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Sample records for affects young women

  1. Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women.

    PubMed

    Krams, Indrikis A; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Krama, Tatjana; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2014-01-01

    Body height and other body attributes of humans may be associated with a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, we have little understanding of the relative role of each, and relationships between indices of physical appearance and general health. In this study we tested relationships between immune function and body height of young men and women. In men, we report a non-linear relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis-B vaccine and body height, with a positive relationship up to a height of 185 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We did not find any significant relationship between body height and immune function in women. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits. PMID:25164474

  2. Hormonal contraceptive use is associated with neural and affective changes in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Lisofsky, Nina; Riediger, Michaela; Gallinat, Jürgen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated that female gonadal hormones can alter the structure and function of adult women's brains. So far, we do not know how hormonal contraceptives affect female brain structure, in part because within-person longitudinal observations are lacking. Here, we compared 28 young women before and after three months of regular contraceptive intake with 28 naturally cycling women of comparable age. The goal was to explore within-person neural change in women using contraceptives. Neuroimaging, hormonal, cognitive, and affect data were collected at two time points for each participant. A voxel-wise whole-brain comparison of both groups revealed decreased gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus in women using contraceptives as compared to the control group. Resting-state functional connectivity of this region with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed from positive to negative connectivity following contraceptive intake whereas the opposite held for the control group. An exploratory analysis revealed that gray matter volume in the left amygdala/anterior parahippocampal gyrus was associated with positive affect at the second time point. There were no systematic differences in cognitive performance change between the groups. These findings provide initial insights into effects of hormonal contraceptives on the human brain and expand previous findings on hormone-related amygdala/hippocampal complex plasticity. The affected brain regions may be related to psychological wellbeing, underlining the importance of future studies on contraceptive-induced brain changes. PMID:27109356

  3. Negative Affect Mediates Effects of Psychological Stress on Disordered Eating in Young Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. Methodology A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. Principal Findings The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (–0.012, 95%CI: –.038∼0.006, p = 0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022∼0.044, p<0.001) and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005∼0.023, p<0.01), respectively. Conclusions Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population. PMID:23071655

  4. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  5. Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2015-05-01

    Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9 ± 2.7 years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7 ± 3.1 years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. PMID:25727023

  6. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  7. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  8. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  9. How peer conversations about HIV/AIDS media messages affect comprehension and beliefs of young South African women.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, E; Maes, A A; Jansen, C J M

    2016-12-01

    Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC) was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow. PMID:27310424

  10. Young black women: defining health.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, H J; Keller, C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit a definition of health as described by young Black women and to characterize the factors related to their definitions of health. The research questions were: (a) How do young Black women define health and (b) what factors are related to their definition of health? Using interviews and open-ended questions, an exploratory descriptive design examined the factors which contribute to the definition of health. Twenty-two young Black women between the ages of 21 and 40 comprised the sample. A wide range of incomes, occupations, educational levels, marital status, and family sizes were represented. The informants defined health as comprising those characteristics, behaviors, and/or activities which include: (a) having or avoiding a disease, (b) the presence or absence of obesity, (c) experiencing and reducing stress, (d) good and bad health habits, (e) eating good and bad foods, and (f) engaging (or not) in exercise. PMID:8106873

  11. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included β-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and

  12. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  13. Screening Adolescents and Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Lori A.; Robison, Katina

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Recent guidelines from multiple organizations, including the USPSTF, ACS/ASCCP/ASCP, ACOG and most recently the 2013 Update to the 2006 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines, all stress screening initiation no sooner than the age of 21 years and increased screening intervals for women aged 21 to 29 years. Primary prevention with HPV vaccination has the potential to significantly impact the development of high-grade cervical lesions, including cancer, and will likely affect screening guidelines in the future. PMID:23732030

  14. Young women most vulnerable to HIV infection.

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    It is estimated that 70% of the 3000 women who are infected with HIV each day are 15-24 years old. This pattern of increased prevalence among young women has been noted since a 1986 report that AIDS cases in Zaire were equally divided among men and women, but that the women were an average of 10 years younger than the men, and cases in women peaked at age 20-29. Despite this information, the HIV research and program agenda has failed to address the gender issues that place young women at risk of infection. Societies that do not provide young women with information about reproductive anatomy and sex or with reproductive health services, that allow men to have multiple sex partners, and that condone condom use only for illicit intercourse, leave young girls and women at risk of forced and unprotected sexual intercourse. Studies have also shown that early marriage practices also increase the risk of women becoming infected (usually by their older and more "experienced" husbands). In some parts of Africa, older men seek out virgins in the belief that having sex with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases. Poverty also drives women to barter sex for money or goods. In addition to these social and behavioral risk factors, young women appear to have a greater physiological susceptibility to infection than more mature women. Possible factors for this increased risk include the facts that, in younger women, the lining of the vagina is thinner, vaginal mucus may be less profuse, ovulation (which seems to have a protective effect against infection) is infrequent, and a transition zone of cells ringing the cervical opening is more exposed. Thus, biologic, social, and behavioral factors increase the vulnerability of young women. To protect young women, societies will have to change cultural and sexual norms, values, and practices. PMID:12288834

  15. Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and…

  16. Barrier Free: Serving Young Women with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Linda; Rousso, Harilyn

    The manual is intended to assist community agencies to fully integrate young women with physical or sensory disabilities in community programs and activities provided for nondisabled youth. It provides six training modules, two designed to help staff members examine their attitudes about working with disabled young women and four focusing on…

  17. Frequency/Dysuria Syndrome in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, James

    1988-01-01

    The frequency/dysuria syndrome in women is a common problem seen in primary medical care. Only half the affected women who consult a physician have a positive urine culture at the standard of 100 000 organisms per millilitre of urine. The other half may have false-negative urine cultures, “low-count bacterial infection”, or urethritis. There are no clinical differences between culture-positive and culture-negative groups that would assist identification of women for whom immediate antibiotic treatment is appropriate. A primary-care study of 103 episodes of frequency/dysuria in 101 young women attending a Student Health Service explored the temporal relationship between sexual activity and the development of urinary symptoms. The length of the last coitus-symptom onset interval proved to have no useful value in predicting the outcome of urine culture in this population. A short last coitus-symptom onset interval combined with a short duration of symptoms may reduce the accuracy of low-power microscopic bacteruria as a test for bacterial urinary infection. PMID:21253221

  18. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Three vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  19. Cardiac condition in young chagasic women

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, O; Dotto, G; Ojeda, S; Garutti, A; Bertolotto, P; Tabares, S; Gallerano, R; Sembaj, A

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Chagas disease is a complex disorder caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Most patients remain asymptomatic for several years and 30% of them progress quietly to developing cardiomyopathy. The factors that lead to chronic myocardial lesions are not fully understood. Objective: To investigate the association between clinical symptoms and single nucleotide polymorphisms in chagasic and non-chagasic women younger and older than 55 years of age. Methods and Results: we analyzed Ala-9Val and Ile58Thr polymorphisms of the SOD-Mn gene, 138ex1ins/del A of the endothelin-1 gene (ET-1) and H323H (T/C) of the endothelin receptor A gene (ETA), by PCR-RFLP using genomic DNA from leukocyte of 85 women. We also evaluated serum lipid profile, renal and liver function, chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiography (EchoCG). Biochemical profiling did not show differences between chagasic and non-chagasic patients. The polymorphisms analyses showed a significant association in the distribution of frequencies of the Mn-SOD Ile58Thr gene between both groups. Young chagasic patients had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormalities in X-rays, in ECGs and they showed grade II and III of NYHA functional classes. The chance of having an abnormal EchoCG was 5.87 higher in young chagasic patients (OR=5.87, 95% CI 1.47-23.4). Discussion: We concluded that the parasite affects young females by accelerating the deterioration of cardiac function, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and the cardioprotective action of estrogens present in the premenopausal stage. PMID:23904881

  20. Young Women Online: Collaboratively Constructing Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine how young women construct their identities with others in online communities. I argue that the proliferation of social networking and its popularity among young people means that performed identities are increasingly collaboratively constructed, with the individual having less control over their public image than was…

  1. Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Harris, W; Cook, D; Bedford, K; Zuo, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects/setting: 2038 females aged 12–17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Outcomes: Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Results: Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference among smokers in the intervention (26.4%) and control (16.9%) groups (p = 0.28). A higher percentage of current smokers in the intervention group indicated they were unlikely to smoke in 12 months time (47.8%) than smokers in the control condition (31.9%) (p = 0.03). For non-smokers, there was no difference in smoking intentions between conditions, with 95% saying they would be unlikely to be smoking in 12 months time. Conclusions: This "real world" study suggests that placing an anti-smoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking. PMID:15333884

  2. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  3. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Poor Survival Despite Intensive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fredholm, Hanna; Eaker, Sonja; Frisell, Jan; Holmberg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30–40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. Methodology/Principal Findings In a registry based cohort of women aged 20–69 (n = 22 017) with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992–2005), women aged 20–34 (n = 471), 35–39 (n = 858) and 40–49 (n = 4789) were compared with women aged 50–69 years (n = 15 899). The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER) were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20–34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20–34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35–39 and 40–49, respectively). The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20–34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1–10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20–34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. Conclusions After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying

  4. Antibodies for HIV Prevention in young women

    PubMed Central

    Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Baxter, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate HIV burden. They urgently require new HIV prevention approaches that women can use. This review provides an overview of the use of antiretrovirals for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), highlighting some of the challenges with this technology and explores the potential role of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for HIV prevention in women. Recent findings Recent findings on the initial steps in viral entry and establishment of a productive local infectious nidus in the vaginal epithelium has provided important clues for HIV prevention in the female genital tract. Topical and oral formulations of antiretroviral drugs have been shown to prevent HIV infection in women with varying levels of success, depending principally on adherence. Further, a number of new broad and potent mAbs have been isolated over the last 5 years. Non-human primate studies demonstrate that broadly neutralizing HIV mAbs can protect rhesus macaques from SHIV infection. These findings have created newfound enthusiasm for passive immunization as a potential prevention strategy for women. Summary If potent broadly neutralising mAbs are effective in preventing HIV infection in women, it could fill an important gap in HIV prevention technologies for young women, especially in Africa. PMID:25700207

  5. Parental Involvement and Young Women's Contraceptive Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisco, Michelle L.

    2005-01-01

    Young adult women in the United States tend to delay family formation, pursue higher education and professional jobs, and become sexually active before marriage. Using effective contraception is the best way to ensure that nonmarital parenthood does not disrupt educational and career plans. Because parental involvement in education shapes…

  6. Women's Responses to Young Infants' Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Gwen E.; Harris, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed 40 women's responses to young infants' cries. Mothers and nonmothers were similar in basic features of caregiving behaviors. Although the sound of infant cries may inform caregivers about distress level, caregiving behaviors appear to be determined by additional factors. (RH)

  7. Young Men and Young Women. Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielewski, Erica H.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet considers differences in behaviors and outcomes between young men and young women as they transition to adulthood. It also considers whether differences between young men and young women are related to the fact that some women are caring for children. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the analysis compares…

  8. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  9. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design. PMID:23886074

  10. Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNae, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…

  11. Comparison of gait of young women and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hageman, P A; Blanke, D J

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe and compare free-speed gait patterns of healthy young women with healthy elderly women. The evaluation was completed with high-speed cinematography using synchronized front and side views of 26 healthy volunteers. One group was composed of 13 subjects 20 to 35 years of age, and the other group was composed of 13 subjects 60 to 84 years of age. Each subject participated in one test session consisting of three filmed trials of free-speed ambulation down a 14-m walkway. The processed film was analyzed for 10 gait characteristics. Differences in gait characteristics between the two groups were examined using a correlated t test (p less than .01). The elderly women demonstrated significantly smaller values of step length, stride length, ankle range of motion, pelvic obliquity, and velocity when compared with the younger women. The results of our study suggest that the physical therapist should not establish similar expectations for young women and elderly women during gait rehabilitation. PMID:3749270

  12. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing. PMID:24572457

  13. Dysmenorrhea and Endometriosis in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Tasuku

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is defined as symptoms associated with menstruation, such as abdominal pain, cramping and lumbago, that interfere with daily activity. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual pain without underlying pathology, whereas secondary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain associated with underlying pathology. Endometriosis, one of the main causes of secondary dysmenorrhea, induces dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain and infertility, resulting in marked reduction of quality of life during reproductive age. This review article is a comprehensive overview of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in young women. PMID:24574576

  14. pynk : Breast Cancer Program for Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A.; Warner, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consider this scenario: A 35-year-old recently married woman is referred to a surgeon because of a growing breast lump. After a core biopsy shows cancer, she undergoes mastectomy for a 6-cm invasive lobular cancer that has spread to 8 axillary nodes. By the time she sees the medical oncologist, she is told that it is too late for a fertility consultation, and she receives a course of chemotherapy. At clinic appointments, she seems depressed and admits that her husband has been less supportive than she had hoped. After tamoxifen is started, treatment-related sexuality problems and the probability of infertility contribute to increasing strain on the couple’s relationship. Their marriage ends two years after the woman’s diagnosis. Six years after her diagnosis, this woman has completed all treatment, is disease-free, and is feeling extremely well physically. However, she is upset about being postmenopausal, and she is having difficulty adopting a child as a single woman with a history of breast cancer. Could this woman and her husband have been offered additional personalized interventions that might have helped them better cope with the breast cancer diagnosis and the effects of treatment? Compared with their older counterparts, young women with breast cancer often have greater and more complex supportive care needs. The present article describes the goals, achievements, and future plans of a specialized interdisciplinary program—the first of its kind in Canada—for women 40 years of age and younger newly diagnosed with breast cancer. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical care and support needs of this population, to promote research specifically targeting issues unique to young women, and to educate the public and health care professionals about early detection of breast cancer in young women and about the special needs of those women after their diagnosis. PMID:23443036

  15. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  16. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  17. [Young children, pregnant women and travelling abroad].

    PubMed

    Sandbu, Synne; Nøkleby, Hanne

    2002-06-20

    Pregnant women and parents of young children travelling to non-western countries should consider the risks to which they expose themselves and their children. Travelling during these periods of life needs to be particularly well planned. Travel insurance should cover the whole family, and for pregnant women also the risk of premature birth. Travelling long distances during pregnancy involves a certain amount of risk in itself. This risk could be increased if complications were to occur in areas with a lower standard of health service. As a rule, infants and young children easily adapt to new environments but children abroad should be expected to need a doctor at least as often as at home. Some vaccines and antimalarials must not be used for children below a certain age. Only a few vaccines and antimalarials have been systematically studied in pregnant women in order to exclude teratogenicity. We present some aspects of vaccination and malaria prevention, transport, climate and environment, nutrition, food and drinking water hygiene. PMID:12119785

  18. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  19. Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kristin; Milgram, Donna

    This document is composed of a number of publications of Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW) that relate to high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. Contents include the following: myths and facts about nontraditional work; a list of nontraditional occupations (NTOs) for women; and women and nontraditional work factsheet with…

  20. Life Transitions and Mental Health in a National Cohort of Young Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…

  1. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  2. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  3. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  4. Sexuality of young women surviving leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Puukko, L; Hirvonen, E; Aalberg, V; Hovi, L; Rautonen, J; Siimes, M

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 7 December 1996
 This study was designed to assess the sexuality of young women surviving acute leukaemia in childhood or early adolescence. Thirty of 31 survivors were compared with 50 healthy age matched controls. Three methods were used: a self report questionnaire, a face to face interview conducted by a psychiatrist, and a projective psychological test. The age at initiation of dating and sexual activity, the frequency of sexual intercourse, and opinions on sexual behaviour were similar in the two groups. With regard to inner sexuality, however, the survivors differed significantly from the healthy controls. Their images of sexuality were more restrictive, and their attitudes, especially those concerning sexual pleasure, were more negative than those of the controls. Sexual identity among the survivors was less often feminine and more often infantile as compared with the controls. The findings obtained with the three methods of assessment were concordant.

 PMID:9135258

  5. Ann Eliza Young: A Nineteenth Century Champion of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jack B.

    Concentrating on the efforts of such nineteenth century women's rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, communication researchers have largely overlooked the contributions made to the cause by Ann Eliza Young. The nineteenth wife of Mormon leader Brigham Young, Ann Eliza Young left her husband and took to the speaker's…

  6. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  7. Vocational Counseling Needs of Young Women as Perceived by Working Business and Professional Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haczynski, Sharon L.

    Designed to determine the additional competencies women need to obtain jobs and advance in them, a study focused on the counseling needs of young women as perceived by the membership of the Wisconsin Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs comprised of 2,700 women who are working part-time, full-time, or in partnership. The…

  8. Pregnancy and Mental Health of Young Homeless Women

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Devan M.; Trotter, Emily C.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy rates among women in the U.S. who are homeless are much higher than rates among women who are housed (Greene & Ringwalt, 1998). Yet little research has addressed mental health, risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. This study utilizes a sample of women from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents (MLSHA) to investigate pregnancy and motherhood over three years among unaccompanied homeless young mothers. Our data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of these women. Results show that almost half of sexually active young women (n = 222, µ age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline (46.4%), and among the longitudinal subsample of 171 women (µ age = 17.2), almost 70.0% had been pregnant by the end of the study. Among young mothers who are homeless, only half reported that they helped to care for their children consistently over time, and one-fifth of the women reported never seeing their children. Of the young women with children in their care at the last interview of the study (Wave 13), almost one-third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime drug abuse, and one-half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder (APD). Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed, including the implications for practice, policy, and research. PMID:21486259

  9. Unwritten: Young Women Faculty in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Whitney H.; Beaty, Danna M.; Crum, Karen S.; Peters, April

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As women professors of educational leadership who are involved with feminist research and the preparation of k-12 women leaders, the authors came to the realization that while they have dedicated their professional lives to advancing women leaders in the k-12 environment, they have neglected women like themselves, particularly young…

  10. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  11. Salience of physical appearance characteristics among young women in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rongmuang, Daravan; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene; Gallo, Agatha

    2011-09-01

    Our aim in the present study was to identify key components of physical appearance among young Thai women. Free listings, focus groups and pile sorting were used. One-hundred twenty young women generated 78 unique physical appearance characteristics. Ninety-four nursing students validated these characteristics in focus groups and then sorted them into piles that reflected separate domains of physical appearance and labeled them. Salience analysis revealed that facial appearance (e.g., bright facial skin, high nose bridge, big eyes) was the most important domain, followed by body weight and shape, skin color and texture, hair (color, texture, length), and 'other' physical appearance (e.g., slender neck, slim fingers). This is the first study to identify aspects of physical appearance that are most salient to young Thai women and that may differ from women in other cultural contexts. These findings could be used to develop culturally grounded measures of physical appearance in Thai women. PMID:21768001

  12. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  13. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  14. Circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen in young women.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, M; Iwata, M; Toda, Y; Nakae, Y; Kondo, T

    1998-08-01

    Breath hydrogen levels, which reflect colonic fermentation of undigested starches, are usually low in the fasted state. Fasting levels of breath hydrogen are important for estimation of oro-cecal transit time and diagnosis of lactase deficiency. In young women, however, fasting levels of breath hydrogen are high. To clarify the reason for this, we studied the circadian pattern of breath hydrogen and the effect of alpha-D-galactosidase on fasting breath hydrogen in one study, and the effect of sleep deprivation on fasting breath hydrogen in another study, in 13 women students aged 21-23 years. In the first study, two breath samples were collected, one in the evening and the other the next morning. On another occasion, alpha-D-galactosidase was given before dinner and breath samples were collected the next morning. In the second study, the circadian rhythm of breath hydrogen was assessed for 3 days and the subjects were deprived of sleep on the second night. Breath samples were collected every 30 min, except during the second night when samples were collected at 1-h intervals. Fasting breath hydrogen was 24 +/- 3.9 ppm (mean +/- SE), which did not differ from the value for the previous night. Alpha-D-galactosidase significantly decreased fasting breath hydrogen levels, to 17 +/- 2.4 ppm (P < 0.05). There was a clear circadian pattern of breath hydrogen, high in the morning and decreasing to the nadir by 16:00. After dinner, the level increased again and stayed high during the night. Sleep deprivation did not affect fasting levels of breath hydrogen. High fasting breath hydrogen levels in young women followed a circadian pattern and this may have been due, in part, to an high intake of dietary fiber on the previous day. PMID:9719227

  15. The Effects of School Curriculum on Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, John T.

    The two largest programs of federally-funded vocational education for women are home economics and office programs, which suggests both sex-role stereotyping and occupational segregation. Investigated are correlates and consequences of high school curriculum on young women in curricular choice or assignment, persistence in schooling, and economic,…

  16. Informing Young Women: Gender Equity through Literacy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    This book is geared to helping librarians and other educators to empower young women and men through information and information skills. Gender issues are a focal point because content and content delivery have historically minimized women's contributions and perspectives, and students can have the opportunity to resolve these issues. Access to…

  17. Finding Our Stride: Young Women Professors of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewcomb, Whitney Sherman; Beaty, Danna M.; Sanzo, Karen; Peters-Hawkins, April

    2013-01-01

    This work is grounded in the literature on women in the academy and offers glimpses into four young women professors' experiences in the field of educational leadership. We utilized reflective practice and interpersonal communication to create a dialogue centered on three qualitative research questions that allows a window into our lives. We…

  18. Fear of Success and Locus of Control in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Nina; Abrams, Marsha Stein

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the relationship, in women, between the motive to avoid success and feelings of being controlled externally. The results suggest that achievement motivation is blocked or lowered by feelings of external control in the situation of arousal of achievement anxieties in young women. (Author/PC)

  19. Work with Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Graham, Abi

    Single-sex adventure education programs for adolescent women give them space to challenge traditional feminine roles, relate to other women without the pressures of mixed-sex groups, and examine issues such as personal relationships and health within a safe environment. If there are insufficient women facilitators, male staff should have awareness…

  20. Caffeine Use and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vener, Arthur M.; Krupka, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed college women and men and found that caffeine was consumed by a large proportion of the respondents. Women consumed a larger amount of caffeine and used more substances containing this drug. An increase in caffeine usage with increased psychic stress was observed for women only. (Author)

  1. Physical Health of Young, Australian Women: A Comparison of Two National Cohorts Surveyed 17 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Dobson, Annette J; Mishra, Gita D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Very little is known about the extent of physical health issues among young women in early adulthood and whether this is changing over time. Methods We used data from two national samples of young women aged 18–23 years, surveyed 17 years apart, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the women’s physical health (i.e., self-rated health, common symptoms and conditions) and identify whether sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and stress explained any physical health differences between the samples. Results Women aged 18–23 years in 2013 (N = 17,069) were more likely to report poor self-rated health and physical symptoms (particularly urogenital and bowel symptoms) than women aged 18–23 years in 1996 (N = 14,247). Stress accounted for a large proportion of the physical health differences between the cohorts, particularly for allergies, headaches, self-rated health, severe tiredness, skin problems, severe period pain and hypertension. Conclusions Women’s health appears to be changing, with young women born in more recent decades reporting greater physical symptom levels. Changing socio-cultural and economic conditions may place pressure on young adults, negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. Assessing the extent to which social structures and health care policies are offering adequate support to young women may offer avenues for promoting positive health and wellbeing. PMID:26528902

  2. Food insecurity and increased BMI in young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C; Walls, Courtney E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children in the home. Cross-sectional data from Wave 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association between food insecurity and BMI in gender stratified models of young adult women (n=7116) and men (n=6604) controlling for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, the presence of children in the home, and food stamp use in young adulthood and/or adolescence. Food insecurity was more common in young adult women (14%) than young adult men (9%). After controlling for a variety of individual variables, food insecure women had a BMI that was on average 0.9kg/m2 units higher than women who were food secure. This difference in BMI persisted after controlling for recent or past food stamp use and was not different among women with or without children in the household. No relationship was found between food insecurity and BMI in young adult men. Providers should inquire about food insecurity, especially when treating obesity, and policy initiatives should address the role of access to healthy food in those facing food insecurity. PMID:21779092

  3. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15-17, 18-19 and 20-24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on 'protecting others' from breast cancer to catch smokers' attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  4. Vaginal microbial flora in normal young women.

    PubMed

    Goldacre, M J; Watt, B; Loudon, N; Milne, L J; Loudon, J D; Vessey, M P

    1979-06-01

    Vaginal swabs were taken from 1498 women attending a family planning clinic. The flora was assessed in the absence of any information about the women to whom the swabs related. Yeasts and fungi were present in 311 women (21%) and were no more prevalent among "pill" users than others. Candida albicans was significantly associated with vulval itching and with a vaginal discharge described as heavier than normal or curdy on clinical examination, though these abnormalities were present in only a minority of women with the organism. Trichomonas vaginalis was found in 14 women (1%) and was associated with abnormalities of vaginal discharge in all but one. Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli were significantly more common in women with a troublesome vaginal discharge and those who used an intrauterine device than others. No associations were found between fungi other than C albicans or the other bacteria sought and either symptoms or clinical abnormalities of vaginal discharge. PMID:380743

  5. Young women's perceived ability to refuse sex in urban Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Megan Klein; DeRose, Laurie

    2008-12-01

    In many sub-Saharan African countries, young women face decreasing educational opportunities, age asymmetries between sexual partners, and high prevalence of HIV infection. This study draws upon data from the 2002 Cameroon Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to analyze the determinants of young women's perceived ability to refuse sex in urban Cameroon. Our findings are consistent with predictions of social exchange theory: young women's status characteristics predict their vulnerability differently under different circumstances, and, overall, young women report having a lower ability to refuse sex in their relationships with men who offer to pay their school fees than in their relationships with men in positions of power over them. The costs and benefits of sexual exchanges made in order to continue one's education increase simultaneously in a context of declining enrollments and spreading HIV infection. When educational aspirations exceed opportunities, policy supporting access to education could reduce young women's need to employ their sexual resources in order to invest in their future. PMID:19248717

  6. Biographies of Women Scientists for Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Catherine; Smith, Walter S.

    The participation of women in the physical sciences and engineering woefully lags behind that of men. One significant vehicle by which students learn to identify with various adult roles is through the literature they read. This annotated bibliography lists and describes biographies on women scientists primarily focusing on publications after…

  7. Variations in microbicide gel acceptability among young women in the USA and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Giguere, Rebecca; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Mabragaña, Marina; Dolezal, Curtis; Chen, Beatrice A; Kahn, Jessica A; Zimet, Gregory D; McGowan, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In a multi-site study of vaginal microbicide acceptability conducted with sexually active young women, quantitative assessments revealed significant differences in acceptability by site. Participants in Puerto Rico rated the gel more favourably than mainland US participants in terms of liking the gel and likelihood of future use. To explain these differences, we examined responses to qualitative behavioural assessments. Young women in mainland USA associated gel leakage with uncomfortable sensations experienced during menstruation, while young women in Puerto Rico had positive associations of gel use with douching. These negative or positive associations affected assessments of the gel's physical qualities. In addition, young women's perceptions of primary partners' support for microbicide use influenced sexual satisfaction with the gel and, ultimately, product acceptability. Finally, geographic HIV-risk context contributed to heightened HIV-risk perception, which influenced likelihood of future microbicide use, even for women in stated monogamous relationships. Future microbicide acceptability studies should take into account potential differences in acceptability by site such as HIV-risk perception based on local HIV prevalence, popularity of vaginal hygiene products in a specific area and male attitudes in different cultures concerning women's use of HIV protection strategies. PMID:22084840

  8. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  9. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePlus

    ... percent of smokers begin before age 18. Middle-Aged Women: At menopause, a woman's heart disease risk ... risk of developing high blood pressure for women aged 55 is about 90 percent. Beginning at age ...

  10. Life transitions and mental health in a national cohort of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen

    2007-07-01

    Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in health-related quality of life, optimism, depressive symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction, were examined in relation to these transitions among 7,619 young adult participants in the nationally representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Positive changes in mental health occurred for women moving into cohabitation and marriage, whereas reductions were observed among those experiencing marital separation or divorce and those taking on or remaining in traditionally "feminine" roles (out of the workforce, motherhood). The data suggest that women cope well with major life changes at this life stage, but reductions in psychological well-being are associated with some transitions. The findings suggest that preventive interventions to improve women's resilience and coping might target women undergoing these transitions and that social structures may not be providing sufficient support for women making traditional life choices. PMID:17605521

  11. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow,  Susan; Cohen-Filipic,  Jessye; Kloss,  Jacqueline D.; Munshi,  Teja; Perlis,  Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  12. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  13. Young Australian women explain their contraceptive choices.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Britta; Moran, Claire; Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Lucke, Jayne

    2016-07-01

    New developments in female contraceptives allow women increased options for preventing pregnancy, while men's options for reversible contraception have not advanced beyond the condom. There has been little discursive exploration of how neoliberal and postfeminist discourses shape women's accounts of choosing whether or not to use contraception. Our thematic discourse analysis of 760 free-text responses to a question about contraceptive choice considers the social and political climate that promotes the self-governed woman who freely chooses contraception. We examine the ways in which women formulated and defended their accounts of choice, focusing on the theme of free contraceptive choice that constructed women's choices as unconstrained by material, social and political forces. We identify two discursive strategies that underpinned this theme: a woman's body, a woman's choice and planning parenthood, and explore the ways in which choice was understood as a gendered entitlement and how contraceptive choices were shaped (and constrained) by women's plans for parenthood. We discuss the implications of these discursive strategies, and neoliberal and postfeminist discourses, in terms of the disallowance of any contextual, social and structural factors, including the absence of men in the 'contraceptive economy'. PMID:26670866

  14. Antiabortion positions and young women's life plans in contemporary Ireland.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Laury

    2003-05-01

    At a critical time when Ireland's abortion ban faces legal challenges and the number of women obtaining abortions abroad each year continues to climb, some antiabortion advocates have turned their attention toward the social factors that influence women's abortion decision-making. Through an analysis of articles carried in the Irish mainstream and Catholic presses, this article examines how antiabortion advocates since the late 1990s have promoted an "antiabortion, pro-motherhood" message in response to trends that they identify as indicating that Irish reproduction has "gone awry". Antiabortion activists have focused in particular on the life plans of young, middle-class, career-oriented women, many of whom have benefited from increased employment opportunities within Ireland. These women are more likely than young women in past generations to postpone childbearing or opt for abortion in the face of an unwanted pregnancy, and thus, symbolize for antiabortion advocates the devaluation of a "traditional" Irish culture centered on the privileging of motherhood and married family life. This article examines antiabortion ideologies deployed around motherhood, work, and childcare, and argues that antiabortion advocates' "pro-motherhood" campaign fails to adequately respond to the changing realities of young, middle-class Irish women's life opportunities and expectations. PMID:12650733

  15. Sensual Sexuality Education with Young Parenting Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…

  16. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-06-30

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  17. Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer and obtain their advice about messaging approaches. Data were collected in focus groups with 46 women, divided in three age cohorts: 15–17, 18–19 and 20–24 and organized according to smoking status (smoking, non-smoking and mixed smoking status groups). The discussion questions were preceded by information about passive and active smoking and its associated breast cancer risk. The study findings show young women's interest in this risk factor for breast cancer. Three themes were drawn from the analysis: making sense of the information on smoking and breast cancer, personal susceptibility and tobacco exposure and suggestions for increasing awareness about tobacco exposure and breast cancer. There was general consensus on framing public awareness messages about this risk factor on ‘protecting others’ from breast cancer to catch smokers’ attention, providing young women with the facts and personal stories of breast cancer to help establish a personal connection with this information and overcome desensitization related to tobacco messages, and targeting all smokers who may place young women at risk. Cautions were also raised about the potential for stigmatization. Implications for raising awareness about this modifiable risk factor for breast cancer are discussed. PMID:20080807

  18. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Klifa, Catherine; Deshmukh, Snehal; Egleston, Brian L.; Shepherd, John A.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Van Horn, Linda; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan M.; Lasser, Norman L.; Hylton, Nola M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Breast density is strongly related to breast cancer risk, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of reproductive and menstrual characteristics with breast density measured by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 176 healthy women, 25–29 years old, using linear mixed effects models. Results Parity was significantly inversely associated with breast density. In multivariable adjusted models that included non-reproductive variables, mean percent dense breast volume (%DBV) decreased from 20.5 % in nulliparous women to 16.0 % in parous women, while mean absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) decreased from 85.3 to 62.5 cm3. Breast density also was significantly inversely associated with the age women started using hormonal contraceptives, whereas it was significantly positively associated with duration of hormonal contraceptive use. In adjusted models, mean %DBV decreased from 21.7 % in women who started using hormones at 12–17 years of age to 14.7 % in those who started using hormones at 22–28 years of age, while mean ADBV decreased from 86.2 to 53.7 cm3. The age at which women started using hormonal contraceptives and duration of hormone use were inversely correlated, and mean %DBV increased from 15.8 % in women who used hormones for not more than 2.0 years to 22.0 % in women who used hormones for more than 8 years, while mean ADBV increased from 61.9 to 90.4 cm3 over this interval. Conclusions Breast density in young women is inversely associated with parity and the age women started using hormonal contraceptives but positively associated with duration of hormone use. PMID:23933948

  19. Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

    2007-01-01

    Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

  20. Precursors of Young Women's Family Formation Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Landale, Nancy S.; Havasevich-Brooks, Tara C.; Booth, Alan; Eggebeen, David J.; Schoen, Robert; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We used latent class analysis to create family formation pathways for women between the ages of 18 and 23. Input variables included cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, full-time employment, and attending school. Data (n = 2,290) came from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed…

  1. Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1993-12-01

    In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826

  2. "Singing into Language": Sudanese Australian Young Women Create Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ethnocinematic research project "Cross-Marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education", and its relationship to the evolving notion of public pedagogies. The project explores the potential of alternative pedagogies, which include popular culture, especially audiovisual forms, to engage teachers and learners with…

  3. Totally Private & Personal: Journaling Ideas for Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Jessica

    This book offers journaling ideas for girls and young women ages 11-16, although it states that others who like to "journal" will find something here for them, too. The book discusses the reasons for journaling, including that it can serve as a good release when angry, sad, troubled, or even happy. The book also states that a journal is a safe…

  4. Fertility Info Lacking for Young Women Who Beat Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158989.html Fertility Info Lacking for Young Women Who Beat Cancer ...

  5. General Prospectus of Agricultural Education for Young Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Dublin (Ireland).

