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Sample records for afferent synaptic transmission

  1. Synaptic transmission of baro- and chemoreceptors afferents in the NTS second order neurons.

    PubMed

    Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Machado, Benedito H

    2013-04-01

    Second order neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) process and integrate the afferent information from arterial baroreceptors with high fidelity and precise timing synaptic transmission. Since 2nd-order NTS neurons receiving baroreceptors inputs are relatively well characterized, their electrophysiological profile has been accepted as a general characteristic for all 2nd-order NTS neurons involved with the processing of different sensorial inputs. On the other hand, the synaptic properties of other afferent systems in NTS, such as the peripheral chemoreceptors, are not yet well understood. In this context, in previous studies we demonstrated that in response to repetitive afferents stimulation, the chemoreceptors 2nd-order NTS neurons also presented high fidelity of synaptic transmission, but with a large variability in the latency of evoked responses. This finding is different in relation to the precise timing transmission for baroreceptor 2nd-order NTS neurons, which was accepted as a general characteristic profile for all 2nd order neurons in the NTS. In this brief review we discuss this new concept as an index of complexity of the sensorial inputs to NTS with focus on the synaptic processing of baro- and chemoreceptor afferents.

  2. Stochastic resonance in the synaptic transmission between hair cells and vestibular primary afferents in development.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Manilla, S; Huidobro, N; De la Torre-Valdovinos, B; Kristeva, R; Mendez-Balbuena, I; Galindo, F; Treviño, M; Manjarrez, E

    2016-05-13

    The stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon of nonlinear systems in which the addition of an intermediate level of noise improves the response of such system. Although SR has been studied in isolated hair cells and in the bullfrog sacculus, the occurrence of this phenomenon in the vestibular system in development is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore for the existence of SR via natural mechanical-stimulation in the hair cell-vestibular primary afferent transmission. In vitro experiments were performed on the posterior semicircular canal of the chicken inner ear during development. Our experiments showed that the signal-to-noise ratio of the afferent multiunit activity from E15 to P5 stages of development exhibited the SR phenomenon, which was characterized by an inverted U-like response as a function of the input noise level. The inverted U-like graphs of SR acquired their higher amplitude after the post-hatching stage of development. Blockage of the synaptic transmission with selective antagonists of the NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors abolished the SR of the afferent multiunit activity. Furthermore, computer simulations on a model of the hair cell - primary afferent synapse qualitatively reproduced this SR behavior and provided a possible explanation of how and where the SR could occur. These results demonstrate that a particular level of mechanical noise on the semicircular canals can improve the performance of the vestibular system in their peripheral sensory processing even during embryonic stages of development.

  3. Stochastic resonance in the synaptic transmission between hair cells and vestibular primary afferents in development.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Manilla, S; Huidobro, N; De la Torre-Valdovinos, B; Kristeva, R; Mendez-Balbuena, I; Galindo, F; Treviño, M; Manjarrez, E

    2016-05-13

    The stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon of nonlinear systems in which the addition of an intermediate level of noise improves the response of such system. Although SR has been studied in isolated hair cells and in the bullfrog sacculus, the occurrence of this phenomenon in the vestibular system in development is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore for the existence of SR via natural mechanical-stimulation in the hair cell-vestibular primary afferent transmission. In vitro experiments were performed on the posterior semicircular canal of the chicken inner ear during development. Our experiments showed that the signal-to-noise ratio of the afferent multiunit activity from E15 to P5 stages of development exhibited the SR phenomenon, which was characterized by an inverted U-like response as a function of the input noise level. The inverted U-like graphs of SR acquired their higher amplitude after the post-hatching stage of development. Blockage of the synaptic transmission with selective antagonists of the NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors abolished the SR of the afferent multiunit activity. Furthermore, computer simulations on a model of the hair cell - primary afferent synapse qualitatively reproduced this SR behavior and provided a possible explanation of how and where the SR could occur. These results demonstrate that a particular level of mechanical noise on the semicircular canals can improve the performance of the vestibular system in their peripheral sensory processing even during embryonic stages of development. PMID:26926966

  4. Cationic influences upon synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse of the frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of inorganic cations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+) bathing the isolated frog labyrinth were varied in order to assess their role in influencing and mediating synaptic transmission at the hair cell-afferent fiber synapse. Experiments employed intracellular recordings of synaptic activity from VIIIth nerve afferents. Recordings were digitized continuously at 50 kHz, and excitatory postsynaptic potentials were detected and parameters quantified by computer algorithms. Particular attention was focused on cationic effects upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence and excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude, in order to discriminate between pre- and postsynaptic actions. Because the small size of afferents preclude long term stable recordings, alterations in cationic concentrations were applied transiently and their peak effects on synaptic activity were assessed. Increases in extracellular K+ concentration of a few millimolar produced a large increase in the frequency of occurrence of excitatory postsynaptic potentials with little change in amplitude, indicating that release of transmitter from the hair cell is tightly coupled to its membrane potential. Increasing extracellular Na+ concentration resulted in an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude with no significant change in excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency of occurrence, suggesting that the transmitter-gated subsynaptic channel conducts Na+ ions. Decreases in extracellular Ca2+ concentration had little effect upon excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency, but increased excitatory postsynaptic potential frequency and amplitude. These findings suggest that at higher concentrations Ca2+ act presynaptically to prevent transmitter release and postsynaptically to prevent Na+ influx during the generation of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The influences of these ions on synaptic activity at this synapse are remarkably similar to those reported at the

  5. Morphophysiology of synaptic transmission between type I hair cells and vestibular primary afferents. An intracellular study employing horseradish peroxidase in the lizard, Calotes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Schessel, D A; Ginzberg, R; Highstein, S M

    1991-03-22

    Intracellular records with glass microelectrodes filled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were taken from primary afferents of the horizontal semicircular canal in the lizard, Calotes versicolor. A coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike intervals of spontaneous action potentials (APs) was calculated and correlated with the terminal morphologies of afferents within the canal crista. Irregular fibers with CV greater than 0.4 always correlated with a nerve chalice or calyx afferent terminal expansion surrounding one or more type I hair cells; more regular fibers with CV less than 0.4 always correlated with a dimorphic or bouton only terminal expansion of afferents. Afferents with a CV greater than 0.4 demonstrated miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs) that summated to initiate APs. APs were blocked by tetrodotoxin and mEPSP frequency was modulated by caloric stimulation. Cobalt application reversibly blocked mEPSPs. Electron microscopic examination of physiologically studied afferents with CV greater than 0.4 revealed synaptic profiles consisting of typical synaptic bodies and synaptic vesicles in the type I hair cell presynaptic to the nerve chalice. Examples of the interspike baseline in regular and irregular afferents suggest differential modes of impulse initiation in these two fiber types.

  6. The correlated blanching of synaptic bodies and reduction in afferent firing rates caused by transmitter-depleting agents in the frog semicircular canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guth, P.; Norris, C.; Fermin, C. D.; Pantoja, M.

    1993-01-01

    Synaptic bodies (SBs) associated with rings of synaptic vesicles and well-defined, pre- and post-synaptic membrane structures are indicators of maturity in most hair cell-afferent nerve junctions. The role of the SBs remains elusive despite several experiments showing that they may be involved in storage of neurotransmitter. Our results demonstrate that SBs of the adult posterior semicircular canal (SCC) cristae hair cells become less electron dense following incubation of the SCC with the transmitter-depleting drug tetrabenazine (TBZ). Objective quantification and comparison of the densities of the SBs in untreated and TBZ-treated frog SCC demonstrated that TBZ significantly decreased the electron density of SBs. This reduction in electron density was accompanied by a reduction in firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. A second transmitter-depleting drug, guanethidine, previously shown to reduce the electron density of hair cell SBs, also reduced the firing rates of afferent fibers innervating the posterior SCC. In contrast, the electron density of dense granules (DG), similar in size and shape to synaptic bodies (SB) in hair cells, did not change after incubation in TBZ, thus indicating that granules and SBs are not similar in regard to their electron density. The role of SBs in synaptic transmission and the transmitter, if any, stored in the SBs remain unknown. Nonetheless, the association of the lessening of electron density with a reduction in afferent firing rate provides impetus for the further investigation of the SB's role in neurotransmission.

  7. Functional specializations of primary auditory afferents on the Mauthner cells: interactions between membrane and synaptic properties.

    PubMed

    Curti, Sebastian; Pereda, Alberto E

    2010-01-01

    Primary auditory afferents are usually perceived as passive, timing-preserving, lines of communication. Contrasting this view, a special class of auditory afferents to teleost Mauthner cells, a command neuron that organizes tail-flip escape responses, undergoes potentiation of their mixed (electrical and chemical) synapses in response to high frequency cellular activity. This property is likely to represent a mechanism of input sensitization as these neurons provide the Mauthner cell with essential information for the initiation of an escape response. We review here the anatomical and physiological specializations of these identifiable auditory afferents. In particular, we discuss how their membrane and synaptic properties act in concert to more efficaciously activate the Mauthner cells. The striking functional specializations of these neurons suggest that primary auditory afferents might be capable of more sophisticated contributions to auditory processing than has been generally recognized. PMID:19941953

  8. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  9. Electrical stimulation of low-threshold afferent fibers induces a prolonged synaptic depression in lamina II dorsal horn neurons to high-threshold afferent inputs in mice.

    PubMed

    Sdrulla, Andrei D; Xu, Qian; He, Shao-Qiu; Tiwari, Vinod; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Chen; Shu, Bin; Shechter, Ronen; Raja, Srinivasa N; Wang, Yun; Dong, Xinzhong; Guan, Yun

    2015-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of low-threshold Aβ-fibers (Aβ-ES) is used clinically to treat neuropathic pain conditions that are refractory to pharmacotherapy. However, it is unclear how Aβ-ES modulates synaptic responses to high-threshold afferent inputs (C-, Aδ-fibers) in superficial dorsal horn. Substantia gelatinosa (SG) (lamina II) neurons are important for relaying and modulating converging spinal nociceptive inputs. We recorded C-fiber-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) in spinal cord slices in response to paired-pulse test stimulation (500 μA, 0.1 millisecond, 400 milliseconds apart). We showed that 50-Hz and 1000-Hz, but not 4-Hz, Aβ-ES (10 μA, 0.1 millisecond, 5 minutes) induced prolonged inhibition of C-fiber eEPSCs in SG neurons in naive mice. Furthermore, 50-Hz Aβ-ES inhibited both monosynaptic and polysynaptic forms of C-fiber eEPSC in naive mice and mice that had undergone spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The paired-pulse ratio (amplitude second eEPSC/first eEPSC) increased only in naive mice after 50-Hz Aβ-ES, suggesting that Aβ-ES may inhibit SG neurons by different mechanisms under naive and nerve-injured conditions. Finally, 50-Hz Aβ-ES inhibited both glutamatergic excitatory and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, which were identified by fluorescence in vGlut2-Td and glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice after SNL. These findings show that activities in Aβ-fibers lead to frequency-dependent depression of synaptic transmission in SG neurons in response to peripheral noxious inputs. However, 50-Hz Aβ-ES failed to induce cell-type-selective inhibition in SG neurons. The physiologic implication of this novel form of synaptic depression for pain modulation by Aβ-ES warrants further investigation. PMID:25974163

  10. Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic contacts between cortical noradrenergic afferents and endocannabinoid-synthesizing post-synaptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Reyes, B A S; Heldt, N A; Mackie, K; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2015-09-10

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in a myriad of physiological processes that are mediated through the activation of cannabinoid receptors, which are ubiquitously distributed within the nervous system. One neurochemical target at which cannabinoids interact to have global effects on behavior is brain noradrenergic circuitry. We, and others, have previously shown that CB type 1 receptors (CB1r) are positioned to pre-synaptically modulate norepinephrine (NE) release in the rat frontal cortex (FC). Diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). While DGL-α is expressed in the FC in the rat brain, it is not known whether noradrenergic afferents target neurons expressing synthesizing enzymes for the endocannabinoid, 2-AG. In the present study, we employed high-resolution neuroanatomical approaches to better define cellular sites for interactions between noradrenergic afferents and FC neurons expressing DGL-α. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed close appositions between processes containing the norepinephrine transporter (NET) or dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and cortical neurons expressing DGL-α-immunoreactivity. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold-silver labeling for DGL-α and immunoperoxidase labeling for NET or DβH confirmed that NET-labeled axon terminals were directly apposed to FC somata and dendritic processes that exhibited DGL-α-immunoreactivity. Finally, tissue sections were processed for immunohistochemical detection of DGL-α, CB1r and DβH. Triple label immunofluorescence revealed that CB1r and DβH were co-localized in common cellular profiles and these were in close association with DGL-α. Taken together, these data provide anatomical evidence for direct synaptic associations between noradrenergic afferents and cortical neurons exhibiting endocannabinoid synthesizing machinery.

  11. Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic contacts between cortical noradrenergic afferents and endocannabinoid-synthesizing post-synaptic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Heldt, Nathan A.; Mackie, Ken; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in a myriad of physiological processes that are mediated through the activation of cannabinoid receptors, which are ubiquitously distributed within the nervous system. One neurochemical target at which cannabinoids interact to have global effects on behavior is brain noradrenergic circuitry. We, and others, have previously shown that CB type 1 receptors (CB1r) are positioned to pre-synaptically modulate norepinephrine (NE) release in the rat frontal cortex (FC). Diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). While DGL-α is expressed in the FC in the rat brain, it is not known whether noradrenergic afferents target neurons expressing synthesizing enzymes for the endocannabinoid, 2-AG. In the present study, we employed high-resolution neuroanatomical approaches to better define cellular sites for interactions between noradrenergic afferents and FC neurons expressing DGL-α. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed close appositions between processes containing the norepinephrine transporter (NET) or dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and cortical neurons expressing DGL-α-immunoreactivity. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold-silver labeling for DGL-α and immunoperoxidase labeling for NET or DβH confirmed that NET-labeled axon terminals were directly apposed to FC somata and dendritic processes that exhibited DGL-α-immunoreactivity. Finally, tissue sections were processed for immunohistochemical detection of DGL-α , CB1r and DβH. Triple label immunofluorescence revealed that CB1r and DβH were co-localized in common cellular profiles and these were in close association with DGL-α. Taken together, these data provide anatomical evidence for direct synaptic associations between noradrenergic afferents and cortical neurons exhibiting endocannabinoid synthesizing machinery. PMID:26162236

  12. Stability of thalamocortical synaptic transmission across awake brain states.

    PubMed

    Stoelzel, Carl R; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A

    2009-05-27

    Sensory cortical neurons are highly sensitive to brain state, with many neurons showing changes in spatial and/or temporal response properties and some neurons becoming virtually unresponsive when subjects are not alert. Although some of these changes are undoubtedly attributable to state-related filtering at the thalamic level, another likely source of such effects is the thalamocortical (TC) synapse, where activation of nicotinic receptors on TC terminals have been shown to enhance synaptic transmission in vitro. However, monosynaptic TC synaptic transmission has not been directly examined during different states of alertness. Here, in awake rabbits that shifted between alert and non-alert EEG states, we examined the monosynaptic TC responses and short-term synaptic dynamics generated by spontaneous impulses of single visual and somatosensory TC neurons. We did this using spike-triggered current source-density analysis, an approach that enables assessment of monosynaptic extracellular currents generated in different cortical layers by impulses of single TC afferents. Spontaneous firing rates of TC neurons were higher, and burst rates were much lower in the alert state. However, we found no state-related changes in the amplitude of monosynaptic TC responses when TC spikes with similar preceding interspike interval were compared. Moreover, the relationship between the preceding interspike interval of the TC spike and postsynaptic response amplitude was not influenced by state. These data indicate that TC synaptic transmission and dynamics are highly conserved across different states of alertness and that observed state-related changes in receptive field properties that occur at the cortical level result from other mechanisms.

  13. Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

  14. Turn Down That Noise: Synaptic Encoding of Afferent SNR in a Single Spiking Neuron.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Saeed; George, Libin; Thakur, Chetan Singh; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; de Chazal, Philip; Hamilton, Tara Julia

    2015-04-01

    We have added a simplified neuromorphic model of Spike Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) to the previously described Synapto-dendritic Kernel Adapting Neuron (SKAN), a hardware efficient neuron model capable of learning spatio-temporal spike patterns. The resulting neuron model is the first to perform synaptic encoding of afferent signal-to-noise ratio in addition to the unsupervised learning of spatio-temporal spike patterns. The neuron model is particularly suitable for implementation in digital neuromorphic hardware as it does not use any complex mathematical operations and uses a novel shift-based normalization approach to achieve synaptic homeostasis. The neuron's noise compensation properties are characterized and tested on random spatio-temporal spike patterns as well as a noise corrupted subset of the zero images of the MNIST handwritten digit dataset. Results show the simultaneously learning common patterns in its input data while dynamically weighing individual afferents based on their signal to noise ratio. Despite its simplicity the interesting behaviors of the neuron model and the resulting computational power may also offer insights into biological systems. PMID:25910252

  15. Synaptic Transfer from Outer Hair Cells to Type II Afferent Fibers in the Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Catherine J.C.; Lehar, Mohamed; Hiel, Hakim; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2012-01-01

    Type II cochlear afferents receive glutamatergic synaptic excitation from outer hair cells (OHCs) in the rat cochlea. However, it remains uncertain whether this connection is capable of providing auditory information to the brain. The functional efficacy of this connection depends in part on the number of presynaptic OHCs, their probability of transmitter release, and the effective electrical distance for spatial summation in the Type II fiber. The present work addresses these questions using whole-cell recordings from the spiral process of type II afferents that run below OHCs in the apical turn of young (5–9 days postnatal) rat cochlea. A ‘high potassium puffer’ was used to elicit calcium action potentials from individual OHCs and thereby show that the average probability of transmitter release was 0.26 (range 0.02 to 0.73). Electron microscopy showed relatively few vesicles tethered to ribbons in equivalent OHCs. A ‘receptive field’ map for individual type II fibers was constructed by successively puffing onto OHCs along the cochlear spiral, up to 180 µm from the recording pipette. These revealed a conservative estimate of 7 presynaptic OHCs per type II fiber (range 1–11). EPSCs evoked from presynaptic OHCs separated by more than 100 µm did not differ in amplitude or waveform, implying that the type II fiber’s length constant exceeded the length of the synaptic input zone. Taken together these data suggest that type II fibers could communicate centrally by maximal activation of their entire pool of presynaptic OHCs. PMID:22787038

  16. Compartmental modeling of rat macular primary afferents from three-dimensional reconstructions of transmission electron micrographs of serial sections.

    PubMed

    Chimento, T C; Doshay, D G; Ross, M D

    1994-05-01

    1. We cut serial sections through the medial part of the rat vestibular macula for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination, computer-assisted three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and compartmental modeling. The ultrastructural research showed that many primary vestibular neurons have an unmyelinated segment, often branched, that extends between the heminode [putative site of the spike initiation zone (SIZ)] and the expanded terminal(s) (calyx, calyces). These segments, termed the neuron branches, and the calyces frequently have spinelike processes of various dimensions that morphologically are afferent, efferent, or reciprocal to other macular neural elements. The purpose of this research was to determine whether morphometric data obtained ultrastructurally were essential to compartmental models [i.e., they influenced action potential (AP) generation, latency, or amplitude] or whether afferent parts could be collapsed into more simple units without markedly affecting results. We used the compartmental modeling program NEURON for this research. 2. In the first set of simulations we studied the relative importance of small variations in process morphology on distant depolarization. A process was placed midway along an isolated piece of a passive neuron branch. The dimensions of the four processes corresponded to actual processes in the serial sections. A synapse, placed on the head of each process, was activated and depolarization was recorded at the end of the neuron branch. When we used 5 nS synaptic conductance, depolarization varied by 3 mV. In a systematic study over a representative range of stem dimensions, depolarization varied by 15.7 mV. Smaller conductances produced smaller effects. Increasing membrane resistivity from 5,000 to 50,000 omega cm2 had no significant effect. 3. In a second series of simulations, using whole primary afferents, we examined the combined effects of process location and afferent morphology on depolarization magnitude

  17. Archaerhodopsin Selectively and Reversibly Silences Synaptic Transmission through Altered pH.

    PubMed

    El-Gaby, Mohamady; Zhang, Yu; Wolf, Konstantin; Schwiening, Christof J; Paulsen, Ole; Shipton, Olivia A

    2016-08-23

    Tools that allow acute and selective silencing of synaptic transmission in vivo would be invaluable for understanding the synaptic basis of specific behaviors. Here, we show that presynaptic expression of the proton pump archaerhodopsin enables robust, selective, and reversible optogenetic synaptic silencing with rapid onset and offset. Two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed that this effect is accompanied by a transient increase in pH restricted to archaerhodopsin-expressing boutons. Crucially, clamping intracellular pH abolished synaptic silencing without affecting the archaerhodopsin-mediated hyperpolarizing current, indicating that changes in pH mediate the synaptic silencing effect. To verify the utility of this technique, we used trial-limited, archaerhodopsin-mediated silencing to uncover a requirement for CA3-CA1 synapses whose afferents originate from the left CA3, but not those from the right CA3, for performance on a long-term memory task. These results highlight optogenetic, pH-mediated silencing of synaptic transmission as a spatiotemporally selective approach to dissecting synaptic function in behaving animals. PMID:27524609

  18. Transient analysis of a chemical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, D S

    1993-01-01

    The statistical dynamics of an impulse induced quanta turnover is studied by means of a nonstationary stochastic model--double barrier synapse--resulting from a previously developed mathematical theory of chemical synaptic transmission. An essential aspect of nonstationarities of the model is that the interpool quanta transfers follow binomial distribution at impulse arrival time, while in the absence of stimulation they obey Yule-Furry statistics. Under a variety of conditions, corresponding to those in actual experiments, the transient behaviour of the model is simulated and analysed in detail. As a result, the quantitative description of immediate and delayed components of synaptic action is introduced. If simulations of quantal fluctuations are performed numerically, then for the treatment of dynamic regularities, besides numerical procedures, an analytical method of envelopes is developed. It is supported by the theorems which reduce behaviour of the double-barrier synapse to the super-position of simpler solutions for single-barrier systems. With short-term facilitation quantitative analysis and simulations, the synaptic resonance phenomenon is theoretically predicted: different resonant frequencies are found at different levels of facilitation. The importance of this phenomenon treated as a clue to the information processing capabilities of a chemical synapse is discussed. PMID:8097407

  19. Primary afferent depolarization and frequency processing in auditory afferents.

    PubMed

    Baden, Tom; Hedwig, Berthold

    2010-11-01

    Presynaptic inhibition is a widespread mechanism modulating the efficiency of synaptic transmission and in sensory pathways is coupled to primary afferent depolarizations. Axonal terminals of bush-cricket auditory afferents received 2-5 mV graded depolarizing inputs, which reduced the amplitude of invading spikes and indicated presynaptic inhibition. These inputs were linked to a picrotoxin-sensitive increase of Ca(2+) in the terminals. Electrophysiological recordings and optical imaging showed that in individual afferents the sound frequency tuning based on spike rates was different from the tuning of the graded primary afferent depolarizations. The auditory neuropil of the bush-cricket Mecopoda elongata is tonotopically organized, with low frequencies represented anteriorly and high frequencies represented posteriorly. In contrast graded depolarizing inputs were tuned to high-frequencies anteriorly and to low-frequencies posteriorly. Furthermore anterior and posterior axonal branches of individual afferents received different levels of primary afferent depolarization depending on sound frequency. The presence of primary afferent depolarization in the afferent terminals indicates that presynaptic inhibition may shape the synaptic transmission of frequency-specific activity to auditory interneurons.

  20. Differential presynaptic control of the synaptic effectiveness of cutaneous afferents evidenced by effects produced by acute nerve section

    PubMed Central

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Chávez, D

    2013-01-01

    In the anaesthetized cat, the acute section of the saphenous (Saph) and/or the superficial peroneal (SP) nerves was found to produce a long-lasting increase of the field potentials generated in the dorsal horn by stimulation of the medial branch of the sural (mSU) nerve. This facilitation was associated with changes in the level of the tonic primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of the mSU intraspinal terminals. The mSU afferent fibres projecting into Rexed's laminae III–IV were subjected to a tonic PAD that was reduced by the acute section of the SP and/or the Saph nerves. The mSU afferents projecting deeper into the dorsal horn (Rexed's laminae V–VI) were instead subjected to a tonic PAD that was increased after Saph and SP acute nerve section. A differential control of the synaptic effectiveness of the low-threshold cutaneous afferents according to their sites of termination within the dorsal horn is envisaged as a mechanism that allows selective processing of sensory information in response to tactile and nociceptive stimulation or during the execution of different motor tasks. PMID:23478136

  1. The optimal neural strategy for a stable motor task requires a compromise between level of muscle cocontraction and synaptic gain of afferent feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dideriksen, Jakob L.; Negro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Increasing joint stiffness by cocontraction of antagonist muscles and compensatory reflexes are neural strategies to minimize the impact of unexpected perturbations on movement. Combining these strategies, however, may compromise steadiness, as elements of the afferent input to motor pools innervating antagonist muscles are inherently negatively correlated. Consequently, a high afferent gain and active contractions of both muscles may imply negatively correlated neural drives to the muscles and thus an unstable limb position. This hypothesis was systematically explored with a novel computational model of the peripheral nervous system and the mechanics of one limb. Two populations of motor neurons received synaptic input from descending drive, spinal interneurons, and afferent feedback. Muscle force, simulated based on motor unit activity, determined limb movement that gave rise to afferent feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The results indicated that optimal steadiness was achieved with low synaptic gain of the afferent feedback. High afferent gains during cocontraction implied increased levels of common drive in the motor neuron outputs, which were negatively correlated across the two populations, constraining instability of the limb. Increasing the force acting on the joint and the afferent gain both effectively minimized the impact of an external perturbation, and suboptimal adjustment of the afferent gain could be compensated by muscle cocontraction. These observations show that selection of the strategy for a given contraction implies a compromise between steadiness and effectiveness of compensations to perturbations. This indicates that a task-dependent selection of neural strategy for steadiness is necessary when acting in different environments. PMID:26203102

  2. The optimal neural strategy for a stable motor task requires a compromise between level of muscle cocontraction and synaptic gain of afferent feedback.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2015-09-01

    Increasing joint stiffness by cocontraction of antagonist muscles and compensatory reflexes are neural strategies to minimize the impact of unexpected perturbations on movement. Combining these strategies, however, may compromise steadiness, as elements of the afferent input to motor pools innervating antagonist muscles are inherently negatively correlated. Consequently, a high afferent gain and active contractions of both muscles may imply negatively correlated neural drives to the muscles and thus an unstable limb position. This hypothesis was systematically explored with a novel computational model of the peripheral nervous system and the mechanics of one limb. Two populations of motor neurons received synaptic input from descending drive, spinal interneurons, and afferent feedback. Muscle force, simulated based on motor unit activity, determined limb movement that gave rise to afferent feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The results indicated that optimal steadiness was achieved with low synaptic gain of the afferent feedback. High afferent gains during cocontraction implied increased levels of common drive in the motor neuron outputs, which were negatively correlated across the two populations, constraining instability of the limb. Increasing the force acting on the joint and the afferent gain both effectively minimized the impact of an external perturbation, and suboptimal adjustment of the afferent gain could be compensated by muscle cocontraction. These observations show that selection of the strategy for a given contraction implies a compromise between steadiness and effectiveness of compensations to perturbations. This indicates that a task-dependent selection of neural strategy for steadiness is necessary when acting in different environments.

  3. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  4. Synaptic unreliability facilitates information transmission in balanced cortical populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatys, Leon A.; Ecker, Alexander S.; Tchumatchenko, Tatjana; Bethge, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Synaptic unreliability is one of the major sources of biophysical noise in the brain. In the context of neural information processing, it is a central question how neural systems can afford this unreliability. Here we examine how synaptic noise affects signal transmission in cortical circuits, where excitation and inhibition are thought to be tightly balanced. Surprisingly, we find that in this balanced state synaptic response variability actually facilitates information transmission, rather than impairing it. In particular, the transmission of fast-varying signals benefits from synaptic noise, as it instantaneously increases the amount of information shared between presynaptic signal and postsynaptic current. Furthermore we show that the beneficial effect of noise is based on a very general mechanism which contrary to stochastic resonance does not reach an optimum at a finite noise level.

