the whole body but leaves the face and hands exposed, was worn by 40.0% of the undergraduate students. The mean BMI (in kilograms per meter squared) of the subjects was 23.0 ± 3.6. The BMI value for the covered students was 24.0 ± 4.0, and that for the uncovered students was 22.3 ± 3.1. Of the subjects, 28.0% had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m(2) (overweight). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (in nanograms per milliliter), parathyroid hormone (in picograms per milliliter), alkaline phosphatase (in units per liter), and calcium levels (in milligrams per deciliter) were 21.1 ± 6.7, 27.5 ± 9.2, 65.9 ± 10.9, and 9.0 ± 0.2 for covered students, respectively, and 29.7 ± 3.1, 24.3 ± 6.1, 62.8 ± 13.2, and 9.0 ± 0.4, respectively, for uncovered students. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies was 55.0% for covered and 20.0% for uncovered students. The vitamin D status was found to be statistically significant and had a negative correlation with the

  7. Experience of physical violence and mental health among young men and women: a population-based study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Sweden mental ill-health has increased among the young, especially among young women. Our aim was to investigate the association between experience of physical violence during the past year and self rated psychological health among young men and women. Methods The study population consisted of men (n = 2,624) and women (n = 3,569) aged 18–34 years who participated in the 2008 public health survey study in Skåne. The survey was a cross-sectional stratified random sample postal questionnaire study with a 54.1% participation rate. Associations were investigated by logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of poor psychological health was 18.9% among men and 27.7% among women. One in ten men and one in twenty women had experienced physical violence during the past year. Most men were violated in public places, while women were most often violated at home. Women who had experienced violence during the past year showed more than doubled odds of poor psychological health, odds ratio (OR): 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00, 3.53). Such an association could not be seen in men OR: 1.12 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.47). Adjustment for covariates (i.e. age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, economic stress, alcohol risk consumption, emotional support, instrumental support and generalized trust in other people) did not change the association found among women. Conclusion Violated women, but not men, showed nearly doubled odds of poor psychological health after multiple adjustments. There was also a gender difference regarding location of violence. Awareness of gender differences regarding context and mental impact of violence may assist public health workers in reducing the consequences of violence and to design preventive strategies. PMID:24410750

  8. Age-related differences in the dose-response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Selby, Anna; Rankin, Debbie; Patel, Rekha; Atherton, Philip; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Williams, John; Smith, Kenneth; Seynnes, Olivier; Hiscock, Natalie; Rennie, Michael J

    2009-01-15

    We investigated how myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle anabolic signalling were affected by resistance exercise at 20-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in two groups (25 each) of post-absorptive, healthy, young (24 +/- 6 years) and old (70 +/- 5 years) men with identical body mass indices (24 +/- 2 kg m(-2)). We hypothesized that, in response to exercise, anabolic signalling molecule phosphorylation and MPS would be modified in a dose-dependant fashion, but to a lesser extent in older men. Vastus lateralis muscle was sampled before, immediately after, and 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise. MPS was measured by incorporation of [1,2-(13)C] leucine (gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry using plasma [1,2-(13)C]alpha-ketoisocaparoate as surrogate precursor); the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70s6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was measured using Western analysis with anti-phosphoantibodies. In each group, there was a sigmoidal dose-response relationship between MPS at 1-2 h post-exercise and exercise intensity, which was blunted (P < 0.05) in the older men. At all intensities, MPS fell in both groups to near-basal values by 2-4 h post-exercise. The phosphorylation of p70s6K and 4EBP1 at 60-90% 1 RM was blunted in older men. At 1 h post-exercise at 60-90% 1 RM, p70s6K phosphorylation predicted the rate of MPS at 1-2 h post-exercise in the young but not in the old. The results suggest that in the post-absorptive state: (i) MPS is dose dependant on intensity rising to a plateau at 60-90% 1 RM; (ii) older men show anabolic resistance of signalling and MPS to resistance exercise.

  9. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  10. “I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood”: Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental–family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. PMID:24832150

  11. Use and Perceptions of the Internet for Sexual Information and Partners: A Study of Young Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has opened many doors with its accessibility to information, entertainment and web-based communities. For young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the Internet can provide access to information on relevant sexual behavior and health information, stories from other men about relationship issues, and a venue for locating potential sexual and dating partners. Understanding YMSM’s motivations for going online for information, advice or sexual relationships, is important as the Internet becomes increasingly used not only as a space to find sexual partners, but also as a venue for HIV and STI interventions. Having an understanding of the risks associated with searching for partners online, and how and why YMSM use the Internet for a variety of purposes, can inform the development of more effective Internet-based risk reduction programs. This manuscript presents qualitative and quantitative data from the Healthy Young Men’s Study, a longitudinal study of an ethnically diverse cohort of 526 YMSM. Qualitative interviews (N=24) described not only the prevalence of using the Internet for finding sexual partners and the possible benefits and risks associated with that practice, but also the processes and perceptions of using this mechanism. Our data indicate that YMSM use the Internet to find information related to sex and sexuality, seek friendships, sexual partners as well as “hook-ups” or casual sex. Findings are presented in relation to how YMSM researchers and interventionists can identify how to most effectively reach YMSM through online methods. PMID:20809373

  12. "I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.

  13. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks.

  14. All the young men gone: losing men in the gentrification of Australian nursing circa 1860-1899.

    PubMed

    Barber, J

    1996-12-01

    Men played an important role in nursing in colonial Australia. However the number of men undertaking nursing duties declined dramatically in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reasons for this are explored in relation to ramifications of the introduction of the Nightingale pattern of nurse training in Australia, which occurred within the Victorian ethos of gentility and decorum. In this context, nursing came to be seen as a calling that was natural and appropriate for women. The controlled, decorous ambience of nursing, its subservient relationship to medicine and the attractiveness to employers of female pay rates are all associated with the decline in male participation over this period.

  15. Reduced Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from the Community-Based Organization Behavioral Outcomes of Many Men, Many Voices (CBOP-3MV) Project.

    PubMed

    Stein, Renee; Shapatava, Ekaterine; Williams, Weston; Griffin, Tanesha; Bell, Kelly; Lyons, Bridget; Uhl, Gary

    2015-11-01

    In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded community-based organizations (CBOs) to deliver Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) to young men of color who have sex with men. Although 3MV, a group-level behavioral intervention designed to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors of black men who have sex with men (MSM), has shown effectiveness when delivered in a controlled research environment, there is limited evidence that the intervention is associated with similar outcomes in "real world" settings. For the current project, CDC funded three CBOs to conduct outcome monitoring of the 3MV intervention to determine if young MSM of color report changes in HIV risk behaviors postintervention. Using a repeated measures design, risk behaviors were collected at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Changes in risk behaviors were assessed using generalized estimating equations. Participants (n = 337) reported decreases in sexual risk behaviors at both follow-up time points, such as sex without a condom, sex without a condom and multiple partners, and sex without a condom with serodiscordant or status unknown partners. Results suggest that 3MV may be an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors in this critical target population.

  16. Physiological responses of simulated karate sparring matches in young men and boys.

    PubMed

    Iide, Kazuhide; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Asuka; Miyahara, Keiko; Miyamoto, Noriko; Moriwaki, Chinatsu

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the duration of each series of offensive and defensive techniques and the cardiovascular, metabolic, and perceptual responses during 2- and 3-minute bouts of simulated karate sparring. Six young men (age, 18-20 years) and 6 boys (age, 16-17 years) participated in this study. We formed 3 pairs of men and 3 pairs of boys to create a demanding competitive environment. After a rest period, each pair performed a 2-minute bout of sparring, sat quietly for 60 minutes, and then performed 3-minute bout of sparring. We measured oxygen uptake (Vo2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate responses and ascertained the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and energy expenditure (EE) during these sparring bouts. The ventilatory threshold was estimated from ventilatory equivalent and Vo2 obtained during the treadmill test. The duration of each series of offensive and defensive techniques was videotaped. During the 2- and 3-minute bouts of sparring, the duration of longest series of offensive and/or defensive combination techniques performed were 2.1 +/- 1.0 and 1.8 +/- 0.4 seconds, respectively; the mean total times of performing offensive and defensive techniques were 13.3 +/- 3.3 and 19.4 +/- 5.5 seconds, respectively. The mean oxygen uptake (Vo2), the percentage of maximum oxygen uptake (%Vo2max), HR, percentage of maximum HR, RPE, and EE for a 3-minute bout of sparring were significantly higher than for a 2-minute bout of sparring. The mean %Vo2max values for these bouts of sparring were below the ventilatory threshold. It is recommended that karate practitioners perform more specific weight training, plyometric exercises, and interval training to increase the ability to buffer acid muscle and blood concentrations and to build lean body mass, strength, and power to develop the specific motor skills required in sparring.

  17. Acute Effect of High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p < 0.01) with eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.

  18. Project Gel a Randomized Rectal Microbicide Safety and Acceptability Study in Young Men and Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Cranston, Ross D.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Febo, Irma; Duffill, Kathryn; Siegel, Aaron; Engstrom, Jarret C.; Nikiforov, Alexyi; Park, Seo-Young; Brand, Rhonda M.; Jacobson, Cindy; Giguere, Rebecca; Dolezal, Curtis; Frasca, Timothy; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Schwartz, Jill L.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) at risk of HIV infection. Methods MSM and TGW aged 18–30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2) in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV) 1% gel. Results 248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants’ average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs) at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV)-2 (16.1% by serology) and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (10.1% by NAAT). 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs) were infections (N = 56) or gastrointestinal (N = 46) and were mild (69.6%) or moderate (28.0%). Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1) to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10) and of mild (87.2%) or moderate (10.3%) severity. Conclusions In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360 PMID:27362788

  19. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    PubMed

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/<22 years = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.21-2.18), higher BMI ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and total distance ran per week during unit PT (OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.15-2.41). A lower risk of an RRI was associated with total distance run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  20. HIV-Infected Young Men Demonstrate Appropriate Risk Perceptions and Beliefs about Safer Sexual Behaviors after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jessica A; Lee, Jeannette; Belzer, Marvin; Palefsky, Joel M

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to identify risk perceptions after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among HIV-infected young men who have sex with men. On average, participants appropriately perceived themselves to be at lower than neutral risk for HPV (mean subscale score 4.2/10), at higher than neutral risk for other sexually transmitted infections (7.0/10), and that safer sexual behaviors were still important (8.5/10). Higher perceived risk of HPV was associated with African-American race (p = .03); higher perceived risk of other sexually transmitted infections with White race (p = .01) and higher knowledge about HPV (p = .001); and higher perceived need for safer sexual behaviors with consistent condom use (p = .02). The study provides reassuring data that HIV-infected young men who have sex with men generally have appropriate risk perceptions and believe that safer sexual behaviors after vaccination are still important. These findings mirror the results of studies in HIV-infected young women and HIV-uninfected adolescents.

  1. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425

  2. Effects of GH on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Young Men With Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gerweck, Anu V.; Lin, Eleanor; Landa, Melissa G.; Torriani, Martin; Schoenfeld, David A.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Visceral adiposity is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and decreased GH secretion. Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of GH administration in abdominally obese young men on body composition, including liver fat, mitochondrial function, and cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. Design and Participants: This was a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 abdominally obese men (IGF-1 below the mean, no exclusion based on GH level), 21 to 45 years of age. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated abdominal fat depots, thigh muscle and fat (computed tomography), fat and lean mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), mitochondrial function (dynamic phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy), CV risk markers, carotid intimal-medial thickness, and endothelial function. Results: GH administration resulted in a mean IGF-1 SD score increase from −1.9 ± 0.08 to −0.2 ± 0.3 in the GH group and a decrease in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk/extremity fat, intrahepatic lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and apolipoprotein B/low-density lipoprotein vs placebo after controlling for the increase in weight observed in both groups. There were inverse associations between change in IGF-1 levels and change in VAT, VAT/sc adipose tissue, trunk fat, trunk/extremity fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and apolipoprotein B. Mitochondrial function improved in the GH group compared with placebo after controlling for change in glucose. There was no change in thigh fat, muscle mass, intramyocellular lipids, cholesterol, fibrinogen, intimal-medial thickness, or endothelial function. There was no increase in fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c in the GH vs placebo group, although glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test increased slightly. Conclusion: GH replacement in abdominally obese men improves

  3. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress.