    Designed to acquaint young men and women with the agricultural education programs currently available in Ireland's institutions of vocational and higher education, this prospectus describes the educational requirements, facilities, and programs under the auspices of Ireland's Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Specifically, this document…

  6. Becoming Accomplished: Concerted Cultivation among Privately Educated Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concept of concerted cultivation as coined by Annette Lareau. It examines whether a focus on concerted cultivation adequately captures the various practices observed in young women's experiences of being privately educated in four schools in one area of England. We suggest that a variety of practices of…

  7. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  8. Exploring Young Adult Sexual Minority Women's Perspectives on LGBTQ Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N = 30, ages…

  9. Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

  10. Spirituality and Young Women in Transition: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kimberly A.; Cummings, Anne L.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about spirituality and life transitions. Through qualitative investigation, 9 young women in professional education programs described their definition of spirituality, their spiritual activities, and how they used their spirituality to cope with life transitions as they prepared to enter the…

  11. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - HPV declines among young women

    MedlinePlus

    ... transcript041116.html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript HPV declines among young women : 04/11/2016 To ... topics. Health threatening strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) declined significantly among female teens and young women ...

  12. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

  13. Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women.

    PubMed

    Ali, Y S; Daamen, N; Jacob, G; Jordan, J; Shannon, J R; Biaggioni, I; Robertson, D

    2000-04-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients. PMID:10758621

  14. Binge eating and purging in young women with IDDM.

    PubMed

    Stancin, T; Link, D L; Reuter, J M

    1989-10-01

    Case reports and empirical studies suggest that young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may be at high risk for developing eating disorders. In this study, self-reports of binge eating and purging from 59 IDDM women (aged 18-30 yr) were obtained. Most participants (58%) reported that they went on eating binges, and 12% met the DSM-III criteria for a diagnosis of bulimia. Nearly 40% admitted to controlling their weight by insulin purging, and 13.5% reported purging by other means. A group of bulimic participants had mean scores on an eating disorder questionnaire in the pathological range. Bulimic symptoms were positively related to reports of hospitalizations, episodes of ketoacidosis, and psychological symptoms. Implications of these results on the medical management of young women with IDDM are discussed. PMID:2791824

  15. The Bubble of Privilege. Young, Privately Educated Women Talk about Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualizations of the self in relation to others are examined among a group of young women attending a fee-paying school in England. As part of a larger study exploring intimacy and agency among young women from relatively privileged class backgrounds, 54 young women participated in focus group discussions and interviews. Findings reveal that…

  16. Changing Times, Future Bodies? The Significance of Health in Young Women's Imagined Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Emma; Evans, John

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of authors recognise the increasing expectations placed on young women as the vanguard of economic, social and cultural change. This paper explores how these imaginings have come to bear upon young women's bodies, as part of a special issue on pedagogical responses to the changing position of girls and young women. In examining…

  17. Vitamin D supplementation in young White and African American women.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in young women with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD ≤ 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young white and African American women, age 25 to 45 years. A total of 198 healthy white (60%) and African American (40%) women were randomly assigned to placebo, or to 400, 800, 1600, or 2400 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 IU of vitamin D daily was slightly greater in African American women than in white women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU/d, the mixed model predicted that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2-15.7) to 43.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 38.2-48.1) in African American women and from 15.0 ng/mL (95% CI, 12.3-17.6) to 39.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 36.2-42.0) in white women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20 ng/mL in 97.5% of whites on the 400 IU/d dose and between 800 and 1600 IU/d for African Americans. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation was similar in young and old, and in white and African American women. PMID:23761326

  18. Young adult women: lifestyle and health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M

    1993-08-01

    A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns. PMID:8376662

  19. Cardiovascular fitness in premenarcheal girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Rowland, T; Miller, K; Vanderburgh, P; Goff, D; Martel, L; Ferrone, L

    2000-02-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in females, expressed as ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), declines steadily during the first three decades of life. The contribution of diminished cardiovascular function to this apparent fall in aerobic fitness is unknown. Cardiac responses to maximal cycle exercise were compared in 24 premenarcheal females (mean age 11.7 years) and 17 young adult women (mean age 27.4 years) using Doppler echocardiography. Mean VO2max was 40 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) and 34.7 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) in the girls and women, respectively (p < 0.05). When VO2max was expressed relative to allometrically-derived mass(0.52), however, no significant difference was observed in aerobic fitness between the two groups. Similar allometric analyses revealed no significant differences in average maximal cardiac output (10.50 vs 10.07 L x min(-1) BSA(-1.11) for girls and women, respectively) nor maximal stroke volume (53 vs 56 ml BSA(-1.13) respectively). These findings suggest that 1) allometric scaling is important in eliminating the effects of body size on VO2max, 2) body dimension differences can account for variations in VO2 in young females, and 3) cardiac functional reserve is similar in premenarcheal girls and young adult women. PMID:10727072

  20. Knowledge, Practices, and Restrictions Related to Menstruation among Young Women from Low Socioeconomic Community in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from the quantitative survey and to study the factors affecting menstrual practices in young women. The mean age at menarche reported was 13.4 years and 30–40% of young girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. It is thus seen that very few young girls between the age group 15 and 24 years did receive any information before the onset of menstruation. Among those who received some information, it was not adequate enough. The source of information was also not authentic. Both young and adult women agreed on this. Due to the inadequate knowledge, there were certain unhygienic practices followed by the young girls resulting in poor menstrual hygiene. It also leads to many unnecessary restrictions on young girls and they faced many health problems and complaints, which were either ignored or managed inappropriately. The role of health sector was almost negligible from giving information to the management of health problems of these young girls. This paper reemphasizes the important, urgent, and neglected need of providing correct knowledge to the community including adolescent girls. PMID:25072044

  1. Visual detection of body weight change in young women.

    PubMed

    Alley, T R

    1991-12-01

    To assess whether small changes in body weight can be visually detected, college students (58 women and 42 men) were asked to select the less heavy person shown in two photographs for each of 33 young women. All of these women had been photographed twice in a standardized pose and attire, separated by an 8-wk. interval during which most of them lost weight. These pairs were presented in varying orders to control for the order and side of presentation. One photograph was reliably selected as the lighter person for 64% of the pairs, but the picture selected was in fact lighter only 57% of the time. The accuracy of selecting the lighter photograph was not correlated with the percent weight change for the person shown in the pairs of photographs. The results suggest that small changes in women's weight may not have a significant perceptual effect, particularly for male perceivers. PMID:1792140

  2. Breast cancer in adolescent and young adult women.

    PubMed

    Gewefel, Hanan; Salhia, Bodour

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women, accounting for approximately 14% of all AYA cancer diagnoses and 7% of all breast cancer. Breast cancer in AYA women is believed to represent a more biologically aggressive disease, but aside from commonly known hereditary predispositions, little is still known about the underlying molecular genetic causes. This review examines the current trends of breast cancer in AYA women as they relate to clinical, social, genetic, and molecular pathologic characteristics. We highlight existing trends, treatment and imaging approaches, and health burdens as they relate to breast cancer in AYA women and provide a discussion on ways to help improve the overall management of this breast cancer cohort. PMID:25034440

  3. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states. PMID:22844519

  4. Practical Advice for Emergency IUD Contraception in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldstuck, Norman D.; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Too few women are aware of the very high efficacy of intrauterine copper devices (IUDs) to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Women who frequently engage in unprotected intercourse or seek emergency contraception (EC) are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy and possible abortion. It is therefore important that these women receive precise and accurate information about intrauterine devices as they may benefit from using an IUD for EC as continuing contraception. Copper IUDs should be used as first choice options given their rapid onset of action and their long-term contraceptive action which require minimal thought or intervention on the part of the user. In the United States, there is only one copper IUD presently available which limits treatment options. There are numerous copper IUDs available for use in EC, however, their designs and size are not always optimal for use in nulliparous women or women with smaller or narrower uteruses. Utilization of frameless IUDs which do not require a larger transverse arm for uterine retention may have distinct advantages, particularly in young women, as they will be suitable for use in all women irrespective of uterine size. This paper provides practical information on EC use with emphasis on the use of the frameless IUD. PMID:26294910

  5. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Maduro, Gil A.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Chen, Yu; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals. Hypothesis Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC). Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD. Methods IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980–2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35–54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35–54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35–54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35–54. Conclusions The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality. PMID:26882207

  6. Why some women look young for their age.

    PubMed

    Gunn, David A; Rexbye, Helle; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Murray, Peter G; Fereday, Amelia; Catt, Sharon D; Tomlin, Cyrena C; Strongitharm, Barbara H; Perrett, Dave I; Catt, Michael; Mayes, Andrew E; Messenger, Andrew G; Green, Martin R; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The desire of many to look young for their age has led to the establishment of a large cosmetics industry. However, the features of appearance that primarily determine how old women look for their age and whether genetic or environmental factors predominately influence such features are largely unknown. We studied the facial appearance of 102 pairs of female Danish twins aged 59 to 81 as well as 162 British females aged 45 to 75. Skin wrinkling, hair graying and lip height were significantly and independently associated with how old the women looked for their age. The appearance of facial sun-damage was also found to be significantly correlated to how old women look for their age and was primarily due to its commonality with the appearance of skin wrinkles. There was also considerable variation in the perceived age data that was unaccounted for. Composite facial images created from women who looked young or old for their age indicated that the structure of subcutaneous tissue was partly responsible. Heritability analyses of the appearance features revealed that perceived age, pigmented age spots, skin wrinkles and the appearance of sun-damage were influenced more or less equally by genetic and environmental factors. Hair graying, recession of hair from the forehead and lip height were influenced mainly by genetic factors whereas environmental factors influenced hair thinning. These findings indicate that women who look young for their age have large lips, avoid sun-exposure and possess genetic factors that protect against the development of gray hair and skin wrinkles. The findings also demonstrate that perceived age is a better biomarker of skin, hair and facial aging than chronological age. PMID:19956599

  7. Affective Understanding in Young Preschoolers and Reactions to Peers' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.

    Age, specific emotion, and linguistic modality (verbal vs. non-verbal) were predicted to affect knowledge of emotion in young preschoolers (N = 45, mean age = 40.7 mos). Prosocial response to emotion and knowledge of emotion were also predicted to be related, given naturalistic observation and the use of contextually valid emotion knowledge…

  8. Encouraging Young Women to Stay in the Mathematics Pipeline: Mathematics Camps for Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Paul; Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

    2003-01-01

    For two summers, week-long residential mathematics programs were held for high school women, with the primary goal of encouraging them to continue their study of mathematics. The activities were designed to rekindle their excitement about mathematics and to support the idea that women should learn advanced mathematics. This paper reports the…

  9. Young women's construction of their post-cancer fertility.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Amy; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Younger women diagnosed with cancer often face compromised fertility as a result of their treatment. However, previous research has adopted a biomedical model of fertility and utilised hypothetico-deductive research methods which have not allowed for full exploration of women's subjectivity. This study explored younger women's construction of their fertility post-cancer, and their discussions of fertility with healthcare professionals, from a social constructionist epistemology. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were conducted with eight women aged 18-26, across a variety of cancer types. Foucaultian Discourse Analysis identified three subject positions associated with fertility concerns: 'Inadequate woman: Accepting the motherhood mandate'; 'Adequate woman: Resisting the motherhood mandate'; and 'Survival of the fittest: Woman as genetically defective'. Implications of these subject positions included feelings of inadequacy, fear and devastation; feeling undesirable to romantic partners; and concern about passing on cancer-positive genes. In describing healthcare professional interactions, women adopted positions of 'Satisfied patient'; 'Passive recipient patient'; or 'Resisting the passive patient position'. Accounts of inadequate information provision were associated with anger and frustration, whereas feeling adequately informed was associated with satisfaction at making decisions about fertility preservation. These results suggest that fertility is of importance to young women cancer survivors, and that compromised fertility can negatively impact subjectivity. PMID:24916140

  10. Social Provisions and Young Women's Health-Related Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ulvick, Jocelyn D; Spink, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors involved in being active enough for health benefits is necessary to promote health-related physical activity. Given the documented role of social support in women's activity (Molloy et al. 2010), this study examined the relationship between Weiss's (1974) social provisions and health-related physical activity in young women. College undergraduate women (N = 136) from a kinesiology course completed a modified Social Provisions Scale (Cutrona and Russell 1987) and reported on the physical activity they engaged in with others over a 4-week period in the fall of 2011. We used average daily energy expenditure, calculated based on participants' reported activity involvement, to classify participants as either sufficiently or insufficiently active (Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute 1999). A logistic regression using sufficient/insufficient activity levels for health as the dependent variable revealed that the six provisions reliably differentiated between those who were active enough for health benefits versus not. Of the six, two provisions were significantly associated with health-related physical activity--specifically, those who held higher perceptions of reassurance of worth and social integration were more likely to be in the sufficiently-active group. These results provide an initial indication of the specific social provisions associated with young women who are active enough to achieve health benefits. PMID:26086201

  11. Does parity affect mortality among parous women?

    PubMed Central

    Koski‐Rahikkala, H; Pouta, A; Pietiläinen, K; Hartikainen, A‐L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To find out whether there is an association between parity and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northern Finland, 1966–2001. Participants and methods 12 055 women in the two northernmost provinces of Finland were followed up from pregnancy in 1966–2001, the coverage percentage being 96%. The data on age, smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic position, age at menarche and age at first birth were collected during pregnancy, and data on deaths were obtained from the National Cause of Death Statistics, maintained by Statistics Finland. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate relative mortality between parity groups. Results Total mortality was lowest among the women with 2–4 children (reference group). High parity was associated with an up to twofold risk of mortality from vascular complications, but after adjustment for all background factors, this significance disappeared. Mortality from haemorrhagic stroke was fourfold higher among the women with ⩾10 births compared with those of the reference group. No differences in cerebral infarction or total cancer mortality were seen between the groups. Primiparity was associated with increased mortality from accidental death (relative risk 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.4). Conclusions High parity was associated with an increased risk of mortality from vascular complications, especially haemorrhagic stroke, and primiparity with an increased risk of accidental death. PMID:17053286

  12. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  13. Acute coronary syndromes in young women – the scale of the problem and the associated risks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system mainly affect elderly patients, but they are increasingly often encountered in young individuals. It is estimated that 1 in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease is under the age of 45 years. Only 20% of them are women. According to the PL-ACS register, cases of acute coronary syndromes in young women represent 0.6% of all acute coronary syndrome cases. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis (80%). Other causes include dissections and spasms of the coronary arteries as well as clotting disorders. Smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor, followed by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The long-term prognosis is usually favorable, but it deteriorates significantly in the event of complications. The literature on this subject is not extensive. Most data come from non-randomized studies of young patients conducted regardless of sex. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem posed by acute coronary syndromes in young women. PMID:26336495

  14. Providing Young Women with Credible Health Information about Bleeding Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rhynders, Patricia A.; Sayers, Cynthia A.; Presley, Rodney J.; Thierry, JoAnn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of U.S. women may have an undiagnosed bleeding disorder, which can diminish quality of life and lead to life-threatening complications during menstruation, childbirth, and surgery. Purpose To understand young women’s knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about bleeding disorders and determine the preferred messaging strategy (e.g., gain- versus loss-framed messages) for presenting information. Methods In September 2010, a web-assisted personal interview of women aged 18–25 years was conducted. Preliminary analyses were conducted in 2011 with final analyses in 2013. In total, 1,243 women participated. Knowledge of blood disorders was tabulated for these respondents. Menstrual experiences of women at risk for a bleeding disorder were compared with those not at risk using chi-square analyses. Perceived influence of gain- versus loss-framed messages also was compared. Results Participants knew that a bleeding disorder is a condition in which bleeding takes a long time to stop (77%) or blood does not clot (66%). Of the women, 57% incorrectly thought that a bleeding disorder is characterized by thin blood; many were unsure if bleeding disorders involve blood types, not getting a period, or mother and fetus having a different blood type. Women at risk for a bleeding disorder were significantly more likely to report that menstruation interfered with daily activities (36% vs 9%); physical or sports activities (46% vs 21%); social activities (29% vs 7%); and school or work activities (20% vs 9%) than women not at risk. Gain-framed messages were significantly more likely to influence women’s decisions to seek medical care than parallel loss-framed messages. Findings suggest that the most influential messages focus on knowing effective treatment is available (86% gain-framed vs 77% loss-framed); preventing pregnancy complications (79% gain- vs 71% loss-framed); and maintaining typical daily activities during menstrual periods. Conclusions Lack

  15. Sexual functioning in young women in the context of breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. The number of breast cancer survivors has been growing because of earlier detection and improved treatment. Young women under 50 years of age account for relatively small percentage of all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. However, their medical and psychosocial context of the disease is unique. Breast cancer is diagnosed at the most productive time in life. Concerns about childbearing, partner rejection, sexual function, body image, sexual attractiveness and career are common. For all these reasons experience of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among young women requires special attention. Researches indicate that oncological treatment may negatively affect female sexual functioning. Chemotherapy is one of the greatest risk factors of sexual dysfunctions, especially when it results in medication-induced menopause. The duration and severity of sexual problems depend on a wide variety of factors: medical, psychological and interpersonal. These side effects may last for many years after the end of treatment. It is known that breast cancer affects both patients and their partners. The first sexual experience after surgery may be a turning point in sexual adaptation in couples. Communication is crucial in this process. More knowledge about sexual difficulties and sexual adaptation process of young breast cancer survivors (YBCSs) and their partners is needed. Knowing protective and risk factors is necessary to identify couples at risk for sexual dysfunctions in order to professionally support them in the best way and at the right time. PMID:24416553

  16. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  17. Multifaceted emotion regulation, stress and affect in mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Li, Mengjiao; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    We tested a novel multi-component emotion self-regulation construct that captured physiological (vagal tone), cognitive (reappraisal) and temperament (effortful control) aspects of emotion regulation (ER) as a moderator of the link between more stressors and greater negative/less positive affectivity (NA and PA). A socio-economically diverse sample of 151 women with young children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit (including cognitive and parent-child interaction tasks and vagal tone measurement). Women with more stressors had more NA and less PA. Furthermore, for NA only, having more stressors was substantially associated with NA but only among women with the lowest ER. This pattern was evident for the composite as well as individual indicators of ER. Results were not attributable to individual differences in executive function. Findings are discussed in light of the diathesis-stress model of stress and coping. PMID:25759238

  18. 76 FR 9577 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women: Notice of Charter Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young.... 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National... Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and...

  19. Complicating the "Public": Enabling Young Women's Participation in Public Engagement Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Leah R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing attention to both public engagement in policy development, and youth civic engagement, the engagement of young women and young mothers receives little attention. This article proposes guidelines for engaging with young women in provincial public policy development via their participation in public engagement initiatives. Developed…

  20. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

  1. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  2. Psychopathology and personality of young women who experience food cravings.

    PubMed

    Gendall, K A; Sullivan, P F; Joyce, P R; Fear, J L; Bulik, C M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the psychopathology and personality characteristics of women who experience food cravings. A total of 101 young women selected at random from the community completed the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies with a trained interviewer. The interview included a section about food-craving experiences and associated factors. Subjects also completed a self-report questionnaire booklet containing the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Compared to noncravers, women who reported food cravings were significantly more likely to report a history of alcohol abuse/dependence (p = .003), significant weight changes (p = .003), and to have undertaken dieting (p = .02), bingeing (p = .05), vomiting (p = .02), exercise (p = .04), diet pill (p = .03), and laxative use (p = .01) to control weight. There was a trend for the cravers to have higher novelty-seeking scores on the TCI (p = .06). Our findings suggest that women who experience food cravings are more likely to have met criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence and tend to have temperament characterized by higher levels of novelty seeking. In addition the high rates of eating-disorder symptomatology implies overconcern with body weight and shape in the women who experienced food cravings. PMID:9290863

  3. Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Singh, Devendra

    2004-02-01

    The female physical attractiveness stereotype has been reported to contain both desirable (sociable, poised, interesting) and undesirable (snobbish, likely to request divorce and have extra-marital affairs) personal qualities. To investigate whether such an attractiveness stereotype is cross-cultural, I asked men and women from Azore Island, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, and the U.S. to judge the attractiveness of female figures differing in body weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to rank these figures according to perceived personal attributes. There was a strong cross-cultural consensus for attractiveness; figures with low WHR were judged to be more attractive than figures with high WHR within each weight category. Participants also judged attractive figures as less faithful than less-attractive figures. To explore the basis of a possible 'darker side ' of the attractiveness stereotype, behavior tactics of young U.S. women were examined. Compared to women with high WHRs, low-WHR women reported engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous, suggesting some truth to the attractiveness stereotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that female attractiveness influences the type of mating strategies employed by women. PMID:15216423

  4. Young women's experiences of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Scott, Adrian J; Roberts, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides international comparisons of young women's (N = 1,734) self-reported experiences of intrusive activities enacted by men. Undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, and Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they had personally experienced. Intrusive behavior was not uncommon overall, although large differences were apparent between countries when women's personal experiences of specific intrusive activities were compared. Correlations were carried out between self-reported intrusive experiences, the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. The primary associations were between women's experiences of intrusive behavior and the level of power they are afforded within the 12 countries. Women from countries with higher GEM scores reported experiencing more intrusive activities relating to courtship and requests for sex, while the experiences of women from countries with lower GEM scores related more to monitoring and ownership. Intrusive activities, many of them constituent of harassment and stalking, would appear to be widespread and universal, and their incidence and particular form reflect national level gender inequalities. PMID:26299620

  5. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  6. Smoking among rural and urban young women in China

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Michael G; Ma, Shaojun; Chai, Wanxing; Xia, Wan; Yang, Gonghuan

    2009-01-01

    Methods A survey of 11 095 urban and rural women attending high school or college, aged 14–24 years, in 6 Chinese provinces was conducted. Ever-smoking (ES), current smoking, established smoking and intention to smoke frequencies were calculated. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify possible correlates of smoking, and those found to be significant at the p=0.1 level were included in a multivariate logistical regression model to obtain adjusted OR for correlates of ES. Results ES prevalence was 20.1%, with urban female students (UFS) at 22.0% and rural female students (RFS) at 19.0% (p<0.01). Established smoking prevalence was higher among UFS than RFS (2.4% vs 0.9%, p<0.01). Similarly, current smoking prevalence was higher among UFS than RFS (4.2% vs 1.9%, p<0.01). The intention to smoke prevalence was higher among UFS than RFS (3.5% vs 1.7%, p<0.01). The majority were aware that smoking was harmful to health, but were less aware of specific diseases associated with smoking. ES was associated with awareness of cigarettes made for women (OR, 1.66, 95% CI 1.49 to 1.86) and thinking that they were less harmful than other cigarettes (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.79). The strongest correlate of ES was low refusal self-efficacy (OR 6.35, 95% CI 5.32 to 7.57). Conclusions This is the first report that having heard of women's cigarettes is a correlate of smoking among young Chinese women. ES among young Chinese women has increased in the last decade, and thus, specific prevention strategies need to be developed to prevent the tobacco epidemic from spreading among this vulnerable population. PMID:19822528

  7. Desire as Interruption: Young Women and Sexuality Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Danger and pleasure are terms commonly employed to describe women's sexual experiences, including those of young women. This paper explores how young women's sexual danger and pleasure are represented and characterized in official discourses, specifically those of school-based sexuality education. Drawing on Michelle Fine's four major discourses…

  8. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Serum Lipid Levels in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J.; Kwiterovich, Peter O.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Longacre, Margaret L.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-hour recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  10. Depressive symptoms and serum lipid levels in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Egleston, Brian L; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Stevens, Victor J; Kwiterovich, Peter O; Snetselaar, Linda G; Longacre, Margaret L; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating data suggest that depression is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but few studies have investigated potential behavioral mediators of such associations, particularly among women. In this study of healthy young adult women (n = 225), we examined associations among depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and serum lipid levels. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and a fasting blood sample was obtained for serum lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Diet was measured using 24-h recalls, and other health behaviors (physical activity, smoking) were assessed via self-report questionnaire. Results indicated a modest negative association between depressive symptoms and LDL-C levels. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were also associated with lower total and insoluble dietary fiber intake, both of which were associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. Mediational analyses indicated a significant indirect effect of depressive symptoms on LDL-C via total and insoluble dietary fiber in unadjusted analyses, but not in adjusted analyses. The present findings suggest that depressive symptoms are inversely associated with serum LDL-C levels in young adult women, but that these associations are not likely mediated by adverse lifestyle behaviors. PMID:22382824

  11. Breast cancer in young women: special considerations in multidisciplinary care

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Chantal; Lee, Marie Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in females, and 5%–7% of breast cancer cases occur in women under 40 years of age. Breast cancer in the young has gained increased attention with an attempt to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Young patients tend to have different epidemiology, presenting with later stages and more aggressive phenotypes. Diagnostic imaging is also more difficult in this age group. Multidisciplinary care generally encompasses surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and social workers. Other special considerations include reconstruction options, fertility, genetics, and psychosocial issues. These concerns enlarge the already diverse multidisciplinary team to incorporate new expertise, such as reproductive specialists and genetic counselors. This review encompasses an overview of the current multimodal treatment regimens and the unique challenges in treating this special population. Integration of diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life issues should be addressed and understood by each member in the interdisciplinary team in order to optimize outcomes. PMID:25300196

  12. Interpersonal dysfunction and affect-regulation difficulties in disordered eating among men and women.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Slane, Jennifer D; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies suggest that negative affect and interpersonal problems serve as important contributors for eating-related problems, much of this research has been conducted among women and less is known about their roles in precipitating and maintaining eating problems among men. Previous studies with undergraduate men suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating even after controlling for differences in body mass index (BMI) and negative affect. The present study sought to replicate these findings and extend them to assess any unique variance explained by problems in interpersonal functioning among both men and women. Participants were men (n=213) and women (n=521) undergraduates at a large Midwestern university who completed a demographic information form, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex Form (IIP-SC). A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DERS and IIP-SC significantly predicted EDE-Q global scores after controlling for variability in BMI and negative affect and that the results were similar for men and women. Our findings offer preliminary support for models that highlight emotional vulnerability and interpersonal problems for disordered eating for young adult men. Future research extending these findings among treatment-seeking samples and employing multi-method assessment would serve to further clarify the tenability of these theoretical models for both men and women. PMID:25194562

  13. Characterizing Alcohol Use Disorders and Suicidal Ideation in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Constantino, Anna M.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Glowinski, Anne; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and suicidal ideation (SI) co-occur, yet few studies have investigated the risk and protective factors that influence their comorbidity. Method: Data from 3,787 twin women ages 18—27 years were analyzed. AUD was defined as a lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. SI was coded as a lifetime report of any SI, and all subjects were queried about SI. Subjects were divided into those with neither AUD nor SI (AUD−SI−), those with AUD but no SI (AUD+SI−), those with SI but no AUD (AUD−SI+), and those with comorbid AUD and SI (AUD+SI+). Association with multiple measures of psychopathology, negative life events, personality, and family history was assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Women with AUD were at 3.1 (95% confidence interval [2.5, 3.8]) odds of also reporting a lifetime history of SI. Psychopathology and negative life events were consistently high in the AUD+SI+ group. AUD+SI+ women also were more likely to report drinking to cope. Substance use was more common in the AUD+SI− versus the AUD−SI+ women, whereas major depressive disorder, social phobia, and panic attacks were more commonly reported by the AUD−SI+ versus the AUD+SI− women. Conclusions: The comorbidity between AUD and SI is characterized in young women by co-occurring psychopathology, drinking to cope, and negative life events. PMID:23490569

  14. Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Shepherd, John A.; Van Horn, Linda; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Paris, Kenneth; Klifa, Catherine; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and reflects epithelial and stromal content. Breast tissue is particularly sensitive to hormonal stimuli before it fully differentiates following the first full-term pregnancy. Few studies have examined associations between sex hormones and breast density among young women. Methods We conducted cross-sectional study among 180 women aged 25-29 years old who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children 2006 Follow-up Study. Eighty-five percent of participants attended a clinic visit during their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging measured the percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV), absolute dense breast volume (ADBV), and absolute nondense breast volume (ANDBV). Multiple-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with %DBV, ADBV, and ANDBV. Results Testosterone was significantly positively associated with %DBV and ADBV. The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV and ADBV across testosterone quartiles increased from 16.5% to 20.3% and from 68.6cm3 to 82.3cm3, respectively (Ptrend ≤ 0.03). There was no association of %DBV or ADBV with estrogens, progesterone, non-SHBG bound testosterone or SHBG (Ptrend ≥ 0.27). Neither sex hormones nor SHBG was associated with ANDBV except progesterone; however, the progesterone result was nonsignificant in analysis restricted to women in the luteal phase. Conclusions These findings suggest a modest positive association between testosterone and breast density in young women. Impact Hormonal influences at critical periods may contribute to morphological differences in the breast associated with breast cancer risk later in life. PMID:25371447

  15. Pharmacologic ovarian preservation in young women undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chahvar, S T; Al-Shawaf, T; Tranquilli, A L

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of malignancies in young women undergoing chemotherapy has dramatically improved recently, and more attention is given to the long term quality of life, including fertility and reproductive function preservation. Some chemotherapeutic drugs are known to be associated with gonadal toxicity (cyclophosphamide, L-phenylanine mustard, busulfan and nitrogen mustard) and others have less or un-quantified effects (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinca alkaloids, as vincristine and vinblastin, cisplatin, nitrosoureas, cytosine arabinoside). Women are in need to identify best options to minimize ovarian damage during chemotherapy through the administration of protective drugs, better choice of therapy and with advocating oncofertility preservation. We reviewed the possible options focusing on the most studied gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH-a) and the psychologically promising oral contraceptives (OC). Controversy exist on the benefit of gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) or combined oral contraceptive administered at time of cancer therapy in preventing premature ovarian failure in women and the available data from both human and animal studies have been mixed. The best way to preserve fertility and ovarian function in young women undergoing chemotherapy still remains to be determined. In the absence of a best approach, each case should be evaluated individually, considering patient's wishes and expectations, the type of chemotherapy, age, obstetric history, ovarian reserve (combining multiple indicators such as basal hormone profile, anti müllerian hormone -AMH- and antral follicle count), family history of premature ovarian failure. We present a review of the available evidence on the value of administering GnRH-a and OC use to minimize or prevent the effect of chemotherapy agents on reproductive function. PMID:24164203

  16. Young Women's Conference in STEM: Our starting point for getting women into STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Deedee; Zwicker, Andrew; Greco, Shannon; Dominguez, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    The number of women in STEM careers is staggeringly low; just one in seven engineers are female and only 27% of all computer science jobs are held by women. A recent US Dept. of Commerce report found that between 2000-2011 women experienced no employment growth in STEM jobs. According to the AIP, the percentage of women in physics overall is 26% and women make up less than 7% of the fusion energy workforce. To address this problem we have, since 2001, run a conference to introduce young women to the wide range of careers in STEM fields in a way that is not part of their typical education. By introducing students in a meaningful way to successful women in STEM, from graduate students to senior researchers, the intent of the conference is to foster interest, develop mentoring relationships, and to provide role models that will have a positive influence on future educational and career choices. Data from surveys indicate that this is indeed the impact. For example, 86% of 2015 attendees indicated they are more likely to major in a scientific field after attending the conference then they were before. We are now in the process of expanding and improving the conference in order to reach more students and increase the overall impact.