  5. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  6. The unsilent majority-TRPV1 drives "spontaneous" transmission of unmyelinated primary afferents within cardiorespiratory NTS.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Michael C; Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Fawley, Jessica A

    2012-12-15

    Cranial primary afferent sensory neurons figure importantly in homeostatic control of visceral organ systems. Of the two broad classes of visceral afferents, the role of unmyelinated or C-type class remains poorly understood. This review contrasts key aspects of peripheral discharge properties of C-fiber afferents and their glutamate transmission mechanisms within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). During normal prevailing conditions, most information arrives at the NTS through myelinated A-type nerves. However, most of visceral afferent axons (75-90%) in NTS are unmyelinated, C-type axons. Centrally, C-type solitary tract (ST) afferent terminals have presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. Capsaicin activation of TRPV1 blocks phasic or synchronous release of glutamate but facilitates release of glutamate from a separate pool of vesicles. This TRPV1-operated pool of vesicles is active at normal temperatures and is responsible for actively driving a 10-fold higher release of glutamate at TRPV1 compared with TRPV1- terminals even in the absence of afferent action potentials. This novel TRPV1 mechanism is responsible for an additional asynchronous release of glutamate that is not present in myelinated terminals. The NTS is rich with presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors, and the implications of TRPV1-operated glutamate offer unique targets for signaling in C-type sensory afferent terminals from neuropeptides, inflammatory mediators, lipid metabolites, cytokines, and cannabinoids. From a homeostatic view, this combination could have broad implications for integration in chronic pathological disturbances in which the numeric dominance of C-type endings and TRPV1 would broadly disturb multisystem control mechanisms.

  7. Drosophila Neuroligin 2 is Required Presynaptically and Postsynaptically for proper Synaptic Differentiation and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chi; Lin, Yong Qi; Banerjee, Swati; Venken, Koen; Li, Jingjun; Ismat, Afshan; Chen, Kuchuan; Duraine, Lita; Bellen, Hugo J.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-synaptic adhesion between Neurexins and Neuroligins is thought to be required for proper synapse organization and modulation, and mutations in several human NEUROLIGINS have shown association with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of Drosophila neuroligin 2 (dnlg2) mutants. Loss of dnlg2 results in reduced bouton numbers, aberrant pre- and post-synaptic development at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and impaired synaptic transmission. In dnlg2 mutants, the evoked responses are decreased in amplitude, whereas the total active zone numbers at the NMJ are comparable to wild type, suggesting a decrease in the release probability. Ultrastructurally, the presynaptic active zone number per bouton area and the postsynaptic density area are both increased in dnlg2 mutants, whereas the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR) is reduced in volume. We show that both pre- and post-synaptic expression of Dnlg2 is required to restore synaptic growth and function in dnlg2 mutants. Post-synaptic expression of Dnlg2 in dnlg2 mutants and wild type leads to reduced bouton growth whereas pre- and post-synaptic overexpression in wild type animals results in synaptic overgrowth. Since Neuroligins have been shown to bind to Neurexins, we created double mutants. These mutants are viable and display phenotypes that closely resemble those of dnlg2 and dnrx single mutants. Our results provide compelling evidence that Dnlg2 functions both pre- and post-synaptically together with Neurexin to determine the proper number of boutons as well as the number of active zones and size of synaptic densities during the development of NMJs. PMID:23136438

  8. Interferon alpha inhibits spinal cord synaptic and nociceptive transmission via neuronal-glial interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Cheng; Gao, Yong-Jing; Luo, Hao; Berta, Temugin; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Ji, Ru-Rong; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP. In the spinal cord IFN-α was primarily expressed by astrocytes. Perfusion of spinal cord slices with IFN-α suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission by reducing the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSCs). IFN-α also inhibited nociceptive transmission by reducing capsaicin-induced internalization of NK-1 and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Finally, spinal (intrathecal) administration of IFN-α reduced inflammatory pain and increased pain threshold in naïve rats, whereas removal of endogenous IFN-α by a neutralizing antibody induced hyperalgesia. Our findings suggest a new form of neuronal-glial interaction by which IFN-α, produced by astrocytes, inhibits nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. PMID:27670299

  9. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  10. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

  11. An Evaluation of Causes for Unreliability of Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christina; Stevens, Charles F.

    1994-10-01

    Transmission at individual synaptic contacts on CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons has been found to be very unreliable, with greater than half of the arriving presynaptic nerve impulses failing to evoke a postsynaptic response. This conclusion has been reached using the method of minimal stimulation of Schaffer collaterals and whole cell recording in hippocampal slices; with minimal stimulation only one or a few synapses are activated on the target neuron and the behavior of individual synapses can be examined. Four sources for the unreliability of synaptic transmission have been investigated: (i) the fluctuation of axon thresholds at the site of stimulation causing the failure to generate a nerve impulse in the appropriate Schaffer collaterals, (ii) the failure of nerve impulses generated at the site of stimulation to arrive at the synapse because of conduction failures at axon branch points, (iii) an artifactual synaptic unreliability due to performing experiments in vitro at temperatures well below the normal mammalian body temperature, and (iv) transmission failures due to probabilistic release mechanisms at synapses with a very low capacity to release transmitter. We eliminate the first three causes as significant contributions and conclude that probabilistic release mechanisms at low capacity synapses are the main cause of unreliability of synaptic transmission.

  12. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein Deletion in Efferent Olivocochlear Neurons Perturbs Afferent Synaptic Maturation and Reduces the Dynamic Range of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Tyler T.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Normal hearing requires proper differentiation of afferent ribbon synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that carry acoustic information to the brain. Within individual IHCs, presynaptic ribbons show a size gradient with larger ribbons on the modiolar face and smaller ribbons on the pillar face. This structural gradient is associated with a gradient of spontaneous rates and threshold sensitivity, which is essential for a wide dynamic range of hearing. Despite their importance for hearing, mechanisms that direct ribbon differentiation are poorly defined. We recently identified adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) as a key regulator of interneuronal synapse maturation. Here, we show that APC is required for ribbon size heterogeneity and normal cochlear function. Compared with wild-type littermates, APC conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit decreased auditory brainstem responses. The IHC ribbon size gradient is also perturbed. Whereas the normal-developing IHCs display ribbon size gradients before hearing onset, ribbon sizes are aberrant in APC cKOs from neonatal ages on. Reporter expression studies show that the CaMKII-Cre used to delete the floxed APC gene is present in efferent olivocochlear (OC) neurons, not IHCs or SGNs. APC loss led to increased volumes and numbers of OC inhibitory dopaminergic boutons on neonatal SGN fibers. Our findings identify APC in efferent OC neurons as essential for regulating ribbon heterogeneity, dopaminergic terminal differentiation, and cochlear sensitivity. This APC effect on auditory epithelial cell synapses resembles interneuronal and nerve–muscle synapses, thereby defining a global role for APC in synaptic maturation in diverse cell types. Significance Statement This study identifies novel molecules and cellular interactions that are essential for the proper maturation of afferent ribbon synapses in sensory cells of the inner ear, and for normal hearing. PMID:26085645

  13. ProBDNF negatively regulates neuronal remodeling, synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmin; Harte-Hargrove, Lauren C.; Siao, Chia-Jen; Marinic, Tina; Clarke, Roshelle; Ma, Qian; Jing, Deqiang; LaFrancois, John J.; Bath, Kevin G.; Mark, Willie; Ballon, Douglas; Lee, Francis S.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Hempstead, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knock-in mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission and plasticity, effects that are distinct from mature BDNF. PMID:24746813

  14. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Holly A.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Tran, Vy M.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2015-12-31

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  15. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Holly A.; Tran, Vy M.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  16. Orexin-A modulates excitatory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the spinal cord substantia gelatinosa.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Younghoon; Park, Ki Bum; Pervin, Rokeya; Kim, Tae Wan; Youn, Dong-ho

    2015-09-14

    Although intrathecal orexin-A has been known to be antinociceptive in various pain models, the role of orexin-A in antinociception is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined whether orexin-A modulates primary afferent fiber-mediated or spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission using transverse spinal cord slices with attached dorsal root. Bath-application of orexin-A (100nM) reduced the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by electrical stimulation of Aδ- or C-primary afferent fibers. The magnitude of reduction was much larger for EPSCs evoked by polysynaptic C-fibers than polysynaptic Aδ-fibers, whereas it was similar in EPSCs evoked by monosynaptic Aδ- or C-fibers. SB674042, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, but not EMPA, an orexin-2 receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited the orexin-A-induced reduction in EPSC amplitude from mono- or polysynaptic Aδ-fibers, as well as from mono- or polysynaptic C-fibers. Furthermore, orexin-A significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs but not the amplitude. This increase was almost completely blocked by both SB674042 and EMPA. On the other hand, orexin-A produced membrane oscillations and inward currents in the SG neurons that were partially or completely inhibited by SB674042 or EMPA, respectively. Thus, this study suggests that the spinal actions of orexin-A underlie orexin-A-induced antinociceptive effects via different subtypes of orexin receptors.

  17. MPTP-meditated hippocampal dopamine deprivation modulates synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Guoqi; Chen Ying; Huang Yuying; Li Qinglin; Behnisch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-like symptoms including learning deficits are inducible by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Therefore, it is possible that MPTP may disturb hippocampal memory processing by modulation of dopamine (DA)- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate here that intraperitoneal (i.p.) MPTP injection reduces the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) within 7 days. Subsequently, the TH expression level in SN and hippocampus and the amount of DA and its metabolite DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus decrease. DA depletion does not alter basal synaptic transmission and changes pair-pulse facilitation (PPF) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) only at the 30 ms inter-pulse interval. In addition, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) is impaired whereas the duration of long-term depression (LTD) becomes prolonged. Since both LTP and LTD depend critically on activation of NMDA and DA receptors, we also tested the effect of DA depletion on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. Seven days after MPTP injection, the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSPs are decreased by about 23%. Blocking the NMDA receptor-mediated fEPSP does not mimic the MPTP-LTP. Only co-application of D1/D5 and NMDA receptor antagonists during tetanization resembled the time course of fEPSP potentiation as observed 7 days after i.p. MPTP injection. Together, our data demonstrate that MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and the subsequent hippocampal DA depletion alter NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: > I.p. MPTP-injection mediates death of dopaminergic neurons. > I.p. MPTP-injection depletes DA and DOPAC in striatum and hippocampus. > I.p. MPTP-injection does not alter basal synaptic transmission. > Reduction of LTP and enhancement of LTD after i.p. MPTP-injection. > Attenuation of NMDA-receptors mediated f

  18. Group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists depress synaptic transmission in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gerber, G; Zhong, J; Youn, D; Randic, M

    2000-01-01

    antagonist at group III metabotropic glutamate receptors, completely reversed the depressant effects of (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate on both monosynaptic and polysynaptic responses. (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate reduced the paired-pulse depression at excitatory synapses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons, but did not alter their postsynaptic membrane potential and input resistance. A clear facilitation of the (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate-induced depression of monosynaptic and polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the absence of gamma-aminobutyric acid-subtype A receptor- and glycine-mediated synaptic inhibition was shown. Besides the depressant effect on excitatory synaptic transmission, inhibitory actions of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists on the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked by primary afferent stimulation in dorsal horn neurons were observed. These results suggest that group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptors are expressed at primary afferent synapses in the dorsal horn region, and activation of the receptors suppresses synaptic transmission by an action on the presynaptic site. PMID:11008177

  19. How do astrocytes shape synaptic transmission? Insights from electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dallérac, Glenn; Chever, Oana; Rouach, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A major breakthrough in neuroscience has been the realization in the last decades that the dogmatic view of astroglial cells as being merely fostering and buffering elements of the nervous system is simplistic. A wealth of investigations now shows that astrocytes actually participate in the control of synaptic transmission in an active manner. This was first hinted by the intimate contacts glial processes make with neurons, particularly at the synaptic level, and evidenced using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Calcium imaging has provided critical evidence demonstrating that astrocytic regulation of synaptic efficacy is not a passive phenomenon. However, given that cellular activation is not only represented by calcium signaling, it is also crucial to assess concomitant mechanisms. We and others have used electrophysiological techniques to simultaneously record neuronal and astrocytic activity, thus enabling the study of multiple ionic currents and in depth investigation of neuro-glial dialogues. In the current review, we focus on the input such approach has provided in the understanding of astrocyte-neuron interactions underlying control of synaptic efficacy. PMID:24101894

  20. Alcohol effects on synaptic transmission in periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia; McCall, Nora M.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) signaling in regulating the rewarding properties of drugs, including alcohol, has been widely studied. The majority of these studies, however, have focused on the DA neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and their projections to the nucleus accumbens. DA neurons within the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) have been shown to regulate reward but little is known about the functional properties of these neurons, or how they are modified by drugs of abuse. This lack of knowledge is likely due to the highly heterogeneous cell composition of the vPAG, with both γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate neurons present in addition to DA neurons. In this study, we performed whole-cell recordings in a TH–eGFP transgenic mouse line to evaluate the properties of vPAG-DA neurons. Following this initial characterization, we examined how both acute and chronic alcohol exposure modify synaptic transmission onto vPAG-DA neurons. We found minimal effects of acute alcohol exposure on GABA transmission, but a robust enhancement of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vPAG-DA. Consistent with this effect on excitatory transmission, we also found that alcohol caused an increase in firing rate. These data were in contrast to the effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure, which had no significant impact on either inhibitory or excitatory synaptic transmission on the vPAG-DA neurons. These data add to a growing body of literature that points to alcohol having both region-dependent and cell-type dependent effects on function. PMID:23597415

  1. From Synaptic Transmission to Cognition: An Intermediary Role for Dendritic Spines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines are cytoplasmic protrusions that develop directly or indirectly from the filopodia of neurons. Dendritic spines mediate excitatory neurotransmission and they can isolate the electrical activity generated by synaptic impulses, enabling them to translate excitatory afferent information via several types of plastic changes, including…

  2. Pre-Synaptic Inhibition of Afferent Feedback in the Macaque Spinal Cord Does Not Modulate with Cycles of Peripheral Oscillations Around 10 Hz

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Ferran; Baker, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal interneurons are partially phase-locked to physiological tremor around 10 Hz. The phase of spinal interneuron activity is approximately opposite to descending drive to motoneurons, leading to partial phase cancellation and tremor reduction. Pre-synaptic inhibition of afferent feedback modulates during voluntary movements, but it is not known whether it tracks more rapid fluctuations in motor output such as during tremor. In this study, dorsal root potentials (DRPs) were recorded from the C8 and T1 roots in two macaque monkeys following intra-spinal micro-stimulation (random inter-stimulus interval 1.5–2.5 s, 30–100 μA), whilst the animals performed an index finger flexion task which elicited peripheral oscillations around 10 Hz. Forty one responses were identified with latency < 5 ms; these were narrow (mean width 0.59 ms), and likely resulted from antidromic activation of afferents following stimulation near terminals. Significant modulation during task performance occurred in 16/41 responses, reflecting terminal excitability changes generated by pre-synaptic inhibition (Wall's excitability test). Stimuli falling during large-amplitude 8–12 Hz oscillations in finger acceleration were extracted, and sub-averages of DRPs constructed for stimuli delivered at different oscillation phases. Although some apparent phase-dependent modulation was seen, this was not above the level expected by chance. We conclude that, although terminal excitability reflecting pre-synaptic inhibition of afferents modulates over the timescale of a voluntary movement, it does not follow more rapid changes in motor output. This suggests that pre-synaptic inhibition is not part of the spinal systems for tremor reduction described previously, and that it plays a role in overall—but not moment-by-moment—regulation of feedback gain. PMID:26635536

  3. An Engineered Metal Sensor Tunes the Kinetics of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Chantell S.; Ruhl, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-1 (syt-1) regulates neurotransmitter release by interacting with anionic phospholipids. Here we test the idea that the intrinsic kinetics of syt–membrane interactions determine, in part, the time course of synaptic transmission. To tune the kinetics of this interaction, we grafted structural elements from the slowest isoform, syt-7, onto the fastest isoform, syt-1, resulting in a chimera with intermediate kinetic properties. Moreover, the chimera coupled a physiologically irrelevant metal, Sr2+, to membrane fusion in vitro. When substituted for syt-1 in mouse hippocampal neurons, the chimera slowed the kinetics of synaptic transmission. Neurons expressing the chimera also evinced rapid and efficient Sr2+ triggered release, in contrast to the weak response of neurons expressing syt-1. These findings reveal presynaptic sensor–membrane interactions as a major factor regulating the speed of the release machinery. Finally, the chimera failed to clamp the elevated spontaneous fusion rate exhibited by syt-1 KO neurons, indicating that the metal binding loops of syt-1 regulate the two modes of release by distinct mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In calcium, synaptotagmin-1 triggers neurotransmitter release by interacting with membranes. Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic properties of this interaction control the time course of synaptic transmission. We engineered a “chimera” using synaptotagmin-1 and elements of a slower isoform, synaptotagmin-7. When expressed in neurons, the chimera slowed the rate of neurotransmitter release. Furthermore, unlike native synaptotagmin-1, the chimera was able to function robustly in the presence of strontium–a metal not present in cells. We exploited this ability to show that a key function of synaptotagmin-1 is to penetrate cell membranes. This work sheds light on fundamental mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. PMID:26311762

  4. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Millhorn, D E; Bayliss, D A; Erickson, J T; Gallman, E A; Szymeczek, C L; Czyzyk-Krzeska, M; Dean, J B

    1989-12-01

    During the last decade much progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which nerve cells communicate with each other and nonneural (e.g., muscle) target tissue. This review is intended to provide the reader with an account of this work. We begin with an historical overview of research on cell-to-cell communication and then discuss recent developments that, in some instances, have led to dramatic changes in the concept of synaptic transmission. For instance, the finding that single neurons often contain multiple messengers (i.e., neurotransmitters) invalidated the long-held theory (i.e., Dale's Law) that individual neurons contain and release one and only one type of neurotransmitter. Moreover, the last decade witnessed the inclusion of an entire group of compounds, the neuropeptides, as messenger molecules. Enormous progress has also been made in elucidating postsynaptic receptor complexes and biochemical intermediaries involved in synaptic transmission. Here the development of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to clone and determine the molecular structure for a number of receptors. This information has been used to gain insight into how these receptors function either as a ligand-gated channel or as a G protein-linked ligand recognition molecule. Perhaps the most progress made during this era was in understanding the molecular linkage of G protein-linked receptors to intramembranous and cytoplasmic macromolecules involved in signal amplification and transduction. We conclude with a brief discussion of how synaptic transmission leads to immediate alterations in the electrical activity and, in some cases, to a change in phenotype by altering gene expression. These alterations in cellular behavior are believed to be mediated by phosphoproteins, the final biochemical product of signal transduction. PMID:2575357

  5. Quercetin Targets Cysteine String Protein (CSPα) and Impairs Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fenglian; Proft, Juliane; Gibbs, Sarah; Winkfein, Bob; Johnson, Jadah N.; Syed, Naweed; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cysteine string protein (CSPα) is a synaptic vesicle protein that displays unique anti-neurodegenerative properties. CSPα is a member of the conserved J protein family, also called the Hsp40 (heat shock protein of 40 kDa) protein family, whose importance in protein folding has been recognized for many years. Deletion of the CSPα in mice results in knockout mice that are normal for the first 2–3 weeks of life followed by an unexplained presynaptic neurodegeneration and premature death. How CSPα prevents neurodegeneration is currently not known. As a neuroprotective synaptic vesicle protein, CSPα represents a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we demonstrate that the flavonoid quercetin promotes formation of stable CSPα-CSPα dimers and that quercetin-induced dimerization is dependent on the unique cysteine string region. Furthermore, in primary cultures of Lymnaea neurons, quercetin induction of CSPα dimers correlates with an inhibition of synapse formation and synaptic transmission suggesting that quercetin interfers with CSPα function. Quercetin's action on CSPα is concentration dependent and does not promote dimerization of other synaptic proteins or other J protein family members and reduces the assembly of CSPα:Hsc70 units (70kDa heat shock cognate protein). Conclusions/Significance Quercetin is a plant derived flavonoid and popular nutritional supplement proposed to prevent memory loss and altitude sickness among other ailments, although its precise mechanism(s) of action has been unclear. In view of the therapeutic promise of upregulation of CSPα and the undesired consequences of CSPα dysfunction, our data establish an essential proof of principle that pharmaceutical agents can selectively target the neuroprotective J protein CSPα. PMID:20548785

  6. Porcupine controls hippocampal AMPAR levels, composition and synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Erlenhardt, Nadine; Yu, Hong; Abiraman, Kavitha; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Tomita, Susumu; Bredt, David S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY AMPAR (AMPAR) complexes contain auxiliary subunits that modulate receptor trafficking and gating. In addition to the transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) and cornichons (CNIH-2/3), recent proteomic studies identified a diverse array of additional AMPAR-associated transmembrane and secreted partners. We systematically surveyed these and found that PORCN and ABHD6 increase GluA1 levels in transfected cells. Knockdown of PORCN in rat hippocampal neurons, which express it in high amounts, selectively reduces levels of all tested AMPAR complex components. Regulation of AMPARs is independent of PORCN’s membrane-associated O-acyl transferase activity. PORCN knockdown in hippocampal neurons decreases AMPAR currents and accelerates desensitization, and leads to depletion of TARP γ-8 from AMPAR complexes. Conditional PORCN knockout mice also exhibit specific changes in AMPAR expression and gating that reduce basal synaptic transmission, but leave long-term potentiation intact. These studies define additional roles for PORCN in controlling synaptic transmission by regulating the level and composition of hippocampal AMPAR complexes. PMID:26776514

  7. Neuromuscular synaptic transmission in aged ganglioside-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zitman, Femke M P; Todorov, Boyan; Verschuuren, Jan J; Jacobs, Bart C; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Willison, Hugh J; Plomp, Jaap J

    2011-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialylated glycosphingolipids that are present in high density on neuronal membranes, especially at synapses, where they are assumed to play functional or modulating roles. Mice lacking GM2/GD2-synthase express only the simple gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and develop progressive motor behaviour deficits upon ageing, apparently due to failing complex ganglioside-dependent maintenance and/or repair processes or, alternatively, toxic GM3/GD3 accumulation. We investigated the function of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of aged (>9 month-old) GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutant mice, because synaptic dysfunction might develop with age and could potentially contribute to the late-onset motor phenotype. In addition, we studied NMJs of old mice lacking GD3-synthase (expressing only O- and a-series gangliosides), which do not show an overt neurological phenotype but may develop subclinical synaptic deficits. Detailed electrophysiological analyses showed subtle changes in presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Acetylcholine release at 40 Hz nerve stimulation at aged GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutant NMJs ran down slightly more pronounced than at wild-type NMJs, and spontaneous acetylcholine release rate at GD3-synthase null-mutant NMJs was somewhat higher than at wild-type, selectively at 25 °C bath temperature. Interestingly, we observed faster kinetics of postsynaptic electrophysiological responses at aged GD3-synthase null-mutant NMJs, not previously seen by us at NMJs of young GD3-synthase null-mutants or other types of (aged or young) ganglioside-deficient mice. These kinetic changes might reflect a change in postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor behaviour. Our data indicate that it is highly unlikely that transmission failure at NMJs contributes to the progressive motor defects of aged GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutants and that, despite some kinetic changes of synaptic signals, neuromuscular transmission remains successful in aged GD3-synthase null-mutant mice. Apparently

  8. Statistical analysis of synaptic transmission: model discrimination and confidence limits.

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, C; Redman, S; Daley, D

    1994-01-01

    Procedures for discriminating between competing statistical models of synaptic transmission, and for providing confidence limits on the parameters of these models, have been developed. These procedures were tested against simulated data and were used to analyze the fluctuations in synaptic currents evoked in hippocampal neurones. All models were fitted to data using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and a maximum likelihood criterion. Competing models were evaluated using the log-likelihood ratio (Wilks statistic). When the competing models were not nested, Monte Carlo sampling of the model used as the null hypothesis (H0) provided density functions against which H0 and the alternate model (H1) were tested. The statistic for the log-likelihood ratio was determined from the fit of H0 and H1 to these probability densities. This statistic was used to determine the significance level at which H0 could be rejected for the original data. When the competing models were nested, log-likelihood ratios and the chi 2 statistic were used to determine the confidence level for rejection. Once the model that provided the best statistical fit to the data was identified, many estimates for the model parameters were calculated by resampling the original data. Bootstrap techniques were then used to obtain the confidence limits of these parameters. PMID:7948672

  9. Ketamine-mediated afferent-specific presynaptic transmission blocks in low-threshold and sex-specific subpopulation of myelinated Ah-type baroreceptor neurons of rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Yin, Lei; Fan, Yao; Wang, Ye; Chen, Wei-Ran; Chen, Pei; Liu, Yang; Lu, Xiao-Long; Sun, Hong-Li; Shou, Weinian; Qiao, Guo-Fen; Li, Bai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ketamine enhances autonomic activity, and unmyelinated C-type baroreceptor afferents are more susceptible to be blocked by ketamine than myelinated A-types. However, the presynaptic transmission block in low-threshold and sex-specific myelinated Ah-type baroreceptor neurons (BRNs) is not elucidated. Methods Action potentials (APs) and excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) were investigated in BRNs/barosensitive neurons identified by conduction velocity (CV), capsaicin-conjugated with Iberiotoxin-sensitivity and fluorescent dye using intact nodose slice and brainstem slice in adult female rats. The expression of mRNA and targeted protein for NMDAR1 was also evaluated. Results Ketamine time-dependently blocked afferent CV in Ah-types in nodose slice with significant changes in AP discharge. The concentration-dependent inhibition of ketamine on AP discharge profiles were also assessed and observed using isolated Ah-type BRNs with dramatic reduction in neuroexcitability. In brainstem slice, the 2nd-order capsaicin-resistant EPSCs were identified and ∼50% of them were blocked by ketamine concentration-dependently with IC50 estimated at 84.4 μM compared with the rest (708.2 μM). Interestingly, the peak, decay time constant, and area under curve of EPSCs were significantly enhanced by 100 nM iberiotoxin in ketamine-more sensitive myelinated NTS neurons (most likely Ah-types), rather than ketamine-less sensitive ones (A-types). Conclusions These data have demonstrated, for the first time, that low-threshold and sex-specific myelinated Ah-type BRNs in nodose and Ah-type barosensitive neurons in NTS are more susceptible to ketamine and may play crucial roles in not only mean blood pressure regulation but also buffering dynamic changes in pressure, as well as the ketamine-mediated cardiovascular dysfunction through sexual-dimorphic baroreflex afferent pathway. PMID:26675761

  10. Regulation of Synaptic Transmission by Ambient Extracellular Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    FEATHERSTONE, DAVID E.; SHIPPY, SCOTT A.