  4. A longitudinal, mixed methods study of sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies among young sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Buttenwieser, Indiana G; Bernstein, Laura B; Bayles, Damon O

    2013-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that young sexual minority men's sexual position identities (e.g., "top," "bottom," "versatile") may be governed by dynamic influences. Yet, no study has prospectively examined whether, how, and why this aspect of sexual minority men's sexuality changes over time. Consequently, the present study investigated the extent to which young sexual minority men use sexual position identities consistently over time, typical patterns of position identity change, explanations given for this change, and the correspondence of changing sexual position identities with changing sexual behavior and fantasies. A total of 93 young sexual minority men indicated their sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies at two assessment points separated by 2 years. Following the second assessment, a subset (n = 28) of participants who represented the various sexual position identity change patterns provided explanations for their change. More than half (n = 48) of participants changed their sexual position identity. Participants showed a significant move away from not using sexual position identities toward using them and a significant move toward using "mostly top." Changes in position identity were reflected, although imperfectly, in changes in sexual behavior and largely not reflected in fantasy changes. Participants offered 11 classes of explanations for their identity changes referencing personal development, practical reasons, changing relationships, and sociocultural influences. Previous investigations of sexual minority men's sexual position identities have not adequately attended to the possibility of the changing use of the sexual position categories "top," "bottom," and "versatile" across young adulthood. Results of the present study suggest the possibility of a more fluid, context-dependent use of these terms than previously documented.

  5. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  6. Association between Childhood Physical Abuse, Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse and HIV Infection among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Vancouver, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, Arn J.; Anema, Aranka; Pai, Jay; Rich, Ashleigh; Miller, Cari L.; Chan, Keith; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Moore, David; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. Methods We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA) on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders. Results Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5%) reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6%) reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8%) participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65–14.48), after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population. PMID:24963804

  7. Correlates of Enhanced Sexual Pleasure from Condom Use: A Study of Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2016-09-28

    This study of young Black MSM (YBMSM) explored the correlates and outcomes of enhanced sexual pleasure from condom-protected sex. Six-hundred YBMSM were enrolled from an sexually transmitted infection clinic in the southern United States. Men completed a computer-assisted self-interview. A 3-item scale assessed perceptions related to condoms enhancing sexual pleasure. Nine of 14 correlates met the screening level of significance and were tested in a regression model. Three obtained multivariable significance: (1) Men discussing condom use with sex partners had greater odds (AOR = 1.67, 95 % CI 1.20-2.34) of experiencing enhanced pleasure; (2) Insertive-partners had lower odds (AOR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.44-0.91) of experiencing enhanced pleasure; and (3) men scoring higher in internalized homophobia had lower odds (AOR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.47-0.93) of experiencing enhanced pleasure. Also, men experiencing enhanced pleasure were less likely to report any condomless anal sex. The experience of enhanced sexual pleasure during condom-protected sex may be an important "target" of behavioral intervention efforts.

  8. Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert

    2016-09-01

    HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.

  9. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16–21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Results: Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. Conclusion: BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention. PMID:26651365

  10. “Let Me Help You Help Me”: Church-based HIV Prevention for Young Black Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189

  11. Affective responses of high and low body satisfied men to viewing physique slides.

    PubMed

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Janelle, Christopher M; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute affective responses of high and low body satisfied (BS) men who viewed physique slides of the male ideal (model-slides), physique slides of themselves (self-slides), and nonphysique slides (control-slides). During three laboratory visits the participants viewed the slides from one of the three conditions, and they completed pre-, in-, and post-task affective measures. It was found that the: (a) high BS group reported less mood disturbance than the low BS group; (b) participants reported an increase in depression, anger, and body dissatisfaction after viewing the self-slides; (c) participants indicated a decrease in body dissatisfaction after viewing the model-slides; and (d) viewing the control-slides did not result in affective changes. Findings suggest that viewing physique slides results in increased mood disturbance, regardless of BS level.

  12. Demographic, Mental Health, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking Status Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Paul A.; Yu, Kalvin; Kapadia, Farzana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Young sexual minority men smoke at higher rates relative to heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of smoking in a sample of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) who might differ from more general and age-diverse samples of sexual minority individuals and, thus, inform tailored approaches to addressing tobacco use within this population. Methods: Data on smoking status were examined in relation to demographics, mental health, substance use behavior, and psychosocial factors. Using multinomial logistic regression, factors were identified that differentiate current and former smokers from never smokers. Results: In bivariate analysis, smoking status was related to demographic, mental health, substance use, and psychosocial factors. Most significantly, smoking status was associated with school enrollment status, current alcohol and marijuana use, and symptoms of depression. Multivariate modeling revealed that, compared to being a never smoker, the odds of current or former smoking were highest among those currently using either alcohol or marijuana. The odds of both current and former smoking were also higher among those reporting greater levels of gay community affinity. Finally, the odds of being a former smoker were higher for those reporting internalized antihomosexual prejudice. Conclusion: This study identifies several factors related to smoking status in a diverse sample of young sexual minority males. These findings should encourage investigations of smoking disparities among younger MSM to look beyond common smoking risk factors in an attempt to understand etiologies that may be unique to this group. Such findings may indicate multiple points of potential intervention aimed at decreasing cigarette smoking within this vulnerable population. PMID:27158762

  13. Anatomical differences in the psoas muscles in young black and white men

    PubMed Central

    HANSON, PATRICK; MAGNUSSON, S. PETER; SORENSEN, HENRIK; SIMONSEN, ERIK B.

    1999-01-01

    The anatomy of the psoas major muscle (PMA) in young black and white men was studied during routine autopsies. The forensic autopsies included 44 fresh male cadavers (21 black, 23 white) with an age span of 14 to 25 y. The range for weight was 66–76 kg and for height 169–182 cm. The PMA was initially measured in its entire length before measuring the diameter and circumference at each segmental level (L1–S1). At each segmental level, the calculated anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) was more than 3 times greater in the black group compared with the white (P<0.001). The psoas minor muscle (PMI) was absent in 91% of the black subjects, but only in 13% of the white subjects. These data show that the PMA is markedly larger in black than white subjects. The marked race specific difference in the size of the PMA may have implications for hip flexor strength, spine function and race specific incidence in low back pathology, and warrants further investigation. PMID:10337963

  14. Effect of posture on body temperature of young men in cold air.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G C; Scarborough, M; Mridha, K; Whelan, L; Caunce, M; Keatinge, W R

    1996-01-01

    We studied eight young adult men to see whether a supine posture caused a fall in body core temperature in the cold, as it does in thermoneutral conditions. In air at 31 degrees C (thermoneutral), a supine posture for 3 h reduced mean aural, gastric, oesophageal and rectal temperatures by 0.2-0.4 degree C, compared to upright and increased femoral artery blood flow from 278 (SEM 42)ml.min-1 whilst upright to 437 (SEM 42) ml.min-1 whilst supine. In cold air (8 degrees C) the supine posture failed to reduce these temperatures [corrected] significantly, or to increase femoral blood flow: it reduced heart rate, and increased arterial systolic and pulse pressures adjusted to carotid sinus level, less than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the behaviour of core temperature at the four sites was significantly nonuniform between the two postures in the cold, mainly because the supine posture tended to reduce rectal temperature. It may have done so by reducing heat production in the muscles of the pelvis, since it reduced overall metabolic rate from 105 (SEM 8) to 87 (SEM 4) W.m-2 in the cold. In other respects the results indicated that posture ceased to have an important effect on body core temperatures during cold stress.

  15. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799

  16. Baseline values of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters predict response to acute hypoxia in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, V N; Krivoschekov, S G; Divert, V E; Komlyagina, T G; Consedine, N S

    2017-02-28

    The majority of the available works have studied distinct hypoxic responses of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This study examines how these systems interact while responding to hypoxia and whether baseline metrics moderate reactions to a hypoxic challenge. Central hemodynamic, aortic wave reflection, and gas exchange parameters were measured in 27 trained young men before and after 10-min normobaric isocapnic hypoxia (10 % O2). Associations were assessed by correlation and multiple regression analyses. Hypoxic changes in the parameters of pulse wave analysis such as augmentation index (-114 %, p=0.007), pulse pressure amplification (+6 %, p=0.020), time to aortic reflection wave (+21 %, p<0.001) report on the increase in arterial distensibility. Specifically, initially compliant arteries blunt the positive cardiac chronotropic response to hypoxia and facilitate the myocardial workload. The degree of blood oxygen desaturation is directly correlated with both baseline values and hypoxic responses of aortic and peripheral blood pressures. The hypoxia-induced gain in ventilation (VE), while controlling for basal VE and heart rate (HR), is inversely associated with deltaHR and deltasystolic blood pressure. The study suggests that cardiovascular and respiratory systems mutually supplement each other when responding to hypoxic challenge.

  17. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Roca, Manuela; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Vioque, Jesús; Jørgensen, Niels; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function. PMID:27834316

  18. Increased impulsivity in response to food cues after sleep loss in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Brandell, Jon; Ros, Olof; Broman, Jan-Erik; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to decreased cognitive control when food cues are presented during a task requiring active attention, by assessing the ability to cognitively inhibit prepotent responses. Methods Fourteen males participated in the study on two separate occasions in a randomized, crossover within-subject design: one night of TSD versus normal sleep (8.5 hours). Following each nighttime intervention, hunger ratings and morning fasting plasma glucose concentrations were assessed before performing a go/no-go task. Results Following TSD, participants made significantly more commission errors when they were presented “no-go” food words in the go/no-go task, as compared with their performance following sleep (+56%; P<0.05). In contrast, response time and omission errors to “go” non-food words did not differ between the conditions. Self-reported hunger after TSD was increased without changes in fasting plasma glucose. The increase in hunger did not correlate with the TSD-induced commission errors. Conclusions Our results suggest that TSD impairs cognitive control also in response to food stimuli in healthy young men. Whether such loss of inhibition or impulsiveness is food cue-specific as seen in obesity—thus providing a mechanism through which sleep disturbances may promote obesity development—warrants further investigation. PMID:24839251

  19. Resilience and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity under acute stress in young men.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Roy, Emmanuel; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship between resilience (measured using the Resilience Scale for Adults) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. We examined the subjective and cortisol responses of 28 healthy young men to an acute stressor (public speech task). Eight saliva samples were collected in order to obtain the response curve (anticipation, reactivity, recuperation) for each subject. ANOVA indicated that highly resilient individuals tended to display less mood deterioration than less resilient individuals (marginal p(time x group interaction) = 0.075). They also revealed that the former tended to secrete less cortisol overall than the latter during the experiment (marginal p(main group effect) = 0.087) but this effect was not uniform across time (p(time x group interaction) = 0.029). Additional analyses performed to identify the source of this interaction revealed that resilience moderates cortisol secretion in anticipation of the stressor (i.e. highly resilient individuals secreted less cortisol than less resilient ones, p = 0.05) but that it is not conductive to lower HPA reactivity amidst stress (i.e. there was no difference between groups in the increase in cortisol secretion from baseline to peak). The recovery slopes were likewise not statistically different. The implications of these findings regarding health are discussed.

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with elevated body mass index in young men.