  17. Seven types of nonsexual romantic physical affection among Brigham young university students.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Andrew K; Stahmann, Robert F; Wilson, Colwick M

    2004-10-01

    College students from Brigham Young University (N= 186; 68 men, 118 women, M age=22.7 yr., SD=3.5) completed a survey regarding nonsexual, romantic physical affection-defined as any touch intended to arouse feelings of love in the giver or the recipient. Respondents included both dating and married individuals, although this was not specified on the questionnaire. This descriptive study reports the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of the seven physical affection types: backrubs/massages, caressing/stroking, cuddling/holding, holding hands, hugging, kissing on the face, and kissing on the lips. Grouped frequency distributions further describe the amounts of each type of physical affection. Although physical affection has been underrepresented in the literature, studies have shown it to be associated with relationship satisfaction, partner satisfaction, psychological intimacy, feeling understood, the development of attachment bonds, modulating cardiovascular arousal, and easier conflict resolution. PMID:15587229

  18. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:26536914

  19. HPV Vaccination Among Young Adult Women: A Perspective From Appalachian Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Head, Katharine J.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have assessed barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and adherence, particularly among women of Appalachian Kentucky, a population with higher rates of cervical cancer, lower rates of HPV vaccination, and lower socioeconomic status compared with the rest of the nation. The objective of this study was to address women’s reasons for declining the HPV vaccine and, among women who initiated the vaccine series, barriers to completion of the 3-dose regimen. Methods We recruited 17 women aged 18 to 26 from a Federally Qualified Health Center who participated in in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim; analysis of the interview transcripts was an iterative process conducted by all 3 authors. Results We identified 3 primary barriers: 1) a knowledge gap wherein women are both uninformed and misinformed about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine, all of which affect vaccination behaviors; 2) environmental and tangible barriers (transportation and prioritizing health over other responsibilities such as child care, work, and school); and 3) ambiguous information sources, which contribute to misinformation and subsequently affect vaccination decisions. Conclusion Health professionals should use clear and purposeful communication about how cervical cancer develops, the purpose and safety of the HPV vaccine, and the necessity of completing the 3-dose series. Health promotion campaigns and services tailored for young women in Appalachian Kentucky that focus on increasing knowledge and eliminating barriers are needed. PMID:23391293

  20. A New Reduction Mastopexy Design for Young Women: Snowman Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Cil, Yakup; Kocman, Atacan Emre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many young women are satisfied with their large breasts but suffer from sagging due to heaviness. In this article; we present a novel modification of vertical scar breast reduction based on a special indication. METHODS From January 2006 to May 2012, twenty five individual patients underwent operation using modified technique with superior pedicle and vertical scar. Young women between ages 25-35 years with voluminous breasts who requested mastopexy rather than reduction were selected for the surgery. RESULTS The mean patient age was 30 years and body mass index (BMI) was 27.8±1.07 kg/m2. Mean nipple transposition was 6.5 cm. Mean weight for resected tissue was 415 g for left and 419 g for right breast. Mean operative time was 125 minutes. Patients were followed up for 9-22 months. No serious complications encountered in consecutive patient series. The only complication was permanent wrinkling probably due to vertical closure in 5 of 25 patients which did not resolve during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION We recommend that the Snowman design is a useful tool for superior pedicle breast reduction technique providing good projection and a short scar in selected patients. PMID:26284179

  1. Unbearable weight: young adult women's experiences of being overweight.

    PubMed

    Yu-Jen, Chang; Yiing-Mei, Liou; Shuh-Jen, Sheu; Mei-Yen, Chen

    2004-06-01

    Being overweight is a hazard to health. Overweight people have a very negative image due to the marketing strategies for weight reduction and beauty products. Young women establishing self-image, seeking affirmation of social peers, and looking for potential mates are usually concerned about their weight and figure. To investigate the experience of young women who think they are overweight, how they come to think in this way, and the impact of this thinking, this qualitative pilot study conducted semi-structured interviews with five participants. On the basis of the qualitative method, data was subjected to constant comparison and content analysis. The phenomenon can thus be described in three major categories: (1) Social labeling of the overweight - a slim image is overwhelmingly preferred; (2) Pursuing attractiveness or health - a self-struggling process; (3) Weight reduction and self control - an endless struggle. The result of the study suggests there is a need for a competitive image to counter current obsessions with painfully slender figures in society. To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight. PMID:15208779

  2. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486

  3. Severe chronic constipation of young women: 'idiopathic slow transit constipation'.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, D M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1986-01-01

    A series of 64 women complaining of severe constipation is described, in each of whom delayed elimination of markers from the colon was demonstrated but a barium enema was normal. All completed a detailed questionnaire and the responses are compared with those obtained in an age-matched series of healthy women with no bowel complaint. In each group 40 women also recorded in a manner suitable for analysis all food eaten over a period of seven days. The patients passed about one stool weekly with the aid of laxatives, and were greatly troubled by abdominal pain, bloating, malaise and nausea, to the extent that the symptoms were a major social disability and many lost time from work. Decreased bowel frequency and other symptoms were often first noticed around the age of puberty and slowly became worse until they were severe by the third decade. In a few, the symptoms began suddenly after an abdominal operation c-accident. Comparison with the control group showed no evidence that the patients had been underweight at any time or that they took less fibre; treatment with a bran supplement did not usually help them. The patients experienced rectal sensation before defaecation less often than the control subjects and they used digital pressure to assist defaecation more frequently. The women with constipation tended to have more painful and irregular menstrual periods, and there was an increased incidence of ovarian cystectomy and hysterectomy. Hesitancy in starting to pass urine was more common, as were some somatic symptoms such as cold hands or blackouts. Attention is drawn to this distinctive combination in young women of slow total gut transit time and a colon of normal width on barium enema, associated with abdominal, anorectal, gynaecological and somatic symptoms, as a disorder which can be disabling and particularly difficult to treat. PMID:3949236

  4. The determinants of young women's pregnancy-resolution choices.

    PubMed

    Namerow, P B; Kalmuss, D S; Cushman, L F

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal study of young women's pregnancy resolution decision making provided evidence of the important role of significant others; also observed was a positive association between prior adoption socialization experiences and the choice of adoption. Conceptual approaches to decision making considered in the analysis included opportunity structures, socialization, social networks, and expectancy value theory. Subjects included 527 unmarried women 21 years of age or younger who were recruited from US maternity residences and prenatal clinics. Mean age was 17 years; 73% of subjects were White. On a descriptive level, the adoption choice was more frequent among White women (55%), and those with above-average educational aspirations (51%). When the subject's mother was in favor of placement, 75% chose adoption and only 18% kept the child; when the boyfriend wanted adoption, these statistics were 82% and 34%, respectively. If the subject or a close relative had been adopted, 59% chose adoption and 39% kept the child. Next, logistic regression was used to develop a multivariate analysis of pregnancy resolution decisions. The most significant (p 0.001) determinants of pregnancy choice were mother wants placement of child, close relative wants placement, and the expectancy that the quality of the mother and child's life would be adversely influenced by keeping the child. Significant at the 0.01 level were not having a boyfriend or having a boyfriend who wants placement. Only 1 demographic variable--women in an age-appropriate grade--was significantly associated with adoption. Since adoption is selected by less than 3% of US women, this outcome was overrepresented in this sample by the inclusion of maternity homes as a recruitment site. PMID:12345378

  5. Cracking with Affect: Relationality in Young People's Movements in and out of Mainstream Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skattebol, Jennifer; Hayes, Debra

    2016-01-01

    This paper focusses on the schooling stories of two young women who moved from mainstream schooling into alternative learning program set up for Indigenous students and back into mainstream schooling to complete their Year 12 education. The manner in which these young women narrated their stories is understood through the prism of Indigenous…

  6. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  7. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Joly, Lauren E; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24-0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31-0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  8. Digital Mammography in Young Women: Is a Single View Sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Single view mammography may be a less time consuming, more comfortable and radiation reduced alternative for young women, but there are no studies examining this approach after the implementation of digital mammography into clinical practice. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of all mammographies performed in women younger than 40 years during a 24 month period. The sample consisted of 109 women with 212 examined breasts. All patients initially received standard two- view mammography. In the study setting the MLO- views were read by a single viewer and compared to a composite reference standard. Results In this sample 7 malignant findings were present and the review of the MLO-view detected 6 of them (85%). In patients with dense breasts 4 out of 5 malignant findings were found on the single-view (sensitivity 80%) and all 2 malignant findings were detected in patients with low breast density (sensitivity 100%). There were 7 false positive findings (3.3%). i.e. in total 8 out of 212 examined breasts were therefore misinterpreted (3.8%). Conclusion Single view digital mammography detects the vast majority of malignant findings, especially in low density breast tissue and the rate of false-positive findings is within acceptable limits. Therefore this approach may be used in different scenarios (for example in increasing patient throughput, in resource poor settings, reducing radiation burden in the young or in combination with ultrasound to use the strengths of both methods). More research on this topic is needed to establish its potential role in breast imaging. PMID:27134963

  9. Sources of prescription contraceptives and subsequent pregnancy among young women.

    PubMed

    Zelnik, M; Koenig, M A; Kim, Y J

    1984-01-01

    For more than four in 10 teenage women who first obtained a prescription contraceptive from a private doctor or family planning clinic prior to pregnancy, marriage or interview in 1979, that method was the first they had ever used. Whites were over two times more likely to have previously used a nonprescription method than were blacks. Blacks, on the other hand, were two times more likely than whites to have been virgins before first using a prescription method. Slightly more than half of all young women who used a prescription method first obtained it from a family planning clinic, and the remainder got it from a private physician. Blacks were much more likely to have gone to a clinic than were whites. Nine in 10 of those who obtained a prescription method chose the pill. Among blacks, there was no appreciable difference between those who got the method from a clinic and those whose source was a private doctor. Whites who obtained their method from a private doctor, however, were somewhat more likely to choose the pill than were those who got it from a clinic. Of all who had been sexually active before ever using a prescription method, about eight out of 10 whites, but only about five in 10 blacks, had previously used a nonprescription method. Overall, there was an interval of about one year between first intercourse and the time the young women first got a prescription method. Among whites, there was no difference in parental education or family stability between clinic and private physician patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6714381

  10. "Lamyai" teaches young Thai women about AIDS and STDs.

    PubMed

    Cash, K; Anasuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W

    1994-01-01

    The young women 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups. PMID:12287664

  11. Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Skiadas, Christine C.; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT–PCR (qRT–PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT–PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different

  12. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  13. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  14. "Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

  15. The "Good Life" and the "Rich Portfolio": Young Women, Schooling and Neoliberal Subjectification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the ways two young women, living in Australia, make sense of themselves, their activities, and futures. The two young women come from two different schooling contexts - a prestigious private school and a government school. The authors analyze their self-narratives in relation to neoliberal discourse, and consider how, and with…

  16. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…

  17. Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

  18. Relationship between Self-Actualisation and Employment for At-Risk Young Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Ephrat; Magos, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study used drawing and semi-structured interviews to access the visions of self-actualisation of a group of at-risk young women in an employment support group in Israel. The findings point to the synergetic relationship between the self-defined goals of the young women such as inner peace, self-regulation, assertiveness, good relationships…

  19. Kujichagalia! Self-Determination in Young African American Women with Disabilities during the Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, La Tonya L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…

  20. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…

  1. Does a Baby Help Young Women Transition out of Homelessness? Motivation, Coping, and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…

  2. Social Capital and the Successful Transition to Adulthood among "At Risk" Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; And Others

    Through a traditional status-attainment approach, this paper examines the attainments of young women in adult life across the four domains of education, labor-force participation, financial resources and avoidance of poverty, and experience with welfare. These life attainments were explored for a cohort of 62 young women, ages 14 to 25 in 1968,…

  3. Exemplary Counseling Strategies for Developmental Transitions of Young Women with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan D. M.; English, William; Schwallie-Giddis, Pat; Jones, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    This article is intended to provide rehabilitation, career, and mental health counselors with an understanding of how attentional impairments are manifested in young women and how professional counselors may help them most effectively. Treatment guidelines and recommendations are presented for working with these young women through the…

  4. Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieg, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

  5. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E; Mberu, Blessing U; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-10-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the linkages between a variety of young women's resources-including employment and material transfers from male partners-and sexual behaviors. Data on the first month of premarital relationships (N=551 relationships) were collected from a random sample of young adult women ages 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya, using a retrospective life history calendar. Consistent with the hypotheses, results showed that young women's income increases the likelihood of safer sexual activities, including delaying sex and using condoms consistently. Material transfers from the male partner displayed the opposite effect, supporting the view that resources obtained from within the relationship decrease young women's negotiating power. PMID:22180665

  6. Careers in Drug and Alcohol Research: AN Innovative Program for Young Appalachian Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl; Reid, Caroline

    Supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the University of Kentucky's Center on Drug and Alcohol Research developed the Young Women in Science Program to encourage young women from Appalachia to pursue scientific careers гп drug and alcohol research. This 3-year program, which involved 26 young women entering the ninth grade in 13 counties in southeastern Kentucky, included a summer residential program, community educational sessions, and matching students with mentors. When participants' scores prior to and after the 3-week residential program were compared, it was found that participants increased their science knowledge and improved their scores on confidence in science. Other significant changes occurred as well. These preliminary data indicated that some positive changes resulted from the program, even though contact time with the young women has been modest to date. The program shows considerable promise for providing the encouragement and skills needed for these young women to pursue careers in drug and alcohol research.

  7. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. PMID:27088658

  8. Combination HIV prevention options for young women in Africa.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Cheryl; Abdool Karim, Salim

    2016-07-01

    Although the number of new HIV infections has declined by over 30% in the past decade, the number of people who acquire HIV each year remains unacceptably high. In 2014 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that there were about 2 million new HIV infections. The virus continues to spread, particularly in key populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender individuals, sex workers and people who inject drugs. In Africa, young women have the highest HIV incidence rates. Scaling up known efficacious HIV prevention strategies for these groups at high risk is therefore a high priority. HIV prevention has generally been targeted at HIV-negative individuals or in some instances, entire communities. Prevention efforts are, however, shifting from a narrow focus on HIV-uninfected persons to a continuum of prevention that includes both HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals. Given that a single HIV prevention intervention is unlikely to be able to alter the epidemic trajectory as HIV epidemics in communities are complex and comprise a mosaic of different risk factors and different routes of transmission, there is need to provide combination prevention. Hence, a mix of behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention options is likely to be needed to alter the course of the HIV epidemic. The combination of HIV prevention interventions needed will vary depending on cultural context, the population targeted and the stage of the epidemic. This paper reviews the available HIV prevention strategies for young women and discusses new HIV prevention approaches in development. PMID:27399041

  9. Phylloides tumors in adolescent girls and young women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Amna; Kayani, Naila; Bhurgri, Yasmin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of phylloides tumor (PT) in adolescent girls and young women (less than and equal to 25 years of age) and to define the clinico-pathological features of PT in this unusual clinical setting. This descriptive study was carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) pathology department. All consecutive cases of PT diagnosed during the last sixteen years in the section of histopathology from 1st January 1990 to 31st June 2005 were included. Selection of cases was restricted to patients up to 25 years of age. A total of 42 cases of PT in up to 25 years of age were diagnosed. This comprised 11% of the total PT cases (total n=363). The number of benign (BPT), borderline (BLPT) and malignant (MPT) was identical i.e. 14 (33.3%) each. Clinically all cases presented with a solid, mobile, palpable mass. The mean age was 19.1 years (95% CI, 16.7-21.6), 21.9 years (95% CI, 20.7-21.9) and 19.7 years (95% CI, 17.2-22.3) in BPT, BLPT and MPT respectively. In majority of cases the surgical procedure performed was lumpectomy (50% of BPT, 78% of BLPT and 64% of MPT). High grade PT (BLPT and MPT) is an uncommon mammary tumor in adolescent girls and young women but seems to be occurring with increased frequency in the study population. This observation may indicate the biological behavior of PT in a high risk population, though chances of referral bias are also present. In view of the rarity of the disease, larger population studies are suggested to confirm our findings. PMID:17250427

  10. Autobiographical memory functions in young Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context. PMID:24967887

  11. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  12. Thinking big: the effect of sexually objectifying music videos on bodily self-perception in young women.

    PubMed

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of sexually objectifying music video exposure on young women's implicit bodily self-perception and the moderating role of self-esteem. Fifty-six college women of normal weight were either exposed to three sexually objectifying music videos or three neutral music videos. Perceived and ideal body size were measured both before and after video exposure, using horizontally stretched and compressed photographs of the participant's own body in swimming garment. As expected, only women low (but not high) in self-esteem were negatively affected by the sexually objectifying content of the music videos: they perceived themselves as bigger and showed an increased discrepancy between their perceived and ideal body size after video exposure. The neutral music videos did not influence women's bodily self-perceptions. These findings suggest that body image is a flexible construct, and that high self-esteem can protect women against the adverse effects of sexually objectifying media. PMID:22960001

  13. Why so few young women in mathematics, science, and technology classes?

    SciTech Connect

    Wieda, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    Many factors influence the success of women in scientific and technical careers. Women represent over 50% of the U.S. population, yet less than 16% of women are employed in scientific and technical careers. Research over the last decade makes it clear that disparities exist in the participation, achievement, and attitudes of young men and young women in science classes. Young women are as interested in science experiences as young men up until age nine. After that age, the number of young women interested in science, mathematics, and technology classes drops. Not enrolling in science and mathematics classes in high school limits career options for young women, and their chance to succeed in a scientific or technical field becomes remote. Why is this happening? What can we, as educators, scientists, and parents do to address this problem? The literature identifies three principal factors that relate to the lack of female involvement in science classes: culture, attitude, and education. This paper reviews these factors and provides examples of programs that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and others have developed to increase the number of young women entering college ready and wanting to pursue a career in a scientific or technical field.

  14. Bone density and young athletic women. An update.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David L; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Essery, Eve V

    2007-01-01

    High-school girls and collegiate women have tremendous opportunities to participate in athletic teams. Young girls are also playing in club and select teams at an early age and often, year-round. There are many benefits for participating in sport and physical activity on both the physical and mental health of girls and women. Decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes mellitus, along with improved self-esteem and body-image, were among the first reported benefits of regular physical activity. In addition, sport participation and physical activity is also associated with bone health. Athletes have a greater bone mineral density compared with non-active and physically active females. The increase in bone mass should reduce the risk of fragility fractures in later life. There appears to be a window of opportunity during the development of peak bone mass in which the bone is especially responsive to weight-bearing physical activity. Impact loading sports such as gymnastics, rugby or volleyball tend to produce a better overall osteogenic response than sports without impact loading such as cycling, rowing and swimming. Relatively little is known about the impact of retiring from athletics on bone density. It appears that former athletes continue to have a higher bone density than non-athletes; however, the rate of bone loss appears to be similar in the femoral neck. The positive impact of sports participation on bone mass can be tempered by nutritional and hormonal status. It is not known whether female athletes need additional calcium compared with the general female population. Due to the increased energy expenditure of exercise and/or the pressure to obtain an optimal training bodyweight, some female athletes may develop low energy availability or an eating disorder and subsequently amenorrhoea and a loss of bone mineral density. The three inter-related clinical disorders are referred to as the 'female athlete triad'. This article presents a review of the

  15. Postponing Marriage: The Influence of Schooling, Working, and Work Plans for Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew

    The paper examines trends of postponement of marriage among women in their early twenties. Data for the study were taken from a national longitudinal study of 5,159 women (ages 14 to 24) who were interviewed from 1968 to 1975. The author specifically examined the young women for three characteristics: current employment status, level of education,…

  16. Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation, and the Wages of Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.; Shapiro, David

    Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women aged fourteen to twenty-four in 1968, a study was made to determine the impact that women's ex ante labor market expectations have on their salary and development and to examine the effect of women's postschool training and maturation (human capital accumulation) on wages. Six findings…

  17. Motivations for Sex among Low-Income African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing ("n" = 20),…

  18. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  19. What HIV-Positive Young Women Want from Behavioral Interventions: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Jennifer; Lemos, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Young women living with HIV in the United States face many social and psychological challenges, including involvement in health care and secondary prevention efforts. The factors that put these young women at risk for HIV acquisition initially, such as poverty, gender roles, cultural norms, and limited perceived control over sexual relationships, continue to place them at risk for both adverse mental and physical health outcomes that impact their daily lives and secondary prevention efforts. This study utilized focus groups with young HIV-positive women in order to better understand their perceived problems and pressures and to inform a developmentally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV-positive women that could be implemented in clinical care settings. Focus groups with young HIV-positive women were convened in three U.S. cities: Baltimore, Chicago, and Tampa. A total of 17 young, HIV-positive women, age range 17–24 (mean age=21), participated in the focus groups. This article describes the psychological and social challenges these young women face as well as their suggestions regarding secondary HIV prevention intervention components. PMID:22675725

  20. Determinants of infant-feeding choice among young women in Hilo, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Cardines, Ka'imiala; Foutch-Chew, Kristel; Severance, Craig

    2008-09-01

    Our multicultural island community is unique in that many young mothers live in multigenerational households. In this qualitative study, we examined the factors that influenced young mothers' infant-feeding practices in Hilo, a small rural town in the Hawaiian Islands. The study participants consisted of young mothers, health care professionals, and educators. Our findings suggest that both the young mother's mother and her partner are very influential in the infant-feeding decision. Many young women in our study bottle fed to obtain assistance in caretaking, and to facilitate public breastfeeding. Additionally, we explored young mother's views of sexuality and breastfeeding, and their health promotion implications. PMID:18726793

  1. Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

    2012-02-01

    Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

  2. Pregnancy and contraception in young women with congenital heart disease: General considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Rachel M; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M

    2011-01-01

    Young women with heart disease are increasingly being seen in obstetrical referral centres owing, in large part, to the dramatic improvements in survival of young adults with congenital heart disease in recent years. Although pregnancies in most women with heart disease result in favourable outcomes, there are important exceptions that must be recognized. These exceptions pose significant mortality risk to the mother and/or the fetus. The present article outlines cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy, general outcomes and management considerations for practitioners caring for pregnant young women with congenital heart disease. A lesion-specific review is published in a complementary article. PMID:22468131

  3. The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude.

    PubMed

    Dar-Odeh, Najla S; Abu-Hammad, Osama A

    2011-01-01

    Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking.Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people. PMID:21878112

  4. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  5. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  6. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  7. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in young women.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Norma L; Pitino, Lisa

    2002-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a synthesized putative female pheromone was conducted with regularly menstruating, university women (N=36, mean age=27.8). The pheromone formula was derived from earlier work investigating the underarm secretions of fertile, sexually active, heterosexual women. A vial of either synthesized pheromone or placebo was selected blindly and added to a subject's perfume. Subjects recorded seven sociosexual behaviors and reported them weekly across three menstrual cycles. Beginning with Day 8 of each cycle, the first cycle contained a 2-week baseline period followed by an experimental period of as many as 3 weeks each from the next two cycles for a maximum of 6 weeks. The 19 pheromone and 17 placebo subjects did not differ significantly in age, weight, body mass index, dating status or ethnicity nor in reported accuracy, back-filling data, perception of a positive effect or perfume use. Placebo subjects were significantly taller than pheromone subjects. Except for male approaches, subjects did not differ significantly at baseline in average weekly sociosexual behaviors. A significantly greater proportion of pheromone users compared with placebo users increased over baseline in frequency of sexual intercourse, sleeping next to a partner, formal dates and petting/affection/kissing but not in frequency of male approaches, informal dates or masturbation. Three or more sociosexual behaviors increased over baseline for 74% of pheromone users compared with 23% of placebo users. We conclude that this synthesized pheromone formula acted as a sex attractant pheromone and increased the sexual attractiveness of women to men. PMID:11897264

  8. The Influence of Subjective Social Status on Vulnerability to Postpartum Smoking Among Young Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Li, Yisheng; Mullen, Patricia D.; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Greisinger, Anthony; Wetter, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Associations between subjective social status, a subjective measure of socioeconomic status, and predictors of risk for postpartum smoking were examined among 123 pregnant women (aged 18–24 years) who stopped smoking because of pregnancy. The goal was to identify how subjective social status might influence the risk for postpartum smoking and to elucidate targets for intervention. Methods. We used multiple regression equations to examine the predictive relations between subjective social status and tobacco dependence, self-rated likelihood of postpartum smoking, confidence, temptations, positive and negative affect, depression, stress, and social support. Adjusted analyses were also conducted with control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and whether participant had a partner or not (partner status). Results. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, subjective social status predicted tobacco dependence, likelihood of postpartum smoking, confidence, temptations, positive affect, negative affect, and social support. Adjusted analyses predicting depression and stress approached significance. Conclusions. Among young pregnant women who quit smoking because of pregnancy, low subjective social status was associated with a constellation of characteristics indicative of increased vulnerability to postpartum smoking. Subjective social status provided unique information on risk for postpartum smoking over and above the effects of race/ethnicity, objective socioeconomic status, and partner status. PMID:17600249

  9. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment option for young women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer Posted: June 1, 2014 Contact: NCI Press Office 301-496-6641 A drug used for treating breast cancer, known as exemestane, is more effective than a ...

  10. 'I am a mother': young women's negotiation of femininity and risk in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    In studies of sexual risk behaviour among youth, the role of dominant conceptions of masculinity and femininity has received increasing attention. However, where research has sought to explore femininity, it has predominantly focused on adolescent girls. This paper departs from previous research by offering insights into how young women negotiate their femininity as they transition from adolescence to adulthood and encounter changing social contexts. Drawing on data from ethnographic enquiry, it argues that as young women transition out of school and into emerging adulthood, their options for negotiating different types of femininity become constrained, with consequences for engagement in sexual risk behaviours. This may to some extent explain why in some South African contexts older young women are more vulnerable to HIV infection than adolescent girls. The paper offer insights into future prospects for youth development programming seeking to reduce young women's vulnerability to risk. PMID:26413859

  11. Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.

    PubMed

    Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

  12. The incidence of breast cancer in population of young women from Podkarpackie province in 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Grądalska-Lampart, Monika; Filip, Agata A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer (BC) in young women of Podkarpackie province accounts for approximately 11.0% of all diagnosed breast tumors. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to assess the trends in incidence of BC among women younger than 44 from Podkarpackie in the years 2002–2011. Material and methods 614 cases of malignant BC and 26 cases of cancer in situ were analyzed. The crude and the standardized incidence ratios were estimated; the percentage of histopathologically confirmed cancer cases and the percentage share of registered malignant breast tumors were calculated. The analysis of incidence in individual counties was also presented, as well as the stages of clinical advancement at diagnosis and the methods of treatment. Results The number of registered cases at 2011 was 73, and it was 37.7% higher as compared to 2002. During the period analyzed, the increase in the crude and the standardized cancer incidence ratios was observed. The percentage share of BC in the examined group increased of 5.4% in 2011. Significant variation in incidence among different counties was observed. The incidence ratios ranged from 65.8 to 93.1/100 000. BC in young women most commonly was diagnosed as locally advanced and over 70% of patients were radically treated. Conclusions Even though the progress in diagnostics and treatment has been made, BC in young women is diagnosed later than it should be and at considerably advanced stage. It is relevant to propagate the knowledge among women and health professionals to emphasize that BC may affect young women. PMID:27358599

  13. Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion) in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Angela J; Watson, Lyndsey F

    2008-01-01

    Background Termination of pregnancy is a common and safe medical procedure in countries where it is legal. One in four Australian women terminates a pregnancy, most often when young. There is inconclusive evidence about whether pregnancy termination affects women's rates of depression. There is evidence of a strong association between partner violence and depression. Our objective was to examine the associations with depression of women's experience of violence, pregnancy termination, births and socio-demographic characteristics, among a population-based sample of young Australian women. Methods The data from the Younger cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health comprised 14,776 women aged 18–23 in Survey I (1996) of whom 9683 aged 22–27 also responded to Survey 2 (2000). With linked data, we distinguished terminations, violence and depression reported before and after 1996. We used logistic regression to examine the association of depression (CES-D 10) as both a dichotomous and linear measure in 2000 with pregnancy termination, numbers of births and with violence separately and then in mutually adjusted models with sociodemographic variables. Results 30% of young women were depressed. Eleven percent (n = 1076) reported a termination by 2000. A first termination before 1996 and between 1996 and 2000 were both associated with depression in a univariate model (OR 1.37, 95%CI 1.12 to 1.66; OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.87). However, after adjustment for violence, numbers of births and sociodemographic variables (OR 1.22, 95%CI 0.99 to 1.51) this became only marginally significant, a similar association with having two or more births (1.26, 95%CI. 1.00 to 1.58). In contrast, any form of violence but especially that of partner violence in 1996 or 2000, was significantly associated with depression: in univariate (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.97 to 2.70 or 2.45, 95% CI 1.99 to 3.04) and multivariate models (AOR 2.06, 95%CI 1.74 to 2.43 or 2.12, 95%CI 1.69 to 2

  14. Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Libby; Coalson, Jenna; Mowat, Fionna; O’Malley, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest. Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients. Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis. Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar

  15. The Risk Environment of Heroin Use Initiation: Young Women, Intimate Partners, and "Drug Relationships".

    PubMed

    Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:25774809

  16. Breaking the circle: challenging Western sociocultural norms for appearance influences young women's attention to appearance-related media.

    PubMed

    Mischner, Isabelle H S; van Schie, Hein T; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-06-01

    Paying attention to thin media models may negatively affect women's self-evaluation. This study aimed to reduce the amount of attention that young women give to appearance-related information by challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance, and studied the moderating role of self-esteem. Seventy-one college women either received norm-confirming, norm-challenging, or no information regarding the sociocultural norms for appearance. Subsequently, participants' visual attention to appearance-related and neutral advertisements was measured using an eye-tracker. The results demonstrate that when no information or norm-confirming information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid more attention to the appearance-related advertisements than women with higher self-esteem. Importantly however, when norm-challenging information was received, women with lower self-esteem paid significantly less attention to the appearance-related ads than women with lower self-esteem who did not receive this manipulation. These findings indicate that challenging the sociocultural norms for appearance can attenuate the amount of attention women give to appearance-related media. PMID:23523085

  17. Diffusion of the culture of contraception: program effects on young women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mita, R; Simmons, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a process of diffusion of family planning information, ideas, and technology among an unanticipated audience of young, unmarried women in rural Bangladesh. The data are derived from a focus-group study conducted in 1987-88 in the Maternal Child Health and Family Planning Project in Matlab, Bangladesh. A discussion with a staff member revealed her vivid memory of the arrival of the community-based family planning worker in her village 10 years earlier, before she was married. Based on this research lead, four focus-group sessions were held with newly married young women, and a set of questions about young women were incorporated into the sessions with other community women. The discussions showed that many young, unmarried women learn about family planning from an early age from the community-based family planning worker, from female relatives, peers, and the media. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that greater attention be paid to the contraceptive needs of young women and that continued research be conducted with this population of women. PMID:7785063

  18. Examining the Personal Nature of the K-14 Engineering Pipeline for Young Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurski, Jennifer Sue

    This mixed-methods study examined young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM pipeline experiences and their resulting choice to enter and persist in an engineering major. Despite the increase of women in the STEM workforce, women remain underrepresented among engineering majors (Beasley & Fischer, 2012; Heilbronner, 2012; Neihart & Teo, 2013). Few studies exist that utilize a retrospective approach to understand how the culmination of young women's K-14 experiences have influenced their formation of individually held perceptions that lead to engineering persistence. It is this study's aim to utilize a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research question: How do young women's perceptions of their K-14 STEM experiences influence their decision to enroll and persist in an engineering major? These perceptions are explored through an ethnographic approach focusing on young women enrolled in engineering programs during their junior and senior years of study at a small private liberal arts university with eight engineering majors. The mixed-methods approach follows a sequential design method (Creswell, 2013) and utilizes questions in a quantitative Likert-type survey from the Academic Pathways for People Learning Engineering (APPLES) survey (Eris, Chachra, Chen, Sheppard, & Ludlow, 2010) and the Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991). The quantitative study results will lead to the development of open-ended, structured questions for conducting a qualitative focus group. Anonymity of all participants is maintained. Keywords: STEM, young women, perceptions, pipeline, intervention, underrepresentation, engineering, persistence, retrospective, self-efficacy.

  19. 78 FR 75923 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... activities designed to prevent breast cancer (particularly among those at heightened risk) and promote the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... the current and emerging topics related to breast cancer in young women. These may include...

  20. "I Was the Special Ed. Girl": Urban Working-Class Young Women of Colour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent criticism of the over-representation of minority students in special education do not adequately account for gender, despite the fact that urban special education classrooms in the USA are largely populated by young men of colour. In fact, we know very little about how being female shapes the experiences and understandings of young women of…

  1. The Future of Young Women's Economic Role in a Globalized Economy: New Opportunities, Persisting Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Young women in advanced industrial countries have been outperforming young men in educational attainment at the same time that their labor market outcomes are still lagging. Sex segregation in education and the labor market is identified as an important source of this imbalance. In this article, the authors advance some thoughts about this…

  2. Routes Into Education and Employment for Young Pakistani and Bangladeshi Women in the UK. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Angela; Shaheen, Nusrat; Kalra, Virinder; Fieldhouse, E.

    Routes into education and employment for young Pakistani and Bangladeshi women in Oldham, England, were examined. The data sources were as follows: group discussions with Pakistani and Bangladeshi young people at different stages in the educational system and at an early stage of labor market participation; interviews with public and voluntary…

  3. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status of young women fed vitamin B-6 deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    Turnlund, J.R.; Keyes, W.R.; Hudson, C.A.; Betschart, A.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Sauberlich, H.E. Western Regional Research Center, Albany, CA )

    1991-03-11

    A study was conducted in young women to determine the effect of vitamin B-6 deficient diets on copper, iron and zinc metabolism. Young women were confined to a metabolic research unit for 84 and 98 days. They were fed a vitamin B-6 deficient formula diet initially, followed by food diet containing four increasing levels of vitamin B-6. Copper, iron and zinc absorption, retention and status were determined at intervals throughout the study. Absorption was determined using the stable isotopes {sup 65}Cu, {sup 54}Fe, and {sup 67}Zn. Status was based on serum copper and zinc, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. Copper absorption averaged 18 {plus minus} 1% during vitamin B-6 depletion, significantly lower than 24 {plus minus} 1% during repletion, but serum copper was not affected and balance was positive. Iron absorption was not impaired significantly by vitamin B-6 deficient diets, but status declined during the depletion period. Zinc absorption averaged 40 {plus minus} 2% during depletion and 27 {plus minus} 2% during repletion. Zinc absorption and retention were significantly greater during vitamin B-6 depletion, but serum zinc declined suggesting the absorbed zinc was not available for utilization. The results suggest that vitamin B-6 depletion of young women may inhibit copper absorption, affect iron status and alter zinc metabolism. The effects of vitamin B-6 depletion differ markedly among these elements.

  4. Young Transgender Women May Face Mental Health Woes

    MedlinePlus

    ... income transgender women with a history of unsafe sexual behavior struggle with at least one serious mental health ... of transgender women with a history of risky sexual behavior, the findings may not reflect mental health and ...

  5. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Research Priorities. A Report of the Young Survival Coalition Research Think Tank Meeting.

    PubMed

    Korde, Larissa A; Partridge, Ann H; Esser, Michelle; Lewis, Stacy; Simha, Joy; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer in young women is a significant issue-7% of all female breast cancer is diagnosed in women under 40 years of age. Young women with breast cancer (YWBC) face significant and unique challenges, including a higher likelihood of biologically aggressive disease and metastatic disease at diagnosis, leading to poorer prognosis, more aggressive treatment and long-term treatment-related toxicities, and unique psychosocial concerns. This article summarizes the Young Survival Coalition (YSC) Research Think Tank Meeting, held in Arlington, Virginia, in February 2013, and presents the process that led to YSC's priorities for YWBC research. The meeting's participants focused on six broad categories of investigation in which additional advancements in research on YWBC are crucial: risk factors; treatment; fertility; pregnancy-associated breast cancer; quality of life and survivorship; and metastasis. Several key themes emerged from this meeting. Researchers and advocates felt that a large-scale data registry focused on YWBC is necessary to collect quality information to guide future research for YWBC. This database should include clinical data, genomic profiling of primary tumor and metastatic sites, and an increased focus on fertility and pregnancy following breast cancer treatment. The participants also felt that more must be done to elucidate how and why YWBC develop more aggressive tumors, and to what degree treatment should be modified for young women. The discussions summarized here led to the formulation of YSC's Research Agenda, published in May 2014. PMID:26812429

  6. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  7. Admitted to College, Restricted from Work: A Conflict for Young Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of young Iranian women who are encouraged to pursue higher education but who are deterred from entering the labor market. It identifies the factors that college women themselves recognize as motivating or inhibiting their participation in these two public realms. The research reported suggests that the…

  8. Job Stability among Young Women: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Occupations. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Linda J.; Berryman, Sue E.

    This study explores young women's retention in sex-atypical jobs in the military and in civilian firms. It tests the hypothesis that women tend to leave stereotypically male jobs at higher rates than they leave stereotypically female jobs. The study models job turnover over a one-year period as a function of (1) the sex composition of an…

  9. Mental Health and Sexual Self-Concept Discrepancies in a Sample of Young Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marcelle Christian

    2002-01-01

    Addressed the mental health consequences of sexual self-concept discrepancies among young black women. Participant surveys examined differences between their actual, ideal, and "ought" sexual selves. Overall, sexual self-concept discrepancies did not predict mental health outcomes. Women who were bothered by the differences between whom they…

  10. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  11. Career Aspirations of Young Women in High School and in College: A Seven Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmurak, Carole B.

    This paper reports on a longitudinal study with results drawn from 7 years of data on a group of young women (N=42), following them from the ninth grade through the third year of college. The purpose of the study was to trace development of the participants' thinking about school, career, and women's roles while also tracking their grades,…

  12. Young Women in Initial Training in the New Information and Communication Technology Occupations in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietzen, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of 758 German information-communications technology (ICT) companies and 1,100 trainees reveal that young women are moving away from ICT occupations and obtain fewer apprenticeships; only 50% who had ICT training found related jobs. Contributors to ICT gender segregation include women's motivation and orientation, organizational and…

  13. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  14. Young Women of Achievement: A Resource for Girls in Science, Math, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Stephens, Kristen R.