    2008-01-01

    Many neuroscientists assume that ambient extracellular glutamate concentrations in the nervous system are biologically negligible under nonpathological conditions. This assumption is false. Hundreds of studies over several decades suggest that ambient extracellular glutamate levels in the intact mammalian brain are ~0.5 to ~5 μM. This has important implications. Glutamate receptors are desensitized by glutamate concentrations significantly lower than needed for receptor activation; 0.5 to 5 μM of glutamate is high enough to cause constitutive desensitization of most glutamate receptors. Therefore, most glutamate receptors in vivo may be constitutively desensitized, and ambient extracellular glutamate and receptor desensitization may be potent but generally unrecognized regulators of synaptic transmission. Unfortunately, the mechanisms regulating ambient extracellular glutamate and glutamate receptor desensitization remain poorly understood and understudied. PMID:17947494

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptors: beyond the regulation of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Storto, Marianna; Ngomba, Richard T; Iacovelli, Luisa; Arcella, Antonietta; Gradini, Roberto; Sale, Patrizio; Rampello, Liborio; De Vita, Teresa; Di Marco, Roberto; Melchiorri, Daniela; Bruno, Valeria

    2007-08-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors activated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS. A growing body of evidence suggests that the function of mGlu receptors is not restricted to the regulation of synaptic transmission. mGlu receptors are expressed in a variety of peripheral cells, including inter alia hepatocytes, pancreatic cells, osteoblasts and immune cells. Within the immunological synapses, mGlu receptors expressed by T cells might contribute to the vast array of signals generated by the antigen-presenting cells. mGlu receptors are also found in embryonic and neural stem cells. This suggests their involvement in the pathophysiology of brain tumors, which likely originates from cancer stem cells similar to neural stem cells. Ligands of mGlu3 and mGlu4 receptors are potential candidates for the experimental treatment of malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas, respectively. PMID:17651904

  12. Excitatory amino acid receptors and synaptic transmission in the rat ventrobasal thalamus.

    PubMed

    Salt, T E

    1987-10-01

    1. Extracellular single-neurone recordings were made in the ventrobasal thalamus (v.b.t.) of urethane-anaesthetized rats with multi-barrel ionophoretic electrodes in order to test the hypothesis that excitatory amino acid receptors are involved in the responses of these neurones to stimulation of sensory afferents. 2. Responses of neurones to either physiological stimulation of hair and vibrissa follicle sensory afferents and to ionophoretically applied excitatory amino acids were challenged with the antagonists D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), kynurenate and gamma-D-glutamylaminomethyl sulphonate (GAMS). 3. In agreement with previous findings in other brain areas, ionophoretically applied APV was found to selectively antagonize responses of v.b.t. neurones to N-methylaspartate (NMA), whereas GAMS was found to be moderately kainate selective. Kynurenate was found to be relatively non-selective. 4. Responses of neurones to short-duration (10-20 ms) physiological stimulation of afferents were resistant to APV when this antagonist was applied with NMA-selective ionophoretic currents. In contrast, these APV currents were adequate to antagonize responses to maintained physiological stimulation. 5. The broad spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenate was found to block synaptic responses of v.b.t. neurones to both short-duration and maintained stimuli when it was applied with currents which were sufficient to reduce responses to ionophoretic quisqualate. 6. GAMS was found to selectively block kainate responses in a proportion of the neurones tested. In such cases, there was little effect of the antagonist on the responses evoked by either short-duration or maintained sensory stimuli. 7. It is concluded that excitatory amino acid receptors of both the NMDA and non-NMDA type are involved in the synaptic responses of v.b.t. neurones to sensory afferent stimulation, and that the apparent synaptic pharmacology depends on the mode of stimulation of the afferent

  13. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Damien; Diabira, Diabe; Porcher, Christophe; Bader, Francesca; Ferrand, Nadine; Zhu, Mingyan; Appleyard, Suzanne M.; Wayman, Gary A.; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA) of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC) frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK). Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin's neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission. PMID:25177272

  14. Overexpression of Swedish mutant APP in aged astrocytes attenuates excitatory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Ii, Miyuki; Nakano, Sachiko; Tatsumi, Chihiro; Kubota, Kaori; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a type I transmembrane protein, has different aspects, namely, performs essential physiological functions and produces β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Overexpression of neuronal APP is responsible for synaptic dysfunction. In the central nervous system, astrocytes - a major glial cell type - have an important role in the regulation of synaptic transmission. Although APP is expressed in astrocytes, it remains unclear whether astrocytic overexpression of mutant APP affects synaptic transmission. In this study, the effect of astrocytic overexpression of a mutant APP on the excitatory synaptic transmission was investigated using coculture system of the transgenic (Tg) cortical astrocytes that express the human APP695 polypeptide with the double mutation K670N + M671L found in a large Swedish family with early onset Alzheimer's disease, and wild-type hippocampal neuron. Significant secretion of Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 was observed in cultured cortical astrocytes from the Tg2576 transgenic mouse that genetically overexpresses Swedish mutant APP. Under the condition, Tg astrocytes did not affect excitatory synaptic transmission of cocultured wild-type neurons. However, aged Tg astrocytes cultured for 9 weeks elicited a significant decrease in excitatory synaptic transmission in cocultured neurons. Moreover, a reduction in the number of readily releasable synaptic vesicles accompanied a decrease in the number of excitatory synapses in neurons cocultured with aged Tg astrocytes. These observations indicate that astrocytic expression of the mutant APP is involved in the downregulation of synaptic transmission with age. PMID:26733247

  15. Sumatriptan inhibits synaptic transmission in the rat midbrain periaqueductal grey

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Chenu, David; Johnson, Emma E; Connor, Mark; Vaughan, Christopher W

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) has a role in migraine and the actions of the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan. In the present study we examined the serotonergic modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro. Results Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT, IC50 = 142 nM) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (30 μM) produced a reduction in the amplitude of GABAA-mediated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in all PAG neurons which was associated with an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked IPSCs. Real time PCR revealed that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor mRNA was present in the PAG. The 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT (3 μM), CP93129 (3 μM) and L694247 (3 μM), but not the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864 (1 – 3 μM) inhibited evoked IPSCs. The 5-HT (1 μM) induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the 5-HT1B antagonist NAS181 (10 μM), but not by the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1D antagonists WAY100135 (3 μM) and BRL15572 (10 μM). Sumatriptan also inhibited evoked IPSCs with an IC50 of 261 nM, and reduced the rate, but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature IPSCs. The sumatriptan (1 μM) induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by NAS181 (10 μM) and BRL15572 (10 μM), together, but not separately. 5-HT (10 μM) and sumatriptan (3 μM) also reduced the amplitude of non-NMDA mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in all PAG neurons tested. Conclusion These results indicate that sumatriptan inhibits GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission within the PAG via a 5-HT1B/D receptor mediated reduction in the probability of neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. These actions overlap those of other analgesics, such as opioids, and provide a mechanism by which centrally acting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D ligands might lead to novel anti

  16. Requirement for the synaptic protein interaction site for reconstitution of synaptic transmission by P/Q-type calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Mochida, Sumiko; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Yokoyama, Charles T.; Zhong, Huijun; Myers, Scott J.; Scheuer, Todd; Itoh, Kanako; Catterall, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Cav2.1 channels, which conduct P/Q-type Ca2+ currents, were expressed in superior cervical ganglion neurons in cell culture, and neurotransmission initiated by these exogenously expressed Ca2+ channels was measured. Deletions in the synaptic protein interaction (synprint) site in the intracellular loop between domains II and III of Cav2.1 channels reduced their effectiveness in synaptic transmission. Surprisingly, this effect was correlated with loss of presynaptic localization of the exogenously expressed channels. Cav1.2 channels, which conduct L-type Ca2+ currents, are ineffective in supporting synaptic transmission, but substitution of the synprint site from Cav2.1 channels in Cav1.2 was sufficient to establish synaptic transmission initiated by L-type Ca2+ currents through the exogenous Cav1.2 channels. Substitution of the synprint site from Cav2.2 channels, which conduct N-type Ca2+ currents, was even more effective than Cav2.1. Our results show that localization and function of exogenous Ca2+ channels in nerve terminals of superior cervical ganglion neurons require a functional synprint site and suggest that binding of soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins to the synprint site is a necessary permissive event for nerve terminal localization of presynaptic Ca2+ channels. PMID:12601156

  17. Calcium channel structural determinants of synaptic transmission between identified invertebrate neurons.

    PubMed

    Spafford, J David; Munno, David W; Van Nierop, Pim; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Jarvis, Scott E; Gallin, Warren J; Smit, August B; Zamponi, Gerald W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-02-01

    We report here that unlike what was suggested for many vertebrate neurons, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea stagnalis occurs independent of a physical interaction between presynaptic calcium channels and a functional complement of SNARE proteins. Instead, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea requires the expression of a C-terminal splice variant of the Lymnaea homolog to mammalian N- and P/Q-type calcium channels. We show that the alternately spliced region physically interacts with the scaffolding proteins Mint1 and CASK, and that synaptic transmission is abolished following RNA interference knockdown of CASK or after the injection of peptide sequences designed to disrupt the calcium channel-Mint1 interactions. Our data suggest that Mint1 and CASK may serve to localize the non-L-type channels at the active zone and that synaptic transmission in invertebrate neurons utilizes a mechanism for optimizing calcium entry, which occurs independently of a physical association between calcium channels and SNARE proteins.

  18. Endocannabinoids blunt the augmentation of synaptic transmission by serotonin 2A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS).

    PubMed

    Austgen, James R; Kline, David D

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and the 5-HT2 receptor modulate cardiovascular and autonomic function in part through actions in the nTS, the primary termination and integration point for cardiorespiratory afferents in the brainstem. In other brain regions, 5-HT2 receptors (5-HT2R) modify synaptic transmission directly, as well as through 5-HT2AR-induced endocannabinoid release. This study examined the role of 5-HT2AR as well as their interaction with endocannabinoids on neurotransmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS). Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in monosynaptic nTS neurons were recorded in the horizontal brainstem slice during activation and blockade of 5-HT2ARs. 5-HT2AR activation augmented solitary tract (TS) evoked EPSC amplitude whereas 5-HT2AR blockade depressed TS-EPSC amplitude at low and high TS stimulation rates. The 5-HT2AR-induced increase in neurotransmission was reduced by endocannabinoid receptor block and increased endogenous endocannabinoids in the synaptic cleft during high frequency, but not low, TS stimulation. Endocannabinoids did not tonically modify EPSCs. These data suggest 5-HT acting through the 5-HT2AR is an excitatory neuromodulator in the nTS and its effects are modulated by the endocannabinoid system.

  19. Neurochemistry of the afferents to the rat cochlear root nucleus: Possible synaptic modulation of the acoustic startle

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Nieto, R; Horta-Junior, JAC; Castellano, O; Herrero-Turrión, MJ; Rubio, ME; López, DE

    2008-01-01

    Afferents to the primary startle circuit are essential for the elicitation and modulation of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). In the rat, cochlear root neurons (CRNs) comprise the first component of the acoustic startle circuit and play a crucial role in mediating the ASR. Nevertheless, the neurochemical pattern of their afferents remains unclear. To determine the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, we used confocal microscopy to analyze the immunostaining for vesicular glutamate and GABA transporter proteins (VGLUT1 and VGAT) on retrogradely labeled CRNs. We also used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry to detect and localize specific neurotransmitter receptor subunits in the cochlear root. Our results show differential distributions of VGLUT1- and VGAT-immunoreactive endings around cell bodies and dendrites. The RT-PCR data showed a positive band for several ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, M1- M5 muscarinic receptor subtypes, the glycine receptor α1 subunit (GlyRα1), GABAA, GABAB, and subunits of α2 and β-noradrenergic receptors. By immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that CRN cell bodies exhibit positive immunoreaction for the GluR3 and NR1 glutamate receptor subunits. Cell bodies and dendrites were also positive for M2 and M4, and GlyRα1. Other subunits, such as GluR1 and GluR4 of the AMPA glutamate receptors, were observed in glial cells neighboring unlabeled CRN cell bodies. We further confirmed the existence of noradrenergic afferents onto CRNs from the locus coeruleus by combining tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and tract-tracing experiments. Our results provide valuable information toward understanding how CRNs might integrate excitatory and inhibitory inputs, and hence how they could elicit and modulate the acoustic startle reflex. PMID:18384963

  20. Excitatory synaptic transmission in the lateral and central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Sah, P; Lopez De Armentia, Mikel

    2003-04-01

    The amygdala plays a major role in the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning. NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity within the basolateral amygdala has been proposed to underlie the acquisition and possible storage of fear memories. Here the properties of fast glutamatergic transmission in the lateral and central nuclei of the amygdala are presented. In the lateral amygdala, two types of neurons, interneurons and projection neurons, could be distinguished by their different firing properties. Glutamatergic inputs to interneurons activated AMPA receptors with inwardly rectifying current-voltage relations (I-Vs), whereas inputs to projection neurons activated receptors that had linear I-Vs, indicating that receptors on interneurons lack GluR2 subunits. Inputs to projection neurons formed dual component synapses with both AMPA and NMDA components, whereas at inputs to interneurons, the contribution of NMDA receptors was very small. Neurons in the central amygdala received dual component glutamatergic inputs that activated AMPA receptors with linear I-Vs. NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs had slow decay time constants in the central nucleus. Application of NR2B selective blockers ifenprodil or CP-101,606 blocked NMDA EPSCs by 70% in the central nucleus, but only by 30% in the lateral nucleus. These data show that the distribution of glutamatergic receptors on amygdalar neurons is not uniform. In the lateral amygdala, interneurons and pyramidal neurons express AMPA receptors with different subunit compositions. Synapses in the central nucleus activate NMDA receptors that contain NR1 and NR2B subunits, whereas synapses in the lateral nucleus contain receptors with both NR2A and NR2B subunits. PMID:12724149

  1. Achieving High-Frequency Optical Control of Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Beneduce, Brandon M.; Drew, Iain R.

    2014-01-01

    The optogenetic tool channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used to excite neurons to study neural circuits. Previous optogenetic studies of synapses suggest that light-evoked synaptic responses often exhibit artificial synaptic depression, which has been attributed to either the inability of ChR2 to reliably fire presynaptic axons or to ChR2 elevating the probability of release by depolarizing presynaptic boutons. Here, we compare light-evoked and electrically evoked synaptic responses for high-frequency stimulation at three synapses in the mouse brain. At synapses from Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons (PC→DCN), light- and electrically evoked synaptic currents were remarkably similar for ChR2 expressed transgenically or with adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression vectors. For hippocampal CA3→CA1 synapses, AAV expression vectors of serotype 1, 5, and 8 led to light-evoked synaptic currents that depressed much more than electrically evoked currents, even though ChR2 could fire axons reliably at up to 50 Hz. The disparity between optical and electrical stimulation was eliminated when ChR2 was expressed transgenically or with AAV9. For cerebellar granule cell to stellate cell (grc→SC) synapses, AAV1 also led to artificial synaptic depression and AAV9 provided superior performance. Artificial synaptic depression also occurred when stimulating over presynaptic boutons, rather than axons, at CA3→CA1 synapses, but not at PC→DCN synapses. These findings indicate that ChR2 expression methods and light stimulation techniques influence synaptic responses in a neuron-specific manner. They also identify pitfalls associated with using ChR2 to study synapses and suggest an approach that allows optogenetics to be applied in a manner that helps to avoid potential complications. PMID:24872574

  2. Synaptic Mitochondria in Synaptic Transmission and Organization of Vesicle Pools in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Melissa; Lauwers, Elsa; Verstreken, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Cell types rich in mitochondria, including neurons, display a high energy demand and a need for calcium buffering. The importance of mitochondria for proper neuronal function is stressed by the occurrence of neurological defects in patients suffering from a great variety of diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial genes. Genetic and pharmacological evidence also reveal a role of these organelles in various aspects of neuronal physiology and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Yet the mechanisms by which mitochondria can affect neurotransmission largely remain to be elucidated. In this review we focus on experimental data that suggest a critical function of synaptic mitochondria in the function and organization of synaptic vesicle pools, and in neurotransmitter release during intense neuronal activity. We discuss how calcium handling, ATP production and other mitochondrial mechanisms may influence synaptic vesicle pool organization and synaptic function. Given the link between synaptic mitochondrial function and neuronal communication, efforts toward better understanding mitochondrial biology may lead to novel therapeutic approaches of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and psychiatric disorders that are at least in part caused by mitochondrial deficits. PMID:21423525

  3. Homeostatic regulation of spontaneous and evoked synaptic transmission in two steps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During development both Hebbian and homeostatic mechanisms regulate synaptic efficacy, usually working in opposite directions in response to neuronal activity. Homeostatic plasticity has often been investigated by assaying changes in spontaneous synaptic transmission resulting from chronic circuit inactivation. However, effects of inactivation on evoked transmission have been less frequently reported. Importantly, contributions from the effects of circuit inactivation and reactivation on synaptic efficacy have not been individuated. Results Here we show for developing hippocampal neurons in primary culture that chronic inactivation with TTX results in increased mean amplitude of miniature synaptic currents (mEPSCs), but not evoked synaptic currents (eEPSCs). However, changes in quantal properties of transmission, partially reflected in mEPSCs, accurately predicted higher-order statistical properties of eEPSCs. The classical prediction of homeostasis – increased strength of evoked transmission – was realized after explicit circuit reactivation, in the form of cells’ pairwise connection probability. In contrast, distributions of eEPSC amplitudes for control and inactivated-then-reactivated groups matched throughout. Conclusions Homeostatic up-regulation of evoked synaptic transmission in developing hippocampal neurons in primary culture requires both the inactivation and reactivation stages, leading to a net increase in functional circuit connectivity. PMID:23965342

  4. A novel synaptic plasticity rule explains homeostasis of neuromuscular transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ouanounou, Gilles; Baux, Gérard; Bal, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Excitability differs among muscle fibers and undergoes continuous changes during development and growth, yet the neuromuscular synapse maintains a remarkable fidelity of execution. Here we show in two evolutionarily distant vertebrates (Xenopus laevis cell culture and mouse nerve-muscle ex-vivo) that the skeletal muscle cell constantly senses, through two identified calcium signals, synaptic events and their efficacy in eliciting spikes. These sensors trigger retrograde signal(s) that control presynaptic neurotransmitter release, resulting in synaptic potentiation or depression. In the absence of spikes, synaptic events trigger potentiation. Once the synapse is sufficiently strong to initiate spiking, the occurrence of these spikes activates a negative retrograde feedback. These opposing signals dynamically balance the synapse in order to continuously adjust neurotransmitter release to a level matching current muscle cell excitability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12190.001 PMID:27138195

  5. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. To test behavioral deficits, an object recognition test was conducted in mouse. In this test, ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) impaired object recognition memory, but SM (200 mg/kg) prevented this impairment. To evaluate synaptic deficits, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampal slices were tested, as they are known to be vulnerable to ethanol and are associated with ethanol-induced amnesia. SM (10 and 100 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced long-term potentiation and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP deficits in the hippocampal slices. Therefore, these results suggest that SM prevents ethanol-induced amnesia by protecting the hippocampus from NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:27257009

  6. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. To test behavioral deficits, an object recognition test was conducted in mouse. In this test, ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) impaired object recognition memory, but SM (200 mg/kg) prevented this impairment. To evaluate synaptic deficits, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampal slices were tested, as they are known to be vulnerable to ethanol and are associated with ethanol-induced amnesia. SM (10 and 100 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced long-term potentiation and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP deficits in the hippocampal slices. Therefore, these results suggest that SM prevents ethanol-induced amnesia by protecting the hippocampus from NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:27257009

  7. High-Throughput All-Optical Analysis of Synaptic Transmission and Synaptic Vesicle Recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wabnig, Sebastian; Liewald, Jana Fiona; Yu, Szi-chieh; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) undergo a cycle of biogenesis and membrane fusion to release transmitter, followed by recycling. How exocytosis and endocytosis are coupled is intensively investigated. We describe an all-optical method for identification of neurotransmission genes that can directly distinguish SV recycling factors in C. elegans, by motoneuron photostimulation and muscular RCaMP Ca2+ imaging. We verified our approach on mutants affecting synaptic transmission. Mutation of genes affecting SV recycling (unc-26 synaptojanin, unc-41 stonin, unc-57 endophilin, itsn-1 intersectin, snt-1 synaptotagmin) showed a distinct ‘signature’ of muscle Ca2+ dynamics, induced by cholinergic motoneuron photostimulation, i.e. faster rise, and earlier decrease of the signal, reflecting increased synaptic fatigue during ongoing photostimulation. To facilitate high throughput, we measured (3–5 times) ~1000 nematodes for each gene. We explored if this method enables RNAi screening for SV recycling genes. Previous screens for synaptic function genes, based on behavioral or pharmacological assays, allowed no distinction of the stage of the SV cycle in which a protein might act. We generated a strain enabling RNAi specifically only in cholinergic neurons, thus resulting in healthier animals and avoiding lethal phenotypes resulting from knockdown elsewhere. RNAi of control genes resulted in Ca2+ measurements that were consistent with results obtained in the respective genomic mutants, albeit to a weaker extent in most cases, and could further be confirmed by opto-electrophysiological measurements for mutants of some of the genes, including synaptojanin. We screened 95 genes that were previously implicated in cholinergic transmission, and several controls. We identified genes that clustered together with known SV recycling genes, exhibiting a similar signature of their Ca2+ dynamics. Five of these genes (C27B7.7, erp-1, inx-8, inx-10, spp-10) were further assessed in respective

  8. Absence of synaptotagmin disrupts excitation-secretion coupling during synaptic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Broadie, K; Bellen, H J; DiAntonio, A; Littleton, J T; Schwarz, T L

    1994-01-01

    Synaptotagmin is an integral synaptic vesicle protein proposed to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis during synaptic transmission. Null mutations in synaptotagmin have been made in Drosophila, and the protein's in vivo function has been assayed at the neuromuscular synapse. In the absence of synaptotagmin, synaptic transmission is dramatically impaired but is not abolished. In null mutants, evoked vesicle release is decreased by a factor of 10. Moreover, the fidelity of excitation-secretion coupling is impaired so that a given stimulus generates a more variable amount of secretion. However, this residual evoked release shows Ca(2+)-dependence similar to normal release, suggesting either that synaptotagmin is not the Ca2+ sensor or that a second, independent Ca2+ sensor exists. While evoked transmission is suppressed, the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion is increased by a factor of 5. We conclude that synaptotagmin is not an absolutely essential component of the Ca(2+)-dependent secretion pathway in synaptic transmission but is necessary for normal levels of transmission. Our data support a model in which synaptotagmin functions as a negative regulator of spontaneous vesicle fusion and acts to increase the efficiency of excitation-secretion coupling during synaptic transmission. Images PMID:7938019

  9. Wnt signaling pathway improves central inhibitory synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Marco; Espinoza, Claudia; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Cuitino, Loreto; Brandan, Enrique; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-02-01

    The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) that connects the cytoskeleton, plasma membrane and the extracellular matrix has been related to the maintenance and stabilization of channels and synaptic receptors, which are both essential for synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission. The dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) exhibits a significant reduction in hippocampal GABA efficacy, which may underlie the altered synaptic function and abnormal hippocampal long-term plasticity exhibited by mdx mice. Emerging studies have implicated Wnt signaling in the modulation of synaptic efficacy, neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. We report here that the activation of the non-canonical Wnt-5a pathway and Andrographolide, improves hippocampal mdx GABAergic efficacy by increasing the number of inhibitory synapses and GABA(A) receptors or GABA release. These results indicate that Wnt signaling modulates GABA synaptic efficacy and could be a promising novel target for DMD cognitive therapy. PMID:26626079

  10. Long-term plasticity determines the postsynaptic response to correlated afferents with multivesicular short-term synaptic depression

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Alex D.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrony in a presynaptic population leads to correlations in vesicle occupancy at the active sites for neurotransmitter release. The number of independent release sites per presynaptic neuron, a synaptic parameter recently shown to be modified during long-term plasticity, will modulate these correlations and therefore have a significant effect on the firing rate of the postsynaptic neuron. To understand how correlations from synaptic dynamics and from presynaptic synchrony shape the postsynaptic response, we study a model of multiple release site short-term plasticity and derive exact results for the crosscorrelation function of vesicle occupancy and neurotransmitter release, as well as the postsynaptic voltage variance. Using approximate forms for the postsynaptic firing rate in the limits of low and high correlations, we demonstrate that short-term depression leads to a maximum response for an intermediate number of presynaptic release sites, and that this leads to a tuning-curve response peaked at an optimal presynaptic synchrony set by the number of neurotransmitter release sites per presynaptic neuron. These effects arise because, above a certain level of correlation, activity in the presynaptic population is overly strong resulting in wastage of the pool of releasable neurotransmitter. As the nervous system operates under constraints of efficient metabolism it is likely that this phenomenon provides an activity-dependent constraint on network architecture. PMID:24523691

  11. Munc18-1 mutations that strongly impair SNARE-complex binding support normal synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Marieke; Burkhardt, Pawel; de Wit, Heidi; Toonen, Ruud F; Fasshauer, Dirk; Verhage, Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic transmission depends critically on the Sec1p/Munc18 protein Munc18-1, but it is unclear whether Munc18-1 primarily operates as a integral part of the fusion machinery or has a more upstream role in fusion complex assembly. Here, we show that point mutations in Munc18-1 that interfere with binding to the free Syntaxin1a N-terminus and strongly impair binding to assembled SNARE complexes all support normal docking, priming and fusion of synaptic vesicles, and normal synaptic plasticity in munc18-1 null mutant neurons. These data support a prevailing role of Munc18-1 before/during SNARE-complex assembly, while its continued association to assembled SNARE complexes is dispensable for synaptic transmission. PMID:22446389

  12. Phasic bursting activity of rat paraventricular neurones in the absence of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Hatton, G I

    1982-06-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the phasic bursting activity, characteristic of certain magnocellular neuropeptidergic neurones in rat hypothalamus, is dependent upon chemical synaptic input.2. Slices of hypothalamus were placed in an in vitro chamber with hippocampal slices. The synaptic response in the CA1 cell layer from Schaffer collateral stimulation was monitored before, during and after synaptic transmission was blocked by superfusion of medium containing high Mg(2+) (either 18.7 or 9.3 mM) and low Ca(2+) (0.05 mM). This well studied pathway was chosen as an assay of synaptic blockade because hypothalamic circuitry is relatively unknown.3. The electrical activity of twenty-two phasic bursting neurones in the lateral portion of the paraventricular nucleus (p.v.n.) was recorded. Nineteen of twenty-two phasic p.v.n. neurones were recorded only after synaptic transmission was blocked. The remaining three cells were firing phasically in standard medium when first encountered and continued to display phasic bursting activity for up to 1.25 hr after synaptic blockade. Active cells in nearby hypothalamic areas did not show phasic bursting patterns either before or after synaptic transmission was blocked.4. The phasic bursting activity of the p.v.n. neurones in this study and that of previously reported p.v.n. cells in vivo were similar in (a) firing rate within bursts (b) burst length and (c) silent period duration.5. It is concluded that phasic bursting in p.v.n. magnocellular neuropeptidergic cells is not dependent upon synaptically mediated excitation or recurrent inhibition as has been hypothesized earlier.6. Alternative hypotheses, based upon acute changes in [K(+)](o), endogenous membrane currents and electrotonic coupling are discussed as possible explanations of phasic bursting in these magnocellular neuropeptidergic cells.

  13. Erythropoietin improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Weber, Astrid; Maier, Rolf F; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Grips, Martin; Hoppenz, Marc; Aktas, Ayse G; Heinemann, Uwe; Obladen, Michael; Schuchmann, Sebastian

    2002-12-27

    Erythropoietin (EPO) prevents neuronal damage following ischemic, metabolic, and excitotoxic stress. In this study evoked extracellular field potentials (FP) were used to investigate the effect of EPO on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice cultures. EPO treated cultured slices (40 units/ml for 48 h) showed significantly increased FP during and following oxygen and glucose deprivation compared with untreated control slices. The addition of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 (50 microM for 48 h) blocked the EPO effect. These data suggest that EPO improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in hippocampal slice cultures.