    PubMed

    Rantala, A; Lajunen, T; Juvonen, R; Bloigu, A; Paldanius, M; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S; Peitso, A; Vainio, O; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is said to be associated with obesity. We studied the association between C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation and increased BMI in 891 Finnish military recruits. IgG seropositivity in arrival and departure serum samples during 6-12 months of military service was considered as persistence of antibodies and a possible indication of chronic infection. Persistently high C-reactive protein (CRP) level (elevated on arrival and departure) (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.9), and persistent C. pneumoniae antibodies (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8) were significant risk factors for overweight (BMI 25 kg/m2). In addition, those who had persistent antibodies and persistently elevated CRP levels, or those who had either of them, had a significantly higher BMI (kg/m2) compared to those who had neither of them (25.8 vs. 24.6 vs. 23.5, respectively; P<0.001). These results provide new information about the association between possible chronic C. pneumoniae infection and obesity in young men.

  1. Endocrine correlates of personality traits: a comparison between emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Adler, L; Wedekind, D; Pilz, J; Weniger, G; Huether, G

    1997-01-01

    An initial sample of 120 healthy young men was screened by a personality questionnaire and 15 subjects each with highest and lowest scores respectively on emotionality (emotionally labile, EL subjects and emotionally stable, ES subjects) were recruited for a study on the relationship between the degree of emotionality and the basal secretion of stress-sensitive hormones during night-time. The nocturnal urinary excretion of cortisol, testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin was measured over a period of 5 consecutive nights. The average amounts of each hormone excreted per night were not different between the two extreme groups. The variability of the excretion during the 5 nights of cortisol and testosterone, but not of adrenaline, noradrenaline and melatonin, was significantly higher in EL compared to ES subjects. The larger fluctuations in the nocturnal secretion of these two (and no other) hormones in EL subjects indicate that emotional lability is associated with a more labile regulation of cortisol and testosterone secretion. The observed intraindividual variability of basal stress hormone secretion may contribute to the vast interindividual variability noticed in psychoneuroendocrine stress research, especially in emotionally labile subjects.

  2. Acute effects of aerobic exercise intensity on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in young men.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-10-18

    Arterial stiffness increases after glucose ingestion. Acute low- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. However, the acute effects of 30 min of cycling at low- and moderate-intensity [25% (LE trial) and 65% (ME trial) peak oxygen uptake, respectively] on arterial stiffness at 30, 60 and 120 min of a postexercise glucose ingestion. Ten healthy young men (age, 22·4 ± 0·5 years) performed LE and ME trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity (PWV), femoral-ankle (leg) PWV, carotid augmentation index (AIx) and carotid blood pressure (BP) (applanation tonometry), brachial and ankle BP (oscillometric device), heart rate (HR) (electrocardiography), blood glucose (UV-hexokinase method) and blood insulin (CLEIA method) levels were measured at before (baseline) and at 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg PWV, ankle pulse pressure and BG levels significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the LE trial (P<0·05), but not in the ME trial. Insulin levels and HR significantly increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials (P<0·05). Aortic PWV, carotid AIx, brachial BP and carotid BP did not change from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in both trials. The present findings indicate that aerobic exercise at moderate intensity before glucose ingestion suppresses increases leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

  3. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  4. Chronic Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Young Men Without Symptoms of Chronic Prostatitis: Urodynamic Analyses in 308 Men Aged 50 Years or Younger

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong Jin; Yeon, Jae Seung; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Byung Ki; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Sang Cheol; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the etiologies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and compared urodynamic characteristics between different diagnostic groups in young men with chronic LUTS. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 308 men aged 18 to 50 years who had undergone a urodynamic study for chronic LUTS (≥6 months) without symptoms suggestive of chronic prostatitis. Results The men's mean age was 40.4 (±10.1) years and their mean duration of symptoms was 38.8 (±49.2) months. Urodynamic evaluation demonstrated voiding phase dysfunction in 62.1% of cases (primary bladder neck dysfunction [PBND] in 26.0%, dysfunctional voiding [DV] in 23.4%, and detrusor underactivity [DU]/acontractile detrusor [AD] in 12.7%) and a single storage phase dysfunction in 36.4% of cases (detrusor overactivity [DO] in 13.3%, small cystometric capacity in 17.9%, and reduced bladder sensation in 5.2%). Most of the demographic characteristics and clinical symptoms did not differ between these diagnostic groups. Whereas 53.9% of patients with voiding dysfunction had concomitant storage dysfunction, 69.6% of those with storage dysfunction had concomitant voiding dysfunction. Men with DV or DU/AD exhibited lower maximum cystometric capacity than did those with normal urodynamics. Low bladder compliance was most frequent among patients with PBND (10.0%, p=0.025). In storage dysfunctions, men with DO exhibited higher detrusor pressure during voiding than did those with other storage dysfunctions (p<0.01). Conclusions Because clinical symptoms are not useful for predicting the specific urodynamic etiology of LUTS in this population, urodynamic investigation can help to make an accurate diagnosis and, potentially, to guide appropriate treatment. PMID:24868339

  5. What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-06-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions about what cards to play. A significant finding is that the players use, learn and develop resources such as the ability to make observations, draw inferences, and use empirical data to inform future actions and decisions. Such reasoning bears a resemblance to central practices of science and challenges long held deficit views of African American young men. Implications of the research findings are discussed.

  6. Teachers' Affective Presentation of Children's Books and Young Children's Display of Affective Engagement during Classroom Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschovaki, Eleni; Meadows, Sara; Pellegrini, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how teachers' use of affective strategies (voice intonation, dramatization, personal involvement comments) during the reading and discussion of books influence young children's affective reactions (dramatization, personal engagement, language play comments). Twenty kindergarten teachers read four books, two fiction and two…

  7. Outbreak of Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease Primarily Affecting Men Who Have Sex with Men - Southern California, 2016.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Srinivas; Foo, Chelsea; Ngo, Van; Jarashow, Claire; Civen, Rachel; Schwartz, Ben; Holguin, John; Shearer, Eric; Zahn, Matt; Harriman, Kathleen; Winter, Kathleen; Kretz, Cecilia; Chang, How Yi; Meyer, Sarah; MacNeil, Jessica

    2016-09-09

    During March 4-August 11, 2016, 25 outbreak-associated cases of meningococcal disease, including two deaths (8% case-fatality ratio), were reported in Southern California. Twenty-four of the cases were caused by serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC) and one by N. meningitidis with an undetermined serogroup (Figure). On June 24, 2016, in response to this increase in NmC cases, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County, the city of Long Beach, and Orange County, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) issued a press release and health advisory, declaring an outbreak of NmC in Southern California (1).

  8. Effects of Single Vs. Multiple Sets Water-Based Resistance Training on Maximal Dynamic Strength in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Camargo, Liliana Kologeski; de Oliveira Conceição, Matheus; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single vs. multiple sets water-based resistance training on maximal dynamic strength in young men. Twenty-one physically active young men were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a single set group (SS, n=10) and a multiple sets group (MS, n=11). The single set program consisted of only 1 set of 30 s, whereas the multiple sets comprised 3 sets of 30 s (rest interval between sets equaled 1 min 30 s). All the water-based resistance exercises were performed at maximal effort and both groups trained twice a week for 10 weeks. Upper (bilateral elbow flexors and bilateral elbow extensors, peck deck and inverse peck deck) as well as lower-body (bilateral knee flexors and unilateral knee extensors) one-repetition maximal tests (1RM) were used to assess changes in muscle strength. The training-related effects were assessed using repeated measures two-way ANOVA (α=5%). Both SS and MS groups increased the upper and lower-body 1RM, with no differences between groups. Therefore, these data show that the maximal dynamic strength significantly increases in young men after 10 weeks of training in an aquatic environment, although the improvement in the strength levels is independent of the number of sets performed.

  9. Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.

    PubMed

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others.

  10. Older men are more fatigable than young when matched for maximal power and knee extension angular velocity is unconstrained.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian H; Power, Geoffrey A; Paturel, Justin R; Rice, Charles L

    2015-06-01

    The underlying factors related to the divergent findings of age-related fatigue for dynamic tasks are not well understood. The purpose here was to investigate age-related fatigability and recovery between a repeated constrained (isokinetic) and an unconstrained velocity (isotonic) task, in which participants performed fatiguing contractions at the velocity (isokinetic) or resistance (isotonic) corresponding with maximal power. To compare between tasks, isotonic torque-power relationships were constructed prior to and following both fatiguing tasks and during short-term recovery. Contractile properties were recorded from 9 old (~75 years) and 11 young (~25 years) men during three testing sessions. In the first session, maximal power was assessed, and sessions 2 and 3 involved an isokinetic or an isotonic concentric fatigue task performed until maximal power was reduced by 40 %. Compared with young, the older men performed the same number of contractions to task failure for the isokinetic task (~45 contractions), but 20 % fewer for the isotonic task (p < 0.05). Regardless of age and task, maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, angular velocity, and power were reduced by ~30, ~13, and ~25 %, respectively, immediately following task failure, and only isometric torque was not recovered fully by 10 min. In conclusion, older men are more fatigable than the young when performing a repetitive maximal dynamic task at a relative resistance (isotonic) but not an absolute velocity (isokinetic), corresponding to maximal power.

  11. 'It's like the treasure': beliefs associated with semen among young HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Arn J; Orchard, Treena R; Buchner, Christopher S; Miller, Mary Lou; Fernandes, Kim A; Hogg, Robert S; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-10-01

    This paper examines cultural and social meanings associated with semen, along with related issues of unprotected receptive anal intercourse, HIV seroconversion, treatment optimism and viraemia. The findings are derived from qualitative interviews conducted with 12 HIV-positive young gay men and 12 HIV-negative counterparts who participated in a prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada. Focussing on the narratives of young gay men, the analysis reveals a diverse range of knowledge, values and functions of semen, especially in relation to its exchange. Beliefs about semen appeared to differ by HIV serostatus and were linked with intimacy, identity and pleasure, particularly among the HIV-positive men. Against dominant representations of semen in relation to issues of loss, anxiety and infertility, this unique study sheds much needed light on its role within the cultural construction of sexuality among gay men. As such, these narratives are of direct importance to primary and secondary HIV prevention, including condom promotion and the development of rectal microbicides.

  12. Serum Galanin Levels in Young Healthy Lean and Obese Non-Diabetic Men during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; González-Clavijo, Angélica María; Poveda, Natalia E.; Espinel-Pachón, Cristian Felipe; Escamilla-Castro, Jorge Augusto; Márquez-Julio, Heidy Lorena; Alvarado-Quintero, Hernando; Rojas-Rodríguez, Fabián Guillermo; Arteaga-Díaz, Juan Manuel; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier Hernando; Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Fernanda; Vrontakis, Maria; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raul M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m2) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m2). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group. Conversely, serum GAL levels increased significantly during OGTT in obese subjects. Serum GAL levels were also higher in obese non-diabetic men compared with lean subjects during fasting and in every period of the OGTT (p < 0.001). Serum GAL levels were positively correlated with BMI, total fat, visceral fat, HOMA–IR, total cholesterol, triglycerides and Leptin. A multiple regression analysis revealed that serum insulin levels at 30, 60 and 120 minutes during the OGTT is the most predictive variable for serum GAL levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, serum GAL levels are significantly higher in the obese group compared with lean subjects during an OGTT. PMID:27550417

  13. Masculine gender roles associated with increased sexual risk and intimate partner violence perpetration among young adult men.