    This book is intended to be a resource guide for girls and young women considering careers in science, math, and technology. An introductory chapter considers the status of girls and women in these fields, the importance of role models, and suggestions for using the book. Part 1 introduces readers to the various career opportunities available in…

  15. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  16. Nontraditional, Nongender Stereotyped Experiences: Do They Make a Difference for Young Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Beth H.

    What impact did a nontraditional work experience have on subsequent life decisions in older women's lives, and what can be learned from these experiences that could have an impact on the educational and career decisions of girls and young women? This paper presents data from a collaborative research project with a group of eight older adult women…

  17. The Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Fast Food and Soda Consumption and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study examines the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with fast food and soda consumption, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) in a group of young women. Methods This study was conducted on cross-sectional data gathered from 3181 females 16–24 years of age attending five publicly funded clinics in Texas. The associations among PTSD, fast food consumption frequency, soda consumption frequency, unhealthy dieting behaviors, and BMI were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased frequency of consumption of fast food and soda as well as unhealthy dieting behaviors but not with increased body mass index (BMI). Conclusions PTSD symptoms adversely affect both eating and dieting behaviors of young women. These behaviors may have negative long-term consequences for the health of females with PTSD symptoms. PMID:21751875

  18. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  19. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  20. Automatic evaluation of body-related words among young women: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to images depicting the thin female ideal has negative effects on some females' levels of body dissatisfaction. Much of this research, however, has utilised relatively long stimulus exposure times; thereby focusing on effortful and conscious processing of body-related stimuli. Relatively little is known about the nature of females' affective responses to the textual components of body-related stimuli, especially when these stimuli are only briefly encountered. The primary aim of the current research was to determine whether young women automatically evaluate body-related words and whether these responses are associated with body image concerns, including self-reported levels of appearance schematicity, thin internalisation, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint. Methods An affective priming task was used to investigate whether females automatically evaluate body-related words, and whether this is associated with self-reported body image concerns. In a within-participants experimental design, the valence congruence of the prime and target pairs was manipulated. Participants selected body words as primes in Experiment 1 (N = 27), while normatively selected body words were primes in Experiment 2 (N = 50). Each prime was presented briefly, followed by a target word which participants judged as "good" or "bad". The dependent variable was response latency to the target. Results Automatic evaluation was evident: responding to congruent pairs was faster than responding to incongruent pairs. Body image concerns were unrelated to automaticity. Conclusions The findings suggest that brief encounters with body words are likely to prompt automatic evaluation in all young women, and that this process proceeds unintentionally and efficiently, without conscious guidance. PMID:20525306

  1. Non-consensual sex within pre-marital relationships: experiences of young women in India.

    PubMed

    Santhya, K G; Francis Zavier, A J

    2014-01-01

    In India, little is known about the prevalence of non-consensual sex within pre-marital relationships and factors correlated with such experience, although a sizeable proportion of young people engage in pre-marital relationships. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data from a representative study of youth in six Indian states, this paper examines the extent to which young women who had had pre-marital sex had experienced non-consensual sex, that is, sex by persuasion or force, and factors associated with it. Analysis is restricted to 821 young women who reported pre-marital sex. Of those who had had pre-marital sex, 33% reported that they were either persuaded (14%) or forced (19%) to engage in sex. Young women residing in urban areas and in communities reportedly characterised by physical fights among youth were more likely than their respective counterparts to have experienced sex by persuasion. Young women who had delayed sexual initiation and those who displayed self-efficacy were less likely than others to experience forced sex. Young women who had experienced geographic mobility in adolescence and who had witnessed parental violence were more likely than others to report forced sex. Finally, those in southern states were less likely than their northern counterparts to experience forced sex. PMID:24261824

  2. Young women's education and behavioural risk trajectories: clarifying their association with unintended-pregnancy resolution.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Cooney, Teresa M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, most pregnancies occurring to teenage women are unplanned, making both the decisions regarding their resolution and the consequences of those decisions important topics of inquiry. Substantial debate surrounds the potential consequences for young women of either carrying an unintended pregnancy to term or voluntarily terminating it. The present study utilises data from The US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health prospectively to examine the predictors of pregnancy resolution decisions in terms of young women's educational goals and their engagement in risk behaviours. Additionally, the long-term consequences of these decisions for education and risk-taking behaviours are identified. Results indicate that young women with strong educational goals have a greater likelihood of terminating an unintended pregnancy than those with low aspirations, and that pregnancy termination predicts higher educational attainment compared to motherhood. Risk behaviours did not predict pregnancy-resolution decisions, but young women who became mothers reported lower rates of subsequent substance use and fewer sexual partners post-pregnancy than those who terminated the pregnancy or who had never been pregnant. Motherhood appears to be a catalyst for lifestyle change among young women, limiting substance use and sexual partnering, in contrast to abortion, which appears to allow adolescents to continue risk-taking trajectories. PMID:24735279

  3. Dating violence and the health of young women: a feminist narrative study.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Farah; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Dating violence is a significant public health problem in the lives of young women. Their age, in conjunction with perceived pressures to engage in intimate relationships, makes these women particularly vulnerable to dating violence. The pressures to be in relationships can be intense and therefore may add to young women's willingness to overlook, forgive, or excuse the violence that is occurring. The authors' purposes in this feminist study were to examine the experience of dating violence from young women's perspectives; investigate how contextual factors shape their experiences; examine how health is shaped by these experiences; and explore ways that dating violence is perpetuated and normalized in young women's lives. Findings revealed that family environment and gender are critical in shaping young women's experiences. The participants described a range of physical and emotional health problems and perceived few sources of support. Their efforts to obtain support were often met with skeptical and dismissive attitudes on the part of health care providers and other trusted adults. Recommendations for health care practice, education, and research are presented. PMID:17469000

  4. Child Abuse in Young, HIV-Positive Women: Linkages to Risk

    PubMed Central

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the lives of young women living with HIV who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Using a modified version of the Life Story Interview, 40 women recruited from HIV clinics in three different states participated in a qualitative interview. Interviews covered abuse experiences, cognitive and emotional consequences of abuse, coping strategies, and sexual behavior and relationships. Overall, these young women had complex abuse histories, often experiencing more than one type of abuse in the context of other difficult life events. Avoidance and substance use were frequently utilized as coping strategies for abuse-related distress. Young women reported sexual and relationship concerns, including avoidance of sex, sexual dysfunction, sex as a trigger for abuse memories, and difficulty establishing intimacy and trust. Relationships between abuse-related reactions and sexual risk behavior, as well as recommendations for interventions, are discussed. PMID:19949224

  5. [Sexual coercion and abortion: a context of vulnerability among young women].

    PubMed

    Pilecco, Flávia Bulegon; Knauth, Daniela Riva; Vigo, Álvaro

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between abortion and experiences of sexual coercion. The data came from GRAVAD, a household survey with a stratified random sample of young women (18-24 years) in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, and Salvador, Brazil. The sample used in this article included 870 interviews of women who reported having become pregnant. Abortion was associated with: a reported experience of sexual coercion, more schooling, failure to obtain first information about sex from parents, and a history of more pregnancies and sexual partners. The association between abortion and sexual coercion reflects a situation of gender vulnerability and reveals young women's precariousness in sex negotiation and reproduction. A veil of silence in public agencies concerning sexual coercion helps perpetuate young women's vulnerability, as it blocks access to the appropriate educational, legal, and health services. PMID:21519694

  6. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy. PMID:17219750

  7. Real-world outcomes in young women with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Matus-Santos, Juan; Cabrera, Paula; Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Mohar, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer in young women has been shown to have an aggressive behavior and worse prognosis. Studies evaluating young women enrolled in clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy have shown that age is a determinant factor in the achievement of a pathological complete response (pCR). In this study, we sought to analyze the outcomes of young patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution. 1639 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. 316 patients ≤40 years were compared with 1323 patients aged >40 years regarding the achievement of a pCR (defined as no invasive residual tumor in the breast or lymph nodes). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were compared between groups according to pCR status and subtype, defined by hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status. Young women were more likely to have a pCR than their older counterparts (37.4 vs. 26.3 %, P < 0.001). This difference was significant both for HR+/HER2- and triple-negative (TN) tumors. Young age and achieving less than pCR were associated with a greater chance of recurrence for the entire population. Age was not an independent factor for recurrence in TN and HER2+ disease. However, being younger than 40 increased recurrence risk in HR+/HER2- tumors. The achievement of a pCR was not associated with improved DFS in young women with HR+/HER2- tumors. Although young women have a high rate of pCR, they also have a worse prognosis. In a real-world clinical setting, the achievement of a pCR was an independently significant protective factor for recurrence across all subtypes and ages, except for HR+, HER2- disease in young women. PMID:27189008

  8. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  9. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  10. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  11. Experience of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative young women from families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the experience of young women who become aware of their parent’s BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation status as adolescents or young adults. There is also currently a gap in the literature pertaining to those who are found to be negative for their familial mutation. We aimed to investigate the experience of these mutation-negative young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Methods Using a semi-structured questionnaire we interviewed 8 women. All of the women were non-carriers of their familial mutation and had learned of the mutation in their family as adolescents or young adults at least 6 months prior to undergoing genetic testing. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and independently analyzed by the investigators. This was followed by an in-depth cross-case analysis, enabling the formulation of emergent themes. Results The women’s age ranged from 22 to 37 years old and all were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Prominent emergent themes from the interviews included the impact of how and when the familial mutation status was disclosed, the factors influencing when a young woman chooses to undergo predictive genetic testing, the predictors of post-test adjustment and risk perception, as well as the impact of familial cancer experience versus the familial mutation. Conclusions By eliciting detailed patient narratives we have begun to show that this generation of BRCA mutation-negative young women is likely still affected by the degree of cancer history in their family, even with their understanding of the genetic contribution to disease. Larger studies with tightened participant characteristics, as well as studies involving women from different cultural backgrounds, are needed to further define the experience and needs of true negative young women from HBOC families. PMID:24131499

  12. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  13. Urinary Tract Infection In Young Healthy Women Following Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Lema, Valentino M

    2015-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in outpatient clinical settings globally. Young healthy women are at highest risk of community-acquired UTI. While uncomplicated UTI is not life-threatening, it is associated with high morbidity and treatment costs. The pathogenesis of urinary tract infection in young healthy women is complex. It is influenced by a number of host biological and behavioural factors and virulence of the uropathogen. The infecting uropathogens in community-acquired UTI originate from the fecal flora, E. coli being the most predominant, accounting for 80-90% of these UTIs. Vaginal colonization with uropathogens, a pre-requisite for bladder infection may be facilitated by sexual intercourse, which has been shown to be a strong risk factor and predictor of UTI. While majority of studies have explored the association between heterosexual vaginal intercourse and UTI in healthy young women, the possible association with heterosexual receptive anal intercourse has not received adequate attention despite evidence of high prevalence globally. This paper presents two young healthy married women who had severe UTI following heterosexual anal intercourse and discusses possible association thereof. Understanding the risk factors for UTI and identification of possible predisposing conditions in a particular individual are important in guiding therapeutic approaches and preventive strategies. Cognisant of reportedly high prevalence of various sexual practices including receptive heterosexual anal intercourse and their impact on individuals' health, details on sexual history should always be enquired into in young women presenting with genito-urinary complaints. PMID:26506666

  14. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. PMID:23702216

  15. Old Men and Young Women: Partners in Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, R. Patricia; Connor, Catherine L.

    Previous research has suggested that identical performances by men and women are often evaluated differently. Men with high-quality accomplishments are perceived more positively than women, while unsuccessful men are rated more negatively than their female counterparts. This study extended the research by including elderly stimulus persons to…

  16. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  17. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the current literature uncovering specific factors associated with self-harm and suicidality among young Asian American women, as well as to present the Fractured Identity Model as a framework for understanding these factors. This paper offers concrete suggestions for the development of culturally competent interventions to target suicidality, substance abuse, and mental illness among young Asian American women. Design/methodology/approach Empirical studies and theory-based papers featured in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were identified through scholarly databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, JSTOR, and Google Scholar. Findings We identified several factors associated with suicidality among young Asian American women: (1) family dynamics, or having lived in a household where parents practice “disempowering parenting styles,” (2) substance use/abuse, and (3) untreated mental illness(es), which are exacerbated by the stigma and shame attached to seeking out mental health services. The Fractured Identity Model by Hahm et al. (2014) is presented as a possible pathway from disempowering parenting to suicidal and self-harm behaviors among this population, with substance abuse playing a significant mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Our review focused on Asian American women, substance use among Asian Americans, and mental health among Asian Americans. Literature that focused on Asians living in Asia or elsewhere outside of the USA was excluded from this review; the review was limited to research conducted in the USA and written in the English language. Practical implications The complex interplay among Asian American culture, family dynamics, gender roles/expectations, and mental health justifies the development of a suicide and substance abuse intervention that is tailored to the culture- and gender-specific needs of Asian Pacific Islander young women. It is

  18. Comparison of lifestyles of young women with and without primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bavil, Dina Abadi; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecologic disorders that affects women’s quality of life and social activities. Lifestyle, eating behaviors, and general health are essential to the management of menstrual symptoms. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between lifestyle and primary dysmenorrhea in students at Sari University of Medical Sciences in 2015 in order to facilitate the performance of lifestyle-improving interventions among young women. Methods This study was conducted on 250 students with and without primary dysmenorrhea at Sari University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Data were collected using personal-social and lifestyle questionnaires (addressing nutrition, physical activity, stress, social relationships, improper health behaviors, and self-care). The data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 18, using the independent-samples t-test, the chi-squared test, and logistic regression analysis. Results Given the scores obtained on the lifestyle questionnaire, significant differences were observed between the groups with and without dysmenorrhea in terms of eating behavior (p=0.008), physical activity (p=0.011), stress (p=0.041), and social relationships (p=0.000). No differences were observed in terms of self-care (p=0.115) and smoking, drinking, and drug use (p=0.355). According to the logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.208, p=0.014), physical activity (OR=1.008, p=0.040) and social relationship (OR=0.952, p=0.002) were different in the two groups, but there was no statistical differences in their eating behavior, self-care, and stress. Conclusion To prevent and reduce the incidence of primary dysmenorrhea, knowledge and awareness should be raised in young women through proper lifestyle education and health promotion measures. PMID:27123219

  19. Temporal changes in anthropometric measurements of idealized females and young women in general.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Murray, Jessica; Schlussel, Yvette R

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the temporal anthropometric changes in idealized female body images in the media (i.e., Playboy magazine Playmates of the Year, Miss America Pageant winners, and fashion models) and young women in general across eight decades. Overall, all anthropometric measures differed significantly over time. BMI for all women in the idealized groups tended to decline significantly over time, while the BMI for YoungWomen increased significantly. Models tended to have the smallest bust and hips, Playmates the largest bust, and young women in general the largest waist and hips. The general trend for all groups was to move from a less curvaceous body shape in the early part of the twentieth century to a more curvaceous shape at mid-century and returning to a less curvaceous shape at the end of the century. Idealized women have a body size unlike that of Young Women and the chasm between the media- defined ideal and reality is continuing to diverge. PMID:16219585

  20. Patterns of contraceptive use and pregnancy among young Hispanic women on the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Russell, A Y; Williams, M S; Farr, P A; Schwab, A J; Plattsmier, S

    1993-07-01

    Our objective was to identify significant family planning and health access problems of young Hispanic women on the Texas-Mexico border. Samples of 300 young Hispanic women living in each of the twin cities of El Paso and Juarez were interviewed regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with respect to birth control, pregnancy, maternal and child health, and health-care services. Knowledge and attitudes of the women about birth control technology were assessed along with their beliefs regarding the use of such technology. Results showed that contraceptive knowledge and usage patterns for young Hispanic women in Juarez and El Paso were significantly different. They relied on different types of birth control methods and also differed with respect to confidence in these methods and related medical services. Both groups reflected positive attitudes toward both child bearing and use of birth control although Juarez women were significantly more favorable toward child bearing. Both groups overwhelmingly favored female doctors. The young women studied have accepted the need for birth control, prefer fewer children, and have some degree of confidence in medical services. Their knowledge and use of reliable versus unreliable birth control devices appear to be major areas requiring culturally sensitive intervention. PMID:8399249

  1. [Determinants of chilliness among young women and their application to psychopharmacological trials].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Chilliness is a common complaint among menopausal women. Increasing evidence indicates that young women also suffer from chilliness, resulting in decreased learning, motivation, and concentration. Neither diagnostic criteria nor drug therapies exist for chilliness, and thus, young women suffer from insomnia, fatigue, and mood disturbance. Because chilliness is correlated with hormonal changes observed during premenstrual, postpartum, and menopausal periods, reproductive hormones are likely involved. Recently, we elucidated methodological issues related to identifying young women with chilliness. We used a new questionnaire to determine complaint severity with regard to chills and assessed physical parameters (BMI, body fat ratio, basal metabolism, blood pressure), peripheral circulation, and recovery of skin surface temperature after mild cold-water finger immersion. Using a discriminant analysis (hit ratio, 84.5%), we demonstrated that four parameters (blood flow, difference between underarm and surface temperature, recovery rate after mild cold exposure, and score for chilliness-related complaints) were important determinants of chilliness. Among traditional candidate substances for alleviating chilliness, Piper longum and royal jelly showed significant effects. Additionally, we investigated seasonal change in the experience of chilliness and found that young women suffer from chilliness during the summer. These findings have important implications for understanding chilliness in women. PMID:20030189

  2. Some Affects of Women's Rights Demonstrations Upon Attitudes of Nonfeminist Mormons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Loren; Carlson, Stephen D.

    Forty-nine introductory psychology students (28 female, 21 male) at the Mormon Church's Brigham Young University in Utah were tested to determine the effects of a pro-feminist, pro-Equal Rights Amendment demonstration by the Utah Women's Rights Movement on attitudes toward the women's movement, civil demonstrations, and Mormon Church leaders.…

  3. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  4. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities. PMID:24087911

  5. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high‐risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L; Murray, Pamela J; Chang, Chung‐Chou H; Comer, Diane M; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Aim To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high‐risk sample of young women. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9 years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD‐related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high‐prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. Results Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10%) home tests were positive. Women who received home screening tests completed significantly more STD tests overall (1.94 vs 1.41 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001) and more STD tests in the absence of symptoms (1.18 vs 0.75 tests per woman‐year, p<0.001). More women in the intervention group completed at least one test when asymptomatic (162 (82.2%) vs 117 (61.3%), p<0.001). The intervention was most effective among women recruited outside medical clinics. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of STDs detected. Conclusions Home screening significantly increased the utilisation of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in this sample of high‐risk young women, and thus represents a feasible strategy to facilitate STD testing in young women. PMID:17301105

  6. Asian Women in Transitions: How Modernization Affects Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    East Asia is the region which has experienced unprecedented growth in the past few decades. This growth resulted in the increase in education opportunities and the empowerment of women. Modernization and globalization provided opportunities for many women in China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan. Modern Asian women can obtain…

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  8. HIV Risk, Partner Violence, and Relationship Power Among Filipino Young Women: Testing a Structural Model

    PubMed Central

    LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; HINDIN, MICHELLE J.; KUB, JOAN; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2012-01-01

    A person’s ability to minimize HIV risk is embedded in a complex, multidimensional context. In this study, we tested a model of how relationship power impacts IPV victimization, which in turn impacts HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed data from 474 young adult women (aged 15–31) in Cebu Province, Philippines, using structural equation modeling, and demonstrated good fit for the models. High relationship power is directly associated with increased IPV victimization, and IPV victimization is positively associated with increased HIV risk. We highlight in this article the complex dynamics to consider in HIV risk prevention among these young women. PMID:22420674

  9. Correlates of intimate partner physical violence among young reproductive age women in Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) in south India. This article examines the frequency and correlates of IPPV among 898 young married women from urban, rural, and periurban areas of Mysore, India. Most (69.2%) of the participants were Hindus and 28.7% were Muslims. Overall, 50% of participants reported some type of IPPV. Factors that were independently associated with IPPV included being younger than 18 years at the time of marriage, contributing some household income, having anal sex, reporting sexual violence, and having a sex partner who drinks alcohol and smokes cigarettes. Women with skilled occupation were at reduced odds of experiencing IPPV compared with women who did not work. These findings suggest that IPPV is highly prevalent in this setting and that additional interventions are needed to reduce morbidity particularly among young women. These data also suggest that more studies are needed among men who perpetrate IPPV in south India. PMID:22186382

  10. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  11. Dose-Response Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Viveca M.; Cole, John W.; Sorkin, John D.; Wozniak, Marcella A.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Giles, Wayne H.; Stern, Barney J.; Kittner, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although cigarette smoking is known to be a risk factor for ischemic stroke, there are few data on the dose-response relationship between smoking and stroke risk in a young ethnically diverse population. Methods We used data from the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study, a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in women aged 15 to 49 years to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and ischemic stroke. Historical data, including smoking history, was obtained through standardized interviews. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression. Cases (n=466) were women with stroke in the greater Baltimore-Washington area, and controls (n=604) were women free of a stroke history identified by random digit dialing. Results After multivariable adjustment, the OR comparing current smokers to never smokers was 2.6 (P<0.0001); no difference in stroke risk was observed between former smokers and never smokers. Adjusted OR increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR=2.2 for 1 to 10 cigs/d; 2.5 for 11 to 20 cigs/d; 4.3 for 21 to 39 cigs/d; 9.1 for 40 or more cigs/d). Conclusion These results suggest a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and ischemic stroke risk in young women and reinforce the need for aggressive smoking cessation efforts in young adults. PMID:18703815

  12. "Young women": the meaning of a collaborative program supporting young women's rehabilitation and reintegration into the labor market.

    PubMed

    Stjernswärd, Sigrid; Bernce, Richard; Östman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Women are at a higher risk for long-term sick leaves and mental ill health. The aim of this study was to explore a supportive program's meaning for women with anxiety/stress/depression problems that are unemployed and/or on a sick leave, and for the personnel involved. Seven women and the personnel (n = 5) were interviewed individually pre- and post-intervention. Data was analyzed using content analysis. The program appeared to provide participants with tools to handle their physical and mental health, and occupational support, improving their social situation. Collaboration between organizations appears to be beneficial for all parties involved. PMID:24074131

  13. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  14. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  15. Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (< 35 years) are different.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, R. A.; Lees, E.; Webb, M. B.; Dearing, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-three breast carcinomas occurring in women aged between 26 and 44 years were examined for pathological features, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, proliferation as determined by Ki-67 labelling and the presence of c-erbB-2 and p53 protein, and were compared with a control group of carcinomas from women in the 50-67 years age group. Carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years had a significantly high incidence of being poorly differentiated and of having high proliferation rates. This group also had a significantly high incidence of p53 protein staining. Carcinomas in the under 30 years age group had a lower incidence of oestrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. No differences were found in c-erbB-2-positive staining between the groups. Infiltrating lobular carcinomas were only identified in women aged 40 years and over. There was a higher incidence of a family history in the 35-44 years age group (18%) than in the under 35 years age group (11%). Breast carcinomas occurring in women aged under 35 years are more aggressive. An important finding is the high incidence of p53 positivity, which may indicate genetic instability. Images Figure 1 PMID:8956795

  16. Errors Affect Hypothetical Intertemporal Food Choice in Women

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the ability to control behavior is enhanced in contexts in which errors are more frequent. Here we investigated whether pairing desirable food with errors could decrease impulsive choice during hypothetical temporal decisions about food. To this end, healthy women performed a Stop-signal task in which one food cue predicted high-error rate, and another food cue predicted low-error rate. Afterwards, we measured participants’ intertemporal preferences during decisions between smaller-immediate and larger-delayed amounts of food. We expected reduced sensitivity to smaller-immediate amounts of food associated with high-error rate. Moreover, taking into account that deprivational states affect sensitivity for food, we controlled for participants’ hunger. Results showed that pairing food with high-error likelihood decreased temporal discounting. This effect was modulated by hunger, indicating that, the lower the hunger level, the more participants showed reduced impulsive preference for the food previously associated with a high number of errors as compared with the other food. These findings reveal that errors, which are motivationally salient events that recruit cognitive control and drive avoidance learning against error-prone behavior, are effective in reducing impulsive choice for edible outcomes. PMID:25244534

  17. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  18. Propelling Young Women into the Cyber Age: Gender Considerations in the Evaluation of Web-based Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses results of a grant-funded project, "Leading Young Women to the Sciences and Technology," that led to the creation of the Gender-Based Web Site Evaluation Model for selecting Web sites of high interest to young women. The model includes eight evaluation criteria related to gender. The revised model and a list of questions to assist adult…

  19. Biopedagogies and Indigenous Knowledge: Examining Sport for Development and Peace for Urban Indigenous Young Women in Canada and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M. C.; Giles, Audrey R.; Wright, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses transnational postcolonial feminist participatory action research (TPFPAR) to examine two sport for development and peace (SDP) initiatives that focus on Indigenous young women residing in urban areas, one in Vancouver, Canada, and one in Perth, Australia. We examine how SDP programs that target urban Indigenous young women and…

  20. Breast cancer in young women and its impact on reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, M.; Peate, M.; Saunders, C.M.; Friedlander, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and 12% of breast cancer occurs in women 20–34 years. Survival from breast cancer has significantly improved, and the potential late effects of treatment and the impact on quality of life have become increasingly important. Young women constitute a minority of breast cancer patients, but commonly have distinct concerns and issues compared with older women, including queries regarding fertility, contraception and pregnancy. Further, they are more likely than older women to have questions regarding potential side effects of therapy and risk of relapse or a new primary. In addition, many will have symptoms associated with treatment and they present a management challenge. Reproductive medicine specialists and gynaecologists commonly see these women either shortly after initial diagnosis or following adjuvant therapy and should be aware of current management of breast cancer, the options for women at increased genetic risk, the prognosis of patients with early stage breast cancer and how adjuvant systemic treatments may impact reproductive function. METHODS No systematic literature search was done. The review focuses on the current management of breast cancer in young women and the impact of treatment on reproductive function and subsequent management. With reference to key studies and meta-analyses, we highlight controversies and current unanswered questions regarding patient management. RESULTS Chemotherapy for breast cancer is likely to negatively impact on reproductive function. A number of interventions are available which may increase the likelihood of future successful pregnancy, but the relative safety of these interventions is not well established. For those who do conceive following breast cancer, there is no good evidence that pregnancy is detrimental to survival. We review current treatment; effects on reproductive function; preservation of fertility; contraception

  1. Correlates of obesity in young black and white women: the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, G L; Savage, P J; Manolio, T A; Sprafka, J M; Wagenknecht, L E; Sidney, S; Perkins, L L; Liu, K; Jacobs, D R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Although differences in obesity between Blacks and Whites are well documented in adult women, less information is available on potential correlates of these differences, especially in young adults. METHODS. The association between behavioral and demographic factors and body size was assessed in 2801 Black and White women aged 18 to 30 years. RESULTS. Black women had significantly higher age-adjusted mean body mass index and subscapular skinfold thickness than did White women. Obesity had different associations with age and education across racial groups. A positive relationship between age and obesity was seen in Black women but not in White women, whereas a negative association between education and body size was noted only in White women. Potential contributing factors to the increased prevalence of obesity in Black women include a more sedentary lifestyle, higher energy intake, earlier menarche, and earlier age at first childbirth. CONCLUSIONS. The difference in obesity across race could not be explained completely by these factors, since within virtually all strata, Black women had higher body mass indexes. Further investigation is needed to develop interventional strategies to prevent or reduce excess levels of obesity in Black women. PMID:1456336

  2. Development of Sexual Orientation among Adolescent and Young Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Interviewed 16- to 23-year-old non-heterosexual women regarding development of their sexual orientation. Found that a majority failed to report at least one of following: childhood sexual orientation indicators, stability in same-sex attractions, or awareness of same-sex attractions prior to conscious sexual questioning. Lesbians reported greater…

  3. Residence Exposure and Fertility Expectations of Young Mormon and Non-Mormon Women in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toney, Michael B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared fertility expectations of young non-Mormon females living in Utah (2.4 children) with those of young Mormon females in Utah (4.4 children). Findings suggest that residence in a high fertility area per se does not affect fertility and that Mormon/non-Mormon fertility differences are likely to persist into the foreseeable future. (BH)

  4. Papillary thyroid cancer in a young woman affected by giant congenital melanocytic nevus, ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, L; Onesti, M G; Sergi, M E; Vinci, V; Maruccia, M; Soda, G; Marini, M

    2011-01-01

    Data literatures report numerous association between giant congenital nevus and development alteration; only two cases describe its coexistence with thyroid disorders. However, we report the association of papillary thyroid cancer and giant congenital nevus. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common differentiated thyroid cancer and has high prevalence in young women. In this paper we report: the case of a 18 years-old woman, affected by giant congenital melanocytic nevus on her back, who came to our observation because of one month of fever and increased volume of latero-cervical lymph nodes. Negative serologic tests allowed us to exclude lymphoma and mononucleosis. Because of the high risk (6%) that giant congenital melanocytic nevi could transform into malignant melanoma, we performed an ultrasound examination (US) of the cervical lymph nodes. The examination extended to the thyroid gland enabled us to visualize the same parenchyma alteration in both thyroid gland and lymph nodes. At last, fine-needle percoutaneus aspiration on thyroid lesion confirmed the presence of papillary carcinoma. In our case, thank to the optimal visualization of the parenchyma structure, US was diriment allowing a diagnosis of primitive thyroid lesion with an involvement of all lymph nodes in the neck. This findings legitimate the role of US as an accurate, noninvasive, radiation free and low-cost imaging technique in detecting differential diagnosis in the cervical lymphadenopathy, as well in preoperative staging thyroid carcinoma. PMID:22041799

  5. Norms Affecting Self-Disclosure in Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Chaikin, Alan L.

    1976-01-01

    It was predicted that attributions of mental illness would be based on the extent to which self-disclosure deviates from appropriate sex role behavior for men and women with self-disclosure perceived as appropriate for women and inappropriate for men. The findings supported the hypotheses. (Author/NG)

  6. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows signs of ... alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an ... disease, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in which infants born to mothers who ...

  7. Mental health issues affecting homeless women: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Buckner, J C; Bassuk, E L; Zima, B T

    1993-07-01

    A review of the relevant literature is followed by an exploration of the complex relationship, especially for women, between homelessness and mental health. Various mental health and gender-related concerns that have implications for the design of interventions for homeless women are explored. PMID:8372905

  8. 76 FR 47590 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  9. 76 FR 787 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  10. 77 FR 16232 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  11. Resources for Ensuring Quality School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wider Opportunities for Women, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography lists 49 resources for ensuring high quality school-to-work opportunities for young women. These resources are grouped into 10 categories: print material for middle and high school girls; videos for middle and high school girls; administrator/school guides; curriculum guides/resources for teachers; resources for…

  12. The Self-Injury Experiences of Young Adult Women: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Milliken, Tammi F.

    2010-01-01

    Many counselors lack a clear understanding of the phenomenon of self-injury. This article presents results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of young adult women who engage in self-injurious behaviors. Interpretation of the participants' narrative data offers insight into the value of a humanistic approach to counseling this…

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Autonomy and Engagement for Young Women of Color in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale; Sellars-Mulhern, Precious; Jones, Cynthia; Trinidad, America; Pierre-Louis, Joanne; Okomba, Adhiambo

    2014-01-01

    Given the nationwide concern about college persistence and graduation rates, this article reviews pertinent literature related to autonomous learning as well as social and academic engagement. It also presents findings of a qualitative study of young community college women of color, an understudied population. The article, part of a larger…

  14. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  15. "Two's up and Poncing Fags": Young Women's Smoking Practices, Reciprocity and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Fin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade much has been written by journalists, policy makers, and academics, about young women's leisure time pursuits. A great deal of this interest has focused around a concern that teenage girls in the UK are taking up smoking in larger numbers than their male peers. This paper draws on findings from my small-scale doctoral research…

  16. Non-Traditional School-to-Work Opportunities for Young Women. Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School-to-Work Opportunities Office, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin presents an overview of strategies that practitioners identify as methods of increasing young women's access to and success in school-to-work programs in nontraditional occupations. These strategies are discussed: outreach to female students; career information and advising; training for teachers and counselors; math and science…

  17. Effects of Successful Female Role Models on Young Women's Attitudes toward Traditionally Male Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    A study was conducted to examine the effects on young women of reading about nontraditional role models in the sciences and engineering, and discussing various aspects of participating in science and engineering careers with a trained instructor. Subjects for the study were 153 female students enrolled in advanced, elective science courses (10th…

  18. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  19. Home Journeys: Im/mobilities in Young Refugee and Asylum-Seeking Women's Negotiations of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirriyeh, Ala

    2010-01-01

    Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…

  20. Understanding and responding to HIV risk in youngSouth African women: Clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dellar, R; Karim, Q Abdool

    2015-11-01

    Young women (15-24 years) contribute a disproportionate 24% to all new HIV infections in South Africa – more than four times that of their male peers. HIV risk in young women is driven by amplifying cycles of social, behavioural and biological vulnerability. Those most likely to acquire infection are typically from socioeconomically deprived households in high HIV-prevalence communities, have limited or no schooling, engage in transactional sex or other high-risk coping behaviours, and have a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)and/or pregnancy. Despite the imperative to prevent HIV acquisition in young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to do so. However, there are several steps that healthcare workers can take to improve outcomes for this key population at the individual level.These include being able to identify high HIV-risk young women, ensuring that they receive the maximum social support they are eligible for, providing reliable and non-judgemental counselling on sexual and reproductive health and relationships, delivering contraceptives and screening and treating STIs in the context of accessible, youth-friendly services. PMID:26937509

  1. Diaspora Literacies: An Exploration of What Reading Means to Young African Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This research study explored two young African immigrant women English learners' perspectives on reading, and literacy more broadly, in relation to motivation and identity during a year-long qualitative study at a large, urban high school in the U.S. southeast. Data were collected through interviews and observations that focused on reading…

  2. "Too Pretty to Do Math!" Young Women in Movement and Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The article points out some pedagogical challenges in supporting girls and young women in their emancipatory movements today. It spotlights a specific section in gender pedagogy by focusing on the aim of self-determination (rather than achievement) in the field of social-pedagogy and it refers to the concept of "girls work" in Germany. A critical…

  3. Teaching Cooking Skills to Young Women with Mild Intellectual Disability: The Effectiveness of Internet Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Hanadi Hussein; Schoenfeld, Naomi A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using streaming video websites to improve, maintain, and generalize the cooking (meal-making) skills of four young women (18-22 years old) diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. A pre-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based multimedia…

  4. Ideas for Action: Helping Girls and Young Women in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara K.

    This idea book is a resource to help individuals focus their good will and energy on helping girls and young women in their communities. After a brief introduction to each of seven advocacy strategies, ideas for action are listed under each. The first advocacy strategy focuses on organizing your community for action. Ideas for action include…

  5. Keep Calm and Contracept! Addressing Young Women's Pleasure in Sexual Health and Contraception Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanbury, Ali; Eastham, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical sexual health consultations with young women often focus on avoiding "risks;" namely pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission. They also typically fail to explore how contraception use can impact on the capacity to enjoy sexual relationships. In contrast, this paper argues that sexual pleasure should be a…

  6. 77 FR 22788 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women (ACBCYW); Correction Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on March...