  14. Restless AMPA receptors: implications for synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lüscher, Christian; Frerking, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    A central assumption in neurobiology holds that changes in the strength of individual synapses underlie changes in behavior. This concept is widely accepted in the case of learning and memory where LTP and LTD are the most compelling cellular models. It is therefore of great interest to understand, on a molecular level, how the brain regulates the strength of neuronal connections. We review a large body of evidence in support of the very straightforward regulation of synaptic strength by changing the number of postsynaptic receptors, and discuss the molecular machinery required for insertion and removal of AMPA receptors. PMID:11672812

  15. Use-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission by the secretion of intravesicularly accumulated antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Tischbirek, Carsten H; Wenzel, Eva M; Zheng, Fang; Huth, Tobias; Amato, Davide; Trapp, Stefan; Denker, Annette; Welzel, Oliver; Lueke, Katharina; Svetlitchny, Alexei; Rauh, Manfred; Deusser, Janina; Schwab, Annemarie; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Henkel, Andreas W; Müller, Christian P; Alzheimer, Christian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W

    2012-06-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are effective for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the functional consequences and subcellular sites of their accumulation in nervous tissue have remained elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the weak-base antipsychotics haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, and risperidone in synaptic vesicle recycling. Using multiple live-cell microscopic approaches and electron microscopy of rat hippocampal neurons as well as in vivo microdialysis experiments in chronically treated rats, we demonstrate the accumulation of the antipsychotic drugs in synaptic vesicles and their release upon neuronal activity, leading to a significant increase in extracellular drug concentrations. The secreted drugs exerted an autoinhibitory effect on vesicular exocytosis, which was promoted by the inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels and depended on the stimulation intensity. Taken together, these results indicate that accumulated antipsychotic drugs recycle with synaptic vesicles and have a use-dependent, autoinhibitory effect on synaptic transmission. PMID:22681688

  16. Synaptic transmission: inhibition of neurotransmitter release by botulinum toxins.

    PubMed

    Dolly, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A, a protein long used in the successful treatment of various dystonias, has a complex mechanism of action that results in muscle relaxation. At the neuromuscular junction, the presynaptic nerve ending is packed with synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine, and clustered at the tip of the folds of the postsynaptic muscle membrane are the acetylcholine receptors. Synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane in response to an elevation of intraneuronal calcium concentration and undergo release of their transmitter by exocytosis. Intracellular proteins that contribute to the fusion of the vesicles with the plasma membrane during exocytosis include synaptosomal protein with a molecular weight of 25 kDa (SNAP-25); vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP), also known as synaptobrevin; and syntaxin. Through their proteolytic action on these proteins, botulinum toxins prevent exocytosis, thereby inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. There are 7 serotypes of this toxin-A, B, C1, D, E, F, and G-and each cleaves a different intracellular protein or the same target at distinct bonds. The separate cleavage sites in SNAP-25 for botulinum toxin types A and E contribute to their dissimilar durations of muscle relaxation. This report describes the molecular basis for the inhibition by botulinum toxins of neuroexocytosis and subsequent functional recovery at the neuromuscular junction.

  17. Ovarian Hormone Loss Impairs Excitatory Synaptic Transmission at Hippocampal CA3–CA1 Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Damani N.; Dorsa, Daniel M.; Adelman, John P.; Maylie, James

    2013-01-01

    Premature and long-term ovarian hormone loss following ovariectomy (OVX) is associated with cognitive impairment. This condition is prevented by estradiol (E2) therapy when initiated shortly following OVX but not after substantial delay. To determine whether these clinical findings are correlated with changes in synaptic functions, we used adult OVX rats to evaluate the consequences of short-term (7–10 d, OVXControl) and long-term (∼5 months, OVXLT) ovarian hormone loss, as well as subsequent in vivo E2 treatment, on excitatory synaptic transmission at the hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses important for learning and memory. The results show that ovarian hormone loss was associated with a marked decrease in synaptic strength. E2 treatment increased synaptic strength in OVXControl but not OVXLT rats, demonstrating a change in the efficacy for E2 5 months following OVX. E2 also had a more rapid effect: within minutes of bath application, E2 acutely increased synaptic strength in all groups except OVXLT rats that did not receive in vivo E2 treatment. E2's acute effect was mediated postsynaptically, and required Ca2+ influx through the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Despite E2's acute effect, synaptic strength of OVXLT rats remained significantly lower than that of OVXControl rats. Thus, changes in CA3–CA1 synaptic transmission associated with ovarian hormone loss cannot be fully reversed with delayed E2 treatment. Given that synaptic strength at CA3–CA1 synapses is related to the ability to learn hippocampus-dependent tasks, these findings provide additional insights for understanding cognitive impairment-associated long-term ovarian hormone loss and ineffectiveness for delayed E2 treatment to maintain cognitive functions. PMID:24107948

  18. GluA2-Containing AMPA Receptors Distinguish Ribbon-Associated from Ribbonless Afferent Contacts on Rat Cochlear Hair Cells123

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Monedero, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mechanosensory hair cells release glutamate at ribbon synapses to excite postsynaptic afferent neurons, via AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, type II afferent neurons contacting outer hair cells in the mammalian cochlea were thought to differ in this respect, failing to show GluA immunolabeling and with many “ribbonless” afferent contacts. Here it is shown that antibodies to the AMPAR subunit GluA2 labeled afferent contacts below inner and outer hair cells in the rat cochlea, and that synaptic currents in type II afferents had AMPAR-specific pharmacology. Only half the postsynaptic densities of type II afferents that labeled for PSD-95, Shank, or Homer were associated with GluA2 immunopuncta or presynaptic ribbons, the “empty slots” corresponding to ribbonless contacts described previously. These results extend the universality of AMPAergic transmission by hair cells, and support the existence of silent afferent contacts. PMID:27257620

  19. Resolving the ionotropic receptor kinetics and modulation in the time scale of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Maria; Mercik, Katarzyna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2003-01-01

    Synaptic transmission plays a crucial role in signal transduction in the adult central nervous system. It is known that synaptic transmission can be modulated by physiological and pathological processes and a number of factors including metal ions, pH, drugs, etc. The patch-clamp technique allows to measure postsynaptic currents, but the mechanism of these currents modulation remains unclear. The estimated value of neurotransmitter transient indicates that this time course is very short and the activation of postsynaptic receptors is extremely non-equilibrient. The ultrafast perfusion system makes it possible to mimic synaptic conditions and, additionally, the agonist concentration can be controlled, which is very important for pharmacokinetic studies. In the present paper, examples of pharmacological modulation of mIPSC kinetics and currents evoked by ultrafast agonist application are presented.

  20. MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711.
    While severe hypothyroidis...

  1. In Vivo Measurement of Cell-Type-Specific Synaptic Connectivity and Synaptic Transmission in Layer 2/3 Mouse Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Aurélie; Petersen, Carl C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Intracellular recordings of membrane potential in vitro have defined fundamental properties of synaptic communication. Much less is known about the properties of synaptic connectivity and synaptic transmission in vivo. Here, we combined single-cell optogenetics with whole-cell recordings to investigate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vivo from single identified excitatory neurons onto two genetically defined subtypes of inhibitory GABAergic neurons in layer 2/3 mouse barrel cortex. We found that parvalbumin-expressing (PV) GABAergic neurons received unitary glutamatergic synaptic input with higher probability than somatostatin-expressing (Sst) GABAergic neurons. Unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials onto PV neurons were also faster and more reliable than inputs onto Sst neurons. Excitatory synapses targeting Sst neurons displayed strong short-term facilitation, while those targeting PV neurons showed little short-term dynamics. Our results largely agree with in vitro measurements. We therefore demonstrate the technical feasibility of assessing functional cell-type-specific synaptic connectivity in vivo, allowing future investigations into context-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission. PMID:25543458

  2. The Chemokine MIP-1α/CCL3 impairs mouse hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Elodie; Faivre, Emilie; Dutar, Patrick; Alves Pires, Claire; Demeyer, Dominique; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Laloux, Charlotte; Buée, Luc; Blum, David; Humez, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are signaling molecules playing an important role in immune regulations. They are also thought to regulate brain development, neurogenesis and neuroendocrine functions. While chemokine upsurge has been associated with conditions characterized with cognitive impairments, their ability to modulate synaptic plasticity remains ill-defined. In the present study, we specifically evaluated the effects of MIP1-α/CCL3 towards hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and spatial memory. We found that CCL3 (50 ng/ml) significantly reduced basal synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse without affecting NMDAR-mediated field potentials. This effect was ascribed to post-synaptic regulations, as CCL3 did not impact paired-pulse facilitation. While CCL3 did not modulate long-term depression (LTD), it significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), an effect abolished by Maraviroc, a CCR5 specific antagonist. In addition, sub-chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of CCL3 also impair LTP. In accordance with these electrophysiological findings, we demonstrated that the icv injection of CCL3 in mouse significantly impaired spatial memory abilities and long-term memory measured using the two-step Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These effects of CCL3 on memory were inhibited by Maraviroc. Altogether, these data suggest that the chemokine CCL3 is an hippocampal neuromodulator able to regulate synaptic plasticity mechanisms involved in learning and memory functions. PMID:26511387

  3. Genetic deletion of TNF receptor suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via reducing AMPA receptor synaptic localization in cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Shen, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of postsynaptic glutamate receptors has been shown to be regulated by proimmunocytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) signaling. The role of TNF-α receptor subtypes in mediating glutamate receptor expression, trafficking, and function still remains unclear. Here, we report that TNF receptor subtypes (TNFR1 and TNFR2) differentially modulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) clustering and function in cultured cortical neurons. We find that genetic deletion of TNFR1 decreases surface expression and synaptic localization of the AMPAR GluA1 subunit, reduces the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), and reduces AMPA-induced maximal whole-cell current. In addition, these results are not observed in TNFR2-deleted neurons. The decreased AMPAR expression and function in TNFR1-deleted cells are not significantly restored by short (2 h) or long (24 h) term exposure to TNF-α. In TNFR2-deleted cells, TNF-α promotes AMPAR trafficking to the synapse and increases mEPSC frequency. In the present study, we find no significant change in the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR clusters, location, and mEPSC. This includes applying or withholding the TNF-α treatment in both TNFR1- and TNFR2-deleted neurons. Our results indicate that TNF receptor subtype 1 but not 2 plays a critical role in modulating AMPAR clustering, suggesting that targeting TNFR1 gene might be a novel approach to preventing neuronal AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity.—He, P., Liu, Q., Wu, J., Shen, Y. Genetic deletion of TNF receptor suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via reducing AMPA receptor synaptic localization in cortical neurons. PMID:21982949

  4. Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D.; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa++ amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5–10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement. PMID:24575037

  5. Enhanced synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse by artificial seawater based on physically modified saline.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Rabello, Guilherme; Merlo, Suelen; Zemmar, Ajmal; Walton, Kerry D; Moreno, Herman; Moreira, Jorge E; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2014-01-01

    Superfusion of the squid giant synapse with artificial seawater (ASW) based on isotonic saline containing oxygen nanobubbles (RNS60 ASW) generates an enhancement of synaptic transmission. This was determined by examining the postsynaptic response to single and repetitive presynaptic spike activation, spontaneous transmitter release, and presynaptic voltage clamp studies. In the presence of RNS60 ASW single presynaptic stimulation elicited larger postsynaptic potentials (PSP) and more robust recovery from high frequency stimulation than in control ASW. Analysis of postsynaptic noise revealed an increase in spontaneous transmitter release with modified noise kinetics in RNS60 ASW. Presynaptic voltage clamp demonstrated an increased EPSP, without an increase in presynaptic ICa(++) amplitude during RNS60 ASW superfusion. Synaptic release enhancement reached stable maxima within 5-10 min of RNS60 ASW superfusion and was maintained for the entire recording time, up to 1 h. Electronmicroscopic morphometry indicated a decrease in synaptic vesicle density and the number at active zones with an increase in the number of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and large endosome-like vesicles near junctional sites. Block of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by presynaptic injection of oligomycin reduced spontaneous release and prevented the synaptic noise increase seen in RNS60 ASW. After ATP block the number of vesicles at the active zone and CCV was reduced, with an increase in large vesicles. The possibility that RNS60 ASW acts by increasing mitochondrial ATP synthesis was tested by direct determination of ATP levels in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures. This was implemented using luciferin/luciferase photon emission, which demonstrated a marked increase in ATP synthesis following RNS60 administration. It is concluded that RNS60 positively modulates synaptic transmission by up-regulating ATP synthesis, thus leading to synaptic transmission enhancement.

  6. Dopamine D1/D5, But not D2/D3, Receptor Dependency of Synaptic Plasticity at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses that Is Enabled by Patterned Afferent Stimulation, or Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hagena, Hardy; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Although the mossy fiber (MF) synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24 h) synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH)-CA1 and perforant path (PP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). These latter forms of synaptic plasticity are directly related to the learning behavior: novel exploration of generalized changes in space facilitates the expression of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses, whereas exploration of novel configurations of large environmental features facilitates the expression of LTD. In the absence of spatial novelty, synaptic plasticity is not expressed. Motivation is a potent determinant of whether learning about the spatial experience effectively occurs and the neuromodulator dopamine (DA) plays a key role in motivation-based learning. Prior research on the regulation by DA receptors of long-term synaptic plasticity in CA1 and DG synapses in vivo suggests that whereas D2/D3 receptors may modulate a general predisposition toward expressing plasticity, D1/D5 receptors may directly regulate the direction of change in synaptic strength that occurs during learning. Although the CA3 region is believed to play a pivotal role in many forms of learning, the role of dopamine receptors in persistent (>24 h) forms of synaptic plasticity at MF-CA3 synapses is unknown. Here, we report that whereas pharmacological antagonism of D2/D3 receptors had no impact on LTP or LTD, antagonism of D1/D5 receptors significantly impaired LTP and LTD that were induced by solely by means of patterned afferent stimulation, or LTP/LTD that are typically enhanced by the conjunction of afferent stimulation and novel spatial learning. These data indicate an

  7. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and chemical components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the chemical component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  8. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  9. Peripherally restricted viral challenge elevates extracellular glutamate and enhances synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Holly C; Wang, Desheng; Petrisko, Tiffany J; Alhowail, Ahmad; Setti, Sharay E; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Konat, Gregory W; Reed, Miranda N

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral infections increase the propensity and severity of seizures in susceptible populations. We have previously shown that intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC), elicits hypersusceptibility of mice to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. This study was undertaken to determine whether this seizure hypersusceptibility entails alterations in glutamate signaling. Female C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with PIC, and after 24 h, glutamate homeostasis in the hippocampus was monitored using the enzyme-based microelectrode arrays. PIC challenge robustly increased the level of resting extracellular glutamate. While pre-synaptic potassium-evoked glutamate release was not affected, glutamate uptake was profoundly impaired and non-vesicular glutamate release was augmented, indicating functional alterations of astrocytes. Electrophysiological examination of hippocampal slices from PIC-challenged mice revealed a several fold increase in the basal synaptic transmission as compared to control slices. PIC challenge also increased the probability of pre-synaptic glutamate release as seen from a reduction of paired-pulse facilitation and synaptic plasticity as seen from an enhancement of long-term potentiation. Altogether, our results implicate a dysregulation of astrocytic glutamate metabolism and an alteration of excitatory synaptic transmission as the underlying mechanism for the development of hippocampal hyperexcitability, and consequently seizure hypersusceptibility following peripheral PIC challenge. Peripheral infections/inflammations enhance seizure susceptibility. Here, we explored the effect of peritoneal inflammation induced by a viral mimic on glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the mouse hippocampus. We found that peritoneal inflammation elevated extracellular glutamate concentration and enhanced the probability of pre-synaptic glutamate release resulting in hyperexcitability of

  10. Evidence for the tonic inhibition of spinal pain by nicotinic cholinergic transmission through primary afferents

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Misaki; Xie, Weijiao; Inoue, Makoto; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background We have proposed that nerve injury-specific loss of spinal tonic cholinergic inhibition may play a role in the analgesic effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists on neuropathic pain. However, the tonic cholinergic inhibition of pain remains to be well characterized. Results Here, we show that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) signals were localized not only in outer dorsal horn fibers (lamina I–III) and motor neurons in the spinal cord, but also in the vast majority of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). When mice were treated with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) against ChAT, which decreased ChAT signals in the dorsal horn and DRG, but not in motor neurons, they showed a significant decrease in nociceptive thresholds in paw pressure and thermal paw withdrawal tests. Furthermore, in a novel electrical stimulation-induced paw withdrawal (EPW) test, the thresholds for stimulation through C-, Aδ- and Aβ-fibers were all decreased by AS-ODN-pretreatments. The administration of nicotine (10 nmol i.t.) induced a recovery of the nociceptive thresholds, decreased by the AS-ODN, in the mechanical, thermal and EPW tests. However, nicotine had no effects in control mice or treated with a mismatch scramble (MS)-ODN in all of these nociception tests. Conclusion These findings suggest that primary afferent cholinergic neurons produce tonic inhibition of spinal pain through nAChR activation, and that intrathecal administration of nicotine rescues the loss of tonic cholinergic inhibition. PMID:18088441

  11. Role of Rab27 in synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eunah; Kanno, Eiko; Choi, Soonwook; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moreira, Jorge E; Llinás, Rodolfo R; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2008-10-14

    Small GTPase Rab is a member of a large family of Ras-related proteins, highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, and thought to regulate specific type(s) and/or specific step(s) in intracellular membrane trafficking. Given our interest in synaptic transmission, we addressed the possibility that Rab27 (a close isoform of Rab3) could be involved in cytosolic synaptic vesicle mobilization. Indeed, preterminal injection of a specific antibody against squid Rab27 (anti-sqRab27 antibody) combined with confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rab27 is present on squid synaptic vesicles. Electrophysiological study of injected synapses showed that the anti-sqRab27 antibody inhibited synaptic release in a stimulation-dependent manner without affecting presynaptic action potentials or inward Ca(2+) current. This result was confirmed in in vitro synaptosomes by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Thus, synaptosomal Ca(2+)-stimulated release of FM1-43 dye was greatly impaired by intraterminal anti-sqRab27 antibody. Ultrastructural analysis of the injected giant preterminal further showed a reduced number of docked synaptic vesicles and an increase in nondocked vesicular profiles distant from the active zone. These results, taken together, indicate that Rab27 is primarily involved in the maturation of recycled vesicles and/or their transport to the presynaptic active zone in the squid giant synapse.

  12. Role of Rab27 in synaptic transmission at the squid giant synapse

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eunah; Kanno, Eiko; Choi, Soonwook; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moreira, Jorge E.; Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2008-01-01

    Small GTPase Rab is a member of a large family of Ras-related proteins, highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, and thought to regulate specific type(s) and/or specific step(s) in intracellular membrane trafficking. Given our interest in synaptic transmission, we addressed the possibility that Rab27 (a close isoform of Rab3) could be involved in cytosolic synaptic vesicle mobilization. Indeed, preterminal injection of a specific antibody against squid Rab27 (anti-sqRab27 antibody) combined with confocal microscopy demonstrated that Rab27 is present on squid synaptic vesicles. Electrophysiological study of injected synapses showed that the anti-sqRab27 antibody inhibited synaptic release in a stimulation-dependent manner without affecting presynaptic action potentials or inward Ca2+ current. This result was confirmed in in vitro synaptosomes by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Thus, synaptosomal Ca2+-stimulated release of FM1-43 dye was greatly impaired by intraterminal anti-sqRab27 antibody. Ultrastructural analysis of the injected giant preterminal further showed a reduced number of docked synaptic vesicles and an increase in nondocked vesicular profiles distant from the active zone. These results, taken together, indicate that Rab27 is primarily involved in the maturation of recycled vesicles and/or their transport to the presynaptic active zone in the squid giant synapse. PMID:18840683

  13. Calcium channel blockade attenuates abnormal synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus elicited by entorhinal amyloidopathy.

    PubMed

    Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Naderi, Nima; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2016-10-01

    Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined. The amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, synaptic currents in the DG granule cells were assessed by whole cell patch clamp. EPSCs were evoked by stimulating the perforant pathway. Voltage clamp recording showed profound decrease of evoked EPSC amplitude and paired pulse facilitation in the DG granule cells of Aβ treated rats. Furthermore, AMPA/NMDA ratio was significantly decreased in the Aβ treated animals. On the other hand, amplitude of IPSC currents was significantly increased in the DG granule cells of these animals. These modifications of synaptic currents were partially reversed by daily intracerebroventricular administration of isradipine or nimodipine. In conclusion, our results suggest that Aβ in the EC triggers decreased excitatory transmission in the DG with substantial decrement in AMPA currents, leading to a prominent activity of inhibitory circuits and increased inhibition of granule cells which may contribute to the development of AD-related neurological deficits in AD and treatment by CCBs could preserve normal synaptic transmission against Aβ toxicity. PMID:27240164

  14. Statistical models of synaptic transmission evaluated using the expectation-maximization algorithm.

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, C; Redman, S

    1994-01-01

    Amplitude fluctuations of evoked synaptic responses can be used to extract information on the probabilities of release at the active sites, and on the amplitudes of the synaptic responses generated by transmission at each active site. The parameters that describe this process must be obtained from an incomplete data set represented by the probability density of the evoked synaptic response. In this paper, the equations required to calculate these parameters using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and the maximum likelihood criterion have been derived for a variety of statistical models of synaptic transmission. These models are ones where the probabilities associated with the different discrete amplitudes in the evoked responses are a) unconstrained, b) binomial, and c) compound binomial. The discrete amplitudes may be separated by equal (quantal) or unequal amounts, with or without quantal variance. Alternative models have been considered where the variance associated with the discrete amplitudes is sufficiently large such that no quantal amplitudes can be detected. These models involve the sum of a normal distribution (to represent failures) and a unimodal distribution (to represent the evoked responses). The implementation of the algorithm is described in each case, and its accuracy and convergence have been demonstrated. PMID:7948679

  15. Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Katherine I.; Hong, Elizabeth J.; Wilson, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory stimuli fluctuate on many timescales. However, short-term plasticity causes synapses to act as temporal filters, limiting the range of frequencies they can transmit. How synapses in vivo might transmit a range of frequencies in spite of short-term plasticity is poorly understood. The first synapse in the Drosophila olfactory system exhibits short-term depression, and yet can transmit broadband signals. Here we describe two mechanisms that broaden the frequency characteristics of this synapse. First, two distinct excitatory postsynaptic currents transmit signals on different timescales. Second, presynaptic inhibition dynamically updates synaptic properties to promote accurate transmission of signals across a wide range of frequencies. Inhibition is transient but grows slowly, and simulations show that these two features of inhibition promote broadband synaptic transmission. Dynamic inhibition is often thought to restrict the temporal patterns that a neuron responds to, but our results illustrate a different idea: inhibition can expand the bandwidth of neural coding. PMID:25485755

  16. Regeneration of normal afferent input does not eliminate aberrant synaptic connections of an identified auditory interneuron in the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    PubMed

    Pallas, S L; Hoy, R R

    1986-06-15

    In the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, the dendritic arborizations of an identified auditory interneuron (Int-1) are normally restricted to the ipsilateral auditory neuropile; unilateral deafferentation causes the medial portion of the dendritic field to sprout across the midline and make functional connections with the contralateral auditory neuropile (Hoy et al., '78: Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 4:115, '85: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7772-7786; Hoy and Moiseff, '79: Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 5:163). We have found that regeneration of the auditory afferents also results in an aberrant pattern of innervation of Int-1. Crickets were unilaterally deafferented during postembryonic development by crushing or cutting the auditory nerve. Regeneration of afferent-to-Int-1 connections was tested behaviorally. Of 86 nerve-crushed crickets tested as adults in the behavioral assay, 66% showed functional regeneration of the afferents. Similar results were obtained from the nerve-cut group. However, morphological investigations demonstrated that most of the regenerates still retained the aberrant contralateral dendritic projection. Electrophysiological recordings from these Int-1s showed that not only are some of them driven by their regenerated auditory afferents (the normal pathway) but that they retain their excitability via their contralateral dendrites (the aberrant pathway). This demonstrates that reinnervation of Int-1 by its normal afferent pool neither causes retraction nor prevents the formation of connections made with foreign, contralateral afferents. When the contralateral afferent pool was removed after Int-1 had sprouted, the sprouts remained present, but preliminary results suggest that if the contralateral afferents are removed before Int-1 is deafferented, sprouts are not formed. The results are discussed in relation to the roles of competition and conservation of membrane area in controlling synapse formation.

  17. Effects of Modafinil on Behavioral Learning and Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Wang, Hai-Xia; Li, Chu-Hua; Huang, Jun-Ni; Xiao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent that has been proposed to improve cognitive performance at the preclinical and clinical levels. Since there is insufficient evidence for modafinil to be regarded as a cognitive enhancer, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic modafinil administration on behavioral learning in healthy adult rats. Methods: Y-maze training was used to assess learning performance, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to assess synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of modafinil at 200 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg significantly improved learning performance. Furthermore, perfusion with 1mM modafinil enhanced the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous postsynaptic currents and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices. However, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons were inhibited by treatment with 1mM modafinil. Conclusions: These results indicate that modafinil improves learning and memory in rats possibly by enhancing glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission and inhibiting GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic) inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:26739176

  18. Cooperation between BDNF and glutamate in the regulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Luc; Finsterwald, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Ample evidence supports a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the survival and differentiation of selective populations of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In addition to its trophic actions, BDNF exerts acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity. In particular, BDNF enhances excitatory synaptic transmission through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. In this regard, BDNF enhances glutamate release, the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), NMDA receptor activity and the phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits. Our recent studies revealed a novel cooperative interaction between BDNF and glutamate in the regulation of dendritic development. Indeed, we found that the effects of BDNF on dendritic growth of cortical neurons require both the stimulation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation by BDNF and the activation of the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) by glutamate. Together, these studies highlight the importance of the cooperation between BDNF and glutamate in the regulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal development.

  19. Adult Onset-hypothyroidism has Minimal Effects on Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus of Rats Independent of Hypothermia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during development and in adulthood. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory is sensitive to TH insufficiency. Synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is impaired following...