    PubMed

    Santana, M Christina; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; La Marche, Ana; Silverman, Jay G

    2006-07-01

    This study sought to assess the association between traditional masculine gender role ideologies and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration behaviors in young men's heterosexual relationships. Sexually active men age 18-35 years attending an urban community health center in Boston were invited to join a study on men's sexual risk; participants (N=307) completed a brief self-administered survey on sexual risk (unprotected sex, forced unprotected sex, multiple sex partners) and IPV perpetration (physical, sexual and injury from/need for medical services due to IPV) behaviors, as well as demographics. Current analyses included men reporting sex with a main female partner in the past 3 months (n=283). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics were used to assess significant associations between male gender role ideologies and the sexual risk and IPV perpetration behaviors. Participants were predominantly Hispanic (74.9%) and Black (21.9%); 55.5% were not born in the continental U.S.; 65% had been in the relationship for more than 1 year. Men reporting more traditional ideologies were significantly more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex in the past 3 months (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6) and IPV perpetration in the past year (OR(adj) = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Findings indicate that masculine gender role ideologies are linked with young men's unprotected vaginal sex and IPV perpetration in relationships, suggesting that such ideologies may be a useful point of sexual risk reduction and IPV prevention intervention with this population.

  14. The HAWK Federation and the Development of Black Adolescent Males: Toward a Solution to the Crises of America's Young Black Men. Testimony before the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families. Congressional Hearings on America's Young Black Men: Isolated and in Trouble (Washington, D.C., July 25, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobles, Wade W.

    Sources of the crises faced by young black men lie not in the young men, but in society which portrays them as stereotypes. Social conditions are at the root of the following problems of black males: (1) lowered life expectancy; (2) risk of criminality; (3) poor economic conditions; (4) inadequate education; (5) drugs and gang violence; and (6)…

  15. Intimacy, Monogamy, and Condom Problems Drive Unprotected Sex among Young Men in Serious Relationships with Other Men: A Mixed Methods Dyadic Study

    PubMed Central

    Greene, George J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Kuper, Laura; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study aimed to examine partner and relationship characteristics associated with HIV risk among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). A sub-sample of YMSM (18 to 25 years) who were involved in serious relationships with other men were recruited from two on-going longitudinal studies, Project Q2 and Crew450 (N = 20 couples). The mean age of the dyadic sample was 22.5 years (SD = 5.33, range 18 to 46 years) and participants were racially and ethnically diverse, with the largest percentage of the sample identifying as African American (47.5%), followed by Hispanic (20%). Participants completed individual self-report measures using computer-assisted self-interview technology and engaged in couples-based interviews. Mixed methods analyses indicated three global reasons for unprotected sex among YMSM in serious relationships: (1) the desire to achieve emotional intimacy; (2) the perception of being in a monogamous relationship; and (3) the difficulties associated with accessing and/or using condoms. Couples’ decision-making processes, including decisions made “in the heat of the moment,” have implications for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24202113

  16. Mr. Right and Mr. Right Now: romantic and casual partner-seeking online among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Leslie-Santana, Matthew; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna

    2011-02-01

    Dating is a normative behavior for youth, yet few studies have examined the relationship between romantic partner-seeking and sexual behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This omission is most notable across studies examining YMSM's partner-seeking behaviors online. In this study, we examined the relationship between sexual behaviors and online partner-seeking behaviors for casual and romantic partners in a sample of YMSM (N = 431; M = 21.49 years old, SD = 1.94) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), we found YMSM in the High Romantic/High Casual group had more unprotected partners than YMSM in other categories. YMSM in the High Romantic/Low Casual group had fewer unprotected partners than the High Romantic/High Casual group. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to further examine romantic partner-seeking among YMSM.

  17. Intimacy, monogamy, and condom problems drive unprotected sex among young men in serious relationships with other men: a mixed methods dyadic study.

    PubMed

    Greene, George J; Andrews, Rebecca; Kuper, Laura; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study aimed to examine partner and relationship characteristics associated with HIV risk among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). A sub-sample of YMSM (18-25 years) who were involved in serious relationships with other men were recruited from two on-going longitudinal studies, Project Q2 and Crew450 (N = 20 couples). The mean age of the dyadic sample was 22.5 years (SD = 5.33, range 18-46 years) and participants were racially and ethnically diverse, with the largest percentage of the sample identifying as African American (47.5 %), followed by Hispanic (20 %). Participants completed individual self-report measures using computer-assisted self-interview technology and engaged in couples-based interviews. Mixed methods analyses indicated three global reasons for unprotected sex among YMSM in serious relationships: (1) the desire to achieve emotional intimacy; (2) the perception of being in a monogamous relationship; and (3) the difficulties associated with accessing and/or using condoms. Couples' decision-making processes, including decisions made "in the heat of the moment," have implications for HIV prevention interventions.

  18. Trends of HIV subtypes and phylogenetic dynamics among young men who have sex with men in China, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Liao, Lingjie; Feng, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Jing; He, Cui; Xu, Wei; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the origins of HIV transmission and phylogenetic dynamics among men who have sex with men (MSM), a total of 1205 newly diagnosed HIV-infected 16–25 year-olds were recruited in 13 provinces across China between 2009 and 2014. Based on phylogenetic analyses of partial pol sequences, HIV-1 subtypes including CRF01_AE (45.3%), CRF07_BC (37.8%), subtype B (6.1%), and B’ (3.7%), as well as some other recombinants (7.1%) were identified. In addition to two distinct CRF01_AE clusters [cluster 4 (33.7%, 406/1205) and cluster 5 (7.1%, 85/1205)], we identified a new CRF07_BC cluster (cluster 1) (36.0%, 434/1205), which entered Chinese MSMs in 2004, and had been rapidly spreading since about 2004, which indicating the third wave of the HIV epidemic among the population. Moreover, two new clusters of CRF_01B recombinants were found in this study. The complexities of HIV subtypes and recombinants strongly supports the necessity for a comprehensive study about risk behaviors and their relationship with increasing HIV epidemic subtypes among the MSM group. Implementation and evaluation of comprehensive harm reduction strategies in Chinese MSM are urgently needed. PMID:26577039

  19. HIV prevention services received at health care and HIV test providers by young men who have sex with men: an examination of racial disparities.

    PubMed

    Behel, Stephanie K; MacKellar, Duncan A; Valleroy, Linda A; Secura, Gina M; Bingham, Trista; Celentano, David D; Koblin, Beryl A; Lalota, Marlene; Shehan, Douglas; Torian, Lucia V

    2008-09-01

    We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM.

  20. HIV Prevention Services Received at Health Care and HIV Test Providers by Young Men who Have Sex with Men: An Examination of Racial Disparities

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Duncan A.; Valleroy, Linda A.; Secura, Gina M.; Bingham, Trista; Celentano, David D.; Koblin, Beryl A.; LaLota, Marlene; Shehan, Douglas; Torian, Lucia V.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM. PMID:18622708

  1. Contagion in Family Affection: Mothers, Fathers, and Young Adult Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Examines affective relationships from the perspective of both parent and child. Results show that parents' affect is related to martial quality and the partner's relationship with the child. Children's affect for mothers and for fathers is related to their feelings toward the other parent but not to their parents' martial quality. Includes…

  2. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 < R(2) < 0.322) and with muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 < R(2) < 0.494). While muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size.

  3. Exaggerated natriuresis during clamping of systemic NO supply in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Jane A; Rasmussen, Mona S; Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Bie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    NO (nitric oxide) may be involved in fluid homoeostasis. We hypothesized that increases in NO synthesis contribute to acute, saline-induced natriuresis, which, therefore, should be blunted when NO availability is stabilized. Young men were studied during simultaneous infusions of L-NAME [NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; bolus of 750 μg·kg⁻¹ of body weight and 8.3 μg·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ of body weight] and SNP (sodium nitroprusside), the latter at a rate preventing L-NAME from increasing total peripheral resistance ('NO-clamping'). Slow volume expansion (saline, 20 μmol of NaCl·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ of body weight for 3 h) was performed with and without concomitant NO-clamping. NO-clamping itself decreased RPF (renal plasma flow; P~0.02) and tended to decrease arterial blood pressure [MABP (mean arterial blood pressure)]. Volume expansion markedly decreased the plasma levels of renin, AngII (angiotensin II) and aldosterone (all P<0.001), while MABP (oscillometry), heart rate, cardiac output (impedance cardiography), RPF (by p-aminohippurate), GFR [glomerular filtration rate; by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA] and plasma [Na+] and [K+] remained constant. Volume expansion increased sodium excretion (P<0.02) at constant filtered load, but more so during NO-clamping than during control (+184% compared with 52%; P<0.0001). Urinary nitrate/nitrite excretion increased during volume expansion; plasma cGMP and plasma vasopressin were unchanged. The results demonstrate that NO-clamping augments sodium excretion in response to volume expansion at constant MABP and GFR, reduced RPF and decreased renin system activity, a response termed hypernatriuresis. The results indicate that mediator(s) other than MABP, RPF, GFR and renin system activity contribute significantly to the homoeostatic response to saline loading, but the specific mechanisms of hypernatriuresis remain obscure.

  4. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  5. Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagata, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

  6. The Lichfield bone study: the skeletal response to exercise in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I.; Kehoe, Anthony; James, Laurence E.; Payne, John R.; Skipworth, James R.; Puthucheary, Zudin A.; Drenos, Fotios; Pennell, Dudley J.; Loosemore, Mike; World, Michael; Humphries, Steve E.; Haddad, Fares S.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2012-01-01

    The skeletal response to short-term exercise training remains poorly described. We thus studied the lower limb skeletal response of 723 Caucasian male army recruits to a 12-wk training regime. Femoral bone volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, bone ultrastructure by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip. Left hip BMD increased with training (mean ± SD: 0.85 ± 3.24, 2.93 ± 4.85, and 1.89 ± 2.85% for femoral neck, Ward's area, and total hip, respectively; all P < 0.001). Left calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation rose 3.57 ± 0.5% (P < 0.001), and left and right femoral cortical volume by 1.09 ± 4.05 and 0.71 ± 4.05%, respectively (P = 0.0001 and 0.003), largely through the rise in periosteal volume (0.78 ± 3.14 and 0.59 ± 2.58% for right and left, respectively, P < 0.001) with endosteal volumes unchanged. Before training, DXA and QUS measures were independent of limb dominance. However, the dominant femur had higher periosteal (25,991.49 vs. 2,5572 mm3, P < 0.001), endosteal (6,063.33 vs. 5,983.12 mm3, P = 0.001), and cortical volumes (19,928 vs. 19,589.56 mm3, P = 0.001). Changes in DXA, QUS, and magnetic resonance imaging measures were independent of limb dominance. We show, for the first time, that short-term exercise training in young men is associated not only with a rise in human femoral BMD, but also in femoral bone volume, the latter largely through a periosteal response. PMID:22114178

  7. A diminished aortic-cardiac reflex during hypotension in aerobically fit young men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Crandall, C. G.; Potts, J. T.; Williamson, J. W.; Foresman, B. H.; Raven, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    We compared the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (AF: VO2max = 44.7 +/- 1.3 ml.kg-1 x min-1) and seven high fit (HF: VO2max = 64.1 +/- 1.7 ml.min-1 x kg-1) healthy young men during hypotension elicited by steady state sodium nitroprusside (SN) infusion. During SN mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly decreased in AF (-12.6 +/- 1.0 mm Hg) and HF (-12.1 +/- 1.1 mm Hg). However, the increases in heart rate (HR) were less (P < 0.023) in HF (15 +/- 3 bpm) than AF (25 +/- 1 bpm). When sustained neck suction (NS, -22 +/- 1 torr in AF and -20 +/- 1 torr in HF, P > 0.05) was applied to counteract the decreased carotid sinus transmural pressure during SN, thereby isolating the aortic baroreceptors, the increased HR remained less (P < 0.021) in HF (8 +/- 2 bpm) than AF (16 +/- 2 bpm). During both SN infusion and SN+NS, the calculated gains (i.e., delta HR/delta MAP) were significantly greater in AF (2.1 +/- 0.3 and 1.3 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) than HF (1.2 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1). However, the estimated carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (i.e., the gain difference between the stage SN and SN + NS) was not different between AF (0.7 +/- 0.2 bpm.mm Hg-1) and HF (0.6 +/- 0.1 bpm.mm Hg-1). These data indicated that the aortic-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during hypotension was significantly diminished with endurance exercise training.