  7. "Making a Way": Young Women Using Literacy and Language to Resist the Politics of Silencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly K.

    2007-01-01

    Urban public schools are often contexts in which students are beset with silencing, surveillance, and low expectations. These conditions present distinct and critical challenges to young women. This article explores the language and literacy practices that emerged in an in-school elective writing and photography course designed with and for young…

  8. Evaluation of the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720

  9. Nutritional Intervention in Young Women with Eating Disorders: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…

  10. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  11. Young Women's Career and Educational Development through Extracurricular Activity Participation: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkerson, Annette H.

    The effects of participation in extracurricular activities on young women's career and educational development were examined. A constant comparative method was used to analyze the open-ended responses to questionnaires completed by 156 high school girls and the transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 5 female college freshmen and 2 young…

  12. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  13. "Working Harder to Be the Same": Everyday Racism among Young Men and Women in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Despite Sweden's international reputation for human rights and democratic values, racism within Swedish schools is a relatively new issue, emerging only with the increased ethnic diversity of Swedish schools in recent years. This paper is thus one of the first Swedish interview studies on the perceptions of young men and women in Sweden from both…

  14. Shifting Selves: The Struggle for Identity and Spirituality in the Work of Three Young Women Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Kathleen; Mudge, Peter; Johnston, Jay

    2007-01-01

    This essay looks at contemporary art works produced by three young women who took part in a research project that was exploring the spiritual meanings of art in the lives of adolescents. Nineteen students were interviewed and we asked them to tell us about their art works which we then analysed in relation to a set of descriptors that we developed…

  15. Relationships and Betrayal among Young Women: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescent Dating Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Candace W.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H.; Rehm, Roberta S.; Humphreys, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this paper presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. BACKGROUND Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists within nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. DATA SOURCES A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. DISCUSSION Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING Gender, relationship, and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. CONCLUSION Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. PMID:21261691

  16. What Makes Young Women More Resilient? Leadership, Work, Independence and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what variables from the home and the high school may be related to a student having a high resilience score. The participants for the current research were all young women who attended the same all-girls, Catholic high school in the Midwest and were alumnae of the school. Resilience is defined as the…

  17. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  18. Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Osteoporosis Prevention Intervention in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…

  19. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. PMID:25604971

  20. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  1. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  2. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The mean age at conception…

  3. Does sexual coercion play a role in the high-risk sexual behavior of adolescent and young adult women?

    PubMed

    Biglan, A; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Smolkowski, K; Metzler, C

    1995-12-01

    Sexual coercion and its relationship to high-risk sexual behavior were examined in five samples of young women. Sample 1 (N = 22) consisted of sexually active adolescents aged 15 to 19. Samples 2 (N = 206) and 3 (N = 70) were recruited from among patients at three sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sample 4 (N = 51) consisted of young homeless women living on the street in a large city. Sample 5 (N = 51) was recruited from among young women on a college campus. Across all samples, 44.4% of women indicated that they had been forced into some form of sexual activity against their will. Self-reports of sexually coercive experiences were consistently related to risky sexual behavior. It appears that many young women are coerced into engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. This implies the need for greater attention to male coercive sexual behavior and women's skills for coping with such behavior. PMID:8749985

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400

  6. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors. PMID:24563680

  7. Rethinking HIV prevention to prepare for oral PrEP implementation for young African women

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral Pr

  8. Validation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale among Qatari young women.

    PubMed

    Crandall, A; Rahim, H F Abdul; Yount, K M

    2016-12-01

    The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) is a measure of people's beliefs about their capacity to cope with life's demands. Self-efficacy may be particularly relevant in transitional stages such as in late adolescence, when young people make decisions that will impact their adult lives. In the present study, we aimed to validate an Arabic version of GSES among 355 Qatari young women aged 18+ years and finishing their final year of high school. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess the scale dimensionality. The final model fit was adequate (root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, comparative fit index = 1.00, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.99), confirming a unidimensional self-efficacy measure. The Qatari Standard Arabic GSES is a reliable tool for measuring general self-efficacy among young Qatari women. PMID:26996362

  9. Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to

  10. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  11. Personality Profile of Women Affected with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Hamid; Abedi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Ameli, Sedigheh Sadr; Samouei, Rahele

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study is to review the psychological profile of female patients with borderline personality disorder in the women referring to the Centers of Counseling and Psychological Services at Isfahan city based on MMPI-2 test and comparing them with ordinary women. Method: The present study is of the type of cause-comparative and the selection of examinees was done in form of random sampling with 50 women with the BPD and 50 ordinary women and through confirmation of test recognition of MCMI-III and clinical interviews. In addition, 370 questions of MMPI-2 have also been implemented. Results: The results of this research showed a significant difference in validity of scales and the clinical scales of MMPI-2 test among women with BPD and regular women. The results of MANOVA test with the power of valuable test confirmed the existing differences. Conclusion: The obtained results shows that female patients with BPD has a specific and different psychological profile as compared with ordinary (regular) women and the obtained profile can be used in recognition and forecasting any disorder. PMID:23687463

  12. Social discrimination, stress, and risk of unintended pregnancy among young women

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Gatny, Heather; Barber, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prior research linking young women’s mental health to family planning outcomes has often failed to consider their social circumstances and the intersecting biosocial mechanisms that shape stress and depression as well as reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood. We extend our previous work to investigate relationships between social discrimination, stress and depression symptoms, and unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women. Methods Data were drawn from 794 women 18–20 years in a longitudinal cohort study. Baseline and weekly surveys assessed psychosocial information including discrimination (EDS), stress (PSS), depression (CES-D), and reproductive outcomes. Multi-level, mixed-effects logistic regression and discrete-time hazard models estimated associations between discrimination, mental health, and pregnancy. Baron and Kenny’s method was used to test mediation effects of stress and depression on discrimination and pregnancy. Results The mean discrimination score was 19/45 points; 20% reported moderate/high discrimination. Discrimination scores were higher among women with stress and depression symptoms versus those without symptoms (21 versus 18 points for both, p’s<0.001). Pregnancy rates (14% overall) were higher among women with moderate/high (23%) versus low (11%) discrimination (p<0.001). Discrimination was associated with stress (aRR 2.2, 95%CI 1.4,3.4), depression (aRR 2.4, CI 1.5,3.7), and subsequent pregnancy (aRR 1.8, CI 1.1,3.0). Stress and depression symptoms did not mediate discrimination’s effect on pregnancy. Conclusions Discrimination was associated with an increased risk of mental health symptoms and unintended pregnancy among these young women. The interactive social and biological influences on reproductive outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood warrant further study. PMID:25586228

  13. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  14. Reproductive health characteristics of young Malawian women seeking post-abortion care.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R

    2012-06-01

    Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557

  15. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption. PMID:23563376

  16. Prolonged Sleep Restriction Affects Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Hublin, Christer; Sallinen, Mikael; Härmä, Mikko; Hirvonen, Ari; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the effects of sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep on glucose homeostasis, serum leptin levels, and feelings of subjective satiety. Twenty-three healthy young men were allocated to a control group (CON) or an experimental (EXP) group. After two nights of 8 h in bed (baseline, BL), EXP spent 4 h in bed for five days (sleep restriction, SR), followed by two nights of 8 h (recovery, REC). CON spent 8 h in bed throughout the study. Blood samples were taken after the BL, SR, and REC period. In EXP, insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio increased after SR. IGF-1 levels increased after REC. Leptin levels were elevated after both SR and REC; subjective satiety remained unaffected. No changes were observed in CON. The observed increase of serum IGF-1 and insulin-to-glucose ratio indicates that sleep restriction may result in an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes. PMID:20414467

  17. Avoiding Unwanted Pregnancy-The Role of Communication, Information and Knowledge in the Use of Contraception among Young Norwegian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundby, Johanne; Svanemyr, Joar; Maehre, Tale

    1999-01-01

    Study identified early entry points to sexuality, contraception, abortion, and post-abortion counseling. Young women (N=102) seeking an abortion or contraceptives were interviewed. Results showed there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive…

  18. Young Women's Knowledge and Beliefs about Osteoporosis: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of College Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Mark J.; Garber, Michele; Walsdorf, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Background: About 40% of White American women over age 50 experience osteoporosis-related fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist during their lives. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among young women. Methods: University women (n=302) completed a self-administered osteoporosis risk…

  19. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  20. A pilot of a tripartite prevention program for homeless young women in the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Dionne; Gilbert, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Background Among young women who are impoverished and homeless, the transition to adulthood (ages 18 through 25) is associated with alcohol and drug (AOD) use, risky sexual activity, and increased risk of being victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods “The Power of YOU”, a program using motivational interviewing, was designed to address these problems. We tested the “Power of YOU” with 31 homeless women (ages 18 - 25) in seven focus groups. Women completed questionnaires assessing background characteristics and satisfaction at the end of each group. Each group was followed by a feedback session which was audiorecorded and transcribed. Key themes were identified. Results During a past-6 month period, 38.7% of women reported alcohol intoxication, 19.3% reported two to three male sex partners, and 22.2% reported major physical violence from a partner. Women expressed satisfaction and provided consistently positive feedback on the intervention, reporting, for example, that it was “helpful to know how to put a condom on” and that they appreciated the attention paid to safety planning. Conclusions Results from this pilot suggest that “The Power of YOU” may hold promise in helping homeless young women in the transition to adulthood make healthier choices and plan and prepare for high risk situations, and that the non-confrontational, non-judgmental approach of motivational interviewing appeared appropriate for this population. PMID:19345588

  1. Physical attractiveness, attitudes toward career, and mate preferences among young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Teng, Fei; Chan, Darius K-S; Zhang, Denghao

    2014-01-01

    We examined young Chinese women's mate preferences as a function of their self-perceived attractiveness and career attitudes. A total of 264 young Chinese women rated their own attractiveness, reported their attitudes toward career, and rated the importance of 20 mate characteristics. The characteristics encompassed four facets that individuals typically consider when seeking a long-term mate: good-genes indicators, good investment ability indicators, good parenting indicators, and good partner indicators. We found that both self-perceived attractiveness and attitudes toward career were positively associated with the importance attached to several of the characteristics. Moreover, women who had high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to intelligence, ambition, and industriousness than women who had low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness; women with low career focus but high self-perceived attractiveness attached more value to physical attractiveness in a mate than women with high career focus but low self-perceived attractiveness. We discussed the limitations of our research and directions for future research. PMID:24525338

  2. Unsafe abortion differentials in 2008 by age and developing country region: high burden among young women.

    PubMed

    Shah, Iqbal H; Ahman, Elisabeth

    2012-06-01

    Each year, nearly 22 million women worldwide have an unsafe abortion, almost all of which occur in developing countries. This paper estimates the incidence and rates of unsafe abortion by five-year age groups among women aged 15-44 years in developing country regions in 2008. Forty-one per cent of unsafe abortions in developing regions are among young women aged 15-24 years, 15% among those aged 15-19 years and 26% among those aged 20-24 years. Among the 3.2 million unsafe abortions in young women 15-19 years old, almost 50% are in the Africa region. 22% of all unsafe abortions in Africa compared to 11% of those in Asia (excluding Eastern Asia) and 16% of those in Latin America and the Caribbean are among adolescents aged 15-19 years. The number of adolescent women globally is approaching 300 million. Adolescents suffer the most from the negative consequences of unsafe abortion. Efforts are urgently needed to provide contraceptive information and services to adolescents, who have a high unmet need for family planning, and to women of all ages, with interventions tailored by age group. Efforts to make abortion safe in developing countries are also urgently needed. PMID:22789095

  3. Religiosity, denomination, and mental health among young men and women.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L C; Jensen, J; Wiederhold, T

    1993-06-01

    The relations among religiosity, denomination, and mental health were studied. Comparisons of groups high, medium, and low in religiosity were made possible by extracting data from a large data set for three denominational groups and gender in a three-way analysis of variance design. There were significant main effects, with higher scores on three mental health measures for high religious groups, Mormons, and men. There were interactions resulting from highly religious Mormon women, but not highly religious Mormon men scoring higher. The three scores were self-esteem, emotional maturity, and nondepression. PMID:8337319

  4. Iron and zinc nutriture affect cognition of premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell. L.S.; Sandstead, H.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Effects of changes in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) status on cognition of premenopausal women were studied. Research in animals and humans shows that Fe and Zn influence brain function. Effects of mild Fe or Zn deficiencies on cognition of women have received limited attention. Therefore, using a double-blind randomized controlled treatment design the authors supplemented 34 sideropenic non-anemic women, ages 18-40 years, with micronutrients plus Fe, Zn, Fe+Zn, or micronutrients only. The micronutrient supplement was based on NRC guidelines. Eleven nonsideropenic women were also given the micronutrient supplement. Subjects were examined with the Weschler Memory Quotient (MQ) and Booklets Categories (BC) tests before and after treatment. After 8 weeks, significant improvement in MQ was displayed by the Fe, Zn and Fe+Zn groups, but no improvement occurred in the sideropenic subjects who were given only micronutrients. The nonsideropenic group displayed improved MQ when given only micronutrients. In contrast, all but the Fe group improved with the BC Test. The findings suggest that Fe and Zn repletion of sideropenic women improved certain cognitive functions of the women.

  5. Psychiatric Diagnoses and Comorbidities in a Diverse, Multicity Cohort of Young Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie B.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Kuhns, Lisa; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Garofalo, Robert; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Transgender youth, including adolescent and young adult transgender women assigned a male sex at birth who identify as girls, women, transgender women, transfemale, male-to-female, or another diverse transfeminine gender identity, represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health and substance use outcomes. Diagnostic clinical interviews to assess prevalence of mental health, substance dependence, and comorbid psychiatric disorders in young transgender women remain scarce. OBJECTIVE To report the prevalence of mental health, substance dependence, and comorbid psychiatric disorders assessed via clinical diagnostic interview in a high-risk community-recruited sample of young transgender women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study reporting baseline finding from a diverse sample of 298 sexually active, young transgender women aged 16 through 29 years (mean age, 23.4 years; 49.0%black, 12.4%Latina, 25.5%white, and 13.1%other minority race/ethnicity) and enrolled in Project LifeSkills, an ongoing randomized controlled HIV prevention intervention efficacy trial in Chicago and Boston, between 2012 and 2015. EXPOSURE Transfeminine gender identity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and site-adjusted prevalence and comorbidities of mental health and substance dependence disorders assessed via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, including 1 or more diagnoses, 2 or more comorbid diagnoses, major depressive episode (current and lifetime), past 30-day suicidal risk (no/low risk vs moderate/high risk), past 6-month generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and past 12-month alcohol dependence and nonalcohol psychoactive substance use dependence. RESULTS Of the 298 transgender women, 41.5%of participants had 1 or more mental health or substance dependence diagnoses; 1 in 5 (20.1%) had 2 or more comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Prevalence of specific disorders was as follows: lifetime and current major

  6. Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their relationships, and the implications of these negotiations for the HIV epidemic. Method An ethnographic research design was used, with information collected primarily using participant observation and in-depth interviews in a rural community in North Western Tanzania. The qualitative approach was complemented by an innovative assisted self-completion questionnaire. Findings Transactional sex underlay most non-marital relationships and was not, per se, perceived as immoral. However, women's motivations varied, for instance: escaping intense poverty, seeking beauty products or accumulating business capital. There was also strong pressure from peers to engage in transactional sex, in particular to consume like others and avoid ridicule for inadequate remuneration. Macro-level factors shaping transactional sex (e.g. economic, kinship and normative factors) overwhelmingly benefited men, but at a micro-level there were different dimensions of power, stemming from individual attributes and immediate circumstances, some of which benefited women. Young women actively used their sexuality as an economic resource, often entering into relationships primarily for economic gain. Conclusion Transactional sex is likely to increase the risk of HIV by providing a dynamic for partner change, making more affluent, higher risk men more desirable, and creating further barriers to condom use. Behavioural interventions should directly address how embedded transactional sex is in sexual culture. PMID:20429913

  7. Interactions between risky decisions, impulsiveness and smoking in young tattooed women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to previous studies, one of the common problems of everyday life of persons with tattoos is risky behavior. However, direct examination of the decision making process, as well as factors which determine women’s risk-taking decisions to get tattoos, have not been conducted. This study investigates whether risk taking decision-making is associated with the self-assessment impulsiveness in tattooed women. Methods Young women (aged 18–35 years) with (N = 60) and without (N = 60) tattoos, performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as a measure of decision-making processes, as well as completing the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Results Tattooed women showed significantly higher scores in the BIS-11 and preference for disadvantageous decks on the IGT compared to non-tattooed women. There was no significant correlation between risky decision-making in the IGT and BIS-11 impulsivity measures. A significantly higher rate of smoking was observed in the tattooed women. However, the analysis did not reveal a group effect after adjustment for smoking in the IGT and the BIS-11 measures. Conclusions The present study was specifically designed to resolve questions regarding associations between impulsiveness and risky decision-making in tattooed women. It shows that in tattooed women, risky decisions are not a direct result of their self-reported impulsiveness. Smoking does not explain the psychometric differences between tattooed women and controls. PMID:24180254

  8. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  9. Knowledge of obstetric fistula prevention amongst young women in urban and rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Kouraogo, Salam F; Siribie, Aboubacar; Taddese, Henock B; Mueller, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is a sequela of complicated labour, which, if untreated, leaves women handicapped and socially excluded. In Burkina Faso, incidence of obstetric fistula is 6/10,000 cases amongst gynaecological patients, with more patients affected in rural areas. This study aims to evaluate knowledge on obstetric fistula among young women in a health district of Burkina Faso, comparing rural and urban communities. This cross-sectional study employed multi-stage sampling to include 121 women aged 18-20 years residing in urban and rural communities of Boromo health district. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare differences between the groups and to identify predictors of observed knowledge levels. Rural women were more likely to be married (p<0.000) and had higher propensity to teenage pregnancy (p=0.006). The survey showed overall poor obstetric fistula awareness (36%). Rural residents were less likely to have adequate preventive knowledge than urban residents [OR=0.35 (95%-CI, 0.16-0.79)]. This effect was only slightly explained by lack of education [OR=0.41 (95%-CI, 0.18-0.93)] and only slightly underestimated due to previous pregnancy [OR=0.27 (95%-CI, 0.09-0.79)]. Media were the most popular source of awareness amongst urban young women in contrast to their rural counterparts (68% vs. 23%). Most rural young women became 'aware' through word-of-mouth (68% vs. 14%). All participants agreed that the hospital was safer for emergency obstetric care, but only 11.0% believed they could face pregnancy complications that would require emergency treatment. There is urgent need to increase emphasis on neglected health messages such as the risks of obstetric fistula. In this respect, obstetric fistula prevention programs need to be adapted to local contexts, whether urban or rural, and multi-sectoral efforts need to be exerted to maximise use of other sectoral resources and platforms, including existing routine health

  10. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    PubMed

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p < 0.01), comparable improvements in affect emerged after RE. Additionally, the SS condition was associated with the highest ratings of self-efficacy and intention for future RE participation (p < 0.01), but affective responses to acute RE were unrelated to self-efficacy or intention. It is concluded that acute bouts of SS and imposed load RE resulted in comparable improvements in affect; recreationally trained women reported the highest self-efficacy and intention to use the load chosen in SS condition in their own resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training. PMID:26506060

  11. Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Abigail; Colvin, Christopher J.; Kuo, Caroline; Swartz, Alison; Lurie, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 percent in South Africa, 23 percent in Botswana, 23 percent in Lesotho and 26.5 percent in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral and structural factors associated with young women's disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships, and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region's history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched social and economic inequalities. New interventions are emerging to address these high levels of HIV risk in the key population of young women, including structural interventions, biomedical prevention such as PrEP, and combined HIV prevention approaches. PMID:25855338

  12. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  13. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers. PMID:22695085

  14. The effect of dietary restriction and menstrual cycle on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in young women.

    PubMed

    Fukuba, Y; Yano, Y; Murakami, H; Kan, A; Miura, A

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute dietary restriction on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in young women at two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Five young sedentary women (age 21-22 years) participated in this study. Each subject visited the laboratory eight times for measurement of EPOC. They performed cycle ergometer exercise for 60 min at a work rate corresponding to approximately 70% of VO2max under each four different conditions (i.e. standard diet/follicular phase (SF), standard diet/luteal phase (SL), restricted diet/follicular phase (RF) and restricted diet/luteal phase (RL)). The exercise was performed in the morning and VO2 was measured for the last 15 min of each hour for 7 h after the exercise. As a control, VO2 was also measured with an identical time schedule under the same four conditions but without exercise. EPOC was calculated as the difference of the VO2-time integral for 7 h between the exercise and control trial days in each of the four conditions (i.e. SL, SF, RL and RF). The diet was precisely controlled during 2 days (i.e. the test day and the day preceding it). The standard diet was 1600 kcal day-1 and the restricted diet was half of the standard diet. A two-way (dietary and menstrual cycle factors) ANOVA indicated that EPOC was significantly affected only by the dietary factor. The dietary restriction decreased EPOC compared to the standard dietary condition (SF 8.6 +/- 2.1, RF 5.3 +/- 1.6, SL 8.9 +/- 4.8, RL 4.0 +/- 1.2 l). These data indicate that for young sedentary women, EPOC is significantly lowered by prior acute dietary restriction but is not influenced by different phases of the menstrual cycle. PMID:10735985

  15. Economic empowerment and reproductive behaviour of young women in Osun state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odutolu, Oluwole; Adedimeji, Adebola; Odutolu, Omobola; Baruwa, Olatunde; Olatidoye, Funmilayo

    2003-12-01

    Women are increasingly being recognised as equal partners in development. However, there is a growing awareness that negative health, social and economic consequences act as barriers in their efforts to contribute to sustainable development. Consequently, to fully harness the potentials of women in this regard, these barriers have to be addressed. This paper utilises qualitative data collected as part of an intervention programme designed to increase access to reproductive health information/services and economic resources among young women in Osogbo, Nigeria. The aim was to provide reproductive health information and training in basic business skills and micro-credit facilities to enable beneficiaries to establish private businesses. Findings from the study highlight the importance of the relationship between female education, access to economic resources as a means of furthering empowerment of women especially in terms of their reproductive behaviour. The paper argues that increased access to resources is a major factor toward ensuring the much desired empowerment. PMID:15055152

  16. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ≤45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  17. Physical fitness of young women: carrying simulated patients.

    PubMed

    von Restorff, W

    2000-06-01

    An evaluation of physical fitness prior to employment appears to be mandatory for several occupations in order to protect the employee from overburdening and the employer from placing excess demands on the employee. One such occupation seems to be that of the field medical specialist who needs special physical strength since terrain conditions deny wheel-assisted transport of stretcher patients. The anthropometric and isometric force data of a total of 62 female and 48 male recruits for the medical service of the Bundeswehr were evaluated, together with their ability to carry a patient on a stretcher (weight = 14 kg) within a gymnasium. Initially the 'casualties' were simulated by sandbags weighing 60, 70, 80 and 90 kg each on stretchers; subsequently equivalent-weight water cans were used. The tests were administered at the beginning and at the end of the general Basic Military Training (BMT). While all males were able to carry the simulated 90 kg patient, only 22 out of 62 female recruits were able to do so at the beginning of BMT. At the end, the number had improved to 29 out of 55 women soldiers completing training. At the beginning of BMT 22.5% of the women soldiers were unable to rescue a simulated 70 kg patient; at the end of BMT the number had fallen to 18%. The isometric force values as measured revealed the hand grip strength as the best predictor for the capacity to carry simulated 90 kg patients. It is, therefore, suggested that a hand strength test be administered prior to field medical specialist training in order to channel unsuitable candidates into other training schemes. PMID:10902883

  18. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predicts Intimate Partner Victimization in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Maya D; Ahmad, Shaikh; Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with interpersonal dysfunction during childhood and adolescence, yet little is known about the romantic relationships of young women with childhood ADHD. In the present study, we draw from a longitudinal sample of girls followed prospectively into young adulthood, comparing those with (n = 114) and without (n = 79; comparisons) childhood ADHD in terms of their risk for physical victimization by an intimate partner (physical IPV; e.g., slapping, punching) by 17-24 years of age. We examined ADHD both diagnostically and dimensionally, at the same time establishing reliable indicators of young adult physical IPV. Externalizing and internalizing problems, and academic achievement during adolescence, were tested as potential mediators. Overall, participants with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD experienced more physical IPV than did comparisons (30.7% vs. 6.3%). In parallel, IPV was associated with higher levels of childhood ADHD symptomatology (d = 0.73). Young women with persistent ADHD stood the highest risk of experiencing IPV (37.3%), followed by those with transient ADHD (19.0%) and those never-diagnosed (5.9%). Academic achievement measured during adolescence was a significant partial mediator of the childhood ADHD symptomatology-young adult IPV relationship, even with control of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and cognitive factors, including childhood reading and math disorders. Findings indicate that in young women, childhood ADHD is a specific and important predictor of physically violent victimization in their intimate relationships. This vulnerable population requires IPV prevention and intervention, with academic empowerment as a key target. PMID:25663589

  19. Impact of binge eating on metabolic and leptin dynamics in normal young women.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A E; Hubbard, J; Anderson, E J

    1999-02-01

    Well defined eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia are associated with significant known health risks. Although binge eating behavior is increased in unsuccessfully dieting obese women, other health implications of this common eating pattern are unknown. We hypothesized that ingestion of an entire day's calories at one time in the evening, a common eating practice among Americans, would lead to disruptions in glucose, insulin, and leptin metabolism and in menstrual cyclicity, even in healthy young women. Seven lean women without a history of eating disorders were studied on two occasions separated by one or two menstrual cycles. During one admission, they ate three regular meals plus a snack on each of 3 days. On the other admission, they ate the same number of calories, macronutrient matched to the normal diet, in a single evening meal. Glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured frequently for 12-14 h beginning at 0800 h on the third day of each diet, and an insulin tolerance test was performed while the subjects were fasting on the fourth day. Daily blood samples were obtained until ovulation was documented to assess any impact on menstrual function. Ingestion of an entire day's calories at dinner resulted in a significant increase in fasting glucose levels and a dramatic increase in insulin responses to the evening meal. The diurnal pattern of leptin secretion was altered, such that the gradual rise in leptin from 0800 h observed during the normal diet was abolished, and leptin did not begin to rise during the binge diet until at least 2 h after the evening meal. No changes were demonstrated in insulin sensitivity, follicular growth, or ovulation between the two diets. We conclude that 1) ingestion of a large number of calories at one time (binge eating) impacts metabolic parameters even when total calories and macronutrients are appropriate for weight; 2) the timing of energy intake is an independent determinant of the diurnal rhythm of leptin

  20. Increasing condom use: evaluation of a theory-based intervention to prevent sexually transmitted diseases in young women.

    PubMed

    Bryan, A D; Aiken, L S; West, S G

    1996-09-01

    A multicomponent intervention to increase condom use in sexually active young women was designed, implemented, and evaluated in a randomized experiment. Participants were 198 unmarried female college students (mean age = 18.6 years) who received a 1-session condom promotion intervention or a control (stress management) intervention. The condom promotion intervention led to increased self-reported condom use up to 6 months following intervention as well as positive changes in perceived benefits of condom use, affective attitudes toward condom use and condom users, perceived acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, perceived self-efficacy for condom use, and intentions to use condoms. Mediational analysis illustrated the mechanisms of the condom promotion intervention effects, linking psychological constructs affected by the intervention (perceived benefits, acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, attitudes toward condoms, and self-efficacy for condom use) to condom use intentions. PMID:8891716

  1. 'She met her (boy)friend online': Negotiating gender identity and sexuality among young Thai women in online space.

    PubMed

    Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Ojanen, Timo T; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Iamsilpa, Rachawadee; Topananan, Soifa; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the experiences of women 15-24 years old living in one suburban district in Bangkok. Its objectives are to analyse processes of building and negotiating social identity and femininity in online spaces by young women; the ways in which young women express their sexuality using online technologies; connections between the 'online' and 'offline' worlds in terms of emotions as well as social and sexual networks; and traditional values regarding female sexuality reproduced through online media and how young women negotiate and resist these. Content and narrative analyses were conducted using qualitative data from 9 focus-group discussions and 14 narrative interviews. Findings indicated that the online media serve as tools that help young women develop and express their gender identities. Mobile phones and the Internet facilitate communication in order to express love, responsibility, intimacy and sexual desires. Discourse on women's chastity, which puts pressure on women to maintain their virginity, still influences online and mobile contents, messages and images among young women. However, women also exerted agency in negotiating and expressing their sexuality, both online and offline. PMID:23885969

  2. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-05-01

    Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women.Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later.At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%-6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status.Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  3. Relationships Between Weight, Physical Activity, and Back Pain in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Sharmayne R.E.; Hussain, Sultana Monira; Brown, Wendy J.; Heritier, Stephane; Billah, Baki; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Back pain causes enormous financial and disability burden worldwide, which could potentially be reduced by understanding its determinants to develop effective prevention strategies. Our aim was to identify whether modifiable risk factors, weight and physical activity, are predictive of back pain in young adult women. Women born between 1973 and 1978 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, weight, height, age, education status, physical activity, and depression were collected in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. In 2000, 9688 women completed the questionnaire and 83% completed follow-up 12 years later. At baseline, median age was 24.6 years and 41% had self-reported back pain. For every 5 kg higher weight at baseline, there was a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4%–6%) increased risk of back pain over the next 12 years. Higher weight at each survey also predicted back pain risk 3 years later (P < 0.001). The effects of weight on back pain were most significant in those with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and were observed at all levels of physical activity. Inadequate physical activity and depression were independent predictors of back pain over the following 12 years (both P < 0.001), after adjusting for age, weight, height, and education status. Back pain is common in community-based young adult women. Higher weight, inadequate levels of physical activity, and depression were all independent predictors of back pain over the following decade. Furthermore, the adverse effects of weight on back pain were not mitigated by physical activity. Our findings highlight the role of both higher weight and physical inactivity in back pain among young women and suggest potential opportunities for future prevention. PMID:27175634

  4. Bone mineral density in young adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Raizada, Nishant; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is equipoise regarding the status of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), where patients need to be on long-term low-dose steroids. Objective: We aimed to evaluate BMD at the hip, spine and forearm in women with CAH and compare it to healthy young adult women of the same age range. Subjects and Methods: Fifteen adult women with CAH with age ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.5 ± 6.2 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry along with laboratory evaluation. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, forearm along with T-scores were measured. Serum total calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25 hydroxy Vitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were assayed. History of any fractures in the past was taken. Fifteen healthy women in the same age range were taken as controls for comparison. Results: The BMD at hip (0.85 ± 0.02 g/cm2) in CAH was significantly lower as compared with controls (0.92 ± 0.03 g/cm2, P = 0.029). BMD at lumbar spine was also reduced (0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03, P = 0.057). The BMD at forearm was not significantly different between CAH and controls. The mean Vitamin D was 9.8 ng/ml (deficient range). There was no history of fractures in CAH. Conclusion: Young adult CAH women had lower BMD at spine and hip than healthy young adult women of the same age range. The forearm BMD was not different from controls. No change in fracture frequency was present. Patients with CAH being treated with steroids are at increased risk of osteopenia, and their bone health needs to be monitored. PMID:26904470

  5. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  6. Returning to STEM: Gendered Factors Affecting Employability for Mature Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Clem

    2015-01-01

    This paper adds to current discourses around employability by arguing for an explicit recognition of gender, in particular in relation to women's employment in male-dominated sectors such as science, engineering and technology. This is not limited to young first-time graduates but continues and evolves throughout the life course. Mature women…

  7. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use-especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco's Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  8. Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings. PMID:23596649

  9. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Prince, Bridget; Moss, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of the gendered contours of structural, everyday and symbolic violence suggests that young addicted women are particularly vulnerable to the infectious diseases caused by injection drug use—especially hepatitis C. Participant-observation fieldwork among heroin and speed addicts in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury neighborhood reveals that extreme levels of violence against women are normalized in the common sense of street-youth drug culture. Physical, sexual and emotional violence, as well as the pragmatics of income generation, including drug and resource sharing in the moral economy of street addicts, oblige most young homeless women to enter into relationships with older men. These relationships are usually abusive and economically parasitical to the women. Sexual objectification and a patriarchal romantic discourse of love and moral worth leads to the misrecognition of gender power inequities by both the men and women who are embroiled in them, as well as by many of the public services and research projects designed to help or control substance abusers. Despite deep epistemological, theoretical and logistical gulfs between quantitative and qualitative methods, applied public health research and the interventions they inform can benefit from the insights provided by a theoretical and cross-methodological focus on how social power contexts shape the spread of infectious disease and promote disproportional levels of social suffering in vulnerable populations. PMID:16685288

  10. Sleep difficulties and the development of depression and anxiety: a longitudinal study of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Sztendur, Ewa M; Diamond, Neil T; Byles, Julie E; Bruck, Dorothy

    2014-06-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated that poor sleep may precede depression and anxiety. The current study examined the association between self-reported sleeping difficulties and new onset depression and anxiety in young women. A nationally representative sample of 9,683 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health was analyzed. Women were surveyed in 2000 (aged 22 to 25 years), 2003, 2006, and 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between sleeping difficulties in 2000 and new-onset depression (excluding postnatal depression) and anxiety at each subsequent survey. Significant increased risk of new onset depression (odds ratio (OR)=2.6 in 2003; OR=4.4 in 2006; OR=4.4 in 2009) and anxiety (OR=2.4 in 2006; OR=2.9 in 2009) was found at each follow-up survey in women who reported sleeping difficulties "often" in 2000. Further research is needed to uncover the mechanisms underlying the link between sleep problems and mental health. PMID:24647705

  11. Sexual function and depressive symptoms in young women with elevated macroprolactin content: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Okopien, Bogusław