  20. LGI1 acts presynaptically to regulate excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Lee, Chun-Yao; Allene, Camille; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Stéphanie; Rouach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The secreted leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein is an important actor for human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune etiology: mutations in LGI1 cause inherited temporal lobe epilepsy, while LGI1 is involved in antibody-mediated encephalitis. Remarkably, Lgi1-deficient (Lgi1−/−) mice recapitulate the epileptic disorder and display early-onset spontaneous seizures. To understand how Lgi1-deficiency leads to seizures during postnatal development, we here investigated the early functional and structural defects occurring before seizure onset in Lgi1−/− mice. We found an increased excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from Lgi1−/− mice. No structural alteration in the morphology of pyramidal cell dendrites and synapses was observed at this stage, indicating that Lgi1-deficiency is unlikely to trigger early developmental abnormalities. Consistent with the presynaptic subcellular localization of the protein, Lgi1-deficiency caused presynaptic defects, with no alteration in postsynaptic AMPA receptor activity in Lgi1−/− pyramidal cells before seizure onset. Presynaptic dysfunction led to increased synaptic glutamate levels, which were associated with hyperexcitable neuronal networks. Altogether, these data show that Lgi1 acts presynaptically as a negative modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development. We therefore here reveal that increased presynaptic glutamate release is a key early event resulting from Lgi1-deficiency, which likely contributes to epileptogenesis. PMID:26878798

  1. LGI1 acts presynaptically to regulate excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Boillot, Morgane; Lee, Chun-Yao; Allene, Camille; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Stéphanie; Rouach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The secreted leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) protein is an important actor for human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune etiology: mutations in LGI1 cause inherited temporal lobe epilepsy, while LGI1 is involved in antibody-mediated encephalitis. Remarkably, Lgi1-deficient (Lgi1(-/-)) mice recapitulate the epileptic disorder and display early-onset spontaneous seizures. To understand how Lgi1-deficiency leads to seizures during postnatal development, we here investigated the early functional and structural defects occurring before seizure onset in Lgi1(-/-) mice. We found an increased excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from Lgi1(-/-) mice. No structural alteration in the morphology of pyramidal cell dendrites and synapses was observed at this stage, indicating that Lgi1-deficiency is unlikely to trigger early developmental abnormalities. Consistent with the presynaptic subcellular localization of the protein, Lgi1-deficiency caused presynaptic defects, with no alteration in postsynaptic AMPA receptor activity in Lgi1-/- pyramidal cells before seizure onset. Presynaptic dysfunction led to increased synaptic glutamate levels, which were associated with hyperexcitable neuronal networks. Altogether, these data show that Lgi1 acts presynaptically as a negative modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission during early postnatal development. We therefore here reveal that increased presynaptic glutamate release is a key early event resulting from Lgi1-deficiency, which likely contributes to epileptogenesis. PMID:26878798

  2. Non-apoptotic function of BAD and BAX in long-term depression of synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Song; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Summary It has recently been found that caspases not only function in apoptosis, but are also crucial for non-apoptotic processes such as NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. It remains unknown, however, how caspases are activated and how neurons escape death in LTD. Here we show that caspase-3 is activated by the BAD-BAX cascade for LTD induction. This cascade is required specifically for NMDA receptor-dependent LTD but not for mGluR-LTD, and its activation is sufficient to induce synaptic depression. In contrast to apoptosis, however, BAD is activated only moderately and transiently and BAX is not translocated to mitochondria, resulting in only modest caspase-3 activation. We further demonstrate that the intensity and duration of caspase-3 activation determin whether it leads to cell death or LTD, thus fine-tuning of caspase-3 activation is critical in distinguishing between these two pathways. PMID:21609830

  3. Short-term plasticity and modulation of synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear synapses

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Eleonora; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén

    2014-01-01

    The organ of Corti, the mammalian sensory epithelium of the inner ear, has two types of mechanoreceptor cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). In this sensory epithelium, vibrations produced by sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, an efferent feedback system, inhibits OHC activity and thereby reduces the sensitivity and sharp tuning of cochlear afferent fibers. During neonatal development, IHCs fire Ca2+ action potentials which evoke glutamate release promoting activity in the immature auditory system in the absence of sensory stimuli. During this period, MOC fibers also innervate IHCs and are thought to modulate their firing rate. Both the MOC-OHC and the MOC-IHC synapses are cholinergic, fast and inhibitory and mediated by the α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) coupled to the activation of calcium-activated potassium channels that hyperpolarize the hair cells. In this review we discuss the biophysical, functional and molecular data which demonstrate that at the synapses between MOC efferent fibers and cochlear hair cells, modulation of transmitter release as well as short term synaptic plasticity mechanisms, operating both at the presynaptic terminal and at the postsynaptic hair-cell, determine the efficacy of these synapses and shape the hair cell response pattern. PMID:25520631

  4. Effect of nitrous oxide on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Mennerick, S; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V; Todorovic, S M; Shen, W; Olney, J W; Zorumski, C F

    1998-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas) has been a widely used anesthetic/analgesic since the 19th century, although its cellular mechanism of action is not understood. Here we characterize the effects of N2O on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in microcultures of rat hippocampal neurons, a preparation in which anesthetic effects on monosynaptic communication can be examined in a setting free of polysynaptic network variables. Eighty percent N2O occludes peak NMDA receptor-mediated (NMDAR) excitatory autaptic currents (EACs) with no effect on the NMDAR EAC decay time course. N2O also mildly depresses AMPA receptor-mediated (AMPAR) EACs. We find that N2O inhibits both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor-mediated responses to exogenous agonist. The postsynaptic blockade of NMDA receptors exhibits slight apparent voltage dependence, whereas the blockade of AMPA receptors is not voltage dependent. Although the degree of ketamine and Mg2+ blockade of NMDA-induced responses is dependent on permeant ion concentration, the degree of N2O blockade is not. We also observe a slight and variable prolongation of GABAA receptor-mediated (GABAR) postsynaptic currents likely caused by previously reported effects of N2O on GABAA receptors. Despite the effects of N2O on both NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic receptors, glial glutamate transporter currents and metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic depression are not affected. Paired-pulse depression, the frequency of spontaneous miniature excitatory synaptic currents, and high-voltage-activated calcium currents are not affected by N2O. Our results suggest that the effects of N2O on synaptic transmission are confined to postsynaptic targets. PMID:9822732

  5. Cannabinoids decrease excitatory synaptic transmission and impair long-term depression in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Lévénés, C; Daniel, H; Soubrié, P; Crépel, F

    1998-08-01

    1. CB-1 cannabinoid receptors are strongly expressed in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. We have analysed, in patch-clamped Purkinje cells (PCs) in rat cerebellar slices, the effect of the selective CB-1 agonists WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940 and of the selective CB-1 antagonist SR141716-A on excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. 2. Bath application of both agonists markedly depressed parallel fibre (PF) EPSCs. This effect was reversed by SR141716-A. In contrast, responses of PCs to ionophoretic application of glutamate were not affected by WIN55, 212-2. 3. The coefficient of variation and the paired-pulse facilitation of these PF-mediated EPSCs increased in the presence of WIN55,212-2. 4. WIN55,212-2 decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs and of asynchronous synaptic events evoked in the presence of strontium in the bath, but did not affect their amplitude. 5. WIN55, 212-2 did not change the excitability of PFs. 6. WIN55,212-2 impaired long-term depression induced by pairing protocols in PCs. This effect was antagonized by SR141716-A. The same impairment of LTD was produced by 2-chloroadenosine, a compound that decreases the probability of release of glutamate at PF-PC synapses. 7. The present study demonstrates that cannabinoids inhibit synaptic transmission at PF-PC synapses by decreasing the probability of release of glutamate, and thereby impair LTD. These two effects might represent a plausible cellular mechanism underlying cerebellar dysfunction caused by cannabinoids.

  6. Developmental Exposure to Perchlorate Alters Synaptic Transmission in Hippocampus of the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mary E.; Sui, Li

    2008-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant that blocks iodine uptake into the thyroid gland and reduces thyroid hormones. This action of perchlorate raises significant concern over its effects on brain development. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurologic function in rats after developmental exposure to perchlorate. Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to 0, 30, 300, or 1,000 ppm perchlorate in drinking water from gestational day 6 until weaning. Adult male offspring were evaluated on a series of behavioral tasks and neurophysiologic measures of synaptic function in the hippocampus. Results At the highest perchlorate dose, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were reduced in pups on postnatal day 21. T4 in dams was reduced relative to controls by 16%, 28%, and 60% in the 30-, 300-, and 1,000-ppm dose groups, respectively. Reductions in T4 were associated with increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone in the high-dose group. No changes were seen in serum T3. Perchlorate did not impair motor activity, spatial learning, or fear conditioning. However, significant reductions in baseline synaptic transmission were observed in hippocampal field potentials at all dose levels. Reductions in inhibitory function were evident at 300 and 1,000 ppm, and augmentations in long-term potentiation were observed in the population spike measure at the highest dose. Conclusions Dose-dependent deficits in hippocampal synaptic function were detectable with relatively minor perturbations of the thyroid axis, indicative of an irreversible impairment in synaptic transmission in response to developmental exposure to perchlorate. PMID:18560531

  7. First effects of rising amyloid-β in transgenic mouse brain: synaptic transmission and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Damian M.; Liu, Wenfei; Portelius, Erik; Bayram, Sevinç; Yasvoina, Marina; Ho, Sui-Hin; Smits, Hélène; Ali, Shabinah S.; Steinberg, Rivka; Pegasiou, Chrysia-Maria; James, Owain T.; Matarin, Mar; Richardson, Jill C.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John A.; Salih, Dervis A.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting and treating Alzheimer’s disease, before cognitive deficits occur, has become the health challenge of our time. The earliest known event in Alzheimer’s disease is rising amyloid-β. Previous studies have suggested that effects on synaptic transmission may precede plaque deposition. Here we report how relative levels of different soluble amyloid-β peptides in hippocampus, preceding plaque deposition, relate to synaptic and genomic changes. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry was used to measure the early rise of different amyloid-β peptides in a mouse model of increasing amyloid-β (‘TASTPM’, transgenic for familial Alzheimer’s disease genes APP/PSEN1). In the third postnatal week, several amyloid-β peptides were above the limit of detection, including amyloid-β40, amyloid-β38 and amyloid-β42 with an intensity ratio of 6:3:2, respectively. By 2 months amyloid-β levels had only increased by 50% and although the ratio of the different peptides remained constant, the first changes in synaptic currents, compared to wild-type mice could be detected with patch-clamp recordings. Between 2 and 4 months old, levels of amyloid-β40 rose by ∼7-fold, but amyloid-β42 rose by 25-fold, increasing the amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio to 1:1. Only at 4 months did plaque deposition become detectable and only in some mice; however, synaptic changes were evident in all hippocampal fields. These changes included increased glutamate release probability (P < 0.001, n = 7–9; consistent with the proposed physiological effect of amyloid-β) and loss of spontaneous action potential-mediated activity in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus (P < 0.001, n = 7). Hence synaptic changes occur when the amyloid-β levels and amyloid-β42:amyloid-β40 ratio are still low compared to those necessary for plaque deposition. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed changes in gene expression at 2–4 months including synaptic genes being

  8. Hemichannel composition and electrical synaptic transmission: molecular diversity and its implications for electrical rectification.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Prado, Nicolás; Huetteroth, Wolf; Pereda, Alberto E

    2014-01-01

    Unapposed hemichannels (HCs) formed by hexamers of gap junction proteins are now known to be involved in various cellular processes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the other hand, less is known regarding how differences in the molecular composition of HCs impact electrical synaptic transmission between neurons when they form intercellular heterotypic gap junctions (GJs). Here we review data indicating that molecular differences between apposed HCs at electrical synapses are generally associated with rectification of electrical transmission. Furthermore, this association has been observed at both innexin and connexin (Cx) based electrical synapses. We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. We conclude that asymmetries in molecular composition and sensitivity to cellular factors of each contributing hemichannel can profoundly influence the transmission of electrical signals, endowing electrical synapses with more complex functional properties.

  9. Bidirectional regulation of synaptic transmission by BRAG1/IQSEC2 and its requirement in long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua C.; Petersen, Amber; Zhong, Ling; Himelright, Miranda L.; Murphy, Jessica A.; Walikonis, Randall S.; Gerges, Nashaat Z.

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of the proteins regulating synaptic function can cause synaptic plasticity imbalance that underlies neurological disorders such as intellectual disability. A study found that four distinct mutations within BRAG1, an Arf-GEF synaptic protein, each led to X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Although the physiological functions of BRAG1 are poorly understood, each of these mutations reduces BRAG1's Arf-GEF activity. Here we show that BRAG1 is required for the activity-dependent removal of AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Moreover, we show that BRAG1 bidirectionally regulates synaptic transmission. On one hand, BRAG1 is required for the maintenance of synaptic transmission. On the other hand, BRAG1 expression enhances synaptic transmission, independently of BRAG1 Arf-GEF activity or neuronal activity, but dependently on its C-terminus interactions. This study demonstrates a dual role of BRAG1 in synaptic function and highlights the functional relevance of reduced BRAG1 Arf-GEF activity as seen in the XLID-associated human mutations. PMID:27009485

  10. Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Disrupt Lipid Composition, Ca(2+) Homeostasis, and Synaptic Transmission in Primary Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Bramini, Mattia; Sacchetti, Silvio; Armirotti, Andrea; Rocchi, Anna; Vázquez, Ester; León Castellanos, Verónica; Bandiera, Tiziano; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-07-26

    Graphene has the potential to make a very significant impact on society, with important applications in the biomedical field. The possibility to engineer graphene-based medical devices at the neuronal interface is of particular interest, making it imperative to determine the biocompatibility of graphene materials with neuronal cells. Here we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the effects of chronic and acute exposure of rat primary cortical neurons to few-layer pristine graphene (GR) and monolayer graphene oxide (GO) flakes. By combining a range of cell biology, microscopy, electrophysiology, and "omics" approaches we characterized the graphene-neuron interaction from the first steps of membrane contact and internalization to the long-term effects on cell viability, synaptic transmission, and cell metabolism. GR/GO flakes are found in contact with the neuronal membrane, free in the cytoplasm, and internalized through the endolysosomal pathway, with no significant impact on neuron viability. However, GO exposure selectively caused the inhibition of excitatory transmission, paralleled by a reduction in the number of excitatory synaptic contacts, and a concomitant enhancement of the inhibitory activity. This was accompanied by induction of autophagy, altered Ca(2+) dynamics, and a downregulation of some of the main players in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our results show that, although graphene exposure does not impact neuron viability, it does nevertheless have important effects on neuronal transmission and network functionality, thus warranting caution when planning to employ this material for neurobiological applications. PMID:27359048

  11. Inhibitory effects of propofol on excitatory synaptic transmission in supraoptic nucleus neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Chao; Wang, Bang-An; Wang, Meng-Ya

    2015-12-25

    The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of intravenous general anesthetic propofol (0.1-3.0 mmol/L) on excitatory synaptic transmission in supraoptic nucleus (SON) neurons of rats, and to explore the underlying mechanisms by using intracellular recording technique and hypothalamic slice preparation. It was observed that stimulation of the dorsolateral region of SON could elicit the postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in SON neurons. Of the 8 tested SON neurons, the PSPs of 7 (88%, 7/8) neurons were decreased by propofol in a concentration-dependent manner, in terms of the PSPs' amplitude (P < 0.01), area under curve, duration, half-width and 10%-90% decay time (P < 0.05). The PSPs were completely and reversibly abolished by 1.0 mmol/L propofol at 2 out of 7 tested cells. The depolarization responses induced by pressure ejection of exogenous glutamate were reversibly and concentration-dependently decreased by bath application of propofol. The PSPs and glutamate-induced responses recorded simultaneously were reversibly and concentration-dependently decreased by propofol, but 0.3 mmol/L propofol only abolished PSPs. The excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of 7 cells increased in the condition of picrotoxin (30 µmol/L, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist) pretreatment. On this basis, the inhibitory effects of propofol on EPSPs were decreased. These data indicate that the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms may be both involved in the inhibitory effects of propofol on excitatory synaptic transmission in SON neurons. The inhibitory effects of propofol on excitatory synaptic transmission of SON neurons may be related to the activation of GABA(A) receptors, but at a high concentration, propofol may also act directly on glutamate receptors.

  12. Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Kondratenko, Rodion V; Derevyagin, Vladimir I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2010-05-31

    Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion. PMID:20382202

  13. Age-dependent enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons via GluR5 kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Cui, Changhai; Alkon, Daniel L

    2009-08-01

    Changes in hippocampal synaptic networks during aging may contribute to age-dependent compromise of cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Previous studies have demonstrated that GABAergic synaptic transmission exhibits age-dependent changes. To better understand such age-dependent changes of GABAergic synaptic inhibition, we performed whole-cell recordings from pyramidal cells in the CA1 area of acute hippocampal slices on aged (24-26 months old) and young (2-4 months old) Brown-Norway rats. We found that the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSCs) were significantly increased in aged rats, but the frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs were decreased. Furthermore, the regulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by GluR5 containing kainate receptors was enhanced in aged rats, which was revealed by using LY382884 (a GluR5 kainate receptor antagonist) and ATPA (a GluR5 kainate receptor agonist). Moreover, we demonstrated that vesicular glutamate transporters are involved in the kainate receptor dependent regulation of sIPSCs. Taken together, these results suggest that GABAergic synaptic transmission is potentiated in aged rats, and GluR5 containing kainate receptors regulate the inhibitory synaptic transmission through endogenous glutamate. These alterations of GABAergic input with aging could contribute to age-dependent cognitive decline. PMID:19123252

  14. Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

    1971-01-01

    1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

  15. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  16. A TRPV Channel in Drosophila Motor Neurons Regulates Presynaptic Resting Ca2+ Levels, Synapse Growth, and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ching-On; Chen, Kuchuan; Lin, Yong Qi; Chao, Yufang; Duraine, Lita; Lu, Zhongmin; Yoon, Wan Hee; Sullivan, Jeremy M.; Broadhead, Geoffrey T.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Macleod, Gregory T.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Venkatachalam, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Presynaptic resting Ca2+ influences synaptic vesicle (SV) release probability. Here, we report that a TRPV channel, Inactive (Iav), maintains presynaptic resting [Ca2+] by promoting Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in Drosophila motor neurons, and is required for both synapse development and neurotransmission. We find that Iav activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, which is essential for presynaptic microtubule stabilization at the neuromuscular junction. Thus, loss of Iav induces destabilization of presynaptic microtubules resulting in diminished synaptic growth. Interestingly, expression of human TRPV1 in Iav-deficient motor neurons rescues these defects. We also show that the absence of Iav causes lower SV release probability and diminished synaptic transmission, whereas Iav overexpression elevates these synaptic parameters. Together, our findings indicate that Iav acts as a key regulator of synaptic development and function by influencing presynaptic resting [Ca2+]. PMID:25451193

  17. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1β from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  18. Protracted postnatal development of inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal area CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Lin, D D; Coulter, D A

    2000-11-01

    -channel conductance of subsynaptic GABA(A)Rs but rather to an increase in the number of open channels responding to a single GABA quantum, further supporting the hypothesis that synaptic receptors may not be saturated during synaptic function in adolescent neurons. These data demonstrate that inhibitory synaptic transmission undergoes a markedly protracted postnatal maturation in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the first two postnatal weeks, mIPSCs are large in amplitude, are slow, and occur infrequently. By the third postnatal week, mIPSCs have matured kinetically but retain distinct responses to modulatory drugs, possibly reflecting continued immaturity in synaptic structure and function persisting through adolescence.

  19. Structure and function of the amygdaloid NPY system: NPY Y2 receptors regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala.

    PubMed

    Wood, J; Verma, D; Lach, G; Bonaventure, P; Herzog, H; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2016-09-01

    The amygdala is essential for generating emotional-affective behaviors. It consists of several nuclei with highly selective, elaborate functions. In particular, the central extended amygdala, consisting of the central amygdala (CEA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an essential component actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effectors like hypothalamus and brain stem. Both, CEA and BNST contain high amounts of different neuropeptides that significantly contribute to synaptic transmission. Among these, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing neuromodulator. Here, we characterized the expression, connectivity and electrophysiological function of NPY and Y2 receptors within the CEA. We identified several NPY-expressing neuronal populations, including somatostatin- and calretinin-expressing neurons. Furthermore, in the main intercalated nucleus, NPY is expressed primarily in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons but also in interspersed somatostatin-expressing neurons. Interestingly, NPY neurons did not co-localize with the Y2 receptor. Retrograde tract tracing experiments revealed that NPY neurons reciprocally connect the CEA and BNST. Functionally, the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36, reduced both, inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala (CEm). However, we also provide evidence that lack of NPY or Y2 receptors results in increased GABA release specifically at inhibitory synapses in the CEm. Taken together, our findings suggest that NPY expressed by distinct populations of neurons can modulate afferent and efferent projections of the CEA via presynaptic Y2 receptors located at inhibitory and excitatory synapses.

  20. Cholinergic modulation of multivesicular release regulates striatal synaptic potency and integration.

    PubMed

    Higley, Michael J; Soler-Llavina, Gilberto J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2009-09-01

    The pleiotropic actions of neuromodulators on pre- and postsynaptic targets make disentangling the mechanisms underlying regulation of synaptic transmission challenging. In the striatum, acetylcholine modulates glutamate release via activation of muscarinic receptors (mAchRs), although the consequences for postsynaptic signaling are unclear. Using two-photon microscopy and glutamate uncaging to examine individual synapses in the rat striatum, we found that glutamatergic afferents have a high degree of multivesicular release (MVR) in the absence of postsynaptic receptor saturation. We found that mAchR activation decreased both the probability of release and the concentration of glutamate in the synaptic cleft. The corresponding decrease in synaptic potency reduced the duration of synaptic potentials and limited temporal summation of afferent inputs. These findings reveal a mechanism by which a combination of basal MVR and low receptor saturation allow the presynaptic actions of a neuromodulator to control the engagement of postsynaptic nonlinearities and regulate synaptic integration.

  1. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Affleck, V S; Coote, J H; Pyner, S

    2012-09-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine - BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold - FG or cholera toxin B subunit - CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS-PVN pathways.

  2. Depression of Serotonin Synaptic Transmission by the Dopamine Precursor L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Gantz, Stephanie C; Levitt, Erica S; Llamosas, Nerea; Neve, Kim A; Williams, John T

    2015-08-11

    Imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems has been implicated in the comorbidity of Parkinson's disease (PD) and psychiatric disorders. L-DOPA, the leading treatment of PD, facilitates the production and release of dopamine. This study assessed the action of L-DOPA on monoamine synaptic transmission in mouse brain slices. Application of L-DOPA augmented the D2-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra. This augmentation was largely due to dopamine release from 5-HT terminals. Selective optogenetic stimulation of 5-HT terminals evoked dopamine release, producing D2-receptor-mediated IPSCs following treatment with L-DOPA. In the dorsal raphe, L-DOPA produced a long-lasting depression of the 5-HT1A-receptor-mediated IPSC in 5-HT neurons. When D2 receptors were expressed in the dorsal raphe, application of L-DOPA resulted in a D2-receptor-mediated IPSC. Thus, treatment with L-DOPA caused ectopic dopamine release from 5-HT terminals and a loss of 5-HT-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:26235617

  3. A genetic screen for synaptic transmission mutants mapping to the right arm of chromosome 3 in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Michael C; Stowers, R Steven; Leither, Jennifer; Goodman, Corey S; Pallanck, Leo J

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal function depends upon the proper formation of synaptic connections and rapid communication at these sites, primarily through the regulated exocytosis of chemical neurotransmitters. Recent biochemical and genomic studies have identified a large number of candidate molecules that may function in these processes. To complement these studies, we are pursuing a genetic approach to identify genes affecting synaptic transmission in the Drosophila visual system. Our screening approach involves a recently described genetic method allowing efficient production of mosaic flies whose eyes are entirely homozygous for a mutagenized chromosome arm. From a screen of 42,500 mutagenized flies, 32 mutations on chromosome 3R that confer synaptic transmission defects in the visual system were recovered. These mutations represent 14 complementation groups, of which at least 9 also appear to perform functional roles outside of the eye. Three of these complementation groups disrupt photoreceptor axonal projection, whereas the remaining complementation groups confer presynaptic defects in synaptic transmission without detectably altering photoreceptor structure. Mapping and complementation testing with candidate mutations revealed new alleles of the neuronal fate determinant svp and the synaptic vesicle trafficking component lap among the collection of mutants recovered in this screen. Given the tools available for investigation of synaptic function in Drosophila, these mutants represent a valuable resource for future analysis of synapse development and function. PMID:14504225

  4. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F Kent; Roche, Katherine W; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  5. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P.; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F. Kent; Roche, Katherine W.; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  6. Serotonin is a facilitatory neuromodulator of synaptic transmission and "reinforces" long-term potentiation induction in the vertical lobe of Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, T; Feinstein, N; Klein, M; Hochner, B

    2010-08-11

    The modern cephalopod mollusks (coleoids) are considered the most behaviorally advanced invertebrate, yet little is known about the neurophysiological basis of their behaviors. Previous work suggested that the vertical lobe (VL) of cephalopods is a crucial site for the learning and memory components of these behaviors. We are therefore studying the neurophysiology of the VL in Octopus vulgaris and have discovered a robust activity-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of the synaptic input to the VL. Moreover, we have shown that the VL and its LTP are involved in behavioral long-term memory acquisition. To advance our understanding of the VL as a learning neural network we explore the possible involvement of neuromodulation in VL function. Here we examine whether the well studied serotonergic modulation in simple models of learning in gastropods mollusks is conserved in the octopus VL. We demonstrate histochemically that the VL is innervated by afferent terminals containing 5-HT immunoreactivity (5-HT-IR). Physiologically, 5-HT has a robust facilitatory effect on synaptic transmission and activity-dependent LTP induction. These results suggest that serotonergic neuromodulation is a part of a reinforcing/reward signaling system conserved in both simple and complex learning systems of mollusks. However, there are notable functional differences. First, the effective concentration of 5-HT in the VL is rather high (100 microM); secondly, only neuropilar regions but not cell bodies in the VL are innervated by terminals containing 5-HT-IR. Thirdly, repetitive or long exposures to 5-HT do not lead to a clear long-term facilitation. We propose that in the octopus VL, while the basic facilitatory properties of molluscan 5-HT system are conserved, the system has adapted to convey signals from other brain areas to reinforce the activity-dependent associations at specific sites in the large connections matrix in the VL.

  7. LAMP5 Fine-Tunes GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Defined Circuits of the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Beurrier, Corinne; Céni, Claire; Andriambao, Naly; Combes, Alexis; Koehl, Muriel; Maurice, Nicolas; Gatti, Evelina; Abrous, Dhoher Nora; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Pierre, Philippe; Cremer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    LAMP5 is member of the LAMP family of membrane proteins. In contrast to the canonical members of this protein family, LAMP1 and LAMP2, which show widespread expression in many tissues, LAMP 5 is brain specific in mice. In C. elegans, the LAMP5 ortholog UNC-46 has been suggested to act a trafficking chaperone, essential for the correct targeting of the nematode vesicular GABA-transporter UNC-47. We show here that in the mouse brain LAMP5 is expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic forebrain neurons in the striato-nigral system and the olfactory bulb. The protein was present at synaptic terminals, overlapping with the mammalian vesicular GABA-transporter VGAT. In LAMP5-deficient mice localization of the transporter was unaffected arguing against a conserved role in VGAT trafficking. Electrophysiological analyses in mutants showed alterations in short term synaptic plasticity suggesting that LAMP5 is involved in controlling the dynamics of evoked GABAergic transmission. At the behavioral level, LAMP5 mutant mice showed decreased anxiety and deficits in olfactory discrimination. Altogether, this work implicates LAMP5 function in GABAergic neurotransmission in defined neuronal subpopulations. PMID:27272053

  8. LAMP5 Fine-Tunes GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Defined Circuits of the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Beurrier, Corinne; Céni, Claire; Andriambao, Naly; Combes, Alexis; Koehl, Muriel; Maurice, Nicolas; Gatti, Evelina; Abrous, Dhoher Nora; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Pierre, Philippe; Cremer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    LAMP5 is member of the LAMP family of membrane proteins. In contrast to the canonical members of this protein family, LAMP1 and LAMP2, which show widespread expression in many tissues, LAMP 5 is brain specific in mice. In C. elegans, the LAMP5 ortholog UNC-46 has been suggested to act a trafficking chaperone, essential for the correct targeting of the nematode vesicular GABA-transporter UNC-47. We show here that in the mouse brain LAMP5 is expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic forebrain neurons in the striato-nigral system and the olfactory bulb. The protein was present at synaptic terminals, overlapping with the mammalian vesicular GABA-transporter VGAT. In LAMP5-deficient mice localization of the transporter was unaffected arguing against a conserved role in VGAT trafficking. Electrophysiological analyses in mutants showed alterations in short term synaptic plasticity suggesting that LAMP5 is involved in controlling the dynamics of evoked GABAergic transmission. At the behavioral level, LAMP5 mutant mice showed decreased anxiety and deficits in olfactory discrimination. Altogether, this work implicates LAMP5 function in GABAergic neurotransmission in defined neuronal subpopulations. PMID:27272053

  9. Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum: cellular and molecular mechanisms revisited.

    PubMed

    Levenes, C; Daniel, H; Crépel, F

    1998-05-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum has been the first established example of enduring decrease of synaptic efficacy in the central nervous system. This review focuses on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Thus, at the level of the postsynaptic membranes of PCs, induction of LTD requires concommitent activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and of ionotropic and metabotopic glutamate receptors, of the alpha-amino-3 hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxalone-4-propionate (AMPA) and mGluR1 alpha types respectively. Subsequent intracellular cascades involve production of nitric oxide from arginine and of cGMP, activation of phospholipase A2 and of several protein kinases including protein kinase C and tyrosine kinases. Activation of protein kinase G and of phosphatases are also likely to be involved in LTD induction. In contrast, there are still uncertainties concerning a major role of release of calcium from internal stores in LTD induction. Finally protein synthesis is required for a late phase of LTD to occur. All available experimental evidence points towards a postsynaptic site for LTD expression. In particular, electrophysiological data demonstrate a genuine modification of the functional properties of AMPA receptors of PCs during LTD, and immunocytochemical evidence suggests that this might result from a phosphorylation of these receptors.