  8. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  9. Time-restricted feeding in young men performing resistance training: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Forsse, Jeffrey S; Butler, Natalie K; Paoli, Antonio; Bane, Annie A; La Bounty, Paul M; Morgan, Grant B; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-03-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine eight weeks of resistance training (RT) with and without time-restricted feeding (TRF) in order to assess nutrient intake and changes in body composition and muscular strength in young recreationally active males. The TRF programme consisted of consuming all calories within a four-hour period of time for four days per week, but included no limitations on quantities or types of foods consumed. The RT programme was performed three days per week and consisted of alternating upper and lower body workouts. For each exercise, four sets leading to muscular failure between 8 and 12 repetitions were employed. Research visits were conducted at baseline, four, and eight weeks after study commencement. Measurements of total body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle cross-sectional area by ultrasound were obtained. Upper and lower body strength and endurance were assessed, and four-day dietary records were collected. TRF reduced energy intake by ∼650 kcal per day of TRF, but did not affect total body composition within the duration of the study. Cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii and rectus femoris increased in both groups. Effect size data indicate a gain in lean soft tissue in the group that performed RT without TRF (+2.3 kg, d = 0.25). Upper and lower body strength and lower body muscular endurance increased in both groups, but effect sizes demonstrate greater improvements in the TRF group. Overall, TRF reduced energy intake and did not adversely affect lean mass retention or muscular improvements with short-term RT in young males.

  10. Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention

  11. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

    PubMed

    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  12. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  13. Sex parties among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in New York City: attendance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Todd M; Halkitis, Perry N; Moeller, Robert M; Siconolfi, Daniel E; Kiang, Mathew V; Barton, Staci C

    2011-12-01

    Very little information exists with regard to sex party behaviors in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), often defined as men ranging in age from 13 to 29 years. The current analysis examines sex party attendance and behavior in a sample of 540 emergent adult gay, bisexual, and other YMSM in New York City, ages 18-29 years. Findings indicate that 8.7% (n = 47) of the sample had attended a sex party 3 months prior to assessment. Sex party attendees reported that parties included both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men; attendees also reported unprotected sex and limited access to condoms and lubricant. As compared with those who did not attend sex parties, those who did indicated significantly more lifetime and recent (last 3 months) casual sex partners, drug use (both number of different drugs used and total lifetime use), psychosocial burden (history of partner violence and number of arrests), and total syndemic burden (a composite of unprotected anal sex, drug use and psychosocial burden). These results indicate that while only a small percentage of the overall sample attended sex parties, the intersection of both individual risk factors coupled with risk factors engendered within the sex party environment itself has the potential to be a catalyst in the proliferation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in urban settings. Lastly, given that sex parties are different than other sex environments, commercial and public, with regard to how they are accessed, public health strategies may need to become more tailored in order to reach this potentially highly risky group.

  14. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  15. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  16. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  17. A social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter A; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With HIV-incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok among the highest in the world, a topical rectal microbicide would be a tremendous asset to prevention. Nevertheless, ubiquitous gaps between clinical trial efficacy and real-world effectiveness of existing HIV preventive interventions highlight the need to address multi-level factors that may impact on rectal microbicide implementation. We explored the social ecology of rectal microbicide acceptability among MSM and transgender women in Chiang Mai and Pattaya, Thailand. Methods We used a qualitative approach guided by a social ecological model. Five focus groups were conducted in Thai using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim in Thai and translated into English. We conducted thematic analysis using line-by-line and axial coding and a constant comparative method. Transcripts and codes were uploaded into a customized database programmed in Microsoft Access. We then used content analysis to calculate theme frequencies by group, and Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test to compare themes by sexual orientation/gender expression and age. Results Participant's (n=37) mean age was 24.8 years (SD=4.2). The majority (70.3%) self-identified as gay, 24.3% transgender women. Product-level themes (side effects, formulation, efficacy, scent, etc.) accounted for 42%, individual (increased sexual risk, packaging/portability, timing/duration of protection) 29%, interpersonal (trust/communication, power/negotiation, stealth) 8% and social–structural (cost, access, community influence, stigma) 21% of total codes, with significant differences by sexual orientation/gender identity. The intersections of multi-level influences included product formulation and timing of use preferences contingent on interpersonal communication and partner type, in the context of constraints posed by stigma, venues for access and cost. Discussion The intersecting

  18. Affect Intensity and Phasic REM Sleep in Depressed Men before and after Treatment with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nofzinger, Eric A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored relationship between daytime affect and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in 45 depressed men before and after treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and in control group of 43 healthy subjects. For depressed subjects only, intensity of daytime affect correlated significantly and positively with phasic REM sleep measures at pre- and…

  19. Dual effect on the RET receptor of MEN 2 mutations affecting specific extracytoplasmic cysteines.

    PubMed

    Chappuis-Flament, S; Pasini, A; De Vita, G; Ségouffin-Cariou, C; Fusco, A; Attié, T; Lenoir, G M; Santoro, M; Billaud, M

    1998-12-03

    The RET gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase whose function is essential during the development of kidney and the intestinal nervous system. Germline mutations affecting one of five cysteines (Cys609, 611, 618, 620 and 634) located in the juxtamembrane domain of the RET receptor are responsible for the vast majority of two cancer-prone disorders, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). These mutations lead to the replacement of a cysteine by an alternate amino acid. Mutations of the RET gene are also the underlying genetic cause of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), a congenital aganglionosis of the hindgut. In a fraction of kindreds, MEN 2A cosegregate with HSCR and affected individuals carry a single mutation at codons 609, 618 or 620. To examine the consequences of cysteine substitution on RET function, we have introduced a Cys to Arg mutation into the wild-type RET at either codons 609, 618, 620, 630 or 634. We now report that each mutation induces a constitutive catalytic activity due to the aberrant disulfide homodimerization of RET. However, mutations 630 and 634 activate RET more strongly than mutations 609, 618 or 620 as demonstrated by quantitative assays in rodent fibroblasts and pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that mutations 618 and 620, and to a lesser extent mutation 609, result in a marked reduction of the level of RET at the cell surface and as a consequence decrease the amount of RET covalent dimer. These findings provide a molecular basis explaining the range of phenotype engendered by alterations of RET cysteines and suggest a novel mechanism whereby mutations of cysteines 609, 618 and 620 exert both activating and inactivating effects.

  20. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  1. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  2. "Becoming Bold": Alcohol use and sexual exploration among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM)

    PubMed Central

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is correlated with unprotected sex, which may place YMSM who use alcohol with sex at increased risk for contracting HIV. However, little is known about how this link develops. This study used qualitative interviews to explore how alcohol became associated with sex and sexual risk among YMSM. We purposively sampled 20 Black and 20 Latino YMSM (N=40), ages 21–24, who used substances (alcohol, marijuana, and crystal methamphetamine) with sex. Interviews focused on participants’ personal histories to trace how these associations developed for each individual. Drawing on sexual script, emotion regulation, and alcohol expectancy theories, analyses followed a modified grounded theory approach. Participants stated that alcohol enabled them to engage in sexual behaviors with men that they wanted to try, allowing them to be more “bold,” overcome stigma about homosexuality, and feel increased comfort with their sexual desires and identities. The use of alcohol during sex was helpful to some of the participants, but could also lead to sexual risk behaviors. Intervention programs seeking to reduce alcohol misuse and sexual risk should take into account how YMSM conceptualize associations between alcohol and sex. These programs may be more effective if they provide support for sexual identity exploration. PMID:23730733

  3. Anaerobic power output of young obese men: comparison with non-obese men and the role of excess fat.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, K; Suzuki, M; Miyashita, M

    1980-01-01

    Anaerobic power output was measured by the staircase climb test in 14 obese, 16 lean, and 21 ordinary men aged from 18--22 years. Fat storage rate (%fat) was estimated by densitometry. The obese group ranked highest with an average power output of 1,012 W. This value was significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 890 W for lean subjects and 855 W for ordinary subjects. The power output per kilogram of lean body mass of the obese group was the highest also. However, the vertical velocity was the lowest although the difference among the three average values was not statistically significant. To investigate the effect of excess fat, eight non-obese subjects engaged in an added-weight experiment. The value obtained was almost the same as for the obese group. The added weights made the vertical velocity decrease but the power output increase. Consequently, it was obvious that the excess fat of an obese man played a role only as an inert mass in the power output measurement. A significantly higher power output of the obese group might be due to more excess fat, and obesity itself was an advantage in the staircase climb test.

  4. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories During Secondary School Predict Substance Use Among Urban Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multi-ethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived stress. As young adults, participants reported on the frequency and quantity of their alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a telephone interview. Controlling for demographic variables, self-regulation did not significantly change over adolescence, although there was significant variation in participants’ rates of growth and decline. Lower seventh grade self-regulation and less steep increases in self-regulation were predictive of higher young adult substance use. Male participants had significantly lower initial self-regulation and higher young adult substance use. The results suggest that interventions that build affective self-regulation skills in adolescence may decrease the risk of young adult substance use. PMID:26549966

  5. Parental Relationship Quality and Masculine Gender-Role Strain in Young Men: Mediating Effects of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that experiences with attachment to and psychological separation from parents predict men's reports of masculine gender-role stress and conflict. This article extends the literature by examining possible variations in these links that may be accounted for by men's core personality characteristics. The author hypothesizes…

  6. Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

  7. Boom Times a Bust: Declining Employment among Less-Educated Young Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Elise; Frank, Abbey; Greenberg, Mark; Savner, Steve; Turetsky, Vicki

    During the 1990s, employment rates rose significantly for less-educated women but not less-educated men. This paper examines the situation of men age 18-24 who either lack a high school diploma or have no education beyond high school and are not institutionalized. It uses Current Population Survey employment figures to compare employment and…

  8. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hansen, Mette; Schjerling, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Key point Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models.Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle.In the present study, we show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo‐stimulating agent (darbepoetin‐α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD+ SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand‐receptor interaction.Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD+ SCs.Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long‐term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Abstract Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged erythropoiesis‐stimulating agent (ESA; darbepoetin‐α) treatment and endurance training, separately and combined, on SC quantity and commitment in human skeletal muscle. Thirty‐five healthy, untrained men were randomized into four groups: sedentary‐placebo (SP, n = 9), sedentary‐ESA (SE, n = 9), training‐placebo (TP, n = 9) or training‐ESA (TE, n = 8). ESA/placebo was injected once weekly and training consisted of ergometer cycling three times a week for 10 weeks. Prior to and following the intervention period, blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2, max ) was measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify fibre type specific SCs (Pax7+), myonuclei

  9. Fermented milk improves glucose metabolism in exercise-induced muscle damage in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage after acute exercise in humans. Methods Eighteen healthy young men participated in each of the three trials of the study: rest, exercise with placebo, and exercise with fermented milk. In the exercise trials, subjects carried out resistance exercise consisting of five sets of leg and bench presses at 70–100% 12 repetition maximum. Examination beverage (fermented milk or placebo) was taken before and after exercise in double-blind method. On the following day, we conducted an analysis of respiratory metabolic performance, blood collection, and evaluation of muscle soreness. Results Muscle soreness was significantly suppressed by the consumption of fermented milk compared with placebo (placebo, 14.2 ± 1.2 score vs. fermented milk, 12.6 ± 1.1 score, p < 0.05). Serum creatine phosphokinase was significantly increased by exercise, but this increase showed a tendency of suppression after the consumption of fermented milk. Exercise significantly decreased the respiratory quotient (rest, 0.88 ± 0.01 vs. placebo, 0.84 ± 0.02, p < 0.05), although this decrease was negated by the consumption of fermented milk (0.88 ± 0.01, p < 0.05). Furthermore, exercise significantly reduced the absorption capacity of serum oxygen radical (rest, 6.9 ± 0.4 μmol TE/g vs. placebo, 6.0 ± 0.3 μmol TE/g, p < 0.05), although this reduction was not observed with the consumption of fermented milk (6.2 ± 0.3 μmol TE/g). Conclusion These results suggest that fermented milk supplementation improves glucose metabolism and alleviates the effects of muscle soreness after high-intensity exercise, possibly associated with the regulation of antioxidant capacity. PMID:23767790