    2016-07-01

    Elevated prolactin levels seem to be associated with impaired sexuality. The clinical significance of macroprolactinemia, associated with the predominance of high molecular mass circulating forms of prolactin, is still poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating sexual function in young women with macroprolactinemia. The study enrolled 14 young women with macroprolactinemia, 14 with increased monomeric prolactin levels, as well as 14 age- and weight-matched healthy women. All patients completed a questionnaire evaluating female sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index-FSFI), as well as a questionnaire assessing the presence and severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition-BDI-II). Apart from total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content, circulating levels of thyrotropin, total testosterone, and 17-β estradiol were also measured. Patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels had a lower total FSFI score, as well as lower scores for all domains: sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, and dyspareunia. These scores correlated with total and monomeric prolactin levels. In turn, women with macroprolactinemia were characterized by a lower score for sexual desire, and only this score correlated with total prolactin levels and macroprolactin content. The total score in the BDI-II questionnaire was higher in patients with hyper- and macroprolactinemia than in the control subjects. Contrary to multidimensional impairment of sexual function in women with elevated monomeric prolactin, macroprolactinemia only seems to disturb sexual desire. PMID:26902871

  12. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  13. Factors Affecting Women's Response Choices to Dating and Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Viken, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, trait disinhibition, alcohol use history, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the contextual features of dating and social events (i.e., sexual activity and alcohol use) on women's response choices to a set of vignettes describing diverse social situations. A total of 170…

  14. Factors affecting young children's use of pronouns as referring expressions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A L; Brooks, P; Tomasello, M

    2000-12-01

    Most studies of children's use of pronouns have focused either on the morphology of personal pronouns or on the anaphoric use of pronouns by older children. The current two studies investigated factors affecting children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions-in contrast with their use of full nouns and null references. In the first study it was found that 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children did not use pronouns differentially whether the adult (a) modeled a pronoun or a noun for the target object or (b) did or did not witness the target event (although there was evidence that they did notice and take account of the adult's witnessing in other ways). In the second study it was found that children of this same age (a) do not use pronouns to avoid unfamiliar or difficult nouns but (b) do use pronouns differently depending on the immediately preceding discourse of the experimenter (whether they were asked a specific question such as "What did X do?" or a general question such as "What happened?"). In the case of specific questions, children prefer to use a null reference but use some pronouns as well (almost never using full nouns); in the case of the generic questions, children use pronouns even more often (and use nouns more as well). This finding was corroborated by some new analyses of children's use of pronouns in specific discourse situations in previously published studies. These findings suggest that children's choice of pronouns as referring expressions in early language development is influenced more by the immediately preceding discourse than other kinds of factors. PMID:11193956

  15. Keep them in school: the importance of education as a protective factor against HIV infection among young South African women

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey E; Levandowski, Brooke A; MacPhail, Catherine; Padian, Nancy S; Cohen, Myron S; Rees, Helen V

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for HIV infection among young women aged 15–24 years reporting one lifetime partner in South Africa. Design In 2003, we conducted a nationally representative household survey of sexual behaviour and HIV testing among 11 904 young people aged 15–24 years in South Africa. This analysis focuses on the subset of sexually experienced young women with only one reported lifetime sex partner (n = 1708). Methods Using the proximate determinants framework and the published literature we identified factors associated with HIV in young women. The associations between these factors and HIV infection were explored in multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the young women, 15% reporting one lifetime partner were HIV positive. In multivariable analyses, young women who had not completed high school were more likely to be infected with HIV compared with those that had completed high school (AOR 3.75; 95% CI 1.34–10.46). Conclusions Young South African women in this population were at high risk of HIV infection despite reporting only having one lifetime partner. Few individual level factors were associated with HIV infection, emphasizing the importance of developing HIV prevention interventions that address structural and partner level risk factors. PMID:18614609

  16. Effects of dieting status and cigarette deprivation on progressive ratio responding for cigarette puffs by young women smokers.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is evidence from self-report measures which suggests that young women dieters find cigarette smoking less rewarding than non-dieters. We aimed to further elucidate differences between dieters and non-dieters in their evaluation of smoking using a behavioural measure of drug reward. Thirty female undergraduates attended two sessions (cigarette deprived and non-deprived). A computer-based progressive ratio operant procedure was employed to assess the amount of effort that participants were willing to expend to gain a puff on a cigarette. The point at which responding ceased was taken as a measure of drug reward (breakpoint). Self-report measures of sensory/hedonic aspects of smoking were also completed. The breakpoints of both dieters and non-dieters were greater under deprived than non-deprived conditions but the breakpoints of dieters were significantly lower than those of the non-dieting smokers under both conditions. Self-reported enjoyment of smoking was lower for dieters than non-dieters and reports for non-dieters but not dieters were affected by deprivation level. Both behavioural and self-report measures of rewarding aspects of smoking suggest that young women dieters find smoking less rewarding than non-dieters, but self-report measures are more resistant to deprivation effects for dieters. This is consistent with the suggestion that subjective and behavioural measures assess different dimensions of the rewarding effects of smoking. PMID:21169394

  17. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  18. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Jody L.; Matthews, Evan L.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (−FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women −FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m2, MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. −FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. −FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. −FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. −FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. −FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with −FH women. PMID:25681430

  19. Sympathetic reactivity in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Jody L; Matthews, Evan L; Wenner, Megan M

    2015-04-15

    Young adults with a family history of hypertension (+FH) have increased risk of developing hypertension. Furthermore, the blood pressure (BP) response to sympathoexcitatory stimuli in young adults can predict the future development of hypertension. Therefore, we hypothesized young women with a +FH would have exaggerated cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivity compared with young women without a family history of hypertension (-FH). Beat-by-beat mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured in 14 women +FH (22 ± 1 yr, 21 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 80 ± 2 mmHg) and 15 women -FH (22 ± 1 yr, 22 ± 1 kg/m(2), MAP 78 ± 2 mmHg) during acute sympathoexcitatory maneuvers: cold pressor test, 2 min of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, and 3 min of postexercise ischemia (PEI; isolated activation of the skeletal muscle metaboreflex). During cold pressor test, the increase in BP was greater in women +FH (ΔMAP: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by an exaggerated increase in MSNA (ΔMSNA: +FH 17 ± 2 vs. -FH 8 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). The increase in BP was greater in +FH during the last minute of HG (ΔMAP: +FH 23 ± 3 vs. -FH 12 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and during PEI (ΔMAP: +FH 17 ± 3 vs. -FH 9 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.05). Similarly, the increase in MSNA was greater in +FH during both HG (ΔMSNA: +FH 12 ± 2 vs. -FH 6 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05) and PEI (ΔMSNA: +FH 16 ± 2 vs. -FH 4 ± 2 burst/min, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that +FH women have greater BP and sympathetic reactivity compared with -FH women. PMID:25681430

  20. Vertebral fracture assessment in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa: a case series.

    PubMed

    Divasta, Amy D; Feldman, Henry A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Rates of vertebral fracture (VF) in young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not well understood. We sought to determine the rates of asymptomatic VF in patients suffering from AN, hypothesizing that VF rates would be higher in subjects with low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores. We recruited young women with AN (n = 80) for participation in a longitudinal trial. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the lateral thoracic and lumbar spines were obtained for VF assessment at 0, 6, 12, and 18 mo. Thirteen subjects (16%) had a low spinal BMD at baseline (BMD Z-score ≤-2 standard deviation). Using the Genant semiquantitative technique, 2 of 80 subjects at baseline (2.5%) had evidence of a single Genant grade 1 deformity. One subject had a Genant grade 2 deformity. Over the 18-mo trial, 10 incident VFs occurred in 9 subjects (12.5%). Using quantitative techniques, only 2 subjects had a more than 15% loss in vertebral height. Neither anthropometric data nor markers of disease severity were associated with fracture. In conclusion, ill young women with AN were at low risk for asymptomatic VF in our cohort. VFs were not predicted by duration of illness, severity of malnutrition, or traditional measures of areal BMD at the lumbar spine. PMID:23562364

  1. Vertebral Fracture Assessment in Adolescents and Young Women with Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of vertebral fracture (VF) for young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not well understood. We sought to determine the rates of asymptomatic VF in patients suffering from AN, hypothesizing that VF rates would be higher in subjects with low BMD Z-scores. We recruited young women with AN (n=80) for participation in a longitudinal trial. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images of the lateral thoracic and lumbar spine were obtained for vertebral fracture assessment at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Thirteen subjects (16%) had a low spinal BMD at baseline (BMD Z-score ≤ –2 SD). Using the Genant semiquantitative technique, 2/80 subjects at baseline (2.5%) had evidence of a single, Genant grade 1 deformity. One subject had a Genant Grade 2 deformity. Over the 18-month trial, 10 incident vertebral fractures occurred in 9 subjects (12.5%). Using quantitative techniques, only two subjects had a >15% loss in vertebral height. Neither anthropometric data nor markers of disease severity were associated with fracture. In conclusion, ill young women with AN were at low risk for asymptomatic VF in our cohort. Vertebral fractures were not predicted by duration of illness, severity of malnutrition, or traditional measures of aBMD at the lumbar spine. PMID:23562364

  2. Proud2Bme: Exploratory research on care and control in young women's online eating disorder narratives.

    PubMed

    Hipple Walters, Bethany; Adams, Samantha; Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Illness narratives have been studied to understand the patient's point of view. These narratives are becoming more prolific, accessible, and specialized, thanks to the improved Internet access and the growth of health-specific online communities. This article analyses illness narratives posted on a Dutch eating disorder website hosted by a treatment centre. Specifically, we look at 'care of the self' and 'control'. The young women wrote about controlling situations with disordered eating as a self-care tool, about being controlled by the disorder and about regaining control over the disorder. The website, with the opportunity for constant, unseen supervision, coercion through comments, and steering through edits and comments, revealed various modalities of control. While issues of control and eating disorders have been explored by others, little work has been done on how the control experienced by the young women (coercion on the individual, the body as the object of control, and the modality of pressure and supervision) interact, how control is presented in stories for a recovery-focused, monitored website, and how the website directs the content. As recovery-focused, therapist-led website is likely to continue growing, understanding how and why young women talk about care and control in the context of such websites is an important topic. PMID:25769694

  3. Adolescents and Young Women's Use of a Microbicide Surrogate Product When Receiving Oral Sex

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Beth; Catallozzi, Marina; Davis, Gray; Succop, Paul A.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective Genital herpes, which can be spread through oral sex, is an important target for microbicides. We examined episode-specific predictors of young women's receptive oral sex and of microbicide surrogate use. Design Longitudinal study Setting Participants were recruited to participate in a microbicide acceptability study from adolescent clinics and local colleges and through snowballing. Participants Young women (ages 14 to 21 years) who reported sexual contact on at least one weekly phone interview (n = 181) were included from the larger sample of 208 young women. Main Outcome Measures On weekly diary phone interviews, participants reported whether or not their last sexual contact included receptive oral sex and whether or not their last sexual contact included use of a microbicide surrogate. Results and Conclusions Participants reported a total of 1042 episodes of sexual contact; 311 included receptive oral sex and 354 included microbicide surrogate use. Being older, having sex for the first time with a partner, and having given oral sex were associated with having received oral sex during a sexual episode. Being older, being African American, and having discussed the microbicide surrogate with their partner were associated with having used the microbicide surrogate use during a sexual episode. These results indicate that oral sex should be considered in the design of clinical trials. Future studies need to evaluate ways to promote consistent microbicide use in the context of receiving oral sex as well as those factors (e.g., taste, pleasure) which may serve as a barrier. PMID:24315715

  4. Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Taylor, D S; Lin, H M; Matthews, A E; Eggli, D F; Legro, R S

    2000-10-01

    This longitudinal observational study determined the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use during adolescence on peak bone mass (PBM). The sample comprised 62 non-Hispanic, White females in The Penn State Young Women's Health Study, who were studied for 8 years between the ages of 12 and 20. There were 28 OC users who used OCs for a minimum of 6 months and were still using them at age 20, and 34 nonusers who had never used the regimen. Total body bone, dedicated hipbone, and body composition measurements were made by dual-energy roentgenogram absorptiometry. There was no difference between OC users and nonusers in the anthropometric, body composition, or total body bone measurements. By age 20, the average duration of OC use by the user group was 22 months. At this age, the groups remained indistinguishable in anthropometric, body composition, total body, and hipbone measurements, and in age of menarche and sports exercise scores. These findings suggest that OC use by healthy, White, teenage females does not affect acquisition of PBM. PMID:11020515

  5. Earlier Menarche Is Associated with Lower Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Adiposity in Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dyanne A.; Derraik, José G. B.; Rowe, Deborah L.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess whether age at menarche was associated with insulin sensitivity in young adult women. Methods We studied 54 healthy young women aged 20–30 years. Participants were grouped according to age at menarche: Early (≤11.0 years; n=13), Average (>12.0 and ≤13.0 years; n=28), and Late (≥14.0 years, n=13). Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity measured using intravenous glucose tolerance tests and Bergman’s minimal model. Body composition was assessed using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Earlier menarche was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p=0.015). There was also a continuous increase in adiposity with younger age at menarche, which was associated with increased weight (p=0.001), BMI (p=0.002), total body fat (p=0.049), and truncal fat (p=0.020). Stratified analyses showed that insulin sensitivity in Early women (5.5 x10-4·min-1(mU/l)) was lower than in Average (8.0 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.021) and Late (8.6 x10-4·min-1(mU/l), p=0.033) groups. Early women (weight=66.1 kg; BMI=24.1 kg/m2) were considerably heavier and fatter than Average (59.0 kg, p=0.004; 21.4 kg/m2, p=0.002) and Late (57.0 kg, p=0.001; 20.8 kg/m2, p=0.0009) women. Conclusions Early menarche is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and increased adiposity in young adulthood, potentially increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26061526

  6. "Not a good look": Impossible Dilemmas for Young Women Negotiating the Culture of Intoxication in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lin; Griffin, Christine; Shankar, Avi

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates young women's alcohol consumption in the United Kingdom within a widespread culture of intoxication in relation to recent debates about postfeminism and contemporary femininity. Young women are faced with an "impossible dilemma," arising from the contradiction between a hedonistic discourse of alcohol consumption and postfeminist discourse around attaining and maintaining the "right" form of hypersexual heterosexual femininity. Drawing on a recent interview study with 24 young white working-class and middle-class women in the South-West of England, we explore how young women inhabit the dilemmas of contemporary femininity in youth drinking cultures, striving to achieve the "right" form of hypersexual femininity and an "optimum" level of drunkenness. PMID:26086307

  7. Indexing of Australian Literature on Women and Gender and on Issues Affecting Women's Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mari

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties encountered in accessing online information on women and women's issues that results from the indexing of relevant items across several databases. A project designed to index literature on employment, equality, and gender within a single database is described. (CLB)

  8. Recent trends in the timing of first sex and marriage among young women in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, David

    2015-01-01

    Context Ethiopia has been characterized by high population growth. Recent social and economic developments have the potential to alter reproductive patterns in the country. Some of these developments include sustained economic growth, urbanization, rapid growth in school enrollments, expansion of primary health care, and a rise in contraceptive access and use. In other national contexts, these developments have been associated with a gradual decoupling of the transition into sexual activity and marriage among young women. We investigate recent trends in the transition into first sex and marriage among three cohorts of Ethiopian women. Methods Using data from the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) we estimate survival curves and discrete-time hazards models to examine recent trends in age at first sex and first marriage among women ages 20–29. Results Across the three survey years the median age at first sex has remained relatively stable at 17 years, although the median age at marriage has increased from 17 to 18 years between the 2005 and 2011 surveys. Net of the effects of education and place of residence, there is evidence of a slight trend away from premarital first sex to sexual initiation in the context of marriage. However, among the most educated women and women living in urban areas (who are a small minority of women), there is a much greater tendency to initiate sexual activity outside of marriage compared to women with little schooling and women living in rural areas, and once they have begun sexual activity they tend to wait longer before they get married. We also find evidence in the most recent survey that women who have first sexual intercourse before marriage are delaying marriage more than was the case among earlier cohorts. PMID:27011431

  9. Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ebersöhn, Liesel; Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Grobler, Adri; Moen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    "Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS", demonstrates how a concurrent mixed method design assisted cross-cultural comparison and ecological descriptions of resilience in young South African children, as well as validated alternative ways to measure resilience in young children. In a longitudinal randomised control trial, which investigated psychological resilience in mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, we combined a qualitative projective story-telling technique (Düss Fable) with quantitative data (Child Behaviour Checklist). The children mostly displayed adaptive resilience-related behaviours, although maladaptive behaviours were present. Participating children use internal (resolve/agency, positive future expectations, emotional intelligence) and external protective resources (material resources, positive institutions) to mediate adaptation. Children's maladaptive behaviours were exacerbated by internal (limited problem-solving skills, negative emotions) and external risk factors (chronic and cumulative adversity). PMID:26291644

  10. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

  11. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images. PMID:22046997

  12. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  13. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  14. Breast cancer survival among young women: a review of the role of modifiable lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Darren R; Brockton, Nigel T; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A; Courneya, Kerry S; Knight, Julia A; Olivotto, Ivo A; Quan, May Lynn; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Almost 7% of breast cancers are diagnosed among women age 40 years and younger in Western populations. Clinical outcomes among young women are worse. Early age-of-onset increases the risk of contralateral breast cancer, local and distant recurrence, and subsequent mortality. Breast cancers in young women (BCYW) are more likely to present with triple-negative (TNBC), TP53-positive, and HER-2 over-expressing tumors than among older women. However, despite these known differences in breast cancer outcomes and tumor subtypes, there is limited understanding of the basic biology, epidemiology, and optimal therapeutic strategies for BCYW. Several modifiable lifestyle factors associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer have also been implicated in improved prognosis among breast cancer survivors of all ages. Given the treatment-related toxicities and the extended window for late effects, long-term lifestyle modifications potentially offer significant benefits to BCYW. In this review, we propose a model identifying three main areas of lifestyle factors (energy imbalance, inflammation, and dietary nutrient adequacy) that may influence survival in BCYW. In addition, we provide a summary of mechanisms of action and a synthesis of previous research on each of these topics. PMID:26970739

  15. Recruiting online: lessons from a longitudinal survey of contraception and pregnancy intentions of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Wigginton, Britta; Lucke, Jayne C

    2015-05-15

    Recruitment of young people for epidemiologic research remains challenging, with marked decreases in the effectiveness of face-to-face, mail, and telephone recruitment methods. We report on the implementation and feasibility of an innovative and flexible approach used to recruit participants for a longitudinal cohort study about contraceptive use and pregnancy (the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study). Australian women aged 18-23 years were recruited using a range of online, networking, and offline methods, including social media (primarily Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California; http://www.facebook.com)), face-to-face events, distribution of promotional material, and media releases. Over the course of the 1-year recruitment period (beginning in September 2012), a total of 3,795 eligible women were recruited to complete the online survey, at a cost of approximately A$11 per participant. This sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population of women aged 18-23 years in terms of demographic characteristics, with the exception of an overrepresentation of tertiary-educated women (88.7% compared with 72.6%). This study demonstrated that although current recruitment strategies are required to be innovative and flexible in order to engage young people in epidemiologic research, representative samples can be achieved online at reasonable cost. PMID:25883155

  16. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women. PMID:25387239

  17. Fertility Preservation: A Key Survivorship Issue for Young Women with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Angarita, Ana Milena; Johnson, Cynae A.; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility preservation in the young cancer survivor is recognized as a key survivorship issue by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Thus, health-care providers should inform women about the effects of cancer therapy on fertility and should discuss the different fertility preservation options available. It is also recommended to refer women expeditiously to a fertility specialist in order to improve counseling. Women’s age, diagnosis, presence of male partner, time available, and preferences regarding use of donor sperm influence the selection of the appropriate fertility preservation option. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the standard techniques used while ovarian tissue cryopreservation is new, yet promising. Despite the importance of fertility preservation for cancer survivors’ quality of life, there are still communication and financial barriers faced by women who wish to pursue fertility preservation. PMID:27200291

  18. Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women's Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Melanie M; Friedman, Carly K; Leaper, Campbell

    2009-10-01

    Factors related to young women's reported likelihood of confronting sexism were investigated. Participants were 338 U.S. female undergraduates (M = 19 years) attending a California university. They were asked to complete questionnaire measures and to write a personal narrative about an experience with sexism. Approximately half (46%) the women reported confronting the perpetrator. Individual factors (prior experience with sexism, feminist identification, collective action) and situational factors (familiarity and status of perpetrator, type of sexism) were tested as predictors in a logistic regression. Women were less likely to report confronting sexism if (1) they did not identify as feminists, (2) the perpetrator was unfamiliar or high-status/familiar (vs. familiar/equal-status), or (3) the type of sexism involved unwanted sexual attention (vs. sexist comments). PMID:19784381

  19. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  20. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  1. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  2. Understanding the Cycle of Military Deployment: How It Affects Young Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of children and families experiencing military life and affected by deployment are astounding. Many children who have an uncle, aunt, brother, or other family member serving in the military live near a military duty station, but others live far from other military families. Caregivers and teachers of young children share a common…

  3. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part I.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which a general model for understanding and predicting Black mental health problems accounts for the particular problem of alcohol consumption in an urban sample of 289 African American women. The general model consists of eight variables: life events, social support, religious orientation, internalized racialism, physical health problems, marital status, socioeconomic status, and developmental status. In Part I expected interrelationships among variables are presented, from which a structural equation model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption is formulated. Methods for evaluating the model are described in Part II (International Journal of the Addictions, Vol. 25, No. 12). PMID:2090628

  4. Television watching during lunch increases afternoon snack intake of young women.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Woodward, Morgan

    2009-02-01

    Eating while watching television has been shown to increase food intake in part due to the distracting effects of television viewing. It is also known that enhancing memory for the specific attributes of foods eaten in the recent past decreases subsequent food intake. Because distraction at the time of encoding interferes with memory formation, we predicted that television watching during lunch would increase afternoon snack intake due to impaired memory for recent eating. Using a repeated-measures design, 16 young women undergraduate students visited the laboratory to eat a fixed lunch either while watching television or in the absence of television. Intake of cookies at a tasting session later that afternoon was measured and participants recalled eating the lunch and rated the memory for vividness. All participants ate all of the lunch and rated appetite during lunch did not differ according to condition. Participants ate significantly more cookies after they had eaten their lunch while watching television than when they had eaten their lunch while not watching television and this effect could not be attributed to an effect of television watching on rated mood or appetite before the snack session. Watching television while eating lunch was also associated with reduced vividness ratings of the memory of the lunch. These results suggest that the effects of television watching on food intake extend beyond the time of television watching to affect subsequent consumption. They further suggest that this effect may be related to an effect of television watching on encoding of the memory of the meal. PMID:18692103

  5. The experience of girls and young women with inherited bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Holland, M; Pollard, D

    2013-09-01

    Haemophilia carriers and women with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) experience menorrhagia, bleed following dentistry, surgery, injury or childbirth. Symptoms are easily treated leading to full and active lives. Nevertheless, some girls and women suffer with abnormal bleeding for many years before diagnosis. We explored the experiences of girls and young women (aged 9-34 years) with IBD by means of focus groups which consisted of moderated discussion addressing specific aspects of bleeding, management and coping strategies. Subsequently, these issues were explored further though a paper-based questionnaire distributed via five specialist haemophilia centres in the UK. The study suggested that young women with IBD who are managed at haemophilia centres receive appropriate care and feel well supported. Although the clinic-based literature available to these women is "fit for purpose", it does not fully address the perceived needs specifically regarding sex, menorrhagia, conception and childbirth, the Pill, tattoos/piercings and so on, leading many to turn to other information sources. Most of those who responded to our survey are confident in their lives, able to manage their IBD and take pragmatic views towards the inherited nature of their condition. But there is a substantial subgroup of women who experience stigmatization, isolation and bullying and express concerns relating to fertility and conception. Overall, this cohort would benefit from opportunities for mutual support. This could be via Internet-based social networking and may be of particular value to those who are unable to seek help from traditional medical services due to religious or other cultural barriers. PMID:23607927

  6. Coerced first sexual intercourse and selected reproductive health outcomes among young women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Pranitha; Munthree, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Coercion may play an important role in compelling young women to engage in sexual intercourse at an early age. With a decline in age at first intercourse and increased reporting of coercive first sex, concerns of adverse reproductive health outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, have become important issues, particularly in the context of a high HIV prevalence. This paper uses data collected in 2001 from the second round of a longitudinal study of 1130 sexually experienced young women in KwaZulu-Natal to investigate the relationship between coerced first intercourse and selected reproductive health outcomes and behaviours. Nearly 46% of all sexually experienced young women had reported that their first sexual encounter had been coerced. Young women who reported being coerced at first sex were significantly more likely to be Black and living in an urban area. Those who had been coerced at first sex were also more likely to report having had an STI and having experienced unintended pregnancy, than those who had not been coerced at first sex. Coercion at first sex is an important social and public health problem that has a serious impact on the reproductive health and behaviours of young women. Interventions should directly address the issue of sexual coercion by ensuring young women are aware of their reproductive rights. PMID:16566848

  7. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    PubMed

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  8. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  9. Waist-to-Hip Ratio, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Testosterone and Estradiol Concentrations in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo; García Granados, Mónica Dafne; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Hernández-López, Leonor Estela

    2015-01-01

    We studied if testosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with specific female waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs) and body mass indices (BMIs). Participants were 187 young women from which waist, hips, weight, and height were measured. In addition, participants informed on which day of their menstrual cycle they were and provided a 6 mL saliva sample. Ninety-one of them were in the follicular phase and 96 in the luteal phase. Only in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle we found a significant interaction between testosterone and estradiol affecting WHR (b ± s.e. = −0.000003 ± 0.000001;  t94 = −2.12, adjusted R2 = −0.008,  P = 0.03). Women with the highest levels of both hormones had the lowest WHRs, while women with low estradiol and high testosterone showed the highest WHRs. BMI significantly increased as testosterone increased in female in their nonfertile days. PMID:26351453

  10. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  11. Determining the Need for Vocational Counselling among Different Target Groups of Young People under 28 Years of Age in the European Community. Young People's Need for Vocational Guidance in Greece. The Young Population in General. Young People Who Leave School without Completing Compulsory Education. Young Women with No Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanni-Teliopoulou, Kassandra; Stathakopoulou, Penelope

    A study examined the vocational guidance needs of young people in Greece. Available literature on the following topics was reviewed: transitions of young people to economically active life; available vocational guidance services; transitions of youth from education to work; youths who abandon compulsory education; and young women with…

  12. Work Involvement and Timing of Motherhood in the Accumulation of Problems in Social Functioning in Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronka, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea

    1998-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the relationship between earlier risk factors and later problems in young Finnish women's social functioning. Found that low work involvement mediated between risk factors and accumulation of problems in social functioning in young adulthood. Risk factors increased the likelihood of early motherhood, but early motherhood…

  13. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young... Temeika L. Fairley, Ph.D., Designated Federal Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on...

  14. Hmong Food Helps Us Remember Who We Are: Perspectives of Food Culture and Health among Hmong Women with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vue, Wa; Wolff, Cindy; Goto, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine perspectives on food habits, acculturation, and health among Hmong women with young children in northern California. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 Hmong mothers with young children in a low-income community of northern California. The interviews were transcribed and coded based on the principles of…

  15. Girls' Schooling and Transition to Marriage and Motherhood: Exploring the Pathways to Young Women's Reproductive Agency in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Feyza; Jeffery, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced young women's reproductive agency could contribute to much-needed improvements in reproductive and child health in Pakistan. The RECOUP programme of research was designed to unpack the channels through which schooling might contribute to such an enhancement for young mothers in the two provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Key…

  16. Psychosocial challenges of young people affected by HIV: experiences from Hamilton County, Chattanooga, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Chama, Samson; Ramirez, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    The number of young people affected by HIV and AIDS in Tennessee has steadily grown over the last few years. As a response to this situation, several organizations are working hard to address the needs of families impacted by HIV and AIDS. However, a close examination of some of the services provided suggests that young people within these families are ignored. Most of the services are geared toward HIV and AIDS-infected adult members of these families. Young people within these household are not targeted, and little is known about psychosocial challenges they experience in living with HIV-positive parents or guardians. In an attempt to address this gap, this small-scale qualitative study investigated the psychosocial challenges of young people affected by HIV and AIDS as a result of living with HIV-positive parents or guardians. Perceived sense of depression, experiencing stigma, self-blame, and lack of communication and loneliness were challenges that young people faced regularly. PMID:25495702

  17. β-Adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in young men and women: cyclooxygenase restrains nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2016-03-15

    We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P < 0.01), and this effect was not different between men and women (P = 0.41). l-NMMA infusion had no effect on isoproterenol-mediated dilation in men (P > 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P < 0.01) and women (P = 0.04) and this rise was lost with subsequent l-NMMA infusion (men, P < 0.01; women, P < 0.05). β-Adrenergic vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease. PMID:26747505

  18. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    PubMed

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression. PMID:8002420

  19. Breast self-examination by young women: I. Characteristics associated with frequency.

    PubMed

    Mamon, J A; Zapka, J G

    1986-01-01

    We surveyed a stratified random sample of college women (n = 869) to investigate correlates of the frequency of breast self-examination (BSE) in two young, relatively low risk populations, undergraduate and graduate women. The findings from this study compared to those from studies on older women suggest that certain factors are associated with BSE frequency for women of all ages (i.e., confidence in one's ability to perform the exam and exposure to information on breast cancer). There also appear to be distinct factors associated with the frequency of BSE performances among women within specific age-groups. For the younger, undergraduate women, attitudinal barriers; medical services use; skill knowledge; perception of personal control in detecting lumps; reinforcement through clinical breast exam; and the discussion of BSE with others were important factors in accounting for the variation in frequency of BSE performance. For the graduate women, in addition to confidence in one's ability to perform the test and exposure to breast cancer messages, one's perceived susceptibility, knowledge of risk factors, and perception of personal control in detecting lumps were important. The independent variables examined within each age-group accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in the dependent measure (34 percent and 42 percent, respectively, for undergraduate and graduate women), as compared to previous research, which has explained only 7-15 percent of the variance in BSE performance. This tends to validate our approach of using a multidimensional conceptual framework drawn from existing theoretical orientations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3453163

  20. Examining the determinants of sexual violence among young, married women in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chibber, Karuna S; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A cross-sectional analysis is conducted using baseline data from a longitudinal study involving young married women attending reproductive health clinics in Southern India. A multivariable logistic regression analysis is conducted to first identify determinants of sexual violence and then repeated after stratifying elements based on presence or absence of physical violence identified from participants' reports. 36% and 50% of the participants report experiencing sexual and physical violence, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, women's partners' characteristics are found most significantly associated with their odds of experiencing sexual violence. These characteristics include husbands' primary education, employment as drivers, alcohol consumption, and having multiple sex partners. Women's contribution to household income also increases their odds of experiencing sexual violence by almost twofold; however, if they are solely responsible for "all" household income, the relationship is found to be protective. Physical violence modifies the determinants of sexual violence, and among women not experiencing physical violence, husbands' primary education and employment as drivers increase women's odds of experiencing sexual violence nearly threefold, and women who contribute "all" the household income (n = 62) do not experience sexual violence. These relationships are not significant among women experiencing physical violence. Study findings improve the understanding of the determinants of sexual violence. Future research is needed to examine the risk factors for different types of GBV independently and to tease apart the

  1. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne M.; Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron D.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. Methods: A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Results: Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, P<.05), and this model fit the data well (chi-square=33.558, P=.059; CFI=0.914; RMSEA=0.029). The reverse causal model showed syndemics is not an independent variable of sexual-orientation discrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Conclusions: Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population. PMID:26788674

  2. Young Women's Adolescent Experiences of Oral Sex: Relation of Age of Initiation to Sexual Motivation, Sexual Coercion, and Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…

  3. The Work-to-College Transition: Postsecondary Expectations and Enrolment for Young Men and Women in the US Labour Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Bills, David B.; Devlin, Maura E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates early employment influences on postsecondary expectations and enrolment for working men and women who have recently completed high school in the United States. We find that young workers still have very high expectations for postsecondary education, but that women are more likely to enrol. However, this difference is…

  4. Take the sex out of STI screening! Views of young women on implementing chlamydia screening in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Natasha L; Parker, Rhian; Fairley, Christopher K; Gunn, Jane M; Hocking, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background Australia is developing a chlamydia screening program. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of young women to the introduction of chlamydia screening in Australian General Practice. Methods In-depth face-to-face interviews with 24 young women from across Victoria, Australia, attending a randomly selected sample of general practices. Results Young women reported that they would accept age-based screening for chlamydia in general practice, during both sexual-health and non-sexual-health related consultations. Trust in their general practitioner (GP) was reported to be a major factor in the acceptability of chlamydia screening. The women felt chlamydia screening should be offered to all young women rather than targeted at "high risk" women based on sexual history and they particularly emphasised the importance of normalising chlamydia screening. The women reported that they did not want to be asked to provide a sexual history as part of being asked to have a chlamydia test. Some reported that they would lie if asked how many partners they had had Conclusion Women do not want a sexual history taken when being asked to have a chlamydia test while attending a general practitioner. They prefer the offer of chlamydia screening to be based on age rather than assessment of sexual risk. Chlamydia screening needs to be normalised and destigmatised. PMID:18471280

  5. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part II.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-12-01

    An eight-variable model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption in a sample of 289 African American women is evaluated using a structural equation methodology. We found that life events, physical health problems, and internalized racialism played important roles in accounting for variance in alcohol consumption. Marital status did not have the predicted inverse effect on alcohol consumption. While religious orientation did not have the expected inverse effect on alcohol consumption, it had an unexpected direct effect on internalized racialism, which had a direct effect on alcohol consumption. We found that the effects of socioeconomic status and developmental status on alcohol consumption were mediated through other variables specified in the model. Overall the model, which provided partial to complete support for five of eight hypotheses, provided a statistically adequate fit. PMID:2094681

  6. Axonal degeneration affects muscle density in older men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bartali, Benedetta; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giacomini, Vittoria; Corsi, Anna Maria; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Using data from InCHIANTI, a prospective population-based survey of older persons, we examined the relationship of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (NCV, a measure of nerve myelination) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP, a measure of axonal degeneration) with calf muscle mass and density, two complementary measures of sarcopenia. NCV and CMAP were assessed by surface electroneurography of the right peroneal nerve conducted in 1162 participants, 515 men and 647 women, age 21–96 years, free of major neurological diseases. Cross-sectional muscle area and calf muscle density were measured using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). Both nerve and muscle parameters declined with age although in most cases the decline was not linear. In both sexes, CMAP, but not NCV, was independently and significantly associated with calf muscle density. These findings suggest that intrinsic changes in the muscle tissue are partially caused by a reduction in the number of motor axons. PMID:16085338

  7. Axonal degeneration affects muscle density in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bartali, Benedetta; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giacomini, Vittoria; Corsi, Anna Maria; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2006-08-01

    Using data from InCHIANTI, a prospective population-based survey of older persons, we examined the relationship of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (NCV, a measure of nerve myelination) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP, a measure of axonal degeneration) with calf muscle mass and density, two complementary measures of sarcopenia. NCV and CMAP were assessed by surface electroneurography of the right peroneal nerve conducted in 1162 participants, 515 men and 647 women, age 21-96 years, free of major neurological diseases. Cross-sectional muscle area and calf muscle density were measured using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). Both nerve and muscle parameters declined with age although in most cases the decline was not linear. In both sexes, CMAP, but not NCV, was independently and significantly associated with calf muscle density. These findings suggest that intrinsic changes in the muscle tissue are partially caused by a reduction in the number of motor axons. PMID:16085338

  8. Effects of surface irregularity and lighting on step variability during gait: a study in healthy young and older women.