  10. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) alters hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by modulation of the GABAergic system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, YuYing; Chen, JunFang; Chen, Ying; Zhuang, YingHan; Sun, Mu; Behnisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms following administration to mice, monkeys, and humans. A common view is that MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) to induce its neurodegenerative effects on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, the hippocampus contains dopaminergic fibers, which are projecting from the ventral tegmental area, SN and pars compacta and contain the whole machinery required for dopamine synthesis making them sensitive to MPTP and MPP+. Here, we present data showing that acute bath-application of MPP+ elicited a dose-dependent facilitation followed by a depression of synaptic transmission of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-CA1 synapses in mice. The effects of MPP+ were not mediated by D1/D5- and D2-like receptor activation. Inhibition of the dopamine transporters did not prevent but increased the depression of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials. In the search for a possible mechanism, we observed that MPP+ reduced the appearance of polyspikes in population spikes recorded in str. pyramidale and increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The acute effect of MPP+ on synaptic transmission was attenuated by co-application of a GABAA receptor antagonist. Taking these data together, we suggest that MPP+ affects hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing some aspects of the hippocampal GABAergic system. PMID:26300734

  11. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) alters hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by modulation of the GABAergic system.

    PubMed

    Huang, YuYing; Chen, JunFang; Chen, Ying; Zhuang, YingHan; Sun, Mu; Behnisch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms following administration to mice, monkeys, and humans. A common view is that MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) to induce its neurodegenerative effects on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Moreover, the hippocampus contains dopaminergic fibers, which are projecting from the ventral tegmental area, SN and pars compacta and contain the whole machinery required for dopamine synthesis making them sensitive to MPTP and MPP(+). Here, we present data showing that acute bath-application of MPP(+) elicited a dose-dependent facilitation followed by a depression of synaptic transmission of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-CA1 synapses in mice. The effects of MPP(+) were not mediated by D1/D5- and D2-like receptor activation. Inhibition of the dopamine transporters did not prevent but increased the depression of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials. In the search for a possible mechanism, we observed that MPP(+) reduced the appearance of polyspikes in population spikes recorded in str. pyramidale and increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents. The acute effect of MPP(+) on synaptic transmission was attenuated by co-application of a GABAA receptor antagonist. Taking these data together, we suggest that MPP(+) affects hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing some aspects of the hippocampal GABAergic system. PMID:26300734

  12. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Michael V.; Daniels, Bryan A.; Brown, Patricia M. G. E.; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Tyagarajan, Shiva K.; Bowie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain’s energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) regulate the strength of postsynaptic GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses of cerebellar stellate cells. Inhibition is strengthened through a mechanism that selectively recruits α3-containing GABAA receptors into synapses with no discernible effect on resident α1-containing receptors. Since mROS promotes the emergence of postsynaptic events with unique kinetic properties, we conclude that newly recruited α3-containing GABAA receptors are activated by neurotransmitter released onto discrete postsynaptic sites. Although traditionally associated with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease, our data identify mROS as a putative homeostatic signalling molecule coupling cellular metabolism to the strength of inhibitory transmission.

  13. High-frequency electroacupuncture evidently reinforces hippocampal synaptic transmission in Alzheimer's disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kong, Li-hong; Wang, Hui; Shen, Feng; Wang, Ya-wen; Zhou, Hua; Sun, Guo-jie

    2016-01-01

    The frequency range of electroacupuncture in treatment of Alzheimer's disease in rats is commonly 2–5 Hz (low frequency) and 50–100 Hz (high frequency). We established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42) into the bilateral hippocampal dentate gyrus to verify which frequency may be better suited in treatment. Electroacupuncture at 2 Hz or 50 Hz was used to stimulate Baihui (DU20) and Shenshu (BL23) acupoints. The water maze test and electrophysiological studies demonstrated that spatial memory ability was apparently improved, and the ranges of long-term potentiation and long-term depression were increased in Alzheimer's disease rats after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, the effects of electroacupuncture at 50 Hz were better than that at 2 Hz. These findings suggest that high-frequency electroacupuncture may enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and potentially improve memory disorders in Alzheimer's disease rats. PMID:27335565

  14. Neuronal Nogo-A negatively regulates dendritic morphology and synaptic transmission in the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Petrinovic, Marija M.; Hourez, Raphael; Aloy, Elisabeth M.; Dewarrat, Gregoire; Gall, David; Weinmann, Oliver; Gaudias, Julien; Bachmann, Lukas C.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Vogt, Kaspar E.; Schwab, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal signal integration as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity highly depend on the morphology of dendrites and their spines. Nogo-A is a membrane protein enriched in the adult central nervous system (CNS) myelin, where it restricts the capacity of axons to grow and regenerate after injury. Nogo-A is also expressed by certain neurons, in particular during development, but its physiological function in this cell type is less well understood. We addressed this question in the cerebellum, where Nogo-A is transitorily highly expressed in the Purkinje cells (PCs) during early postnatal development. We used general genetic ablation (KO) as well as selective overexpression of Nogo-A in PCs to analyze its effect on dendritogenesis and on the formation of their main input synapses from parallel (PFs) and climbing fibers (CFs). PC dendritic trees were larger and more complex in Nogo-A KO mice and smaller than in wild-type in Nogo-A overexpressing PCs. Nogo-A KO resulted in premature soma-to-dendrite translocation of CFs and an enlargement of the CF territory in the molecular layer during development. Although spine density was not influenced by Nogo-A, the size of postsynaptic densities of PF–PC synapses was negatively correlated with the Nogo-A expression level. Electrophysiological studies revealed that Nogo-A negatively regulates the strength of synaptic transmission at the PF–PC synapse. Thus, Nogo-A appears as a negative regulator of PC input synapses, which orchestrates cerebellar connectivity through regulation of synapse morphology and the size of the PC dendritic tree. PMID:23277570

  15. Synaptic transmission at parasympathetic neurons of the major pelvic ganglion from normal and diabetic male mice.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, John D; Vizzard, Margaret A; Parsons, Rodney L

    2013-02-01

    Bladder and erectile dysfunction are common urologic complications of diabetes and are associated with reduced parasympathetic autonomic control. To determine whether disruption of ganglionic neurotransmission contributes to the loss of function, we investigated synaptic transmission at parasympathetic, major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons in control and chronically (20 wk) diabetic mice. In contrast to what has been reported for sympathetic neurons, diabetes did not cause an interruption of synaptic transmission at parasympathetic MPG neurons from streptozotocin-treated C57BL/6J (STZ) or db/db mice. Cholinergically mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were suprathreshold during 5-s trains of 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz stimuli. Asynchronous neurotransmitter release, observed as miniature EPSPs (mEPSPs) during and after stimulation, permitted quantitative assessment of postganglionic, cholinergic receptor sensitivity. mEPSP amplitude following tetanic stimulation (recorded at -60 mV) was reduced in STZ (4.95 ± 0.4 vs. 3.71 ± 0.3 mV, P = 0.03), but not db/db mice. The number of posttetanic mEPSPs was significantly greater in db/db mice at all frequencies tested. Assessment of basic electrophysiological properties revealed that parasympathetic MPG neurons from db/db mice had less negative membrane potentials, lower input resistances, and shorter afterhyperpolarizations relative to their control. MPG neurons from STZ had longer afterhyperpolarizations but were otherwise similar to controls. Membrane excitability, measured by the membrane responsiveness to long-duration (1 s), suprathreshold depolarizing pulses, was unchanged in either model. The present study indicates that, while parasympathetic neurotransmission at the MPG is intact in chronically diabetic mice, obese, type 2 diabetic animals exhibit an altered presynaptic regulation of neurotransmitter release.

  16. SLEEPLESS is a bi-functional regulator of excitability and cholinergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meilin; Robinson, James E.; Joiner, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Although sleep is conserved throughout evolution, the molecular basis of its control is still largely a mystery. We previously showed that the quiver/sleepless (qvr/sss) gene encodes a membrane-tethered protein that is required for normal sleep in Drosophila. SLEEPLESS (SSS) protein functions, at least in part, by upregulating the levels and open probability of Shaker (Sh) potassium channels to suppress neuronal excitability and enable sleep. Consistent with this proposed mechanism, loss-of-function mutations in Sh phenocopy qvr/sss null mutants. However, sleep is more genetically modifiable in Sh than in qvr/sss mutants, suggesting that sss may regulate additional molecules to influence sleep. Results Here we show that SSS also antagonizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to reduce synaptic transmission and promote sleep. Mimicking this antagonism with the nAChR inhibitor mecamylamine or by RNAi knockdown of specific nAChR subunits is sufficient to restore sleep to qvr/sss mutants. Regulation of nAChR activity by SSS occurs post-transcriptionally since the levels of nAChR mRNAs are unchanged in qvr/sss mutants. Regulation of nAChR activity by SSS may in fact be direct, since SSS forms a stable complex with and antagonizes fly nAChR function in transfected cells. Intriguingly, lynx1, a mammalian homolog of SSS, can partially restore normal sleep to qvr/sss mutants, and lynx1 can form stable complexes with Shaker-type channels and nAChRs. Conclusions Together, our data point to an evolutionarily conserved, bi-functional role for SSS and its homologs in controlling excitability and synaptic transmission in fundamental processes of the nervous system such as sleep. PMID:24613312

  17. Low-calcium-induced enhancement of chemical synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to horizontal cells in the vertebrate retina.

    PubMed Central

    Piccolino, M; Byzov, A L; Kurennyi, D E; Pignatelli, A; Sappia, F; Wilkinson, M; Barnes, S

    1996-01-01

    According to the classical calcium hypothesis of synaptic transmission, the release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals occurs through an exocytotic process triggered by depolarization-induced presynaptic calcium influx. However, evidence has been accumulating in the last two decades indicating that, in many preparations, synaptic transmitter release can persist or even increase when calcium is omitted from the perfusing saline, leading to the notion of a "calcium-independent release" mechanism. Our study shows that the enhancement of synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina induced by low-calcium media is caused by an increase of calcium influx into presynaptic terminals. This paradoxical effect is accounted for by modifications of surface potential on the photoreceptor membrane. Since lowering extracellular calcium concentration may likewise enhance calcium influx into other nerve cells, other experimental observations of "calcium-independent" release may be reaccommodated within the framework of the classical calcium hypothesis without invoking unconventional processes. PMID:8637867

  18. Optical quantal analysis of synaptic transmission in wild-type and rab3-mutant Drosophila motor axons.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat S; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2011-04-01

    Synaptic transmission from a neuron to its target cells occurs via neurotransmitter release from dozens to thousands of presynaptic release sites whose strength and plasticity can vary considerably. We report an in vivo imaging method that monitors real-time synaptic transmission simultaneously at many release sites with quantal resolution. We applied this method to the model glutamatergic system of the Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction. We find that, under basal conditions, about half of release sites have a very low release probability, but these are interspersed with sites with as much as a 50-fold higher probability. Paired-pulse stimulation depresses high-probability sites, facilitates low-probability sites, and recruits previously silent sites. Mutation of the small GTPase Rab3 substantially increases release probability but still leaves about half of the sites silent. Our findings suggest that basal synaptic strength and short-term plasticity are regulated at the level of release probability at individual sites.

  19. Determinants of Spatial and Temporal Coding by Semicircular Canal Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Highstein, Stephen M.; Rabbitt, Richard D.; Holstein, Gay R.; Boyle, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular semicircular canals are internal sensors that signal the magnitude, direction, and temporal properties of angular head motion. Fluid mechanics within the 3-canal labyrinth code the direction of movement and integrate angular acceleration stimuli over time. Directional coding is accomplished by decomposition of complex angular accelerations into 3 biomechanical components—one component exciting each of the 3 ampullary organs and associated afferent nerve bundles separately. For low-frequency angular motion stimuli, fluid displacement within each canal is proportional to angular acceleration. At higher frequencies, above the lower corner frequency, real-time integration is accomplished by viscous forces arising from the movement of fluid within the slender lumen of each canal. This results in angular velocity sensitive fluid displacements. Reflecting this, a subset of afferent fibers indeed report angular acceleration to the brain for low frequencies of head movement and report angular velocity for higher frequencies. However, a substantial number of afferent fibers also report angular acceleration, or a signal between acceleration and velocity, even at frequencies where the endolymph displacement is known to follow angular head velocity. These non-velocity-sensitive afferent signals cannot be attributed to canal biomechanics alone. The responses of non-velocity-sensitive cells include a mathematical differentiation (first-order or fractional) imparted by hair-cell and/or afferent complexes. This mathematical differentiation from velocity to acceleration cannot be attributed to hair cell ionic currents, but occurs as a result of the dynamics of synaptic transmission between hair cells and their primary afferent fibers. The evidence for this conclusion is reviewed below. PMID:15845995

  20. New tools for targeted disruption of cholinergic synaptic transmission in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Monica; Heghinian, Mari D; Marí, Frank; Godenschwege, Tanja A

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. The α7 subtype of nAChRs is involved in neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, addiction, epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders. The Drosophila melanogaster α7 (Dα7) has the closest sequence homology to the vertebrate α7 subunit and it can form homopentameric receptors just as the vertebrate counterpart. The Dα7 subunits are essential for the function of the Giant Fiber circuit, which mediates the escape response of the fly. To further characterize the receptor function, we generated different missense mutations in the Dα7 nAChR's ligand binding domain. We characterized the effects of targeted expression of two UAS-constructs carrying a single mutation, D197A and Y195T, as well as a UAS-construct carrying a triple D77T, L117Q, I196P mutation in a Dα7 null mutant and in a wild type background. Expression of the triple mutation was able to restore the function of the circuit in Dα7 null mutants and had no disruptive effects when expressed in wild type. In contrast, both single mutations severely disrupted the synaptic transmission of Dα7-dependent but not glutamatergic or gap junction dependent synapses in wild type background, and did not or only partially rescued the synaptic defects of the null mutant. These observations are consistent with the formation of hybrid receptors, consisting of D197A or Y195T subunits and wild type Dα7 subunits, in which the binding of acetylcholine or acetylcholine-induced conformational changes of the Dα7 receptor are altered and causes inhibition of cholinergic responses. Thus targeted expression of D197A or Y195T can be used to selectively disrupt synaptic transmission of Dα7-dependent synapses in neuronal circuits. Hence, these constructs can be used as tools to study learning and memory or addiction associated behaviors by allowing the manipulation of neuronal processing in the circuits without

  1. Modulation of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission by endogenous zinc in the immature rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, X; Hider, R C; Smart, T G

    1994-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings from postnatal 2- to 12-day-old (P2-12) rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurones exhibited spontaneous synaptic potentials mediated by GABAA receptors. These potentials can be separated on the basis of amplitude into two classes which are referred to as small and large. 2. The large depolarizing potentials were reversibly inhibited by the Zn2+ chelator 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (CP94). The small inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. (IPSPs) were apparently unaffected. 3. Stimulation of the mossy fibre pathway evoked composite excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and IPSPs. Threshold stimulus-evoked synaptic potentials were mediated by GABAA receptors and were reversibly blocked by CP94. The responses evoked by suprathreshold stimulation and persisting in the presence of bicuculline or CP94 were partially inhibited by 2-amino-5-phosphonopropionic acid (AP5) and were completely blocked with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). 4. L-Histidine, which preferentially forms complexes with Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Mn2+, inhibited both naturally occurring spontaneous and evoked GABAA-mediated large synaptic potentials without affecting the neuronal resting membrane properties. Exogenously applied Zn2+ induced large spontaneous synaptic potentials and prolonged the duration of the evoked potentials. These effects were reversibly blocked by histidine. 5. The metal chelating agent diethyldithiocarbamate had little effect on the large amplitude synaptic potentials. 6. The transition metal divalent cations Fe2+ and Mn2+ did not initiate large synaptic potentials in CA3 neurones; however, Cu2+ depolarized the membrane and enhanced both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, resulting in a transient increase in the frequency of the large amplitude events. In comparison, zinc increased the frequency of the large potentials and also induced such events in neurons (P4-21) where innate potentials were absent. The postsynaptic

  2. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, James M.; Lin, Yong Qi; Durraine, Lita; Hamilton, Russell S.; Ball, Graeme; Neely, Greg G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Davis, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation. PMID:25171887

  3. Potentiation of synaptic transmission in Rat anterior cingulate cortex by chronic itch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Shen, Feng-Yan; Ma, Li-Qing; Wen, Wen; Wang, Bin; Peng, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Zhao, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Itch and pain share similar mechanisms. It has been well documented that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for pain-related perception. ACC has also been approved to be a potential pruritus-associated brain region. However, the mechanism of sensitization in pruriceptive neurons in the ACC is not clear. In current study, a chronic itch model was established by diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP) application. We found that both the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ACC were enhanced after the formation of chronic itch. The paired-pulse ratio in ACC neurons recorded from the DCP group were smaller than those recorded in control group at the 50-ms interval. We also observe a significant increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio in the DCP group. Moreover, an increased inward rectification of AMPARs in ACC pyramidal neurons was observed in the DCP group. Interestingly, the calculated ratio of silent synapses was significantly reduced in the DCP group compared with controls. Taken together, we conclude that a potentiation of synaptic transmission in the ACC can be induced by chronic itch, and unsilencing silent synapses, which probably involved recruitment of AMPARS, contributed to the potentiation of postsynaptic transmission. PMID:27472923

  4. Distinct Neuronal Coding Schemes in Memory Revealed by Selective Erasure of Fast Synchronous Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Morishita, Wade; Buckmaster, Paul S.; Pang, Zhiping P.; Malenka, Robert C.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons encode information by firing spikes in isolation or bursts, and propagate information by spike-triggered neurotransmitter release that initiates synaptic transmission. Isolated spikes trigger neurotransmitter release unreliably but with high temporal precision, whereas bursts of spikes boost transmission fidelity by overcoming the unreliability of spike-triggered release but are temporally imprecise. However, the relative physiological importance of different spike firing modes remains unclear. Here, we show that knockdown of synaptotagmin-1, the major Ca2+-sensor for neurotransmitter release, abrogated neurotransmission evoked by isolated spikes, but only delayed without abolishing neurotransmission evoked by bursts of spikes. Nevertheless, knockdown of synaptotagmin-1 in the hippocampal CA1 region did not impede acquisition of recent contextual fear memories, although it did impair the precision of such memories. In contrast, knockdown of synaptotagmin-1 in the prefrontal cortex impaired all remote fear memories. These results indicate that different brain circuits and types of memory employ distinct spike-coding schemes to encode and transmit information. PMID:22405208

  5. Synaptic Transmission from Horizontal Cells to Cones Is Impaired by Loss of Connexin Hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Lauw J.; Sun, Ziyi; Steijaert, Marvin N.; Bolte, Petra; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Klooster, Jan; Claassen, Yvonne; Shields, Colleen R.; Ten Eikelder, Huub M. M.; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Zoidl, Georg; McMahon, Douglas G.; Kamermans, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    long-standing debate about the unusual form of (ephaptic) synaptic transmission between horizontal cells and cones in the vertebrate retina. PMID:21811399

  6. De novo mutations in synaptic transmission genes including DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the "classical" epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10(-4)), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction.

  7. De Novo Mutations in Synaptic Transmission Genes Including DNM1 Cause Epileptic Encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Appenzeller, Silke; Balling, Rudi; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stéphanie; Caglayan, Hande; Craiu, Dana; De Jonghe, Peter; Depienne, Christel; Dimova, Petia; Djémié, Tania; Gormley, Padhraig; Guerrini, Renzo; Helbig, Ingo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jähn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby; Komarek, Vladimir; Krause, Roland; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes R.; Lerche, Holger; Linnankivi, Tarja; Marini, Carla; May, Patrick; Møller, Rikke S.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Pal, Deb; Palotie, Aarno; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Robbiano, Angela; Roelens, Filip; Rosenow, Felix; Selmer, Kaja; Serratosa, Jose M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Stephani, Ulrich; Sterbova, Katalin; Striano, Pasquale; Suls, Arvid; Talvik, Tiina; von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Zara, Federico; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Alldredge, Brian K.; Andermann, Eva; Andermann, Frederick; Amron, Dina; Bautista, Jocelyn F.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Bluvstein, Judith; Boro, Alex; Cascino, Gregory; Consalvo, Damian; Crumrine, Patricia; Devinsky, Orrin; Dlugos, Dennis; Epstein, Michael P.; Fiol, Miguel; Fountain, Nathan B.; French, Jacqueline; Friedman, Daniel; Geller, Eric B.; Glauser, Tracy; Glynn, Simon; Haas, Kevin; Haut, Sheryl R.; Hayward, Jean; Helmers, Sandra L.; Joshi, Sucheta; Kanner, Andres; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Kuperman, Rachel; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; McGuire, Shannon M.; Motika, Paul V.; Novotny, Edward J.; Ottman, Ruth; Paolicchi, Juliann M.; Parent, Jack; Park, Kristen; Poduri, Annapurna; Sadleir, Lynette; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Shellhaas, Renée A.; Sherr, Elliott; Shih, Jerry J.; Singh, Rani; Sirven, Joseph; Smith, Michael C.; Sullivan, Joe; Thio, Liu Lin; Venkat, Anu; Vining, Eileen P.G.; Von Allmen, Gretchen K.; Weisenberg, Judith L.; Widdess-Walsh, Peter; Winawer, Melodie R.; Allen, Andrew S.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Cossette, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Dlugos, Dennis; Eichler, Evan E.; Epstein, Michael P.; Glauser, Tracy; Goldstein, David B.; Han, Yujun; Heinzen, Erin L.; Johnson, Michael R.; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Marson, Anthony G.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nieh, Sahar Esmaeeli; O’Brien, Terence J.; Ottman, Ruth; Petrou, Stephen; Petrovski, Slavé; Poduri, Annapurna; Ruzzo, Elizabeth K.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sherr, Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that epileptic encephalopathies are genetically highly heterogeneous, underscoring the need for large cohorts of well-characterized individuals to further define the genetic landscape. Through a collaboration between two consortia (EuroEPINOMICS and Epi4K/EPGP), we analyzed exome-sequencing data of 356 trios with the “classical” epileptic encephalopathies, infantile spasms and Lennox Gastaut syndrome, including 264 trios previously analyzed by the Epi4K/EPGP consortium. In this expanded cohort, we find 429 de novo mutations, including de novo mutations in DNM1 in five individuals and de novo mutations in GABBR2, FASN, and RYR3 in two individuals each. Unlike previous studies, this cohort is sufficiently large to show a significant excess of de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathy probands compared to the general population using a likelihood analysis (p = 8.2 × 10−4), supporting a prominent role for de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. We bring statistical evidence that mutations in DNM1 cause epileptic encephalopathy, find suggestive evidence for a role of three additional genes, and show that at least 12% of analyzed individuals have an identifiable causal de novo mutation. Strikingly, 75% of mutations in these probands are predicted to disrupt a protein involved in regulating synaptic transmission, and there is a significant enrichment of de novo mutations in genes in this pathway in the entire cohort as well. These findings emphasize an important role for synaptic dysregulation in epileptic encephalopathies, above and beyond that caused by ion channel dysfunction. PMID:25262651

  8. Nitric Oxide Modulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission in Mechanically Isolated Rat Auditory Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The auditory cortex (A1) encodes the acquired significance of sound for the perception and interpretation of sound. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas molecule with free radical properties that functions as a transmitter molecule and can alter neural activity without direct synaptic connections. We used whole-cell recordings under voltage clamp to investigate the effect of NO on spontaneous GABAergic synaptic transmission in mechanically isolated rat auditory cortical neurons preserving functional presynaptic nerve terminals. GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the A1 were completely blocked by bicuculline. The NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), reduced the GABAergic sIPSC frequency without affecting the mean current amplitude. The SNAP-induced inhibition of sIPSC frequency was mimicked by 8-bromoguanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate, a membrane permeable cyclic-GMP analogue, and blocked by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, a specific NO scavenger. Blockade of presynaptic K+ channels by 4-aminopyridine, a K+ channel blocker, increased the frequencies of GABAergic sIPSCs, but did not affect the inhibitory effects of SNAP. However, blocking of presynaptic Ca2+ channels by Cd2+, a general voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker, decreased the frequencies of GABAergic sIPSCs, and blocked SNAP-induced reduction of sIPSC frequency. These findings suggest that NO inhibits spontaneous GABA release by activation of cGMP-dependent signaling and inhibition of presynaptic Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic nerve terminals of A1 neurons. PMID:20054493

  9. Different forms of decision-making involve changes in the synaptic strength of the thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents to the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Delgado-García, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making and other cognitive processes are assumed to take place in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is identified in rodents by its dense connectivity with the mediodorsal (MD) thalamus, and because of its inputs from other sites, such as hippocampus and amygdala (Amyg). The aim of this study was to find a putative relationship between the behavior of mice during the performance of decision-making tasks that involve penalties as a consequence of induced actions, and the strength of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) evoked in the prefrontal cortex from its thalamic, hippocampal, and amygdalar afferents. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the MD thalamus, the hippocampal CA1 area, or the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and with recording electrodes in the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Additional stimulating electrodes aimed at evoking negative reinforcements were implanted on the trigeminal nerve. FPSPs evoked at the mPFC from the three selected projecting areas during the food/shock decision-making task decreased in amplitude with shock intensity and animals’ avoidance of the reward. FPSPs collected during the operant task also decreased in amplitude (but that evoked by amygdalar stimulation) when lever presses were associated with a trigeminal shock. Results showed a general decrease in the strength of these potentials when animals inhibited their natural or learned appetitive behaviors, suggesting an inhibition of the prefrontal cortex in these conflicting situations. PMID:25688195

  10. Receptors underlying excitatory synaptic transmission in slices of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, J S; Walmsley, B

    1995-03-01

    bulb EPSC declined significantly with age (postnatal days 11-22). 6. These results indicate that both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors underlie excitatory synaptic transmission in the AVCN of young rats. The end bulb synapse onto bushy cells generates a non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSC with very fast kinetics. NMDA receptors can also mediate synaptic transmission at the end bulb synapse, but their contribution becomes less as the auditory system matures. This finding suggests that NMDA receptors may play an important role in the development of this synapse. PMID:7608781

  11. Alteration of AMPA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Alexa Fluor 488 and 594 in Cerebellar Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Maroteaux, Matthieu; Liu, Siqiong June

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent dyes, Alexa Fluor 488 and 594 are commonly used to visualize dendritic structures and the localization of synapses, both of which are critical for the spatial and temporal integration of synaptic inputs. However, the effect of the dyes on synaptic transmission is not known. Here we investigated whether Alexa Fluor dyes alter the properties of synaptic currents mediated by two subtypes of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at cerebellar stellate cell synapses. In naive mice, GluA2-lacking AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents displayed an inwardly rectifying current-voltage (I-V) relationship due to blockade by cytoplasmic spermine at depolarized potentials. We found that the inclusion of 100 µm Alexa Fluor dye, but not 10 µm, in the pipette solution led to a gradual increase in the amplitude of EPSCs at +40 mV and a change in the I-V relationship from inwardly rectifying to more linear. In mice exposed to an acute stress, AMPARs switched to GluA2-containing receptors, and 100 µm Alexa Fluor 594 did not alter the I-V relationship of synaptic currents. Therefore, a high concentration of Alexa Fluor dye changed the I-V relationship of EPSCs at GluA2-lacking AMPAR synapses. PMID:27280156

  12. Alteration of AMPA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Alexa Fluor 488 and 594 in Cerebellar Stellate Cells123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fluorescent dyes, Alexa Fluor 488 and 594 are commonly used to visualize dendritic structures and the localization of synapses, both of which are critical for the spatial and temporal integration of synaptic inputs. However, the effect of the dyes on synaptic transmission is not known. Here we investigated whether Alexa Fluor dyes alter the properties of synaptic currents mediated by two subtypes of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at cerebellar stellate cell synapses. In naive mice, GluA2-lacking AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents displayed an inwardly rectifying current–voltage (I–V) relationship due to blockade by cytoplasmic spermine at depolarized potentials. We found that the inclusion of 100 µm Alexa Fluor dye, but not 10 µm, in the pipette solution led to a gradual increase in the amplitude of EPSCs at +40 mV and a change in the I–V relationship from inwardly rectifying to more linear. In mice exposed to an acute stress, AMPARs switched to GluA2-containing receptors, and 100 µm Alexa Fluor 594 did not alter the I–V relationship of synaptic currents. Therefore, a high concentration of Alexa Fluor dye changed the I–V relationship of EPSCs at GluA2-lacking AMPAR synapses. PMID:27280156

  13. Running Opposes the Effects of Social Isolation on Synaptic Plasticity and Transmission in a Rat Model of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Galán, Marta; Femenía, Teresa; Åberg, Elin; Graae, Lisette; Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Smolders, Ilse; Brené, Stefan; Lindskog, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Stress, such as social isolation, is a well-known risk factor for depression, most probably in combination with predisposing genetic factors. Physical exercise on the other hand, is depicted as a wonder-treatment that makes you healthier, happier and live longer. However, the published results on the effects of exercise are ambiguous, especially when it comes to neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we combine a paradigm of social isolation with a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), already known to have glutamatergic synaptic alterations. Compared to group-housed FSL rats, we found that social isolation further affects synaptic plasticity and increases basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. These functional synaptic alterations co-exist with changes in hippocampal protein expression levels: social isolation in FSL rats reduce expression of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, and increase expression of the GluA2 AMPA-receptor subunit. We further show that physical exercise in form of voluntary running prevents the stress-induced synaptic effects but do not restore the endogenous mechanisms of depression already present in the FSL rat. PMID:27764188

  14. Alteration of AMPA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Alexa Fluor 488 and 594 in Cerebellar Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Maroteaux, Matthieu; Liu, Siqiong June

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent dyes, Alexa Fluor 488 and 594 are commonly used to visualize dendritic structures and the localization of synapses, both of which are critical for the spatial and temporal integration of synaptic inputs. However, the effect of the dyes on synaptic transmission is not known. Here we investigated whether Alexa Fluor dyes alter the properties of synaptic currents mediated by two subtypes of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at cerebellar stellate cell synapses. In naive mice, GluA2-lacking AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents displayed an inwardly rectifying current-voltage (I-V) relationship due to blockade by cytoplasmic spermine at depolarized potentials. We found that the inclusion of 100 µm Alexa Fluor dye, but not 10 µm, in the pipette solution led to a gradual increase in the amplitude of EPSCs at +40 mV and a change in the I-V relationship from inwardly rectifying to more linear. In mice exposed to an acute stress, AMPARs switched to GluA2-containing receptors, and 100 µm Alexa Fluor 594 did not alter the I-V relationship of synaptic currents. Therefore, a high concentration of Alexa Fluor dye changed the I-V relationship of EPSCs at GluA2-lacking AMPAR synapses.