  10. A Qualitative Study of Career Exploration among Young Adult Men with Psychosis and Co-occurring Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Alison; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article explores the meaning and importance of career exploration and career development in the context of integrated treatment for young adults with early psychosis and substance use disorders (i.e., co-occurring disorders). Methods Twelve young adult men (aged 18 to 35 years) with co-occurring disorders recruited from an integrated treatment center completed a series of three semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Purposive sampling ensured participants represented a range of substance abuse treatment stages. Results Participants had a mean age of 26 (SD = 3) and identified as White. Two-thirds of participants (n = 8, 67%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, three (25%) with bipolar disorder, and one (8%) with major depression; four (33%) also had a co-occurring anxiety disorder. The most common substance use disorders involved cannabis (n = 8, 67%), cocaine (n = 5, 42%), and alcohol (n = 5, 42%). These young adult men with co-occurring disorders described past jobs that did not align with future goals as frustrating and disempowering, rather than confidence building. Most young adult participants began actively developing their careers in treatment through future-oriented work or school placements. They pursued ambitious career goals despite sporadic employment and education histories. Treatment engagement and satisfaction appeared to be linked with career advancement prospects. Conclusions Integrating career planning into psychosocial treatment is a critical task for providers who serve young adults with co-occurring disorders. Whether integrating career planning within early intervention treatment planning will improve clinical, functional, or economic outcomes is a promising area of inquiry for rehabilitation researchers and clinicians. PMID:25391280

  11. Health and Masculinities Shaped by Agency within Structures among Young Unemployed Men in a Northern Swedish Context

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit; Ahlgren, Christina; Wiklund, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of our paper was to explore expressions of life choices and life chances (aspects of agency within structures) related to power and experiences of health among early unemployed adolescent young men during the transition period to adulthood. These expressions of agency within structure were interpreted in the light of Cockerham’s Health Lifestyles Theory. Furthermore, social constructions of masculinities were addressed in our analysis. Methods Repeated interviews with ten young men in a cohort of school leavers were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results and Discussion Cockerham’s model was useful for interpreting our findings and we found disposition to act to be a crucial theoretical tool to capture the will and intentions of participants in relation to health. We developed the model in the following ways: structure and socialization were visualized as surrounding the whole model. Analyses of what enhances or restricts power are important. In addition to practices of health lifestyles, we added experiences of health as outcome as well as emotional aspects in disposition to act. We interpret our findings as constructions of masculinities within certain structures, in relation to choices, habitus and practices. Conclusions Qualitative research could contribute to develop the understanding of the agency within structure relationships. Future studies need to pay attention to experiences of health among young people at the margin of the labor market in various milieus – and to analyze these in relation to gender constructions and within the frame-work of agency within structure. PMID:25954811

  12. Trends in Gender Disparities at the Transition from School to Work: Labour Market Entries of Young Men and Women between 1984 and 2005 in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more than…

  13. A longitudinal analysis of medication adherence among young Black men who have sex with men: A latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Quinn, Katherine; Kim, Dong Ha; Schneider, John

    2017-01-01

    HIV-positive young Black MSM (YBMSM) experience poor antiretroviral (ART) medication adherence relative to their white counterparts. However, few studies have longitudinally examined factors that may correlate with various classifications of ART adherence among this population, which was the primary aim of this study. Project nGage was a randomized controlled trial conducted across five Chicago clinics from 2012–2015. Survey and medical records data were collected at baseline, 3-, and 12-month periods to assess psychological distress, HIV stigma, substance use, family acceptance, social support and self efficacy predicted ART medication adherence among 92 YBMSM ages 16 to 29 years old. Major results controlling for the potential effects of age, education level, employment, and intervention condition, indicated that participants with high versus low medication adherence were less likely to report daily/weekly alcohol or marijuana use, have higher family acceptance, and greater self efficacy. These findings identity important constructs that can be targeted in clinical and program interventions which correlate with improved ART medication adherence for YBMSM. PMID:28043754

  14. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks.

  15. Setting an Agenda to Address Intimate Partner Violence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Conceptual Model and Review.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Katrina

    2016-10-18

    Research investigating intimate partner violence (IPV) among sexual minorities is limited. The research that does exist has found that rates of IPV are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women, the most commonly studied population in this area. This limited research has resulted in a dearth of prevention/intervention programs targeted for these populations. While some may argue that existing IPV programs can be used for these populations, this review presents an argument for more targeted work with sexual minority populations, using young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as an example. Drawing on the framework of intersectionality, this article argues that the intersectionality of age, sexual identity, and gender combines to create a spectrum of unique factors that require specific attention. This framework allows for the identification of known correlates for IPV as well as factors that may be unique to YMSM or other sexual minority populations. The article presents a conceptual model that suggests new areas of research as well as a foundation for the topics and issues that should be addressed in an intervention.

  16. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E; Gamarel, Kristi E; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM's elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18-29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM's wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost.

  17. Acceptability and Preferences for Hypothetical Rectal Microbicides among a Community Sample of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Thailand: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Cameron, Michael P; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Rectal microbicides (RMs) may offer substantial benefits in expanding HIV prevention options for key populations. From April to August 2013, we conducted Tablet-Assisted Survey Interviewing, including a discrete choice experiment, with participants recruited from gay entertainment venues and community-based organizations in Chiang Mai and Pattaya, Thailand. Among 408 participants, 74.5 % were young men who have sex with men, 25.5 % transgender women, with mean age = 24.3 years. One-third (35.5 %) had ≤9th grade education; 63.4 % engaged in sex work. Overall, 83.4 % reported they would definitely use a RM, with more than 2-fold higher odds of choice of a RM with 99 versus 50 % efficacy, and significantly higher odds of choosing gel versus suppository, intermittent versus daily dosing, and prescription versus over-the-counter. Sex workers were significantly more likely to use a RM immediately upon availability, with greater tolerance for moderate efficacy and daily dosing. Engaging key populations in assessing RM preferences may support biomedical research and evidence-informed interventions to optimize the effectiveness of RMs in HIV prevention.

  18. Where you live matters: Structural correlates of HIV risk behavior among young men who have sex with men in Metro Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Eaton, Lisa; Andrzejewski, Jack; Loveluck, Jimena; VanHemert, William; Pingel, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18–29) living in Detroit Metro (N=328; 9% HIV-positive; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino, 9% Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM’s HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s). We accounted for individual-level factors (race/ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, alcohol and marijuana use) and contextual factors (community acceptance and stigma regarding same-sex sexuality). YMSM in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and nearer to an AIDS Service Organization were more likely to have tested for HIV and less likely to report serodiscordant partners. Community acceptance was associated with having tested for HIV. Efforts to address YMSM’s exposure to structural barriers in Detroit Metro are needed to inform HIV prevention strategies from a socioecological perspective. PMID:26334445

  19. Evaluating the Relationship-Oriented Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Model of HIV Preventive Behaviors in Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J; Andrews, Rebecca; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Most HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) occur within primary partnerships. Research on YMSM's knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills regarding relationship-related HIV prevention, and how these correspond to HIV risk and partnership characteristics, is limited. We examined links among the Relationship-Oriented Information- Motivation-Behavioral Skills (RELO-IMB) model, relationship characteristics, and HIV risk in 96 YMSM. Condomless sex with a primary partner was associated with low relationship-related HIV preventive information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Lack of HIV testing and alcohol use before sex were associated with low behavioral skills. In multivariate analyses, behavioral skills were the only consistent predictor of these outcomes. Regarding relationship characteristics, feeling trapped in the relationship or being physically abused by a partner was associated with low motivation and behavioral skills. The RELO-IMB model can be used to understand HIV risk in relationships and points to targets for relationship-specific HIV prevention education for YMSM.

  20. Where You Live Matters: Structural Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Andrzejewski, Jack; Loveluck, Jimena; VanHemert, William; Pingel, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18-29) living in Detroit Metro (N = 328; 9 % HIV-positive; 49 % Black, 27 % White, 15 % Latino, 9 % Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM's HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s). We accounted for individual-level factors (race/ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, alcohol and marijuana use) and contextual factors (community acceptance and stigma regarding same-sex sexuality). YMSM in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and nearer to an AIDS Service Organization were more likely to have tested for HIV and less likely to report serodiscordant partners. Community acceptance was associated with having tested for HIV. Efforts to address YMSM's exposure to structural barriers in Detroit Metro are needed to inform HIV prevention strategies from a socioecological perspective.

  1. The Cellular Generation and a New Risk Environment: Implications for Texting-Based Sexual Health Promotion Interventions among Minority Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G.

    2012-01-01

    African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the “cellular generation,” these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18–25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the “etiquette” of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

  2. ACCEPTABILITY OF PrEP UPTAKE AMONG RACIALLY/ETHNICALLY DIVERSE YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: THE P18 STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  3. Sexual Partner Typologies and the Association Between Drug Use and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Janulis, Patrick; Feinstein, Brian A; Phillips, Gregory; Newcomb, Michael E; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-02-13

    Numerous partner and relationship characteristics are associated with sexual risk behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), including being in a serious relationship and having older partners. However, most research in this area is limited by its reliance on variable-centered approaches. Using multilevel latent class analysis, this study identified subgroups of sexual partner types with a particular emphasis on examining whether partner type moderated the association between drug use and condomless anal sex (CAS). Data were utilized from an ongoing cohort study of YMSM (ages 16-29) recruited from previous studies as well as peers and serious partners of existing cohort members. A total of 469 participants reported on 1596 sexual partners in the past 6 months. We identified four distinct sexual partner typologies, which we refer to as: casual, older-online, much older, and serious. Results indicated that rates of CAS were highest for older-online and serious partners. Additionally, there was a positive association between drug use and CAS among a predominantly marijuana using sample, but only for serious partners. While previous research has found that CAS is highest in serious relationships, findings suggest that there may be another type of partnership in which CAS is likely to occur (older partners met online). If confirmed, these results suggest interventions focused on the intersection of marijuana use and CAS may be particularly important among YMSM with serious partners.

  4. The Role of Geographic and Network Factors in Racial Disparities in HIV Among Young Men Who have Sex with Men: An Egocentric Network Study.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa M; Latkin, Carl A; Muth, Stephen Q

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize and compare individual and sexual network characteristics of Black, White, and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as potential drivers of racial disparities in HIV. Egocentric network interviews were conducted with 175 diverse YMSM who described 837 sex partners within 167 sexual-active egos. Sexual partner alter attributes were summarized by ego. Descriptives of ego demographics, sexual partner demographics, and network characteristics were calculated by race of the ego and compared. No racial differences were found in individual engagement in HIV risk behaviors or concurrent sexual partnership. Racial differences were found in partner characteristics, including female gender, non-gay sexual orientations, older age, and residence in a high HIV prevalence neighborhood. Racial differences in relationship characteristics included type of relationships (i.e., main partner) and strength of relationships. Network characteristics also showed differences, including sexual network density and assortativity by race. Most racial differences were in the direction of effects that would tend to increase HIV incidence among Black YMSM. These data suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be driven and/or maintained by a combination of racial differences in partner characteristics, assortativity by race, and increased sexual network density, rather than differences in individual's HIV risk behaviors.