    PubMed

    Thies, Sibylle B; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-08-01

    Relatively few studies have examined how uneven surfaces affect human gait. To study this, along with the effects of advancing age and low light conditions, we measured step width and step time variability, as well as comfortable gait speed, in 12 healthy young women (YW) and 12 healthy older women (OW) as they walked at a comfortable speed along a 10-m walkway. Ten trials were completed for each cell of a 2 x 2 factorial design: (1) flat surface with regular lighting; (2) flat surface with low lighting; (3) irregular surface with regular lighting; and (4) irregular surface with low lighting. Effects of surface type, incident lighting, and age on gait parameters were tested via repeated measures ANOVA. Surface type significantly affected step width variability (P < 0.001) and step time variability (P < 0.001). Light level showed no significant effect on any of the gait parameters. One significant age group difference was found: step width variability was significantly greater in OW than YW (P = 0.010). We conclude that the irregular surface had a greater effect on the gait variability of healthy OW than on that of healthy YW. PMID:15996588

  9. Why Don't They Want a Male-Dominated Job? An Investigation of Young Women Who Changed Their Occupational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frome, Pamela M.; Alfeld, Corinne J.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined 2 hypotheses regarding why some young women do not maintain their espoused occupational aspirations in male-dominated fields from late adolescence through young adulthood. The first hypothesis concerns attitudes towards math and science; the second concerns the desire for job flexibility. The sample of young women (N=104) was taken…

  10. Gun carrying and drug selling among young incarcerated men and women.

    PubMed

    Kacanek, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2006-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying. PMID:16736375

  11. Multiple abortions and sexually transmitted infections among young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (i) multiple abortions and (ii) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4%) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3% had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0%) of the sample had had a STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7%) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  12. Gun Carrying and Drug Selling Among Young Incarcerated Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying. PMID:16736375

  13. Smoking motives in the prediction of affective vulnerability among young adult daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Kristin; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit; Marshall, Erin C; Yartz, Andrew R

    2007-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether smoking to reduce negative affect was uniquely related to a range of affective vulnerability factors (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, anxious arousal, and negative affectivity) among daily smokers. Participants were 276 young adult daily smokers (124 females; M(age)=25.12, SD=10.37). Partially consistent with prediction, the motivation to smoke to reduce negative affect was significantly related to anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity, but not anxious arousal; the observed significant effects were above and beyond other theoretically relevant factors (e.g., smoking rate, years smoked, age, gender). In contrast to prediction, habitual smoking motives demonstrated significant incremental associations with anxiety sensitivity and anxious arousal symptoms. These results suggest that there are important associations between certain smoking motives and negative affective states and that such relations are not attributable to other smoking factors (e.g., smoking rate). PMID:16712784

  14. Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should

  15. Coping with an Acute Psychosocial Challenge: Behavioral and Physiological Responses in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Mastorci, Francesca; Sgoifo, Andrea; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users) subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor. PMID:25489730

  16. Body image in recently diagnosed young women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Gelber, Shari; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Kereakoglow, Sandra; Borges, Virginia F.; Come, Steven E.; Schapira, Lidia; Winer, Eric P.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess body image concerns among young women following a breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS 419 women with recently diagnosed stage 0-III breast cancer were surveyed following enrollment as part of a prospective cohort study of women age 40 or younger at diagnosis. Body image was assessed using three items from the psycho-social scale of the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES). CARES scores range from 0–4, with higher scores indicative of greater image concerns. Mean CARES scores were calculated and compared between treatment groups using t-tests and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression models were fit to evaluate the relationship between physical and psychological factors and body image. RESULTS Mean time from diagnosis to completion of the baseline survey was 5.2 months. The mean CARES score for all women was 1.28. Mean CARES scores in the mastectomy-only group (1.87) and in the mastectomy with reconstruction group (1.52) were significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared to the scores in the lumpectomy group (0.85), indicating that radical surgery was associated with more body image concerns. Radiation (p=0.01), anxiety (p=0.0001), depression (p<0.0001), fatigue (p=0.04), musculoskeletal pain symptoms (p<0.0001), weight gain (p=0.01) and weight loss (p=0.02), in addition to surgery type (p<0.0001), were all associated with more body image concerns in the multi-variable analysis. CONCLUSION This analysis highlights the impact of treatment, along with physical and psychological factors, on body image early in the survivorship period. Our findings provide targets for potential future intervention and may aid young women in the surgical decision-making process. PMID:23132765

  17. Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and dietary intake in Vietnamese young women

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ahra; Kim, Hyesook; Han, Chan-Jung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the relationship between hsCRP and dietary intake in apparently healthy young women living in southern Vietnam. SUBJECTS/METHODS Serum hsCRP was measured and dietary intake data were obtained using the 1-day 24-hour recall method in women (n = 956; mean age, 25.0 ± 5.7 years) who participated in the International Collaboration Study for the Construction of Asian Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in 2011. RESULTS Women in the high risk group (> 3 mg/L) consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, total plant food, potassium, and folate than those in the low risk group (< 1 mg/L). A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed a significant negative association between hsCRP and fruit and vegetable consumption. A logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of having a high hsCRP level in women with the highest quartiles of consumption of fruits and vegetables [OR, 0.391; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.190-0.807], potassium [OR, 0.425; 95% CI, 0.192-0.939] and folate [OR, 0.490; 95% CI, 0.249-0.964] were significantly lower than those in the lowest quartiles. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that, in young Vietnamese women, an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables might be beneficial for serum hsCRP, a risk factor for future CVD events. PMID:25110566

  18. Salmon cycles: Influences of a science field study immersion experience with Native American young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Phyllis Campbell

    Native Americans, and particularly Native women, are not proportionally represented in higher education, or in science, mathematics, technology, and engineering fields. This study examined an out-of-school science education program which combined traditional Native American cultural and ecological knowledge with Western science in conducting authentic field studies. A qualitative, embedded case study approach was used to explore how young Native American women were influenced by an out-of-school program integrating a culturally responsive approach and experiential research projects. Within this context of combined cultures, three significant domains emerged: field study in science, sense of place, and networks of supportive relationships. These domains interacted with the aspirations of the eight Native women in the study. Using interview transcripts, reflective writings, and participant data, the study explored the blending of Indigenous and Western science in "communities of practice" (e.g., fisheries biology, restoration ecology, and forestry). The eight Native women in this study participated as young adolescents and later returned as counselors. Interviews focused on their postsecondary aspirations and choices. Findings validated previous research on the value of infusing Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western science for Native students. The study found the combination of culturally responsive pedagogy and authentic experiences in "communities-of-practice" held a beneficial influence on postsecondary pathways. The importance of respect and friendships fostered through the program was associated with resilience and perseverance in educational aspirations. Immersion in field study with Native peers as well as Native and non-Native researchers was a catalyst for all the women, in a number of different ways, such as: deeper involvement with the Native community, strengthening cultural and academic identity, inspiration to learn more about their cultural

  19. Trends in Gender Disparities at the Transition from School to Work: Labour Market Entries of Young Men and Women between 1984 and 2005 in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita; Kleinert, Corinna; Kuhhirt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trends in school-to-work transitions of young men and women with lower and higher secondary education in West Germany between 1984 and 2005. This period was marked by an increase in young women's educational attainment and a continuous growth of the service sector. We assume that both developments have benefited women more…

  20. Years for Decision: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968 to 1973. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Frank L.; And Others

    Utilizing the National Longitudinal Surveys of 5,159 young women aged fourteen to twenty-four from 1968 to 1973, the study reports on the educational, labor market, and family experiences of young women. The content is in seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes the data base and presents an overview of changes in the women's life patterns over the…

  1. Oncofertility for gynecologic and non-gynecologic cancers: fertility sparing in young women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Polat; Doğan, N Utku; Ayhan, Ali

    2014-12-01

    About ten percent of all female cancer survivors is younger than 40 years of age. For these young women the primary goal is to ensure the highest possibility of cure and to maintain the reproductive functions as well. Oncofertility is a new concept including both oncology and reproductive medicine. By this recently defined concept young women will have maximal chance to make an optimal decision without any significant impact and delay in oncologic outcome. Oncofertility concept could be applied for genital cancer as well as non-genital cancer of reproductive age. Currently sperm and embryo banking are the standard methods used for young patients with cancer whose future fertility is under risk. In contrary oocyte banking, ovarian tissue cryopreservation are all controversial procedures and still accepted as experimental by many authors although American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) consideres oocyte cryopreservation "no longer experimental". For genital cancers procedures for oncofertility depends on the type of the cancer and the treatment of choice. In this review the current data and concepts regarding oncofertility concept including the gynecologic oncologic perspective is reviewed. PMID:25090914

  2. Skipping breakfast is associated with dysmenorrhea in young women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of breakfast habits on the quality of life in young women in Japan, the relation between breakfast habits and menstrual and intestinal disorders was estimated by responses to a questionnaire. Subjects were recruited from young Japanese female students of Ashiya College ranging in age from 18 to 20 years. Breakfast habits were classified into three groups (group I, having breakfast every morning, n=289; group II, having breakfast one to six times per week, n=106; group III, having breakfast less than once a week, n=44). The intensity of dysmenorrhea was classified into three grades (score 1, free of pain or painful, but without need for analgesic; score 2, painful, requiring analgesic; score 3, painful, not relieved by analgesic). The grades of bowel movement were classified into three groups (score 1, no more than once a week; score 2, two to six times a week; score 3, every day). Group II and group III had significantly higher scores for dysmenorrhea compared with group I. Students in group III showed a tendency toward constipation. Since dysmenorrhea is a risk factor for psychological disorders as well as gynecological diseases, the present study suggests the importance of eating breakfast to the quality of life of young women. PMID:14522696

  3. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  4. Successful EPO Strategies for Engaging Girls and Young Women in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D. A.; Dussault, M.; Hasan, H.; Krishnamurthi, A.; Lowes, L.; Stimmer, M.

    2010-08-01

    This mini workshop is geared toward participants—both researchers and educators—interested in sparking and supporting the interest of girls and young women in Earth and space sciences. Its prime focus is on strategies and lessons learned in creating resources and implementing activities that aim to achieve this goal. The workshop involves interactive discussions and mini-roundtables on the specifics of how to improve opportunities through formal (K-16) and informal education and public outreach programs. The emphasis is on drawing out successful strategies and why they have been successful, and on how education and public outreach (EPO) program leaders can work together or use each others' programs and practices. Underlying the discussions will be connections with the International Year of Astronomy project "She is an Astronomer" as well as what we can learn from cross-disciplinary studies to encourage women's participation in science and engineering fields and careers. Mini-roundtables will feature EPO practitioners who are directly involved with creating and implementing NASA-funded resources and activities to engage girls and young women in science. Discussions will be relevant to a wide range of EPO programs funded by various agencies.

  5. Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women. PMID:25314039

  6. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

  7. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zautra, Alex J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia, or both, completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10-12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases…

  8. The Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Program: Effects on Pregnancy and Contraceptive Use among Young Rural Women in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G.; Walker, Dilys; Servan-Mori, Edson; Prager, Sarah; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Oportunidades is a large conditional cash transfer program in Mexico. It is important to examine whether the program has any direct effect on pregnancy experience and contraceptive use among young rural women, apart from those through education. METHODS Data from the 1992, 2006 and 2009 waves of a nationally representative, population-based survey were used to describe trends in pregnancy experience, contraceptive use and education among rural adolescent (15–19) and young adult (20–24) women in Mexico. To examine differences in pregnancy experience and current modern contraceptive use among young women, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted among matched 2006 samples of women with and without exposure to Oportunidades, predicted probabilities were calculated and indirect effects were estimated. RESULTS Over the three survey waves, the proportion of adolescent and young adult women reporting ever being pregnant stayed flat (33–36%) and contraceptive use increased steadily (from 13% in 1992 to 19% in 2009). Educational attainment rose dramatically: The proportion of women with a secondary education increased from 28% in 1992 to 46% in 2009. In multivariable analyses, exposure to Oportunidades was not associated with pregnancy experience among adolescents. Educational attainment, marital status, pregnancy experience and access to health insurance—but not exposure to Oportunidades—were positively associated with current modern contraceptive use among adolescent and young adult women. CONCLUSION Through its effect on education, Oportunidades indirectly influences fertility among adolescents. It is important for Mexico to focus on strategies to increase contraceptive use among young rural nulliparous women, regardless of whether they are enrolled in Oportunidades. PMID:24393726

  9. Young Women's Preferences for Market Work: Responses to Marital Events. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Waite, Linda J.

    The research paper examines how women's relative preferences for market work and home work are effected by three transitions: first marriage, first birth, and marital dissolution. The hypothesis was that all three events should affect market work preference by changing levels of available resources, such as time and money, and by changing the…

  10. Childbirth Education Prior to Pregnancy? Survey Findings of Childbirth Preferences and Attitudes Among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Joyce K.; Cwiertniewicz, Taylor; Stoll, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The childbirth preferences and attitudes of young women prior to pregnancy (N = 758) were explored in a cross-sectional survey. Sources of influential childbirth information and self-reported childbirth learning needs were described. Young women’s attitudes about childbirth, including the degree of confidence in coping with a vaginal birth, whether birth is considered a natural event, and expectations of labor pain were associated with their mode of birth preference. Conversations with friends and family were the most influential source of childbirth information. Gaps in knowledge about pregnancy and birth were identified. An improved understanding of women’s preferences and attitudinal profiles can inform the structure and content of educational strategies that aim to help the next generation of maternity care consumers participate in informed decision making. PMID:26957892

  11. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-29

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  12. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work. PMID:26320729

  13. Affect is central to patient safety: the horror stories of young anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Iedema, Rick; Jorm, Christine; Lum, Martin

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyses talk produced by twenty-four newly qualified anaesthetists. Data were collected from round table discussions at the Young Fellows Conference of the Australia and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists 2006. The talk consisted to an important extent of narratives about experiences of horror. The paper isolates three themes: the normalization of horror, the functionalisation of horror for pedagogic purposes, and the problematization of horror. The last theme provides a springboard into our argument that confronting the affect invested in coping with medical-clinical failure is central to enabling young doctors, and clinicians generally, to address and resolve such adverse events. We conclude that the negotiation of affect through shared or 'dialogic' narrative is central to enabling doctors to deal with adverse events on a personal level, and to enabling them at a collective level to become attentive to threats to patients' safety. PMID:19846244

  14. Prevalence of Isolated Atrial Amyloidosis in Young Patients Affected by Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Millucci, Lia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Tanganelli, Piero; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), whose amyloid is responsible of isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA), is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF). We provide here the microscopic examination of atrial biopsies from 36 young (mean 40 years) CHF patients distinguished in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) affected and hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HC) affected, endorsing the presumptive association of early CHF with IAA. We utilized a multiple method, using Congo red (CR) staining, CR fluorescence (CRF), and immunohistochemistry to assess the presence of IAA in CHF. Immunostaining showed a moderate deposition of IAA in the atrium surrounding working myocardium with small intracellular deposits. Our findings suggest a monitoring of young CHF cases for the development of IAA. Our study also demonstrated how the concurrent use of immunohistochemistry, CR, and CRF may greatly enhance the detection of low-grade amyloid deposits. PMID:22536133

  15. Prevalence of isolated atrial amyloidosis in young patients affected by congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Millucci, Lia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Tanganelli, Piero; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), whose amyloid is responsible of isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA), is known to play an important role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure (CHF). We provide here the microscopic examination of atrial biopsies from 36 young (mean 40 years) CHF patients distinguished in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) affected and hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HC) affected, endorsing the presumptive association of early CHF with IAA. We utilized a multiple method, using Congo red (CR) staining, CR fluorescence (CRF), and immunohistochemistry to assess the presence of IAA in CHF. Immunostaining showed a moderate deposition of IAA in the atrium surrounding working myocardium with small intracellular deposits. Our findings suggest a monitoring of young CHF cases for the development of IAA. Our study also demonstrated how the concurrent use of immunohistochemistry, CR, and CRF may greatly enhance the detection of low-grade amyloid deposits. PMID:22536133

  16. Behavioral and Health Outcomes for HIV+ Young Transgender Women Linked To and Engaged in Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Lee, Susan; Belzer, Marvin; Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Rubin, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe health and psychosocial outcomes of HIV+ young transgender women (YTW) engaged in care across the United States. When compared to other behaviorally infected youth (BIY), YTW reported higher rates of unemployment (25% vs. 19%), limited educational achievement (42% vs 13%), and suboptimal ART adherence (51% vs. 30%). There was no difference in likelihood of having a detectable viral load (38% vs. 39%) between groups. However, particular isolating psychosocial factors (unstable housing, depression, and lack of social support for attending appointments) increased predicted probability of viral detection to a greater extent among YTW that may have important health implications for this marginalized youth population. PMID:26789394

  17. Control of the upper body accelerations in young and elderly women during level walking

    PubMed Central

    Mazzà, Claudia; Iosa, Marco; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of the head movements during walking allows for the stabilisation of the optic flow, for a more effective processing of the vestibular system signals, and for the consequent control of equilibrium. In young individuals, the oscillations of the upper body during level walking are characterised by an attenuation of the linear acceleration going from pelvis to head level. In elderly subjects the ability to implement this motor strategy is reduced. The aim of this paper is to go deeper into the mechanisms through which the head accelerations are controlled during level walking, in both young and elderly women specifically. Methods A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct the displacement of markers located at head, shoulder, and pelvis level while 16 young (age: 24 ± 4 years) and 20 older (age: 72 ± 4 years) female volunteers walked at comfortable and fast speed along a linear pathway. The harmonic coefficients of the displacements in the medio-lateral (ML), antero-posterior (AP), and vertical (V) directions were calculated via discrete Fourier transform, and relevant accelerations were computed by analytical double differentiation. The root mean square of the accelerations were used to define three coefficients for quantifying the attenuations of the accelerations from pelvis to head, from pelvis to shoulder, and from shoulder to head. Results The coefficients of attenuation were shown to be independent from the walking speed, and hence suitable for group and subject comparison. The acceleration in the AP direction was attenuated by the two groups both from pelvis to shoulder and from shoulder to head. The reduction of the shoulder to head acceleration, however, was less effective in older women, suggesting that the ability to exploit the cervical hinge to attenuate the AP acceleration is challenged in this population. Young women managed to exploit a pelvis to shoulder attenuation strategy also in the ML direction, whereas in

  18. MicroRNA profile in very young women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is rarely diagnosed in very young women (35years old or younger), and it often presents with distinct clinical-pathological features related to a more aggressive phenotype and worse prognosis when diagnosed at this early age. A pending question is whether breast cancer in very young women arises from the deregulation of different underlying mechanisms, something that will make this disease an entity differentiated from breast cancer diagnosed in older patients. Methods We performed a comprehensive study of miRNA expression using miRNA Affymetrix2.0 array on paraffin-embedded tumour tissue of 42 breast cancer patients 35 years old or younger, 17 patients between 45 and 65 years old and 29 older than 65 years. Data were statistically analyzed by t-test and a hierarchical clustering via average linkage method was conducted. Results were validated by qRT-PCR. Putative targeted pathways were obtained using DIANA miRPath online software. Results The results show a differential and unique miRNA expression profile of 121 miRNAs (p-value <0.05), 96 of those with a FDR-value <0.05. Hierarchical clustering grouped the samples according to their age, but not by subtype nor by tumour characteristics. We were able to validate by qRT-PCR differences in the expression of 6 miRNAs: miR-1228*, miR-3196, miR-1275, miR-92b, miR-139 and miR-1207. Moreover, all of the miRNAs maintained the expression trend. The validated miRNAs pointed out pathways related to cell motility, invasion and proliferation. Conclusions The study suggests that breast cancer in very young women appears as a distinct molecular signature. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a validated microRNA profile, distinctive to breast cancer in very young women, has been presented. The miRNA signature may be relevant to open an important field of research in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism in this particular disease, which in a more clinical setting, could potentially help to

  19. Influence of high ovarian hormones on QT interval duration in young African women

    PubMed Central

    Balayssac‐Siransy, Edwige; Ouattara, Soualiho; Adoubi, Anicet; Kouamé, Chantal; Hauhouot‐Attoungbré, Marie‐Laure; Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The longer QT interval duration observed in women compared to men is usually attributed to sexual hormones. The aim of our study was to investigate, among black African women, the influence of hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle on the duration of the QT interval. Fourteen young black African women, healthy, sedentary, aged 24 ± 1.7 years, with a regular menstrual cycle (28 ± 1 days) were selected from 59 volunteers. At each phase of their menstrual cycle, menstrual 2.9 ± 0.6 days, follicular 13 ± 1.5 days, and luteal 23.1 ± 1.4 days, an electrocardiogram was performed in supine position after a resting period of 30 min, to measure QT interval duration. QT interval was corrected by Bazett's (QTcb) and Fridericia's (QTcf) formulae. Then, blood samples were obtained to measure estradiol, progesterone, and serum electrolytes (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). There was no significant difference in uncorrected QT intervals between the three phases of the menstrual cycle. It was the same for QTcb and QTcf. Moreover, during the menstrual cycle, we did not observe any correlation between each QT, QTcb, QTcf, and estradiol levels which raised during the follicular phase (356.61 ± 160.77 pg/mL) and progesterone levels which raised during the luteal phase (16.38 ± 5.88 ng/mL). Finally, the method of Bland and Altman demonstrated that the corrections of QT by Bazett and Fridericia formulae were not interchangeable. The results of this study showed that high levels of estradiol and progesterone in young black African women did not influence the QT, QTcb and QTcf intervals duration during the menstrual cycle. PMID:24760517

  20. Nutritional and anthropometric assessment of a sample of pregnant women and young children in Palau.

    PubMed

    Pobocik, R S; Heathcote, G M; Spiers, J B; Otto, C T

    2000-06-01

    This study examines the diet and body constitution of a small sample of pregnant women, n = 27, and children, n = 32, enrolled in the Maternal and Child Health program at the Public Health/Community Health Center in Koror, Palau. Twenty-four hour diet recalls were collected from both groups, 17 anthropometric and body composition measurements were made on the women and a range of body measurements from height to a full battery of 28 measures were obtained from the children. Diets were found to be low in energy, calcium and zinc. Women consume micronutrients primarily from fish, traditional starches, vegetables and fruits, while children rely more on fortified grain products and milk. The energy distribution is higher in protein and fat and lower in carbohydrate than earlier reports of adult Palauans. A significant minority of the women (27%) have body fat or body mass index profiles indicative of clinically significant obesity or energy storage deficit, both problematic in terms of pregnancy outcomes. While sample sizes of infant and young child cohorts are very small, our findings indicate that a relatively high proportion of these younger children, have experienced inadequate growth and development This is especially true of females, among whom stunting (height deficients) and especially wasting (weight and arm circumference deficits) were in greater evidence. PMID:24394396

  1. A community-based study of enduring eating features in young women.

    PubMed

    Hay, Phillipa J; Buettner, Petra; Mond, Jonathan; Paxton, Susan J; Quirk, Frances; Rodgers, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    We conducted a prospective exploration of the temporal course of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in two cohorts of community women. One hundred and twenty-two young women (Cohort 1) identified in a general population based survey with ED symptoms of clinical severity agreed to participate in a 5-year follow-up study. A comparative sample (Cohort 2) of 706 similar aged self-selected college women (221 with disordered eating) was recruited one year later. Both ED groups were given a health literacy package in the first year. ED symptoms, health related quality of life, and psychological distress were assessed annually with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Short Form-12 Health Survey and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, respectively. Forty percent (Cohort 1) and 30.3% (Cohort 2) completed questionnaires at each year of follow-up. In both groups, there was early improvement in ED symptoms which plateaued after the first year, and participants retained high EDE-Q scores at 5 years. BMI increased as expected. Mental health related quality of life scores did not change but there were small improvements in psychological distress scores. The findings suggest little likelihood of spontaneous remission of ED problems in community women. PMID:22690324

  2. Seroprevalence of Varicella zoster virus antibody among young women before marriage in Sanandaj, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Majidy, Parviz; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Azadi, Nammam-Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection in pregnant women can cause complications for the mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to assess the immunity against VZV among young women before marriage. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 250 women attending health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, for pre-marital medical check-up were randomly selected. The VZV IgG measured by ELISA and demographic characteristics of participants including their age, place of residence, number of siblings, occupation, education and history of chickenpox were also recorded. Data were analyzed using R statistical software. Association between VZV infection and participants’ characteristics was assessed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results: Out of 250 participants, 178 individuals (71.2%) diagnosed as antibody positive and 72 (28.8%) negative. Our findings revealed that the immunity against VZV increased with individuals’ age (P<0.0001) and their number of siblings (P= 0.03). Significant association was found between history of chickenpox and immunity (P <0.001). Positive and negative predictive values of self-reported history of chickenpox obtained by 94.60% and 49.25%, respectively. Conclusion: A notable percentage of women were found to be susceptible to VZV, hence they are at risk of getting infected during pregnancy which in turn may result in fetus abnormalities. Screening the immunity and further studies on the need of vaccination before marriage are recommended. PMID:27307981

  3. Son preference and sterilisation use among young married women in two slums in Bengaluru city, India.

    PubMed

    Edmeades, Jeffrey; Pande, Rohini Prabha; Falle, Tina; Krishnan, Suneeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which women's sterilisation decisions are influenced by the combination of a preference for male children and a desire for smaller family size among young married women in two urban slums in Bengaluru, India. While both son preference and an emphasis on sterilisation are well-known demographic characteristics of most South Asian countries, relatively little research has been conducted that links the two. We take advantage of a longitudinal survey of 416 unsterilised married women aged 16-25 to explore how having sons and the number of children influence a woman's sterilisation decision. Discrete-time event history techniques are used to estimate two models: the first examines the effect of having sons and number of children separately, and the second examines them in combination in the form of an interaction. The results suggest sterilisation is motivated by son preference mainly at lower parities (three or fewer children) and by concerns about family size at higher parities. Understanding how sterilisation and other reproductive behaviours are influenced by the interaction of family size and sex preferences will help policy-makers and programmers to meet the needs of women while continuing to address discriminatory behaviour against females. PMID:21218299

  4. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

  5. Old men and young women: how objectively are their skills assessed?

    PubMed

    Walsh, R P; Connor, C L

    1979-07-01

    Seventy-four male and female undergraduate participants evaluated an essay describing a work of art. They read either a well or a poorly written essay attributed to one of the following authors: a 25-year-old male, a 25-year-old female, a 64-year-old male or a 64-year-old female. Age of target X sex of target X essay quality interactions emerged on four of five dependent variables. In general, essay quality affected evaluations of young male and old female authors, but had little impact on evaluations of young females and old males. The results suggest that young females and old males may be the target of subtle prejudice which causes their work to be assessed unobjectively. They also emphasize the importance of simultaneously manipulating age and sex of target persons in future research. Implications of the findings for the accurate evaluation of elderly males in employment settings are discussed. PMID:448048

  6. Butch/Femme Differences in Substance Use and Abuse Among Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women: Examination and Potential Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of gender atypical self-presentation on the alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as symptoms of substance abuse, of an ethnically diverse sample of 76 young (ages 14 – 21 years) lesbian and bisexual women who were interviewed between 1993-95 in New York City. Even after controlling for age, sexual identity, and social desirability, young butch women reported drinking alcohol more frequently and in greater quantity, smoking more cigarettes, and using marijuana more frequently than young femme women. Experiences of gay-related stressful events, internalized homophobia, and emotional distress were found to largely account for the butch/femme differences in tobacco and marijuana use, but not in higher levels of alcohol use. Despite the small convenience sample, these findings suggest that intervention efforts to address the higher levels of substance use among young lesbian and bisexual women may increase effectiveness by also addressing experiences of gay-related stress and emotional distress of young butch women. PMID:18649226

  7. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    PubMed

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth. PMID:25793927

  8. Multiple case study analysis of young women's experiences in high school engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Meagan C.

    At a time when engineers are in critical demand, women continue to be significantly underrepresented in engineering fields (11.7%) and degree programs (21.3%) in the United States. As a result, there is a national demand for improved K-12 STEM education and targeted efforts to improve equity and access to engineering and science careers for every underrepresented group. High school engineering has become a nascent and growing market for developers and an emergent opportunity for students across the United States to learn introductory engineering skills through strategic career pathways; however there is a disparity in participation at this level as well. Much useful research has been used to examine the problematization of underrepresentation (K Beddoes, 2011), but there is a dearth of literature that helps us to understand the experiences of young women in high school engineering. By examining the experiences of young women in high school engineering, we can learn ways to improve the curriculum, pedagogy, and environment for underrepresented groups such as females to ensure they have equitable access to these programs and are subsequently motivated to persist in engineering. Understanding the needs of marginalized groups is complex, and intersectional feminism seeks to understand gender in relation to other identities such as race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, and nationality. This theory asserts that gender alone is neither a total identity nor a universal experience, and it is thus advantageous to consider each of the intersecting layers of identity so as to not privilege a dominate group as representative of all women. Thus, to understand how female students engage with and experience engineering in grade school, it is useful to examine through the lens of gender, class, race, and sexuality, because this intersection frames much of the human experience. The purpose of this study is to examine high school females' experiences in engineering, with a goal to

  9. 'If I buy the Kellogg's then he should [buy] the milk': young women's perspectives on relationship dynamics, gender power and HIV risk in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey; Macphail, Catherine; Anderson, Althea D; Maman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Ideals of masculinity and femininity may limit South African women's decision making power in relationships and increase their risk of HIV infection. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with 18-24-year-old women in inner-city Johannesburg with the aim of understanding young women's expectations of intimate relationships with men, their perceptions of gender and power and how this influences HIV risk. We found that the majority of young women reported expectations of power in relationships that conform to a model of femininity marked by financial independence, freedom to make decisions, including over sexuality, and equality (resistant femininity). The majority of young women, however, were in relationships marked by intimate partner violence, infidelity or lack of condom use. In spite of this, more young women who subscribed to a resistant model of femininity were in less risky relationships than young women who subscribed to acquiescent models, in which power was vested in their male partners. Further, young women who subscribed to resistant femininity had more education than women who subscribed to an acquiescent model. The disconnect between expectations of relationships and young women's lived realities emphasises the need for structural changes that afford women greater economic and thus decision making power. PMID:22449022

  10. Acute effects of moderate exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in sedentary young women.

    PubMed

    Imamura, H; Katagiri, S; Uchid, K; Miyamoto, N; Nakano, H; Shirota, T

    2000-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of moderate exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in seven sedentary young women under controlled conditions. 2. The subjects exercised on separate days for 30 or 60 min at an intensity of 60% of maximal oxygen uptake on a cycle ergometer. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and B were measured in the serum at the end of the 60 min rest period before each exercise, immediately after the performance of each exercise and at 30 min and 1, 2 and 24 h after each exercise. 3. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the pre- and postexercise samples for any of the parameters tested. 4. The results of the present study suggest that a single bout of exercise designed to simulate a typical training workout has no noticeable effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in normal sedentary young women who have normal lipid profiles, are in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and who consume a relatively low-fat diet. PMID:11117233

  11. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome and a non-dipping blood pressure pattern in young women

    PubMed Central

    Kargili, Ayse; Karakurt, Feridun; Kasapoglu, Benan; Derbent, Aysel; Koca, Cemile; Selcoki, Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and increased cardiovascular disease risk is still a controversial issue. In light of data documenting some common pathways or common end-points, the present study was undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between sleep blood pressure pattern disturbances and polycystic ovarian syndrome in young women. METHOD The daytime and nighttime ambulatory blood pressures (BPs) were determined for each subject, according to the actual waking and sleeping times recorded in their individual diaries, in this cross-sectional study. RESULTS The study group comprised 168 women (mean age: 25.7±5.5) diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome, while the control group included 52 age- and BMI-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 26.1±5.4). When nocturnal BP declines very little or not at all, with the BP falling less than 10% during sleep compared with waking values, this pattern is classified as a non-dipping BP pattern. However, the non-dipping pattern of BP changes was significantly more common in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients compared to the control group (p<0.01). The prevalence of a non-dipping BP pattern was 43.4% (73 patients) in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients and 3.9% (2 patients) in the control group. CONCLUSION Our cross-sectional study revealed that a non-dipping BP pattern is highly prevalent in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, even if they are young and non-obese. PMID:20535365

  12. Associations between dieting and smoking-related behaviors in young women.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2007-05-11

    Many young women report smoking due to weight concerns, but little is known about the relationship between weight concerns and current smoking behavior. The present study examined smoking topography and the acute sensory and physiological responses to smoking in dieting and non-dieting young women. In addition, the effect of presentation of food cues on these responses was examined. Self-reported female current dieters (n=15) and non-dieters (n=15) attended two laboratory sessions (food cues present/food cues absent). Physiological and subjective responses were recorded pre- and post-cigarette at each session. Smoking topography was assessed by video analysis. Dieters scored higher than non-dieters on measures of weight control smoking, dietary restraint, and disinhibition. At both sessions, they smoked less of the cigarette, had shorter inhalation durations, longer inter-puff intervals, experienced smaller physiological effects and gave lower ratings of the sensory aspects of smoking than non-dieters. The presence of food cues did not alter smoking topography or sensory/physiological responses but the dieters reported a greater desire to smoke in the presence of food cues. These data suggest that sensory factors may be less important influences on smoking for weight control smokers than non-weight control smokers and that further investigation of the role of food cues in maintaining smoking behavior in weight control smokers is warranted. PMID:17178198

  13. Effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on postprandial plasma triacylglycerol in sedentary young women.