  15. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Shirin; Ye, Hui; Tonkikh, Alexander A.; Charlton, Milton P.; Carlen, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging), increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM) partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX), also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery. PMID:26934214

  16. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor signaling dichotomously modulates inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in rat inner retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Han; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Miao, Yanying; Zhang, Chuan-Qiang; Dong, Ling-Dan; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2016-01-01

    In the inner retina, ganglion cells (RGCs) integrate and process excitatory signal from bipolar cells (BCs) and inhibitory signal from amacrine cells (ACs). Using multiple labeling immunohistochemistry, we first revealed the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) at the terminals of ACs and BCs in rat retina. By patch-clamp techniques, we then showed how the activation of this receptor dichotomously regulated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), mediated by GABAA receptors and glycine receptors, and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), mediated by AMPA receptors, of RGCs in rat retinal slices. WIN55212-2 (WIN), a CB1R agonist, reduced the mIPSC frequency due to an inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels no matter whether AMPA receptors were blocked. In contrast, WIN reduced the mEPSC frequency by suppressing T-type Ca(2+) channels only when inhibitory inputs to RGCs were present, which could be in part due to less T-type Ca(2+) channels of cone BCs, presynaptic to RGCs, being in an inactivation state under such condition. This unique feature of CB1R-mediated retrograde regulation provides a novel mechanism for modulating excitatory synaptic transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, depolarization of RGCs suppressed mIPSCs of these cells, an effect that was eliminated by the CB1R antagonist SR141716, suggesting that endocannabinoid is indeed released from RGCs.

  17. The quantal component of synaptic transmission from sensory hair cells to the vestibular calyx.

    PubMed

    Highstein, Stephen M; Mann, Mary Anne; Holstein, Gay R; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneous and stimulus-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded in calyx nerve terminals from the turtle vestibular lagena to quantify key attributes of quantal transmission at this synapse. On average, EPSC events had a magnitude of ∼ 42 pA, a rise time constant of τ(0) ∼ 229 μs, decayed to baseline with a time constant of τ(R) ∼ 690 μs, and carried ∼ 46 fC of charge. Individual EPSCs varied in magnitude and decay time constant. Variability in the EPSC decay time constant was hair cell dependent and due in part to a slow protraction of the EPSC in some cases. Variability in EPSC size was well described by an integer summation of unitary quanta, with each quanta of glutamate gating a unitary postsynaptic current of ∼ 23 pA. The unitary charge was ∼ 26 fC for EPSCs with a simple exponential decay and increased to ∼ 48 fC for EPSCs exhibiting a slow protraction. The EPSC magnitude and the number of simultaneous unitary quanta within each event increased with presynaptic stimulus intensity. During tonic hair cell depolarization, both the EPSC magnitude and event rate exhibited adaptive run down over time. Present data from a reptilian calyx are remarkably similar to noncalyceal vestibular synaptic terminals in diverse species, indicating that the skewed EPSC size distribution and multiquantal release might be an ancestral property of inner ear ribbon synapses. PMID:25878150

  18. GSK-3β inhibitors reverse cocaine-induced synaptic transmission dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Chen, Jiaojiao; Ren, Zhaoxiang; Shen, Hui; Zhen, Xuechu

    2016-11-01

    Nucleus accumbens receives glutamatergic projection from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dopaminergic input from the Ventral tegmental area (VTA). Recent studies have suggested a critical role for serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in cocaine-induced hyperactivity; however, the effect of GSK3β on the modulation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferents is unclear. In this study, we found that the GSK3 inhibitors, LiCl (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or SB216763 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), blocked the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in rats. By employing single-unit recordings in vivo, we found that pretreatment with either SB216763 or LiCl for 15 min reversed the cocaine-inhibited firing frequency of medium spiny neuron (MSN) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Preperfusion of SB216763 (5 μM) ameliorated the inhibitory effect of cocaine on both the α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (up to 99 ± 6.8% inhibition) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-mediate EPSC (up to 73 ± 9.7% inhibition) in the NAc in brain slices. The effect of cocaine on AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediate excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) were mimicked by the D1 -like receptor agonist SKF 38393 and blocked by the D1 -like receptor antagonist SCH 23390, whereas D2 -like receptor agonist or antagonist failed to mimic or to block the action of cocaine. Preperfusion of SB216763 for 5 min also ameliorated the inhibitory effect of SKF38393 on both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components of EPSC, indicate the effect of SB216763 on cocaine was via the D1 -like receptor. Moreover, cocaine inhibited the presynaptic release of glutamate in the NAc, and SB216763 reversed this effect. In conclusion, D1 receptor-GSK3β pathway, which mediates glutamatergic transmission in the NAc core through a presynaptic mechanism, plays an important role in acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. PMID:27377051

  19. GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus studied in VGAT channelrhodopsin-2 mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    Both glycine and GABA mediate inhibitory synaptic transmission in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In mice, the time course of glycinergic inhibition is slow in bushy cells and fast in multipolar (stellate) cells, and is proposed to contribute to the processing of temporal cues in both cell types. Much less is known about GABAergic synaptic transmission in this circuit. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve or the tuberculoventral pathway evokes little GABAergic synaptic current in brain slice preparations, and spontaneous GABAergic miniature synaptic currents occur infrequently. To investigate synaptic currents carried by GABA receptors in bushy and multipolar cells, we used transgenic mice in which channelrhodopsin-2 and EYFP is driven by the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT-ChR2-EYFP) and is expressed in both GABAergic and glycinergic neurons. Light stimulation evoked action potentials in EYFP-expressing presynaptic cells, and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in non-expressing bushy and planar multipolar cells. Less than 10% of the IPSP amplitude in bushy cells arose from GABAergic synapses, whereas 40% of the IPSP in multipolar neurons was GABAergic. In voltage clamp, glycinergic IPSCs were significantly slower in bushy neurons than in multipolar neurons, whereas there was little difference in the kinetics of the GABAergic IPSCs between two cell types. During prolonged stimulation, the ratio of steady state vs. peak IPSC amplitude was significantly lower for glycinergic IPSCs. Surprisingly, the reversal potentials of GABAergic IPSCs were negative to those of glycinergic IPSCs in both bushy and multipolar neurons. In the absence of receptor blockers, repetitive light stimulation was only able to effectively evoke IPSCs up to 20 Hz in both bushy and multipolar neurons. We conclude that local GABAergic release within the VCN can differentially influence bushy and multipolar cells.

  20. Effects of high power microwave pulses on synaptic transmission and long term potentiation in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Doyle, Joanne; Stuck, Bruce E; Murphy, Michael R

    2003-04-01

    Effects of short, extremely high power microwave pulses (EHPP) on neuronal network function were explored by electrophysiological techniques in the isolated rat hippocampal slice model. Population spikes (PS) in the CA1 area were evoked by repeated stimulation (1 per 30 s) of the Schaffer collateral pathway. A brief tetanus (2 s at 50 Hz) was used to induce long term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. In three different series of experiments with a total of 160 brain slices, the EHPP irradiation was performed before, during, or after the tetanus. The EHPP carrier frequency was 9.3 GHz, the pulse width and repetition rate were from 0.5 to 2 micros and from 0.5 to 10 Hz, respectively, and the peak specific absorption rate (SAR) in brain slices reached up to 500 MW/kg. Microwave heating of the preparation ranged from 0.5 degrees C (at 0.3 kW/kg time average SAR) to 6 degrees C (at 3.6 kW/kg). The experiments established that the only effect caused by EHPP exposure within the studied range of parameters was a transient and fully reversible decrease in the PS amplitude. Recovery took no more than a few minutes after the cessation of exposure and return to the initial temperature. This effect's features were characteristic of an ordinary thermal response: it was proportional to the temperature rise but not to any specific parameter of EHPP, and it could also be induced by a continuous wave (CW) irradiation or conventional heating. Irradiation did not affect the ability of neurons to develop LTP in response to tetanus or to retain the potentiated state that was induced before irradiation. No lasting or delayed effects of EHPP were observed. The results are consistent with the thermal mechanism of EHPP action and thus far provided no indication of EHPP-specific effects on neuronal function.

  1. Light-evoked recovery from wortmannin-induced inhibition of catecholamine secretion and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Warashina, A

    1999-07-15

    Wortmannin (WT) is known to inhibit catecholamine (CA) secretion in chromaffin cells. This effect was found to be sensitive to UV light in experiments designed to perform simultaneous monitoring of changes in [Ca2+]i and CA secretion in perfused rat adrenal medullas. When the change in [Ca2+]i was measured using calcium green-1 (490 nm excitation), a 35-min treatment with 10 microM WT caused a 69% inhibition of CA secretion evoked by excess (30 mM) extracellular K+ and a moderate inhibition of the [Ca2+]i response. In contrast, the same treatment of fura-2-loaded cells with WT caused only an 11% inhibition of the high-K+-evoked secretion and no significant attenuation of the [Ca2+]i response. However, during interruption of fluorometry with fura-2, the inhibitory effect of WT developed at a rate similar to that exhibited in calcium green-1-loaded cells. The WT-induced inhibition of high-K+- or bradykinin-evoked secretory responses, which was otherwise irreversible, was reversed by exposing WT-treated chromaffin cells to 380-nm light. When WT was reapplied to the cells of which the secretory ability had been restored by light irradiation, the secretory response was inhibited with a time course similar to that shown during the initial treatment with WT. The photosensitive effect of WT was also demonstrated using bullfrog sympathetic ganglia in which WT-induced inhibition of synaptic transmission was reversed by irradiation with 380-nm light. These results suggest that UV light removes the inhibitory effects of WT by disrupting the covalent bond formed between WT and a target molecule which remains to be determined, although myosin light chain kinase has been reported as the target molecule in both cases examined in this study. PMID:10395748

  2. Environmental enrichment rescues the effects of early life inflammation on markers of synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Amanda C; Khoury, Antoine; Lima Queiroz, Erika; MacRae, Molly

    2016-10-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or pyrogen-free saline (equivolume) on gestational day 15. On postnatal day 50, offspring were randomized into one of three conditions: EE (group housed in a large multi-level cage with novel toys, tubes and ramps), Colony Nesting (CN; socially-housed in a larger style cage), or Standard Care (SC; pair-housed in standard cages). Six weeks later we scored social engagement and performance in the object-in-place task. Afterwards hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (n=7-9) were collected and evaluated for excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor type 2 (TrkB) gene expression (normalized to GAPDH) using qPCR methods. Overall, we show that gestational inflammation downregulates genes critical to synaptic transmission and plasticity, which may underlie the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, we observed disruptions in both social engagement and spatial discrimination. Importantly, behavioral and neurophysiological effects were rescued in an experience dependent manner. Given the evidence that schizophrenia and autism may be associated with infection during pregnancy, these data have compelling implications for the prevention and reversibility of the consequences that follow immune activation in early in

  3. Environmental enrichment rescues the effects of early life inflammation on markers of synaptic transmission and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kentner, Amanda C; Khoury, Antoine; Lima Queiroz, Erika; MacRae, Molly

    2016-10-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) has been successful at rescuing the brain from a variety of early-life psychogenic stressors. However, its ability to reverse the behavioral and neural alterations induced by a prenatal maternal infection model of schizophrenia is less clear. Moreover, the specific interactions between the components (i.e. social enhancement, novelty, physical activity) of EE that lead to its success as a supportive intervention have not been adequately identified. In the current study, standard housed female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either the inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100μg/kg) or pyrogen-free saline (equivolume) on gestational day 15. On postnatal day 50, offspring were randomized into one of three conditions: EE (group housed in a large multi-level cage with novel toys, tubes and ramps), Colony Nesting (CN; socially-housed in a larger style cage), or Standard Care (SC; pair-housed in standard cages). Six weeks later we scored social engagement and performance in the object-in-place task. Afterwards hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (n=7-9) were collected and evaluated for excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1-3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor type 2 (TrkB) gene expression (normalized to GAPDH) using qPCR methods. Overall, we show that gestational inflammation downregulates genes critical to synaptic transmission and plasticity, which may underlie the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Additionally, we observed disruptions in both social engagement and spatial discrimination. Importantly, behavioral and neurophysiological effects were rescued in an experience dependent manner. Given the evidence that schizophrenia and autism may be associated with infection during pregnancy, these data have compelling implications for the prevention and reversibility of the consequences that follow immune activation in early in

  4. Implementing the cellular mechanisms of synaptic transmission in a neural mass model of the thalamo-cortical circuitry.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Basabdatta S

    2013-01-01

    A novel direction to existing neural mass modeling technique is proposed where the commonly used "alpha function" for representing synaptic transmission is replaced by a kinetic framework of neurotransmitter and receptor dynamics. The aim is to underpin neuro-transmission dynamics associated with abnormal brain rhythms commonly observed in neurological and psychiatric disorders. An existing thalamocortical neural mass model is modified by using the kinetic framework for modeling synaptic transmission mediated by glutamatergic and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric-acid)-ergic receptors. The model output is compared qualitatively with existing literature on in vitro experimental studies of ferret thalamic slices, as well as on single-neuron-level model based studies of neuro-receptor and transmitter dynamics in the thalamocortical tissue. The results are consistent with these studies: the activation of ligand-gated GABA receptors is essential for generation of spindle waves in the model, while blocking this pathway leads to low-frequency synchronized oscillations such as observed in slow-wave sleep; the frequency of spindle oscillations increase with increased levels of post-synaptic membrane conductance for AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic-acid) receptors, and blocking this pathway effects a quiescent model output. In terms of computational efficiency, the simulation time is improved by a factor of 10 compared to a similar neural mass model based on alpha functions. This implies a dramatic improvement in computational resources for large-scale network simulation using this model. Thus, the model provides a platform for correlating high-level brain oscillatory activity with low-level synaptic attributes, and makes a significant contribution toward advancements in current neural mass modeling paradigm as a potential computational tool to better the understanding of brain oscillations in sickness and in health.

  5. Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, William N; Hoon, Mrinalini; Briggman, Kevin L; Wong, Rachel O; Rieke, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Cross-synaptic synchrony—correlations in transmitter release across output synapses of a single neuron—is a key determinant of how signal and noise traverse neural circuits. The anatomical connectivity between rod bipolar and A17 amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, specifically that neighboring A17s often receive input from many of the same rod bipolar cells, provides a rare technical opportunity to measure cross-synaptic synchrony under physiological conditions. This approach reveals that synchronization of rod bipolar cell synapses is near perfect in the dark and decreases with increasing light level. Strong synaptic synchronization in the dark minimizes intrinsic synaptic noise and allows rod bipolar cells to faithfully transmit upstream signal and noise to downstream neurons. Desynchronization in steady light lowers the sensitivity of the rod bipolar output to upstream voltage fluctuations. This work reveals how cross-synaptic synchrony shapes retinal responses to physiological light inputs and, more generally, signaling in complex neural networks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03892.001 PMID:25180102

  6. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to

  7. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to

  8. [The role of synaptic transmission in memory and neurodegeneration processes and effects of neurotropic preparations].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A

    2003-01-01

    Academician Zakusov, in his book Pharmacology of Central Synapses (Moscow, 1973), emphasized the central role of synaptic processes in regulation of various forms of behavior, memory, and psychotropic drug action. The paper considers most promising directions in the search for substances possessing nootropic and neuroprotector properties, many of which were developed at the Institute of Pharmacology based on the notion about synaptic processes. These investigations led to the creation of well-known drugs such as mexidole, noopept, nooglutyl, beglimin, etc. Special attention is devoted to the implementation and modern development of the ideas of Academician Zakusov. Recent data are presented on the role of neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in synaptic plasticity, memory processes, and development of neurodegenerative states. PMID:12962041

  9. Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca2+ indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL–MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca2+ responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca2+ responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL–MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous ‘associative-stimulation’ of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL–MB synapses but not at the AFV–MB synapses. AL–MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL–MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL–MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL–MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory. PMID:23027817

  10. Effects of chronic stress in adolescence on learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the rat prelimbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Terreros, Gonzalo; Muñoz, Pablo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2014-02-01

    The prelimbic cortex and amygdala regulate the extinction of conditioned fear and anxiety, respectively. In adult rats, chronic stress affects the dendritic morphology of these brain areas, slowing extinction of learned fear and enhancing anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine whether rats subjected to chronic stress in adolescence show changes in learned fear, anxiety, and synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex during adulthood. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to seven days of restraint stress on postnatal day forty-two (PND 42, adolescence). Afterward, the fear-conditioning paradigm was used to study conditioned fear extinction. Anxiety-like behavior was measured one day (PND 50) and twenty-one days (PND 70, adulthood) after stress using the elevated-plus maze and dark-light box tests, respectively. With another set of rats, excitatory synaptic transmission was analyzed with slices of the prelimbic cortex. Rats that had been stressed during adolescence and adulthood had higher anxiety-like behavior levels than did controls, while stress-induced slowing of learned fear extinction in adolescence was reversed during adulthood. As well, the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials of stressed adolescent rats had significantly lower amplitudes than those of controls, although the amplitudes were higher in adulthood. Our results demonstrate that short-term stress in adolescence induces strong effects on excitatory synaptic transmission in the prelimbic cortex and extinction of learned fear, where the effect of stress on anxiety is more persistent than on the extinction of learned fear. These data contribute to the understanding of stress neurobiology. PMID:24216268

  11. Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca(2+) indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL-MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca(2+) responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca(2+) responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL-MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous 'associative-stimulation' of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL-MB synapses but not at the AFV-MB synapses. AL-MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL-MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL-MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL-MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory.

  12. Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Thomas; Voigt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modulation of neuronal activity by means of electrical stimulation is a successful therapeutic approach for patients suffering from a variety of central nervous system disorders. Prototypic networks formed by cultured cortical neurons represent an important model system to gain general insights in the input–output relationships of neuronal tissue. These networks undergo a multitude of developmental changes during their maturation, such as the excitatory–inhibitory shift of the neurotransmitter GABA. Very few studies have addressed how the output properties to a given stimulus change with ongoing development. Here, we investigate input–output relationships of cultured cortical networks by probing cultures with and without functional GABAAergic synaptic transmission with a set of stimulation paradigms at various stages of maturation. On the cellular level, low stimulation rates (<15 Hz) led to reliable neuronal responses; higher rates were increasingly ineffective. Similarly, on the network level, lowest stimulation rates (<0.1 Hz) lead to maximal output rates at all ages, indicating a network wide refractory period after each stimulus. In cultures aged 3 weeks and older, a gradual recovery of the network excitability within tens of milliseconds was in contrast to an abrupt recovery after about 5 s in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. In these GABA deficient cultures evoked responses were prolonged and had multiple discharges. Furthermore, the network excitability changed periodically, with a very slow spontaneous change of the overall network activity in the minute range, which was not observed in cultures with absent GABAAergic synaptic transmission. The electrically evoked activity of cultured cortical networks, therefore, is governed by at least two potentially interacting mechanisms: A refractory period in the order of a few seconds and a very slow GABA dependent oscillation of the network excitability. PMID:26236196

  13. Ubiquitin ligase RNF167 regulates AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marc P.; Herring, Bruce E.; Nasu-Nishimura, Yukiko; Neutzner, Albert; Karbowski, Mariusz; Youle, Richard J.; Nicoll, Roger A.; Roche, Katherine W.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their density at postsynaptic sites determines synaptic strength. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification that dynamically regulates the synaptic expression of many proteins. However, very few of the ubiquitinating enzymes implicated in the process have been identified. In a screen to identify transmembrane RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate surface expression of AMPARs, we identified RNF167. Predominantly lysosomal, a subpopulation of RNF167 is located on the surface of cultured neurons. Using a RING mutant RNF167 or a specific shRNA to eliminate endogenous RNF167, we demonstrate that AMPAR surface expression increases in hippocampal neurons with disrupted RNF167 activity and that RNF167 is involved in activity-dependent ubiquitination of AMPARs. In addition, RNF167 regulates synaptic AMPAR currents, whereas synaptic NMDAR currents are unaffected. Therefore, our study identifies RNF167 as a selective regulator of AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission and expands our understanding of how ubiquitination dynamically regulates excitatory synapses. PMID:23129617

  14. Developmentally regulated switch in alternatively spliced SNAP-25 isoforms alters facilitation of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Bark, Christina; Bellinger, Frederick P; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Mathews, James R; Partridge, L Donald; Wilson, Michael C

    2004-10-01

    Although the basic molecular components that promote regulated neurotransmitter release are well established, the contribution of these proteins as regulators of the plasticity of neurotransmission and refinement of synaptic connectivity during development is elaborated less fully. For example, during the period of synaptic growth and maturation in brain, the expression of synaptosomal protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a neuronal t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) essential for action potential-dependent neuroexocytosis, is altered through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts. We addressed the role of the two splice-variant isoforms of SNAP-25 with a targeted mouse mutation that impairs the shift from SNAP-25a to SNAP-25b. Most of these mutant mice die between 3 and 5 weeks of age, which coincides with the time when SNAP-25b expression normally reaches mature levels in brain and synapse formation is essentially completed. The altered expression of these SNAP-25 isoforms influences short-term synaptic function by affecting facilitation but not the initial probability of release. This suggests that mechanisms controlling alternative splicing between SNAP-25 isoforms contribute to a molecular switch important for survival that helps to guide the transition from immature to mature synaptic connections, as well as synapse regrowth and remodeling after neural injury.

  15. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  16. The inositol high-polyphosphate series blocks synaptic transmission by preventing vesicular fusion: a squid giant synapse study.

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, R; Sugimori, M; Lang, E J; Morita, M; Fukuda, M; Niinobe, M; Mikoshiba, K

    1994-01-01

    Presynaptic injection of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetraphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, or inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate--which we denote here the inositol high-polyphosphate series (IHPS)--is shown to block synaptic transmission when injected into the preterminal of the squid giant synapse. This effect is not produced by injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The synaptic block is characterized by a time course in the order of 15-45 min, depending on the injection site in the preterminal fiber; the fastest block occurs when the injection is made at the terminal release site. Presynaptic voltage clamp during transmitter release demonstrates that IHPS block did not modify the presynaptic inward, calcium current. Analysis of synaptic noise at the postsynaptic axon shows that both the evoked and spontaneous transmitter release are blocked by the IHPS. Tetanic stimulation of the presynaptic fiber at frequencies of 100 Hz indicates that block is accompanied by gradual reduction of the postsynaptic response, demonstrating that the block interferes with vesicular fusion rather than with vesicular docking. These results, in combination with the recently demonstrated observation that the IHPS bind the C2B domain in synaptotagmin [Fukada, M., Aruga, J., Niinobe, M., Aimoto, S. & Mikoshiba, K. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 29206-29211], suggest that IHPS elements are involved in vesicle fusion and exocytosis. In addition, a scheme is proposed in which synaptotagmin triggers transmitter release directly by promoting the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasmalemma, in agreement with the very rapid nature of transmitter release in chemical synapses. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7809161

  17. 17β-Estradiol Acutely Potentiates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus through Distinct Mechanisms in Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) acutely potentiates glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of both male and female rats. Here, we investigated whether E2-induced synaptic potentiation occurs via presynaptic and/or postsynaptic mechanisms and which estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate E2's effects in each sex. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of mEPSCs in CA1 pyramidal neurons showed that E2 increases both mEPSC frequency and amplitude within minutes, but often in different cells. This indicated that both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms are involved, but that they occur largely at different synapses. Two-photon (2p) glutamate uncaging at individual dendritic spines showed that E2 increases the amplitude of uncaging-evoked EPSCs (2pEPSCs) and calcium transients (2pCaTs) at a subset of spines on a dendrite, demonstrating synapse specificity of E2's postsynaptic effects. All of these results were essentially the same in males and females. However, additional experiments using ER-selective agonists indicated sex differences in the mechanisms underlying E2-induced potentiation. In males, an ERβ agonist mimicked the postsynaptic effects of E2 to increase mEPSC, 2pEPSC, and 2pCaT amplitude, whereas in females, these effects were mimicked by an agonist of G protein-coupled ER-1. The presynaptic effect of E2, increased mEPSC frequency, was mimicked by an ERα agonist in males, whereas in females, an ERβ agonist increased mEPSC frequency. Thus, E2 acutely potentiates glutamatergic synapses similarly in both sexes, but distinct ER subtypes mediate the presynaptic and postsynaptic aspects of potentiation in each sex. This indicates a latent sex difference in which different molecular mechanisms converge to the same functional endpoint in males versus females. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Some sex differences in the brain may be latent differences, in which the same functional endpoint is achieved through distinct underlying mechanisms in males versus females. Here we report a

  18. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors persistently enhances hippocampal synaptic transmission and prevents Aß-mediated inhibition of LTP in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ondrejcak, Tomas; Wang, Qinwen; Kew, James N C; Virley, David J; Upton, Neil; Anwyl, Roger; Rowan, Michael J

    2012-02-29

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we investigated the effects of subtype selective activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on hippocampal transmission and the inhibition of synaptic long-term potentiation by the Alzheimer's disease associated amyloid ß-protein (Aß). The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist "compound A" ((R)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)(5-(2-pyridyl))thiophene-2-carboxamide) induced a rapid-onset persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus in vitro. Consistent with a requirement for activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the type II α7-selective positive allosteric modulator PheTQS ((3aR, 4S, 9bS)-4-(4-methylphenyl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide) potentiated, and the antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) prevented the persistent enhancement. Systemic injection of the agonist also induced a similar MLA-sensitive persistent enhancement of synaptic transmission in the CA1 area in vivo. Remarkably, although compound A did not affect control long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro, it prevented the inhibition of LTP by Aß1-42 and this effect was inhibited by MLA. These findings strongly indicate that activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is sufficient to persistently enhance hippocampal synaptic transmission and to overcome the inhibition of LTP by Aß.