  5. Acceptability and Preliminary Efficacy of a Tailored Online HIV/STI Testing Intervention for Young Men who have Sex with Men: The Get Connected! Program

    PubMed Central

    Pingel, Emily S.; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Harper, Gary W.; Horvath, Keith; Weiss, Gretchen; Dittus, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Michigan accounts for over 70 % of all HIV/STI cases in the state, with young men who have sex with men (YMSM) between the ages of 13 and 24 encumbering the largest burden in HIV/STI incidence. Using community-based participatory research principles, we developed and pilot tested a web-based, randomized control trial seeking to promote HIV/STI testing (“Get Connected!”) among YMSM (N = 130; ages 15–24). Randomized participants completed a baseline assessment and shown a test-locator condition (control) or a tailored, personalized site (treatment). At 30-day follow-up, we found high acceptability among YMSM in both conditions, yet higher credibility of intervention content among YMSM in the treatment group (d = .55). Furthermore, 30 participants reported testing by following, with the majority of these participants (73.3 %; n = 22) completing the treatment condition, a clinically meaningful effect (d = .34) suggesting preliminary efficacy for the intervention. These results demonstrate the potential of the intervention, and suggest that a larger efficacy trial may be warranted. PMID:25638038

  6. Social support network characteristics and sexual risk taking among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of young, urban men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, F; Siconolfi, D E; Barton, S; Olivieri, B; Lombardo, L; Halkitis, P N

    2013-06-01

    Associations between social support network characteristics and sexual risk among racially/ethnically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM) were examined using egocentric network data from a prospective cohort study of YMSM (n = 501) recruited in New York City. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between social support network characteristics and sexual risk taking behaviors in Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White YMSM. Bivariate analyses indicated key differences in network size, composition, communication frequency and average relationship duration by race/ethnicity. In multivariable analyses, controlling for individual level sociodemographic, psychosocial and relationship factors, having a sexual partner in one's social support network was associated with unprotected sexual behavior for both Hispanic/Latino (AOR = 3.90) and White YMSM (AOR = 4.93). Further examination of key network characteristics across racial/ethnic groups are warranted in order to better understand the extant mechanisms for provision of HIV prevention programming to racially/ethnically diverse YMSM at risk for HIV.

  7. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM’s elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18–29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM’s wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost. PMID:25256808

  8. The Impact of Victimization and Neuroticism on Mental Health in Young Men who have Sex with Men: Internalized Homophobia as an Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Sexual minorities experience greater mental health issues compared to heterosexuals due to minority stressors. This study focused on the impact of victimization and neuroticism on mental health in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and the mediating role of internalized homophobia (IH). IH refers to when a sexual minority person internalizes social bias and develops a negative view of themselves, which is a likely process through which victimization and neuroticism impact mental health. Data were collected over three time points across 12 months, with 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and an 80.7% retention rate. Two mediation analyses with bias-corrected bootstrapping using 1000 samples were conducted, controlling for age, race, and sexual orientation. Results revealed that victimization [F (9, 440) = 4.83, p < .001, R(2) = .09] and neuroticism [F (9, 440) = 12.23, p < .001, R(2) = .20] had a significant indirect effect on mental health via increased levels of IH. These findings show how external experiences of stigma and personality level characteristics may impact YMSM in terms of their sense of self. Furthermore, these results support addressing social conditions that marginalize YMSM in order to promote better mental health through decreasing IH.

  9. Self-Efficacy among Young Men who have Sex with Men: An exploratory analysis of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors across partner types

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José; Hickok, Andrew M.; Meadowbrooke, Chrysta; Veinot, Tiffany; Loveluck, Jimena

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection continues to rise among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We explored whether unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) occasions and partners, respectively, were associated with YMSM’s (N = 194; ages 18–24) self-efficacy for safe sex with regular and casual partners. We created four self-efficacy typologies: high self-efficacy with both partner types [HRHC;N=73(41.7%)], high self-efficacy with regular partners but low with casual partners [HRLC;N=24(13.7%)], low self-efficacy with regular partners but high with casual partners [LRHC;N=21(12.0%)], and low with both partner types [LRLC;N=57(32.6%)]. YMSM in the LRHC category reported fewer URAI occasions, whereas those in the HRLC group reported more URAI partner and occasions, respectively. YMSM having serodiscordant partners were more likely to report more URAI partners, and be represented in the LRLC category. These findings underscore the importance of addressing differential self-efficacy across partner types, and highlight an urgent need to enhance YMSM’s self-efficacy with casual partners. PMID:23592013

  10. Stability of Intimate Partner Violence by Men across 12 Years in Young Adulthood: Effects of Relationship Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Feingold, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the stability of young men’s intimate partner violence (IPV) over a 12-year period as a function of relationship continuity or discontinuity. Multiwave measures of IPV (physical and psychological aggression) were obtained from 184 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners. The effects of relationship continuity versus transitions on change in IPV were examined using multilevel analyses. In general, men’s IPV decreased over time. Men’s physical aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of physical aggression about 7 years later, and men’s psychological aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of psychological aggression about 10-12 years later. As hypothesized, higher stability in IPV was found for men who stayed with the same partners, whereas men experiencing relationship transitions showed greater change. The IPV of new partners was linked to the changes in men’s IPV that occurred with repartnering. There was less change in men’s IPV over time as men changed partners less frequently. PMID:21311973

  11. Keeping Them in “STYLE”: Finding, Linking, and Retaining Young HIV-Positive Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men in Care

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin C.; Valera, Erik; Matthews, Derrick D.; Lyons, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color are at particularly increased risk for HIV infection compared to white MSM. National data highlight the need to link YMSM of color to care to improve their overall health and stem further infections, yet, there is limited data on interventions and clinical outcomes focused on engaging and retaining youth, specifically HIV-infected YMSM of color in care. To address the medical care needs of this underserved population, in 2005, the Health Research and Services Administration (HRSA) created the YMSM of Color Initiative. Utilizing a social marketing campaign targeting youth and members of their sexual and social networks, testing and outreach on college campuses and within the broader community, and a tightly linked medical–social support network, we created STYLE (Strength Through Youth Livin’ Empowered), a novel intervention that sought to diagnose, engage, and retain HIV-positive black and Latino YMSM in HIV primary care services. Over a 3-year period, 81 men were either newly diagnosed or reengaged in care. Overall, 63% of the cohort was retained in clinical care; defined as attending at least one medical visit every 4 months. Compared to the 3 years prior to STYLE, the odds ratio for whether or not someone attended a clinic visit was 2.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34–4.98) if enrolled in STYLE. We conclude that compared to a pre-STYLE cohort, STYLE was an effective intervention that increased HIV diagnoses, provided efficient and timely engagement in care for both those newly diagnosed and those who had fallen out of care and improved overall retention. PMID:21162690

  12. Substance use, substance choice, and unprotected anal intercourse among young Asian American and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Operario, Don; Gregorich, Steven E; McFarland, Willi; MacKellar, Duncan; Valleroy, Linda

    2005-10-01

    Substance use has been shown to be an important factor associated with having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM). However, little is known about which substances are used in conjunction with sexual activity and whether having UAI varies by substance choice in this population. From January 2000 to September 2001, we sampled API MSM aged 18-29 years from 30 gay-identified venues in San Francisco, California, and interviewed 496 API men face-to-face using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 47% of the sample reported UAI in the past 6 months. During the same time period, 32% and 34% reported being "high" or "buzzed" on alcohol and drugs during sex, respectively. The most common drugs used in conjunction with sex were methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"; 19%), followed by marijuana (14%), inhalant nitrites ("poppers"; 11%), and crystal methamphetamine ("crystal"; 10%). In a multivariate model, we observed associations between UAI and being high or buzzed on ecstasy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37, 5.02) and poppers during sex (OR = 3.29; 95% CI = 1.50, 7.25). However, being high or buzzed on alcohol, marijuana, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and crystal methamphetamine during sex had no association with UAI. One third of sampled young API MSM used drugs or alcohol during sex. The co-occurrence of ecstasy and popper use and unprotected sex underscores the need to develop HIV prevention programs focusing on particular drugs.

  13. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  14. Masculinity, sexuality and vulnerability in 'working' with young men in South African contexts: 'you feel like a fool and an idiot … a loser'.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Tamara; Kruger, Lou-Marie; Schepers, Yeshe

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has seen a rapid increase in scholarship and programmatic interventions focusing on gender and sexuality, and more recently on boys, men and masculinities. In this paper, we argue that a deterministic discourse on men's sexuality and masculinity in general is inherent in many current understandings of adolescent male sexuality, which tend to assume that young women are vulnerable and powerless and young men are sexually powerful and inevitably also the perpetrators of sexual violence. Framed within a feminist, social constructionist the oretical perspective, the current research looked at how the masculinity and sexuality of South African young men is constructed, challenged or maintained. Focus groups were conducted with young men between the ages of 15 and 20 years from five different schools in two regions of South Africa, the Western and Eastern Cape. Data were analysed using Gilligan's listening guide method. Findings suggest that participants in this study have internalised the notion of themselves as dangerous, but were also exploring other possible ways of being male and being sexual, demonstrating more complex experiences of manhood. We argue for the importance of documenting and highlighting the precariousness, vulnerability and uncertainty of young men in scholarly and programmatic work on masculinities.

  15. Masculinity, sexuality and vulnerability in ‘working’ with young men in South African contexts: ‘you feel like a fool and an idiot … a loser’

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Tamara; Kruger, Lou-Marie; Schepers, Yeshe

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has seen a rapid increase in scholarship and programmatic interventions focusing on gender and sexuality, and more recently on boys, men and masculinities. In this paper, we argue that a deterministic discourse on men's sexuality and masculinity in general is inherent in many current understandings of adolescent male sexuality, which tend to assume that young women are vulnerable and powerless and young men are sexually powerful and inevitably also the perpetrators of sexual violence. Framed within a feminist, social constructionist the oretical perspective, the current research looked at how the masculinity and sexuality of South African young men is constructed, challenged or maintained. Focus groups were conducted with young men between the ages of 15 and 20 years from five different schools in two regions of South Africa, the Western and Eastern Cape. Data were analysed using Gilligan's listening guide method. Findings suggest that participants in this study have internalised the notion of themselves as dangerous, but were also exploring other possible ways of being male and being sexual, demonstrating more complex experiences of manhood. We argue for the importance of documenting and highlighting the precariousness, vulnerability and uncertainty of young men in scholarly and programmatic work on masculinities. PMID:25803702

  16. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  17. Troubled Journeys: Some Motivations of Young Muslim Men to Join the Islamic State.

    PubMed

    Yordanova, Kalina

    2016-07-04

    Large numbers of young people have joined jihadists groups in the Syrian/Iraqi conflict. Why would these young people decide to become jihadist fighters? What are the representations of the West they hold and how do these representations shape their decision? Drawing on the psychotherapeutic work with Syrian and Iraqi asylum seekers, this paper seeks to explain the most intimate reasons of young Muslim would-be fighters to join the Islamic State militias.