    PubMed

    Tan, Martin; Chan Moy Fat, Rachel; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) such as the 30-s Wingate test attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG), however, the ability of shorter versions of HIIE to reduce postprandial TG is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-s sprinting bouts of HIIE on blood TG levels of 12 females after consumption of a high-fat meal (HFM) was examined. Twelve young, sedentary women (BMI 25.1 ± 2.3 kg/m²; age 21.3 ± 2.1 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test and then on different days underwent either an exercise or a no-exercise postprandial TG condition. Both conditions involved consuming a HFM after a 12-hr fast. The HFM, in milkshake form provided 4170 kJ (993 Kcal) of energy and 98 g fat. Order was counter-balanced. In the exercise condition participants completed 20-min of HIIE cycling consisting of repeated bouts of 8 s sprint cycling (100-115 rpm) and 12 s of active rest (easy pedaling) 14 hr before consuming the HFM. Blood samples were collected hourly after the HFM for 4 hr. Total postprandial TG was 13% lower, p = .004, in the exercise (5.84 ± 1.08 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹) compared with the no-exercise condition (6.71 ± 1.63 mmol L⁻¹ 4 h⁻¹). In conclusion, HIIE significantly attenuated postprandial TG in sedentary young women. PMID:24092770

  14. Desire for pregnancy and risk behavior in young HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Finger, Julie L; Clum, Gretchen A; Trent, Maria E; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2012-03-01

    This cross-sectional study utilized data from 130 young women with behaviorally acquired HIV to examine the association between desire for pregnancy (DFP) and both sociodemographic variables and sexual risk behaviors. A single item was utilized to assess DFP. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. At the bivariate level, DFP was associated with increased rates of intercourse, decreased condom use, increased partner concurrency, increased rates of unprotected sex with a nonconcordant partner, and a higher number of previous sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multivariate analyses suggested that DFP was associated with increased likelihood of recent intercourse, condom-unprotected sex, and oral sex. DFP was related to few sociodemographic variables but was associated with having fewer children currently, a history of victimization, and decreased rates of disclosure of HIV status. The few sociodemographic variables that were associated with DFP suggest that social relationships may play a role in DFP. DFP was associated with sexual behaviors that may place young women at risk for STI acquisition and secondary HIV transmission to partners. Health care providers should assess DFP in routine HIV care, providing education about fertility options, interventions for vertical transmission, family planning, and risk reduction counseling. PMID:22482121

  15. Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women. PMID:22902255

  16. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. PMID:26192221

  17. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  18. Change in sexual behaviour and decline in HIV infection among young pregnant women in urban Uganda.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe-Okiror, G; Opio, A A; Musinguzi, J; Madraa, E; Tembo, G; Caraël, M

    1997-11-15

    Repeated serologic surveys conducted in consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three urban sites--Nsambya, Rubaga, and Jinja--in Uganda in 1989-95 documented substantial declines (27-47%) in HIV prevalence. Multiple population-based behavioral surveys conducted in urban Uganda in 1989 and 1995 suggest this decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women may be a result of three key changes in sexual practices: a 2-year delay in the onset of sexual intercourse among young people 15-24 years of age, a 9% decrease in the practice of casual sex among males 15-24 years old, and increases in the experience of condom use of 40% among males and 30% among females. Proportions of male and female youth reporting they had never had sexual intercourse increased from 31% and 26%, respectively, in 1989 to 56% and 46%, respectively, in 1995. The prevalence among men in the past year of sex outside relationships that had lasted more than 12 months declined from 22.6% in 1989 to 18.1% in 1995. The proportion of men and women who reported exchanging sex for money dropped by almost 50%. Finally, the proportion of sexually active respondents who reported ever-use of condoms increased from 15.4% to 55.2% among men and from 5.8% to 38.7% among women from 1989 to 1995. In two of the three urban areas, the decline in HIV prevalence was sharpest among pregnant women in the youngest age group (15-24 years), suggesting a true decrease. The finding of substantial changes in the sexual behavior of urban Ugandan youth confirms the efficacy of AIDS prevention and control interventions. PMID:9386811

  19. Bone Mineral Density Changes Among Young, Healthy African Women Receiving Oral Tenofovir for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Clifton W.; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Mayo, Ashley; Piper, Jeanna; Akello, Carolyne A.; Kiweewa, Flavia M.; Magure, Tsitsi; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist on effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) when used for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-negative women. We evaluated the effect of daily oral TDF and emtricitabine/TDF compared with placebo on BMD among women enrolled in an HIV-1 PrEP trial. Methods: HIV-uninfected women in Uganda and Zimbabwe had BMD measurements of lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and every 24 weeks for 48 weeks of active treatment and for 48 weeks after discontinuation of study medication. Plasma tenofovir levels were assessed every 12 weeks for the first 48 weeks. Results: Of 518 women enrolled, 432 had dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results at baseline and week 48. In the primary analysis, no significant differences in percent BMD change in hip or spine between arms observed, likely because of low product adherence. Among the subset with tenofovir detection in 75%–100% of plasma samples, the mean percent BMD change from baseline to week 48 in the LS was 1.4% lower for TDF or emtricitabine/TDF recipients than for placebo (P = 0.002) and TH BMD was 0.9% lower (P = 0.018). BMD changes from end of active treatment to 48 weeks were significantly greater in the active arm participants compared with placebo participants with a net difference of approximately +0.9% at the LS (P = 0.007) and +0.7% (P = 0.003) at the TH. Conclusions: TDF-containing oral PrEP resulted in small but significant reversible decreases in hip and spine BMD among young African women. PMID:26866954

  20. Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Shana Cecile

    In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided

  1. Subtyping women with bulimia nervosa along dietary and negative affect dimensions: further evidence of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Bohon, Cara; Marti, C Nathan; Fischer, Kathryn

    2008-12-01

    Studies have found that individuals with bulimia nervosa can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and that the latter exhibit greater eating pathology, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment; a more protracted clinical course; and a worse treatment response. In this report, the authors describe 2 prospective studies that found that young women with threshold (n = 48) and subthreshold (n = 83) bulimic pathology can be classified into dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes; that two subtyping approaches produced similar results (mean kappa = .94); that the subtyping distinction showed 4-week test-retest reliability (kappa = .61); and that the dietary-negative affect subtype showed greater eating pathology, emotional distress, functional impairment, treatment seeking, and lower likelihood of recovery over 6-month and 3-year follow-ups than the dietary subtype. The dieting-negative affect subtyping distinction evidenced greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity than did the purging-nonpurging subtyping distinction. The additional evidence for the reliability and validity of this subtyping scheme, particularly the prognostic utility, suggests it is worth additional inquiry. PMID:19045970

  2. Sexual sensation seeking in Spanish young men and women with different sexual orientations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266

  3. Ten-Year Recurrence Rates in Young Women With Breast Cancer by Locoregional Treatment Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, Beth M.; Woodward, Wendy A. Tucker, Susan L.; Outlaw, Elesyia D.; Allen, Pamela K.; Oh, Julia L.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, T.-K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Litton, Jennifer K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer have higher locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates than older patients. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of locoregional treatment strategy, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), mastectomy alone (M), or mastectomy with adjuvant radiation (MXRT), on LRR for patients 35 years or younger. Methods and Materials: Data for 668 breast cancers in 652 young patients with breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed; 197 patients were treated with BCT, 237 with M, and 234 with MXRT. Results: Median follow-up for all living patients was 114 months. In the entire cohort, 10-year actuarial LRR rates varied by locoregional treatment: 19.8% for BCT, 24.1% for M, and 15.1% for MXRT (p = 0.05). In patients with Stage II disease, 10-year actuarial LRR rates by locoregional treatment strategy were 17.7% for BCT, 22.8% for M, and 5.7% for MXRT (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, M (hazard ratio, 4.45) and Grade III disease (hazard ratio, 2.24) predicted for increased LRR. In patients with Stage I disease, there was no difference in LRR rates based on locoregional treatment (18.0% for BCT, 19.8% for M; p = 0.56), but chemotherapy use had a statistically significant LRR benefit (13.5% for chemotherapy, 27.9% for none; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Young women have high rates of LRR after breast cancer treatment. For patients with Stage II disease, the best locoregional control rates were achieved with MXRT. For patients with Stage I disease, similar outcomes were achieved with BCT and mastectomy; however, chemotherapy provided a significant benefit to either approach.

  4. Impact of Marijuana Use on Self-Rated Cognition in Young Adult Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Kurth, Megan E.; Brower, Kirk J.; Strong, David R.; Stein, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Marijuana (MJ) is a widely used substance that has been shown to impair cognition in laboratory settings. There is a growing number of medical marijuana dispensaries and state policies permitting the use of MJ in the United States. This study is a naturalistic study that explores the association of same day marijuana use on self-rated cognition in young adult men and women. Methods Forty-eight young adults (22F; mean age=22.3) participated. After a baseline assessment, participants made daily phone calls to study staff over the next three weeks. Cumulative minutes of MJ use in the last 24-hours were assessed. Demographic information were collected and self-ratings of cognitive impairment were assessed using six questions about areas of difficulty thinking each day. Results There was a significant relationship between greater number of minutes of marijuana use and higher levels of self-rated cognitive difficulties (b=0.004; SE=0.001; p<0.006). There was no main effect of gender (b=1.0; SE=0.81; p<0.22). Planned evaluation of the interaction between gender and minutes of marijuana use was not significant statistically, suggesting a similar relationship between minutes of marijuana use and cognitive difficulties among women compared to men (p<0.54). Conclusions and Scientific Significance There is an association between current and heavy MJ use and self-perceived cognitive ability in both males and females. These findings reveal important information regarding one consequence of MJ use that has real-world meaning to young adult smokers. PMID:25864605

  5. The role of absorption in women's sexual response to erotica: a cognitive-affective investigation.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jade; Koukounas, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of absorption on women's emotional and cognitive processing of erotic film. Absorption was experimentally manipulated using 2 different sets of test session instructions. The first, participant-oriented, instruction set directed participants to absorb themselves in the erotic film presentation, imagining that they were active participants in the sexual activities depicted. The second, spectator-oriented, instruction set directed participants to observe and assess the erotic film excerpt as impartial spectators. The participant-oriented instruction set was found to elicit greater subjective absorption in women than the spectator-oriented instruction set, and women reported greater subjective sexual arousal in the former set compared with the latter. Thus, it appears that the degree to which a woman becomes absorbed in an erotic stimulus may affect her subsequent subjective sexual arousal. Also, women reported greater degrees of positive affect when they took a participant-oriented perspective than when they viewed the erotic materials as impartial spectators. Thus, participants who were highly absorbed in the erotic film excerpt were more likely to view the stimulus favorably. By contrast, the degree to which women became absorbed in the stimulus had no effect on their reported negative affect. Future directions for examining female response patterns are suggested. PMID:19253136

  6. Influencing young women to pursue a career in the creative information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosco, Michele

    A leaky pipeline is often cited as the cause for the underrepresentation of women in computer-related professions. However, females may not even enter the pipeline; that is, they do not even enroll in creative information technology coursework as early as high school. Creative information technology careers include web design, digital photography, and multimedia. Constructs of the social cognitive career theory---outcome expectations and self-efficacy--provided the theoretical framework for this investigation to determine why young women are not exhibiting interest in these careers. Using an action research structure, a female-segregated technology club was implemented at the high school. The study intended to increase the participants' interest in pursuing careers in the creative information technology field through the components of career choice as outlined in the theoretical framework. The outcome expectations of "With whom will I work?" and "What will I do?" were addressed through the presentation of female role models and career information. Self-efficacy was targeted through technology skills' instruction directly related to the creative information technology fields. Data was collected through the administration of a pretest/posttest survey instrument, researcher observations, individual participant interviews, and an analysis of the participants' creative products. Quantitative findings indicated that there were few statistically significant program effects. The participants' perceptions of those employed in these careers did not change, but their technology self-efficacy increased on three indicators. Analysis of qualitative data yielded a more complete picture: although the young women had little prior knowledge of those employed in these fields, they did enjoy learning technology to develop creative projects in a social atmosphere where they could persevere through the technology frustrations they encountered. All of the data types affirmed that the

  7. Association between the Functionality of Pelvic Floor Muscles and Sexual Satisfaction in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Darski, Caroline; Barbosa, Lia Janaina Ferla; Paiva, Luciana Laureano; Vieira, Adriane

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to associate the results obtained while assessing the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) functionality with the score of sexual satisfaction of young adult women. Methods This is an observational and cross-sectional study. The inclusion criteria were women aged between 20 and 40 years who have had sexual intercourse, nulliparous, BMI lower than 25 kg/m(2), and absence of pelvic floor dysfunction. The evaluation consisted of both the medical history and assessment of the PFM functionality using the Perina pressure biofeedback and Oxford Scale. We measured sexual satisfaction using the Female Sexual Quotient questionnaire and used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to verify the normality of the data. We analyzed non-parametric variables using the Spearman correlation test. The significance level was 5%. Results A total of 80 women with a median age of 26 years and median BMI of 21.64 kg/m(2) participated in this study. We divided the subjects into two groups, best and worse PFM functionality, according to median Perina pressure biofeedback and Oxford scale. We found no difference between the groups when comparing the sexual satisfaction scores. There was only a slight significant correlation between the Contraction Voluntary Average obtained using the pressure biofeedback and the primary domain (r = 0.27; p = 0.01). Conclusion This study found a slight correlation between PFM functionality and the functionality of the primary domain of the Female Sexual Quotient questionnaire. Therefore, it is not possible to state whether there is an association between the PFM functionality and female sexual satisfaction in young adults. PMID:27088707

  8. Associations between body mass index, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child maltreatment in young women.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Eschenbacher, Michaela A; Diemer, Elizabeth W; Nelson, Elliot C; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3,699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (p<.001 for all). Although all three forms of child maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR=2.16, 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity. PMID:25770346

  9. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Deborah B.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception. PMID:26010318

  10. Associations Between Body Mass Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Child Maltreatment In Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexis E.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Eschenbacher, Michaela A.; Diemer, Elizabeth W.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (p<0.001 for all). Although all three forms of child maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity. PMID:25770346

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk in young Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guleria, A K; Syal, S K; Kapoor, A; Kumar, S; Tiwari, P; Dabadghao, P

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hypertension and dyslipidemia. We studied CVD risk in young women (18-35 years age) with PCOS using carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) which are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Fifty women with PCOS (age: 24.3 ± 4 years; body mass index [BMI]: 24.6 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were compared with 50 age and BMI matched healthy controls (age: 24.6 ± 5 years; BMI: 23.9 ± 4 kg/m(2)). CIMT was significantly higher (0.55 ± 0.09 mm versus 0.40 ± 0.1 mm, p value <0.0001) and FMD was significantly lower (9.39 ± 4.36% versus 13.89 ± 4.77%, p value <0.0001) in cases as compared to controls. These differences in CIMT and FMD remained significant when subgroup were analyzed, obese PCOS versus obese controls and non obese PCOS versus non-obese controls. In stepwise linear regression PCOS was associated with CIMT and FMD independent of age, BMI and blood pressure. Young women with PCOS irrespective of their BMI have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by increased CIMT and a lower FMD. PMID:24020937

  12. NEW PASS: Nontraditional Education for Women, Paths to Economic Self-Sufficiency. A Career Awareness Program for Economically Disadvantaged Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Judith

    This manual is designed for social service agencies, educational institutions, and other organizations who want to strengthen their programming for economicaly disadvantaged teenage girls and young women. It provides materials for the development and implementation of NEW PASS, a unique career awareness program that uses nontraditional employment…

  13. “Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the

  14. Sexual Behavior of Married Young Women: A Preliminary Study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kaur, Rajinder; Prakash, Om; Banerjee, Anindya; Kumar, Lata; Kulhara, P

    2008-01-01

    Background: There are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning female sexual behavior and attitudes surrounding sexuality, which have definitive implications on public health and clinical work. Aim: To study the sexual behavior of young married Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 consecutive women attending the Department of Pediatrics for the care of noncritical children in a multispecialty, tertiary care teaching hospital setting in North India. Current levels of sexual functioning and satisfaction were assessed by using the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women (BISF-W). All participants were also administered a translated and culturally adapted instrument called Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire-II (SKAQ-II). Results: Peno-vaginal sex continues to be considered the most desired and actually performed sexual activity for arousal and orgasm, followed by kissing and foreplay. Difficulties while performing sexual activity, in the form of physical problems, were faced by 17% of the participants. The participants displayed adequate sexual knowledge and favorable attitude towards sexuality as measured by SKAQ-II. Conclusion: The present study is a preliminary effort to understand the contemporary female sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude by employing standard instruments. Still further studies are required in this area. PMID:19876477

  15. Sex trade among young women attending family-planning clinics in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and nature of sex trade in a clinic-based sample of young women and to evaluate associations with sexual and reproductive health. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with women aged 16–29 years (n=1277) presenting to family-planning clinics in Northern California, USA. Results Overall, 8.1% of respondents indicated a lifetime history of trading sex for money or other resources. Sex trade was associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.48), multiple abortions (ARR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19–2.23), STI diagnosis (ARR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27–1.68), and unwanted sex (vaginal ARR 3.64; 95% CI, 2.39–5.56; anal ARR 4.99; 95% CI, 2.17–11.50). Of the women ever involved in sex trade, 12 (37.3%) reported that their first such experience was before they were 18 years of age. Conclusion Approximately 1 in 12 participants had been involved in sex trade, illustrating the presence of patients with this history within the family-planning clinical setting. Sex trade was associated with multiple indicators of poor sexual and reproductive health. Family-planning clinics may represent an underused mechanism for engaging this high-risk population. PMID:22356762

  16. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  17. Impact of maternal marital status on birth outcomes among young Malaysian women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, Norhasmah; Low, Wah-Yun; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of maternal marital status on birth outcomes among young Malaysian women and investigated other risk factors influencing the birth outcomes. Pregnant women with and without marital ties at the point of pregnancy diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at pregnancy diagnosis and shortly after childbirth. From a total of 229 unmarried and 213 married women who participated, marital status was significantly associated with preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-2.61) and low birth weight (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.98-6.57). Other factors significantly associated with birth outcomes was prenatal care (OR, 4.92; 95% CI, 1.43-16.95), "use of drugs" (OR, 10.39; 95% CI, 1.14-94.76), age (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16), and number of prenatal visits (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07). Promoting access to prenatal care and social support programs for unmarried mothers may be important to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25005933

  18. Hypoestrogenism in young women and its influence on bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2010-09-01

    One of the most important hormonal factors responsible for bone health is estradiol. Genetic factors, adequacy of hormonal functioning, nutrition and physical activity may be the markers of bone status and development in young women. During adolescence, women reach peak bone acquisition and develop a skeletal mass. This process is largely regulated by endocrine factors mainly such as adequate levels of gonadal, adrenal and pituitary hormones. The crucial role played by estradiol and its impact on bones are very multiple. Estradiol induces growth factors' activation, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) production inhibition and is mainly referred to antiresorptive activity. Clinical situations leading to hypoestrogenism has been linked to decreased bone mineral density leading to osteopenia and osteoporosis. This status both in fertile and perimenopausal women can increase the risk of pathological fractures. Such conditions as hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency (functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, anorexia nervosa, Kallmann syndrome, hyperprolactinemia), ovarian failure (gonadal dysgenesis, premature ovarian failure) and iatrogenic treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) can cause hypoestrogenism. The treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis caused by hypoestrogenism is very essential and multidirectional. The crucial role of the therapy is the achievement of proper serum estradiol concentration and eliminate the causes of hypoestrogenism. PMID:20504098

  19. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Zava, David T; Piper, Walter T; Saturn, Sarina R; Frei, Balz; Gombart, Adrian F

    2015-05-30

    There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. PMID:25791903

  20. Pretending orgasm during sexual intercourse: correlates in a sample of young adult women.

    PubMed

    Wiederman, M W

    1997-01-01

    Although popular media have addressed the issue of women pretending orgasm during sexual intercourse, the research literature on the phenomenon is sparse. In the current study, 161 young adult women provided data regarding lifetime sexual experience, objective and subjective physical attractiveness, sexual attitudes (erotophobia-erotophilia), sexual esteem, and general tendencies toward self-monitoring of expressive behavior in social situations. Overall, more than one-half of the women reported having pretended orgasm during sexual intercourse. In univariate analyses, the "pretenders" and "non-pretenders" did not differ in experimenter-rated facial attractiveness, self-rated body attractiveness, or general self-monitoring. However, pretenders were significantly older; viewed themselves as facially more attractive, reported having had first intercourse at a younger age; reported greater numbers of lifetime intercourse, fellatio, and cunnilingus partners; and scored higher on measures of sexual esteem and erotophilia. In multivariate analyses, only sexual esteem was uniquely related to having pretended orgasm. The findings are discussed with regard to possible explanations and implications, as well as directions for future research. PMID:9230494

  1. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in women affected by Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bajic, Vladan; Mandusic, Vesna; Stefanova, Elka; Bozovic, Ana; Davidovic, Radoslav; Zivkovic, Lada; Cabarkapa, Andrea; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    X-chromosome instability has been a long established feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Premature centromere division and aneuploidy of the X-chromosome has been found in peripheral blood lymphocytes and neuronal tissue in female AD patients. Interestingly, only one chromosome of the X pair has been affected. These results raised a question, "Is the X-chromosome inactivation pattern altered in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women affected by AD?" To address this question, we analyzed the methylation status of androgen receptor promoter which may show us any deviation from the 50 : 50% X inactivation status in peripheral blood lymphocytes of women with AD. Our results showed skewed inactivation patterns (>90%). These findings suggest that an epigenetic alteration on the inactivation centers of the X-chromosome (or skewing) relates not only to aging, by might be a novel property that could account for the higher incidence of AD in women. PMID:25159673

  2. How orthographic transparency affects morphological processing in young readers with and without reading disability.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Miguel; García, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates how orthographic modifications to the stems of complex words affect morphological processing in proficient young Spanish readers and children with reading deficits. In a definition task all children, irrespective of their reading skill, were worse at defining derived words that had an orthographic alteration of the base stem than words with no orthographic alteration. In a go/no-go lexical decision task, an interaction between base frequency and orthographic alteration was found: base frequency affected derived words with no orthographic alteration more than words with alterations, irrespective of reading skill. Overall, results show that all children benefit from a high frequency base, skilled children outperform children with reading deficits and morphological processing is affected by orthographic alterations similarly in proficient and impaired readers. PMID:25899060

  3. Self-control, negative affect, and young driver aggression: an assessment of competing theoretical claims.

    PubMed

    Ellwanger, Steven J; Pratt, Travis C

    2014-01-01

    A large body of research reveals support for Agnew's general strain theory (GST) and Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory, yet the two perspectives make decidedly different predictions concerning the relationships between self-control, negative affect (e.g., anger), and criminal/deviant behavior. Where GST specifies indirect and conditioning effects of self-control and negative affect on criminal/deviant behavior, self-control theory states that the independent effect of indicators of anger would be spurious and should disappear on controlling for self-control. We test these propositions using survey data from a probability sample of young adults. The structural equation models indicate that, although anger is largely the consequence of self-control, self-control and negative affect exert significant direct effects on driving aggression. These results highlight the need to integrate GST and self-control theories to better explain this form of deviant behavior. PMID:23109495

  4. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  5. Impact of breast cancer on anti-mullerian hormone levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Su, H I; Flatt, S W; Natarajan, L; DeMichele, A; Steiner, A Z

    2013-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer face treatments that impair ovarian function, but it is not known if malignancy itself impacts ovarian reserve. As more breast cancer patients consider future fertility, it is important to determine if ovarian reserve is impacted by cancer, prior to any therapeutic intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing if ovarian reserve, as measured by anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin B (inhB), differed between 108 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 99 healthy women without breast cancer. Breast cancer participants were ages 28-44 and were recruited from two clinical breast programs. Healthy women ages 30-44 without a history of infertility were recruited from gynecology clinics and the community. The median age (interquartile range) was 40.2(5.5) years for breast cancer participants and 33.0(4.6) years for healthy controls. The unadjusted geometric mean AMH levels (SD) for breast cancer participants and controls were 0.66(3.6) and 1.1(2.9) ng/mL, respectively. Adjusting for age, body mass index, gravidity, race, menstrual pattern, and smoking, mean AMH levels were not significantly different between breast cancer participants and healthy controls (0.85 vs. 0.76 ng/mL, p = 0.60). FSH and inhB levels did not differ by breast cancer status. In exploratory analysis, the association between AMH and breast cancer status differed by age (p-interaction = 0.02). AMH may be lower with breast cancer status in women older than 37. In younger women, AMH levels did not differ significantly by breast cancer status. Among the youngest of breast cancer patients, ovarian reserve as measured by AMH, FSH, and inhibin B did not differ significantly from healthy women of similar age. In older breast cancer patients, ovarian reserve may be adversely impacted by cancer status. These findings support the potential success and need for fertility preservation strategies prior to institution of

  6. Factors Affecting the Vocational Choice of Women of Different Ages Selecting Clerical and Secretarial Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmarth, John Gary

    An attempt was made to examine the factors affecting women of different ages in their selection of clerical and secretarial occupations. The factors considered were: health, intelligence, interests, previous work experience, stated reasons for present occupational choice, knowledge of employment opportunities and job requirements, influence of…

  7. "Speech in remote areas and inspiration to young students"—An outreach activity for women in physics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Man-Ling; Guo, Xia; Gu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Feng, Ya-Qing; Zhu, Shao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics of the Chinese Physical Society in Beijing has worked since 2002 to improve the situation of women in physics in China. Because development is not balanced in vast mainland China—remote areas lag behind in education—a new outreach activity, "Speech in Remote Areas and Inspiration to Young Students," was launched in 2013. This program aims to broaden the horizons of students in remote areas and to inspire their exploration and enterprise.

  8. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    PubMed

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  9. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stefanie; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. Objective To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure—the SenseWear Armband (SWA)—to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Methods Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and

  10. [Association between the 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene and EEG in Young and Postmenopausal Women].

    PubMed

    VolF, N V; Belousova, L V; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-01

    Effect of ovarian steroids on serotonin neurotransmission suggests that the modulating effect of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene on brain activity in women may change with age related changes in hormonal status. Objective of the study was to identify relationships between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and characteristics of baseline EEG in healthy young women (19-35 years, N = 85) and in women in post menopause (55-80 years, N = 44). It was shown that in S'/S'(SA/SA, SA/LG) and L'/L' (LA/LA) genotypes carriers' women of the older age group had lower delta, alpha 2 and alpha 3 band power than the young. In older women genetic differences in the power of these rhythms were due to lower values in carriers of S'/S' and L'/L' compared with S'/L' genotype. S'/L' genotype was characterized by higher beta 1 rhythm power in elderly compared with young women. These results demonstrate the difference in the neurophysiological mechanisms of age-related changes in brain activity which are associated with the polymorphism of 5-HTTLPR. PMID:26281230

  11. Influence of higher-grade walking on metabolic demands in young untrained Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Inui, Fujio

    2007-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to document the physiological responses of level walking and running (LW/R) at various speeds, and grade walking (GW) at various grades on a treadmill. Twenty-four young untrained Japanese women performed 2 tests on the specially designed treadmill for a higher grade exercise. The first test was the LW/R with increase of speeds, 33.3, 66.7, 91.7, and 116.7 m.min(-1). The first 3 progressions were for walking and the last progression was for running. The second test was the GW with increase of grades 0, 10, 20, and 30% with the velocity of 33.3 m.min(-1) in all progressions. The different combinations of speeds and grade for the progressions used in this study were selected based on the results of preliminary pilot studies, so that the percent heart rate maximim (%HRmax) was reached at the minimum intensities recommended to allow improving cardiorespiratory fitness by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Significant (p young women. The ACSM equation for walking and running underestimates VO2 for young untrained Japanese women. Population characteristics (e.g., body size and age) should be considered when designing cardiorespiratory fitness programs based on the ACSM equation. PMID:17530987

  12. OBESITY AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN BEHAVIORALLY HIV-INFECTED YOUNG WOMEN: ADOLESCENT TRIALS NETWORK (ATN) STUDY 021

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Harris, D. Robert; Monte, Dina; Stoszek, Sonia; Emmanuel, Patricia; Hardin, Dana S.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Worrell, Carol; Meyer, William A.; Sleasman, John; Wilson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to determine the nature and prevalence of abnormalities in lipids, glucose metabolism, and body composition in behaviorally HIV-infected young women and their relationship to different classes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional multicenter study in behaviorally infected women ages 12-24 years (HIVpos; N=173) and seronegative controls (HIVneg; N=61). HIVpos women were categorized as ART-naïve (N=85), on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimen (NNRTI; N=33), on a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (PI; N=36), or on a non-NNRTI/non-PI containing regimen (N=19). Measurements included fasting lipids; glucose and insulin before and 2 hours after an oral glucose challenge; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP); anthropometry; fat distribution (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry); and ART and medical histories. Race-adjusted results were compared across groups and within HIVpos groups. Results The median age was 20 (range 14-24) years. 77% of HIVpos were African American, 35% smoked cigarettes, and 32% reported exercising regularly. More than 40% had a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Triglycerides; total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol; and hsCRP differed significantly among groups, with higher levels most common among those on ART. Indices of glucose metabolism did not differ among groups. In general, cholesterol, hsCRP, and indices of glucose metabolism worsened as BMI increased. Conclusions Obesity, dyslipidemia, and inflammation were prominent in HIV-infected adolescent women and, coupled with other risk factors, may accelerate the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and other adverse events. These results underscore the need for a multifaceted approach to addressing risk reduction in this population. PMID:19947855

  13. A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Elena; Del Ghianda, Scilla; Di Cosmo, Caterina; Tonacchera, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid) for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin. Results. We recorded a statistically significant reduction of LH, free testosterone, fasting insulin, and HOMA index only in the group treated with the combined therapy of MI plus DCI; in the same patients, we observed a statistically significant increase of 17-beta-Estradiol levels. Conclusions. The combined therapy of MI plus DCI is effective in improving endocrine and metabolic parameters in young obese PCOS affected women. PMID:27493664

  14. A Combined Therapy with Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro-Inositol Improves Endocrine Parameters and Insulin Resistance in PCOS Young Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Elena; Del Ghianda, Scilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid) for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin. Results. We recorded a statistically significant reduction of LH, free testosterone, fasting insulin, and HOMA index only in the group treated with the combined therapy of MI plus DCI; in the same patients, we observed a statistically significant increase of 17-beta-Estradiol levels. Conclusions. The combined therapy of MI plus DCI is effective in improving endocrine and metabolic parameters in young obese PCOS affected women. PMID:27493664

  15. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  16. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  17. Contesting Institutional Discourse to Create New Possibilities for Understanding Lived Experience: Life-Stories of Young Women in Detention, Rehabilitation, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Suniti

    2010-01-01

    This research explores autobiographies of young women in detention, rehabilitation, and education as counter-stories to the official, institutional stories of their lives. The context of the study is a private detention facility in the United States; the participants are young women aged 15-19 years in a detention classroom; and data for the study…

  18. Sustained Increase of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Healthy Young Women during Wintertime after Three Suberythemal UV Irradiations—The MUVY Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Biersack, Maria Gudrun; Hajdukiewicz, Malgorzata; Uebelhack, Ralf; Franke, Leonora; Piazena, Helmut; Klaus, Pascal; Höhne-Zimmer, Vera; Braun, Tanja; Buttgereit, Frank; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Detert, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is a health problem prevalent not only in the elderly but also in young adults. The primary objective of our observational pilot study “MUVY” (Mood, UVR, Vitamin D in Young women) was to test both the short-term and long-term effects of a series of three suberythemal UV radiation (UVR) exposures on the VitD status and well-being of young healthy women during winter in a repeat measure design. Methods 20 healthy young women (Fitzpatrick skin types I–III, aged 21–25 years) received three full body broad band UVR exposures with an escalating erythemally weighted dose schedule during one week in winter, and completed self-report questionnaires monitoring symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) and affective state/well-being (Profile of Mood States, POMS) at baseline and three days after the last UVR exposure. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured in serum at baseline, and at study days 8, 36 and 50. Results Mean baseline 25(OH)D level was 54.3 nmol/L (standard deviation (s.d.) = 24.1), with seven women having VitD deficient status. Relevant symptoms of depression, as indicated by low BDI total scores (0–8), were absent. After the three UVR exposures the increment of 25(OH)D was an average of 13.9 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.4–18.4) and 26.2 pmol/L (95%CI = 7.2–45.1) for 1,25(OH)2D. Δ25(OH)D, and corresponding baseline levels were significantly and inversely associated (rho = -0.493, p = 0.027). Only 25(OH)D remained significantly increased above baseline for at least six weeks after the last UVR exposure. A strong inverse correlation of the POMS subscale “Vigor/Activity” and the increment in 1,25(OH)2D was found (rho = -0.739, p<0.001) at day 8. Conclusions Three suberythemal whole body UVR exposures during one week are a simple and suitable method for improving 25(OH)D levels during winter, for at least six weeks, and especially in

  19. Dietary Energy Density is Positively Associated with Breast Density among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Klifa, Catherine J.; Coffman, Donna L.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Snetselaar, Linda; Horn, Linda Van; Stevens, Victor J.; Robson, Alan; Himes, John; Shepherd, John; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is an established predictor of breast cancer risk, and there is considerable interest in associations of modifiable lifestyle factors, such as diet, with breast density. Objective To determine if dietary energy density (ED) is associated with percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) in young women. Design A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with women who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children Follow-Up Study (DISC06). %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diet was assessed by three 24-hour recalls. Dietary ED (kcal/g) was calculated using three methods: (1) food only, (2) food and caloric beverages, and (3) food and all beverages. Participants/setting 172 women (25–29 years) who were enrolled in the DISC06 study. Subjects who reported breast augmentation or reduction surgery or were pregnant or lactating within three months before breast density assessment were excluded. Main outcome measures ADBV and %DBV. Statistical analyses performed Multivariable linear mixed effects models were used. Final models were adjusted for race, smoking status, education, parity, duration of sex hormone use, whole body percent fat, childhood BMI z-score, and energy from beverages. Results After adjustment, each 1 kcal/g unit increase in food-only ED was associated with a 25.9% (95% confidence interval = 6.2 to 56.8%) increase in %DBV (p=0.01). Childhood BMI z-score modified the association between food-only ED and %DBV such that a significant positive association was observed only in women who were heavier as children. Food-only ED was not associated with ADBV in all women, but a borderline significant positive association was observed in women who had higher childhood BMI z-scores. Conclusions This is the first report to suggest a potential role for dietary ED in breast density; the effects of long-term exposure to high ED diets on breast cancer risk remain unknown. PMID

  20. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Nicole M; Sinning, Wayne E

    2005-01-01

    Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1) would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and osteocalcin (OC), and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y) at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction), and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind) to either a high protein (HP) or training control (TC) group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction). No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP) × time (baseline, week 8, week 12) interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1) Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to enhance bone