  18. Non-Heme Iron Absorption and Utilization from Typical Whole Chinese Diets in Young Chinese Urban Men Measured by a Double-Labeled Stable Isotope Technique

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichen; Zhang, Yuhui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhengwu; Gou, Lingyan; Wang, Zhilin; Ren, Tongxiang; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was to observe the non-heme iron absorption and biological utilization from typical whole Chinese diets in young Chinese healthy urban men, and to observe if the iron absorption and utilization could be affected by the staple food patterns of Southern and Northern China. Materials and Methods Twenty-two young urban men aged 18–24 years were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups in which the staple food was rice and steamed buns, respectively. Each subject received 3 meals containing approximately 3.25 mg stable 57FeSO4 (the ratio of 57Fe content in breakfast, lunch and dinner was 1:2:2) daily for 2 consecutive days. In addition, approximately 2.4 mg 58FeSO4 was administered intravenously to each subject at 30–60 min after dinner each day. Blood samples were collected from each subject to measure the enrichment of the 57Fe and 58Fe. Fourteen days after the experimental diet, non-heme iron absorption was assessed by measuring 57Fe incorporation into red blood cells, and absorbed iron utilization was determined according to the red blood cell incorporation of intravenously infused 58Fe SO4. Results Non-heme iron intake values overall, and in the rice and steamed buns groups were 12.8 ±2.1, 11.3±1.3 and 14.3±1.5 mg, respectively; the mean 57Fe absorption rates were 11±7%, 13±7%, and 8±4%, respectively; and the mean infused 58Fe utilization rates were 85±8%, 84±6%, and 85±10%, respectively. There was no significantly difference in the iron intakes, and 57Fe absorption and infused 58Fe utilization rates between rice and steamed buns groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion We present the non-heme iron absorption and utilization rates from typical whole Chinese diets among young Chinese healthy urban men, which was not affected by the representative staple food patterns of Southern and Northern China. This study will provide a basis for the setting of Chinese iron DRIs. PMID:27099954

  19. The K153R Polymorphism in the Myostatin Gene and Muscle Power Phenotypes in Young, Non-Athletic Men

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Yvert, Thomas; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Morán, María; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The Lys(K)153Arg(R) polymorphism in exon 2 (rs1805086, 2379 A>G replacement) of the myostatin (MSTN) gene is a candidate to influence skeletal muscle phenotypes. We examined the association between the MSTN K153R polymorphism and ‘explosive’ leg power, assessed during sprint (30 m) and stationary jumping tests [squat (SJ) and counter-movement jumps (CMJ)] in non-athletic young adults (University students) [n = 281 (214 men); age: 21–32 years]. We also genotyped the MSTN exonic variants E164K (rs35781413), I225T, and P198A, yet no subject carried any of these variant MSTN alleles. As for the K153R polymorphism, we found only one woman with the KR genotype; thus, we presented the results only for men. The results of a one-way ANCOVA (with age, weight and height entered as covariates) showed that men with the KR genotype (n = 15) had a worse performance in vertical jumps compared with those with the KK genotype [SJ: vertical displacement of center of gravity (CG) of 35.17±1.42 vs. 39.06±0.39 cm, respectively, P = 0.009; CMJ: vertical displacement of CG of 36.44±1.50 vs. 40.63±0.41 cm, respectively, P = 0.008]. The results persisted after adjusting for multiple comparisons according to Bonferroni. Performance in 30 m sprint tests did however not differ by K153R genotypes. In summary, the MSTN K153R polymorphism is associated with the ability to produce ‘peak’ power during muscle contractions, as assessed with vertical jump tests, in young non-athletic men. Although more research is still needed, this genetic variation is among the numerous candidates to explain, alone or in combination with other polymorphisms, individual variations in muscle phenotypes. PMID:21283721

  20. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  1. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  2. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C.; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests. There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05). APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  3. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Rwanda’s genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer’s exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. Results The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely

  4. Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Young Men Working at a Rural Roadside Market in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Jere, Diana L; Norr, Kathleen F; Bell, Carl C; Corte, Colleen; Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Levy, Judith A

    Using an ecological model, we describe substance use and sexual risk behaviors of young male laborers at a roadside market in Malawi. Data included observations and interviews with 18 key market leaders and 15 laborers (ages 18-25 years). Alcohol, marijuana, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) were widely available. We identified three patterns of substance use: 6 young men currently used, 6 formerly used, and 3 never used. Substance use was linked to risky sex, including sex with CSWs. The market supported risky behaviors through availability of resources; supportive norms, including beliefs that substance use enhanced strength; and lack of restraints. Community-level poverty, cultural support for alcohol, interpersonal family/peer influences, early substance use, and school dropout also contributed to risky behaviors. Parental guidance was protective but not often reported. Local programs addressing substance use and risky sex simultaneously and better national substance use policies and mental health services are needed.

  5. Pathways to Recurrent Trauma Among Young Black Men: Traumatic Stress, Substance Use, and the “Code of the Street”

    PubMed Central

    Rich, John A.; Grey, Courtney M.

    2005-01-01

    Recurrent interpersonal violence is a major cause of death and disability among young Black men. Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with reinjury, but little is known about how these factors work together. We interviewed young Black male victims to understand their experience of violence. Qualitative analysis of their narratives revealed how their struggle to reestablish safety shaped their response to injury. Aspects of the “code of the street” (including the need for respect) and lack of faith in the police combined with traumatic stress and substance use to accentuate their sense of vulnerability. Victims then reacted to protect themselves in ways that could increase their risk of reinjury. We describe a model with implications for reducing rates of recurrent violent injuries. PMID:15855457

  6. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  7. Affective Disorders, Psychosis and Dementia in a Community Sample of Older Men with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; McCaul, Kieran; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia and affective and psychotic symptoms are commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease, but information about their prevalence and incidence in community representative samples remains sparse. Methods We recruited a community-representative sample 38173 older men aged 65–85 years in 1996 and used data linkage to ascertain the presence of PD, affective disorders, psychotic disorders and dementia. Diagnoses followed the International Classification of Disease coding system. Age was recorded in years. Follow up data were available until December 2011. Results The mean age of participants was 72.5 years and 333 men (0.9%) had PD at study entry. Affective and psychotic disorders and dementia were more frequent in men with than without PD (respective odds ratios: 6.3 [95%CI = 4.7, 8.4]; 14.2 [95%CI = 8.4, 24.0] and 18.2 [95%CI = 13.4, 24.6]). Incidence rate ratios of affective and psychotic disorders were higher among men with than without PD, although ratios decreased with increasing age. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of an affective episode associated with PD was 5.0 (95%CI = 4.2, 5.9). PD was associated with an age-adjusted HR of 8.6 (95%CI = 6.1, 12.0) for psychotic disorders and 6.1 (95%CI = 5.5, 6.8) for dementia. PD and dementia increased the HR of depressive and psychotic disorders. Conclusions PD increases the risk of affective and psychotic disorders, as well as dementia, among community dwelling older men. The risk of a recorded diagnosis of affective and psychotic disorders decreases with increasing age. PMID:27689715

  8. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  9. Does allergic rhinitis affect communication skills in young adults?

    PubMed

    Cingi, Can Cemal; Sakallıoğlu, Öner; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence in the general population. The symptoms of AR can impair the cognitive capabilities of the affected people. The study of communication skills and AR interaction has not been adequately discussed. We aimed to analyze Social Communication Skills of university students with AR. Fifty patients suffering from AR and 50 healthy subjects were studied. All participants completed two questionnaires [Social Communication Skills Rating Scale (SCSRS) and Communication Questionnaire] for the assessment of social communication skills. Total scores of both SCSRS and Communication Questionnaire were higher in participants with AR than controls. When the questions of SCSRS were compared between the groups one by one, significant difference was observed between the groups for questions numbered 1-9 and 11, 12 (p < 0.05). Also, significant differences were observed between the groups for questions numbered 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of Communication Questionnaire (p < 0.05). Results of our study indicate that AR could negatively affect the social communication skills of the patients with AR. More research is however needed to validate this hypothesis.

  10. Total cholesterol concentration and mortality at a relatively young age: do men and women differ?

    PubMed Central

    Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Kromhout, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, non-cardiovascular causes, and all causes. DESIGN--Population based cohort study. SUBJECTS--23,000 men and 26,000 women aged 30-54 years examined between 1974 and 1980. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mortality for the above mentioned end points for fifths of cholesterol distribution, and relative risks estimated by using Cox's proportional hazard (survival) analysis. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. RESULTS--Mortality from coronary heart disease in men was five times higher than that in women. A strong positive association between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular diseases was observed in both men and women. The relative risk for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution was for mortality from coronary heart disease (3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 5.1) in men and 3.8 (1.1 to 13.1) in women) and for mortality from cardiovascular disease (2.8 (1.8 to 4.2) in men and 2.9 (1.4 to 6.0) in women). No increase of non-cardiovascular mortality at low cholesterol concentration was observed. All cause mortality was significantly higher in the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution: relative risk 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) in men and 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9) in women. CONCLUSION--Total cholesterol concentration is a strong predictor of mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in women as well as in men. Low cholesterol concentrations are not associated with increased mortality from non-cardiovascular causes. PMID:7580439

  11. Daily Reports of Positive and Negative Affect and Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among College Student and Non-Student Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. Objectives The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and non-student young adults. Methods High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N=72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Results Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among non-students. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Conclusions/Importance Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college. PMID:26683453

  12. The Prevalence of Sexual Behavior Stigma Affecting Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Across Sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Ketende, Sosthenes; Lyons, Carrie; Charurat, Manhattan E; Drame, Fatou Maria; Diouf, Daouda; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouanda, Seni; Anato, Simplice; Mothopeng, Tampose; Mnisi, Zandile; Baral, Stefan David

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been increased attention for the need to reduce stigma related to sexual behaviors among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) as part of comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programming. However, most studies focused on measuring and mitigating stigma have been in high-income settings, challenging the ability to characterize the transferability of these findings because of lack of consistent metrics across settings. Objective The objective of these analyses is to describe the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma in the United States, and to compare the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma between MSM in Southern and Western Africa and in the United States using consistent metrics. Methods The same 13 sexual behavior stigma items were administered in face-to-face interviews to 4285 MSM recruited in multiple studies from 2013 to 2016 from 7 Sub-Saharan African countries and to 2590 MSM from the 2015 American Men’s Internet Survey (AMIS), an anonymous Web-based behavioral survey. We limited the study sample to men who reported anal sex with a man at least once in the past 12 months and men who were aged 18 years and older. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to compare the prevalence of stigma between groups. Results Within the United States, prevalence of sexual behavior stigma did not vary substantially by race/ethnicity or geographic region except in a few instances. Feeling afraid to seek health care, avoiding health care, feeling like police refused to protect, being blackmailed, and being raped were more commonly reported in rural versus urban settings in the United States (P<.05 for all). In the United States, West Africa, and Southern Africa, MSM reported verbal harassment as the most common form of stigma. Disclosure of same-sex practices to family members increased prevalence of reported stigma from family members within all geographic settings (P<.001 for all). After

  13. Achieving HIV risk reduction through HealthMpowerment.org, a user-driven eHealth intervention for young Black men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Baltierra, Nina B.; Pike, Emily C.; LeGrand, Sara; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men (YBMSM/TW) are at disproportionate risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI). HealthMpowerment.org (HMP) is a mobile phone optimised online intervention that utilises behaviour change and gaming theories to reduce risky sexual behaviours and build community among HIV-positive and negative YBMSM/TW. The intervention is user-driven, provides social support, and utilises a point reward system. A four-week pilot trial was conducted with a diverse group of 15 YBMSM/TW. During exit interviews, participants described how HMP components led to behaviour changes such as asking partners' sexual history, increased condom use, and HIV/STI testing. The user-driven structure, interactivity, and rewards appeared to facilitate sustained user engagement and the mobile platform provided relevant information in real-time. Participants described the reward elements of exceeding their previous scores and earning points toward prizes as highly motivating. HMP showed promise for being able to deliver a sufficient intervention dose and we found a trend toward higher dose received and more advanced stages of behaviour change. In this pilot trial, HMP was well accepted and demonstrates promise for translating virtual intervention engagement into actual behaviour change to reduce HIV risk behaviours. PMID:25593616

  14. "My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on the depression narratives of young Swedish men and women.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E

    2011-05-01

    Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal dis