  19. Weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering supports sustained synaptic transmission by distinct mechanisms in rod and cone photoreceptors in salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2015-01-01

    Differences in synaptic transmission between rod and cone photoreceptors contribute to different response kinetics in rod- versus cone-dominated visual pathways. We examined Ca2+ dynamics in synaptic terminals of tiger salamander photoreceptors under conditions that mimicked endogenous buffering to determine the influence on kinetically and mechanistically distinct components of synaptic transmission. Measurements of ICl(Ca) confirmed that endogenous Ca2+ buffering is equivalent to ˜0.05 mmol/L EGTA in rod and cone terminals. Confocal imaging showed that with such buffering, depolarization stimulated large, spatially unconstrained [Ca2+] increases that spread throughout photoreceptor terminals. We calculated immediately releasable pool (IRP) size and release efficiency in rods by deconvolving excitatory postsynaptic currents and presynaptic Ca2+ currents. Peak efficiency of ˜0.2 vesicles/channel was similar to that of cones (˜0.3 vesicles/channel). Efficiency in both cell types was not significantly affected by using weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering. However, weak Ca2+ buffering speeded Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent replenishment of vesicles to ribbons in both rods and cones, thereby enhancing sustained release. In rods, weak Ca2+ buffering also amplified sustained release by enhancing CICR and CICR-stimulated release of vesicles at nonribbon sites. By contrast, elevating [Ca2+] at nonribbon sites in cones with weak Ca2+ buffering and by inhibiting Ca2+ extrusion did not trigger additional release, consistent with the notion that exocytosis from cones occurs exclusively at ribbons. The presence of weak endogenous Ca2+ buffering in rods and cones facilitates slow, sustained exocytosis by enhancing Ca2+/CaM-dependent replenishment of ribbons in both rods and cones and by stimulating nonribbon release triggered by CICR in rods. PMID:26416977

  20. Lactational alcohol exposure elicits long-term immune deficits and increased noradrenergic synaptic transmission in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesfeld, Z. ); LeGrue, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in immunomodulation. While chronic alcohol consumption has been associated with immune deficits, the effects of exposure to alcohol during early postnatal life on subsequent immunocompetence and activity of sympathetic neurons in lymphoid organs are not known. This study examined the long-term effects of lactational alcohol consumption on cellular immune responses and noradrenergic synaptic transmission in lymphoid and other organs of the young adult C57BL/6 mouse. The data show that exposure to alcohol via the mother's milk was associated with long-term deficits in cellular immunity, including suppression of the local graft vs host and contact hypersensitive responses. The animals also displayed enhanced noradrenergic synaptic transmission and decreased {beta}-adrenoceptor density selectively in lymphoid organs. These neuroimmune changes are particularly striking since body weight-gain of the suckling pups was normal and their blood alcohol concentration was considerably lower than that of the alcohol-consuming dam. This suggests an increased sensitivity of the nascent immune and nervous systems during the critical period of early postnatal development.

  1. Selective optical control of synaptic transmission in the subcortical visual pathway by activation of viral vector-expressed halorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Kasahara, Hironori; Matsui, Ryosuke; Katoh, Tomoko; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Keiya; Watanabe, Dai; Isa, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    The superficial layer of the superior colliculus (sSC) receives visual inputs via two different pathways: from the retina and the primary visual cortex. However, the functional significance of each input for the operation of the sSC circuit remains to be identified. As a first step toward understanding the functional role of each of these inputs, we developed an optogenetic method to specifically suppress the synaptic transmission in the retino-tectal pathway. We introduced enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR), a yellow light-sensitive, membrane-targeting chloride pump, into mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by intravitreously injecting an adeno-associated virus serotype-2 vector carrying the CMV-eNpHR-EYFP construct. Several weeks after the injection, whole-cell recordings made from sSC neurons in slice preparations revealed that yellow laser illumination of the eNpHR-expressing retino-tectal axons, putatively synapsing onto the recorded cells, effectively inhibited EPSCs evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve layer. We also showed that sSC spike activities elicited by visual stimulation were significantly reduced by laser illumination of the sSC in anesthetized mice. These results indicate that photo-activation of eNpHR expressed in RGC axons enables selective blockade of retino-tectal synaptic transmission. The method established here can most likely be applied to a variety of brain regions for studying the function of individual inputs to these regions. PMID:21483674

  2. Inhibition of calpains improves memory and synaptic transmission in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Trinchese, Fabrizio; Fa’, Mauro; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Hong; Hidalgo, Ariel; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yamaguchi, Hisako; Yoshii, Narihiko; Mathews, Paul M.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Arancio, Ottavio

    2008-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-dependent enzymes that determine the fate of proteins through regulated proteolytic activity. Calpains have been linked to the modulation of memory and are key to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). When abnormally activated, calpains can also initiate degradation of proteins essential for neuronal survival. Here we show that calpain inhibition through E64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, and the highly specific calpain inhibitor BDA-410 restored normal synaptic function both in hippocampal cultures and in hippocampal slices from the APP/PS1 mouse, an animal model of AD. Calpain inhibition also improved spatial-working memory and associative fear memory in APP/PS1 mice. These beneficial effects of the calpain inhibitors were associated with restoration of normal phosphorylation levels of the transcription factor CREB and involved redistribution of the synaptic protein synapsin I. Thus, calpain inhibition may prove useful in the alleviation of memory loss in AD. PMID:18596919

  3. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Segundo J.; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states. PMID:27069691

  4. Rab11 modulates α-synuclein-mediated defects in synaptic transmission and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Breda, Carlo; Nugent, Marie L.; Estranero, Jasper G.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Steinert, Joern R.; Giorgini, Flaviano

    2015-01-01

    A central pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the presence of proteinaceous depositions known as Lewy bodies, which consist largely of the protein α-synuclein (aSyn). Mutations, multiplications and polymorphisms in the gene encoding aSyn are associated with familial forms of PD and susceptibility to idiopathic PD. Alterations in aSyn impair neuronal vesicle formation/transport, and likely contribute to PD pathogenesis by neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. aSyn is functionally associated with several Rab family GTPases, which perform various roles in vesicle trafficking. Here, we explore the role of the endosomal recycling factor Rab11 in the pathogenesis of PD using Drosophila models of aSyn toxicity. We find that aSyn induces synaptic potentiation at the larval neuromuscular junction by increasing synaptic vesicle (SV) size, and that these alterations are reversed by Rab11 overexpression. Furthermore, Rab11 decreases aSyn aggregation and ameliorates several aSyn-dependent phenotypes in both larvae and adult fruit flies, including locomotor activity, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and shortened lifespan. This work emphasizes the importance of Rab11 in the modulation of SV size and consequent enhancement of synaptic function. Our results suggest that targeting Rab11 activity could have a therapeutic value in PD. PMID:25305083

  5. Src, a Molecular Switch Governing Gain Control of Synaptic Transmission Mediated by N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xian-Min; Salter, Michael W.

    1999-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a principal subtype of glutamate receptor mediating fast excitatory transmission at synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and other regions of the central nervous system. NMDA receptors are crucial for the lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission that occurs both physiologically and in pathological conditions such as chronic pain. Over the past several years, evidence has accumulated indicating that the activity of NMDA receptors is regulated by the protein tyrosine kinase, Src. Recently it has been discovered that, by means of up-regulating NMDA receptor function, activation of Src mediates the induction of the lasting enhancement of excitatory transmission known as long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Also, Src has been found to amplify the up-regulation of NMDA receptor function that is produced by raising the intracellular concentration of sodium. Sodium concentration increases in neuronal dendrites during high levels of firing activity, which is precisely when Src becomes activated. Therefore, we propose that the boost in NMDA receptor function produced by the coincidence of activating Src and raising intracellular sodium may be important in physiological and pathophysiological enhancement of excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and elsewhere in the central nervous system.

  6. Layer- and area-specific actions of norepinephrine on cortical synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Humberto; Treviño, Mario; Atzori, Marco

    2016-06-15

    The cerebral cortex is a critical target of the central noradrenergic system. The importance of norepinephrine (NE) in the regulation of cortical activity is underscored by clinical findings that involve this catecholamine and its receptor subtypes in the regulation of a large number of emotional and cognitive functions and illnesses. In this review, we highlight diverse effects of the LC/NE system in the mammalian cortex. Indeed, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral studies in the last few decades reveal that NE elicits a mixed repertoire of excitatory, inhibitory, and biphasic effects on the firing activity and transmitter release of cortical neurons. At the intrinsic cellular level, NE can produce a series of effects similar to those elicited by other monoamines or acetylcholine, associated with systemic arousal. At the synaptic level, NE induces numerous acute changes in synaptic function, and ׳gates' the induction of long-term plasticity of glutamatergic synapses, consisting in an enhancement of engaged and relevant cortical synapses and/or depression of unengaged synapses. Equally important in shaping cortical function, in many cortical areas NE promotes a characteristic, most often reversible, increase in the gain of local inhibitory synapses, whose extent and temporal properties vary between different areas and sometimes even between cortical layers of the same area. While we are still a long way from a comprehensive theory of the function of the LC/NE system, its cellular, synaptic, and plastic effects are consistent with the hypothesis that noradrenergic modulation is critical in coordinating the activity of cortical and subcortical circuits for the integration of sensory activity and working memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System.

  7. Synaptic transmission to the horizontal cells in the retina of the larval tiger salamander.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, L M; Werblin, F S

    1978-01-01

    1. The receptive field diameter for most horizontal cells far exceeds the lateral spread of processes for any cell. Therefore horizontal cells probably receive synaptic input from neighbours as well as from the photoreceptors. The electrical effects of these two synaptic inputs were studied. 2. We have characterized the electrical properties of the horizontal cell inputs by determining the current-voltage curves in dark and light. These curves were compared with those obtained in the presence of Co2+ or Mg2 was nearly identical to the curve in the light. 4. The putative transmitter substances glutamate, aspartate and GABA depolarized the cells by increasing conductance. Current-voltage curves measured in the presence of these substances intersected the dark and light curves at +50 mV, the same level at which the dark and light curves intersect. 5. The light response of cells uith broad receptive fields, between 1.0 and 2.0 mm, showed little or no change in conductance associated with the light response. The input resistance was near 20 Momega, and the current-voltage curves intersected at an extrapolated potential level near 200 mV. 6. In the presence of ACh, electrical properties of the broad field cells reverted to those of the narrow field cells: the receptive field was reduced to 0.5 mm, the imput resistance increased, and the current-voltage curves intersected near +50 mV. Thus ACh appeared to interrupt synaptic input from neighbouring horizontal cells. 7. The results confirm the suggestion that horizontal cells receive a tonic excitatory input from the photoreceptors which is decreased by light. They show that horizontal cells receive an additional input from their neighbours, not associated with a measurable conductance change. The input from neighbours is selectively interrupted by ACh, but the nature of this synapse and of the cholinergic action is not known. PMID:209177

  8. Mutation of the Dyslexia-Associated Gene Dcdc2 Enhances Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission Between Layer 4 Neurons in Mouse Neocortex.

    PubMed

    Che, Alicia; Truong, Dongnhu T; Fitch, R Holly; LoTurco, Joseph J

    2016-09-01

    Variants in DCDC2 have been associated with reading disability in humans, and targeted mutation of Dcdc2 in mice causes impairments in both learning and sensory processing. In this study, we sought to determine whether Dcdc2 mutation affects functional synaptic circuitry in neocortex. We found mutation in Dcdc2 resulted in elevated spontaneous and evoked glutamate release from neurons in somatosensory cortex. The probability of release was decreased to wild-type level by acute application of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists when postsynaptic NMDARs were blocked by intracellular MK-801, and could not be explained by elevated ambient glutamate, suggesting altered, nonpostsynaptic NMDAR activation in the mutants. In addition, we determined that the increased excitatory transmission was present at layer 4-layer 4 but not thalamocortical connections in Dcdc2 mutants, and larger evoked synaptic release appeared to enhance the NMDAR-mediated effect. These results demonstrate an NMDAR activation-gated, increased functional excitatory connectivity between layer 4 lateral connections in somatosensory neocortex of the mutants, providing support for potential changes in cortical connectivity and activation resulting from mutation of dyslexia candidate gene Dcdc2. PMID:26250775

  9. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Speed, Haley E; Kouser, Mehreen; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Ochoa, Christine F; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2015-07-01

    SHANK3 (also known as PROSAP2) is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at excitatory synapses in which mutations and deletions have been implicated in patients with idiopathic autism, Phelan-McDermid (aka 22q13 microdeletion) syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we have created a novel mouse model of human autism caused by the insertion of a single guanine nucleotide into exon 21 (Shank3(G)). The resulting frameshift causes a premature STOP codon and loss of major higher molecular weight Shank3 isoforms at the synapse. Shank3(G/G) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, impaired motor coordination, altered response to novelty, and sensory processing deficits. At the cellular level, Shank3(G/G) mice also exhibit impaired hippocampal excitatory transmission and plasticity as well as changes in baseline NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. This work identifies clear alterations in synaptic function and behavior in a novel, genetically accurate mouse model of autism mimicking an autism-associated insertion mutation. Furthermore, these findings lay the foundation for future studies aimed to validate and study region-selective and temporally selective genetic reversal studies in the Shank3(G/G) mouse that was engineered with such future experiments in mind.

  10. Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Speed, Haley E; Kouser, Mehreen; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Ochoa, Christine F; Gupta, Natasha; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2015-07-01

    SHANK3 (also known as PROSAP2) is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein at excitatory synapses in which mutations and deletions have been implicated in patients with idiopathic autism, Phelan-McDermid (aka 22q13 microdeletion) syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we have created a novel mouse model of human autism caused by the insertion of a single guanine nucleotide into exon 21 (Shank3(G)). The resulting frameshift causes a premature STOP codon and loss of major higher molecular weight Shank3 isoforms at the synapse. Shank3(G/G) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, impaired motor coordination, altered response to novelty, and sensory processing deficits. At the cellular level, Shank3(G/G) mice also exhibit impaired hippocampal excitatory transmission and plasticity as well as changes in baseline NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. This work identifies clear alterations in synaptic function and behavior in a novel, genetically accurate mouse model of autism mimicking an autism-associated insertion mutation. Furthermore, these findings lay the foundation for future studies aimed to validate and study region-selective and temporally selective genetic reversal studies in the Shank3(G/G) mouse that was engineered with such future experiments in mind. PMID:26134648

  11. DISC1 Protein Regulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptor Trafficking and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Graziane, Nicholas M; Gu, Zhenglin; Yan, Zhen

    2015-11-13

    Association studies have suggested that Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) confers a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes that underlies many major mental disorders. Despite the progress in understanding the significance of DISC1 at neural development, the mechanisms underlying DISC1 regulation of synaptic functions remain elusive. Because alterations in the cortical GABA system have been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, one potential target of DISC1 that is critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion is the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). We found that cellular knockdown of DISC1 significantly reduced GABAAR-mediated synaptic and whole-cell current, whereas overexpression of wild-type DISC1, but not the C-terminal-truncated DISC1 (a schizophrenia-related mutant), significantly increased GABAAR currents in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. These effects were accompanied by DISC1-induced changes in surface GABAAR expression. Moreover, the regulation of GABAARs by DISC1 knockdown or overexpression depends on the microtubule motor protein kinesin 1 (KIF5). Our results suggest that DISC1 exerts an important effect on GABAergic inhibitory transmission by regulating KIF5/microtubule-based GABAAR trafficking in the cortex. The knowledge gained from this study would shed light on how DISC1 and the GABA system are linked mechanistically and how their interactions are critical for maintaining a normal mental state.

  12. DISC1 Protein Regulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptor Trafficking and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Graziane, Nicholas M; Gu, Zhenglin; Yan, Zhen

    2015-11-13

    Association studies have suggested that Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) confers a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes that underlies many major mental disorders. Despite the progress in understanding the significance of DISC1 at neural development, the mechanisms underlying DISC1 regulation of synaptic functions remain elusive. Because alterations in the cortical GABA system have been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, one potential target of DISC1 that is critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion is the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). We found that cellular knockdown of DISC1 significantly reduced GABAAR-mediated synaptic and whole-cell current, whereas overexpression of wild-type DISC1, but not the C-terminal-truncated DISC1 (a schizophrenia-related mutant), significantly increased GABAAR currents in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. These effects were accompanied by DISC1-induced changes in surface GABAAR expression. Moreover, the regulation of GABAARs by DISC1 knockdown or overexpression depends on the microtubule motor protein kinesin 1 (KIF5). Our results suggest that DISC1 exerts an important effect on GABAergic inhibitory transmission by regulating KIF5/microtubule-based GABAAR trafficking in the cortex. The knowledge gained from this study would shed light on how DISC1 and the GABA system are linked mechanistically and how their interactions are critical for maintaining a normal mental state. PMID:26424793

  13. Similar oxysterols may lead to opposite effects on synaptic transmission: Olesoxime versus 5α-cholestan-3-one at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Kasimov, M R; Zakyrjanova, G F; Giniatullin, A R; Zefirov, A L; Petrov, A M

    2016-07-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products frequently have a high biological activity. In the present study, we have used microelectrode recording of end plate currents and FM-based optical detection of synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis to investigate the effects of two structurally similar oxysterols, olesoxime (cholest-4-en-3-one, oxime) and 5ɑ-cholestan-3-one (5ɑCh3), on neurotransmission at the frog neuromuscular junction. Olesoxime is an exogenous, potentially neuroprotective, substance and 5ɑCh3 is an intermediate product in cholesterol metabolism, which is elevated in the case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. We found that olesoxime slightly increased evoked neurotransmitter release in response to a single stimulus and significantly reduced synaptic depression during high frequency activity. The last effect was due to an increase in both the number of synaptic vesicles involved in exo-endocytosis and the rate of synaptic vesicle recycling. In contrast, 5ɑCh3 reduced evoked neurotransmitter release during the low- and high frequency synaptic activities. The depressant action of 5ɑCh3 was associated with a reduction in the number of synaptic vesicles participating in exo- and endocytosis during high frequency stimulation, without a change in rate of the synaptic vesicle recycling. Of note, olesoxime increased the staining of synaptic membranes with the B-subunit of cholera toxin and the formation of fluorescent ganglioside GM1 clusters, and decreased the fluorescence of 22-NBD-cholesterol, while 5ɑCh3 had the opposite effects, suggesting that the two oxysterols have different effects on lipid raft stability. Taken together, these data show that these two structurally similar oxysterols induce marked different changes in neuromuscular transmission which are related with the alteration in synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:27102612

  14. Neuronal glutamate transporters regulate synaptic transmission in single synapses on CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kondratskaya, Elena; Shin, Min-Chul; Akaike, Norio

    2010-01-15

    Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in CNS although it causes severe brain damage by pathologic excitotoxicity. Efficient neurotransmission is controlled by powerful protection and support afforded by specific high-affinity glutamate transporters in neurons and glia, clearing synaptic glutamate. While the role of glial cells in glutamate uptake is well defined, the role of neuronal transporters remains poorly understood. The evaluation of impact of neuronal transporters on spontaneous and evoked EPSC in hippocampal CA1 neurons within a model 'single bouton preparation' by pre- and postsynaptic uptake was addressed. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments the influence of blocking, pre- or both pre- and postsynaptic glutamate transporters (GluT) on spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents (sEPSC and eEPSC), was examined by manipulating the content of intracellular solution. Suppressing GluT by non-transportable inhibitor TBOA (10 microM) led to remarkable alteration of glutamate uptake process and was reflected in measurable changes of general properties of synaptic currents. Elimination of intracellular K(+) concentration required for glutamate transporter operation by using Cs(+)-based internal solution (postsynaptic GluTs are non-functional apriori), causes the deficient of presynaptic glutamate transporters. Applied in such conditions glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA (10 microM) affected the occurrence of synaptic event and thus unregulated the transmitter release. eEPSCs were generally suppressed both in amplitude (to 48.73+/-7.03% vs. control) and in success rate (R(suc)) by TBOA (from 91.1+/-7.5% in control to 79.57+/-13.2%). In contrast, with K(+)-based solution in patch pipette (pre- and postsynaptic GluT are intact), amplitude of eEPSC was substantially potentiated by pre-treatment with TBOA (152.1+/-11%), whereas (R(suc)) was reduced to 79.8+/-8.3% in average. The identical reduction of event success rate as well as increased pair

  15. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons and potent modulation by oxycodone in a bone cancer pain model

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Keiko; Ogawa, Koichi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kanbara, Tomoe; Ono, Hiroko; Tomii, Takako; Morioka, Yasuhide; Hasegawa, Minoru; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Mori, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We demonstrated previously that oxycodone has potent antinociceptive effects at supraspinal sites. In this study, we investigated changes in neuronal function and antinociceptive mechanisms of oxycodone at ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG) neurons, which are a major site of opioid action, in a femur bone cancer (FBC) model with bone cancer-related pain. Experimental Approach We characterized the supraspinal antinociceptive profiles of oxycodone and morphine on mechanical hypersensitivity in the FBC model. Based on the disinhibition mechanism underlying supraspinal opioid antinociception, the effects of oxycodone and morphine on GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in VLPAG neurons were evaluated in slices from the FBC model. Key Results The supraspinal antinociceptive effects of oxycodone, but not morphine, were abolished by blocking G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium1 (Kir3.1) channels. In slices from the FBC model, GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons was enhanced, as indicated by a leftward shift of the input–output relationship curve of evoked IPSCs, the increased paired-pulse facilitation and the enhancement of miniature IPSC frequency. Following treatment with oxycodone and morphine, IPSCs were reduced in the FBC model, and the inhibition of presynaptic GABA release by oxycodone, but not morphine was enhanced and dependent on Kir3.1 channels. Conclusion and Implications Our results demonstrate that Kir3.1 channels are important for supraspinal antinociception and presynaptic GABA release inhibition by oxycodone in the FBC model. Enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission at VLPAG neurons in the FBC model is an important site of supraspinal antinociception by oxycodone via Kir3.1 channel activation. PMID:25521524

  16. Glial cells modulate the synaptic transmission of NTS neurons sending projections to ventral medulla of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Zoccal, Daniel B; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence that sympathoexcitatory and respiratory responses to chemoreflex activation involve ventrolateral medulla-projecting nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons (NTS-VLM neurons) and also that ATP modulates this neurotransmission. Here, we evaluated whether or not astrocytes is the source of endogenous ATP modulating the synaptic transmission in NTS-VLM neurons. Synaptic activities of putative astrocytes or NTS-VLM neurons were recorded using whole cell patch clamp. Tractus solitarius (TS) stimulation induced TS-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (TS-eEPSCs) in NTS-VLM neurons as well in NTS putative astrocytes, which were also identified by previous labeling. Fluoracetate (FAC), an inhibitor of glial metabolism, reduced TS-eEPSCs amplitude (-85.6 ± 16 vs. -39 ± 7.1 pA, n = 12) and sEPSCs frequency (2.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.46 Hz, n = 10) in recorded NTS-VLM neurons, indicating a gliomodulation of glutamatergic currents. To verify the involvement of endogenous ATP a purinergic antagonist was used, which reduced the TS-eEPSCs amplitude (-207 ± 50 vs. -149 ± 50 pA, n = 6), the sEPSCs frequency (1.19 ± 0.2 vs. 0.62 ± 0.11 Hz, n = 6), and increased the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) values (∼20%) in NTS-VLM neurons. Simultaneous perfusion of Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',5'-disulfonic acid (iso-PPADS) and FAC produced reduction in TS-eEPSCs similar to that observed with iso-PPADS or FAC alone, indicating that glial cells are the source of ATP released after TS stimulation. Extracellular ATP measurement showed that FAC reduced evoked and spontaneous ATP release. All together these data show that putative astrocytes are the source of endogenous ATP, which via activation of presynaptic P2X receptors, facilitates the evoked glutamate release and increases the synaptic transmission efficacy in the NTS-VLM neurons probably involved with the peripheral chemoreflex pathways.

  17. Synaptic ultrastructure changes in trigeminocervical complex posttrigeminal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Trinh, Van Nancy; Sears-Kraxberger, Ilse; Li, Kang-Wu; Steward, Oswald; Luo, Z David

    2016-02-01

    Trigeminal nerves collecting sensory information from the orofacial area synapse on second-order neurons in the dorsal horn of subnucleus caudalis and cervical C1/C2 spinal cord (Vc/C2, or trigeminocervical complex), which is critical for sensory information processing. Injury to the trigeminal nerves may cause maladaptive changes in synaptic connectivity that plays an important role in chronic pain development. Here we examined whether injury to the infraorbital nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerves, led to synaptic ultrastructural changes when the injured animals have developed neuropathic pain states. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic profiles in Vc/C2 at 3 weeks postinjury, corresponding to the time of peak behavioral hypersensitivity following chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve (CCI-ION). Using established criteria, synaptic profiles were classified as associated with excitatory (R-), inhibitory (F-), and primary afferent (C-) terminals. Each type was counted within the superficial dorsal horn of the Vc/C2 and the means from each rat were compared between sham and injured animals; synaptic contact length was also measured. The overall analysis indicates that rats with orofacial pain states had increased numbers and decreased mean synaptic length of R-profiles within the Vc/C2 superficial dorsal horn (lamina I) 3 weeks post-CCI-ION. Increases in the number of excitatory synapses in the superficial dorsal horn of Vc/C2 could lead to enhanced activation of nociceptive pathways, contributing to the development of orofacial pain states.

  18. Kv1.3 channels regulate synaptic transmission in the nucleus of solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Navarro, Angelina; Glazebrook, Patricia A; Kane-Sutton, Michelle; Padro, Caroline; Kline, David D; Kunze, Diana L

    2011-06-01

    The voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.3 has been reported to regulate transmitter release in select central and peripheral neurons. In this study, we evaluated its role at the synapse between visceral sensory afferents and secondary neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We identified mRNA and protein for Kv1.3 in rat nodose ganglia using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In immunohistochemical experiments, anti-Kv1.3 immunoreactivity was very strong in internal organelles in the soma of nodose neurons with a weaker distribution near the plasma membrane. Anti-Kv1.3 was also identified in the axonal branches that project centrally, including their presynaptic terminals in the medial and commissural NTS. In current-clamp experiments, margatoxin (MgTx), a high-affinity blocker of Kv1.3, produced an increase in action potential duration in C-type but not A- or Ah-type neurons. To evaluate the role of Kv1.3 at the presynaptic terminal, we examined the effect of MgTx on tract evoked monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in brain slices of the NTS. MgTx increased the amplitude of evoked EPSCs in a subset of neurons, with the major increase occurring during the first stimuli in a 20-Hz train. These data, together with the results from somal recordings, support the hypothesis that Kv1.3 regulates the duration of the action potential in the presynaptic terminal of C fibers, limiting transmitter release to the postsynaptic cell. PMID:21430270

  19. Proteasomal degradation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α is mediated by Homer-3 via the proteasomal S8 ATPase: Signal transduction and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Baalman, Kelli; Teng, Yanfen; Mee, Maureen P; Dawson, Simon P; Wang, Hongmin; De Biasi, Mariella; Mayer, R John

    2012-07-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) fine-tune the efficacy of synaptic transmission. This unique feature makes mGluRs potential targets for the treatment of various CNS disorders. There is ample evidence to show that the ubiquitin proteasome system mediates changes in synaptic strength leading to multiple forms of synaptic plasticity. The present study describes a novel interaction between post-synaptic adaptors, long Homer-3 proteins, and one of the 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, the S8 ATPase, that influences the degradation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α). We have shown that the two human long Homer-3 proteins specifically interact with human proteasomal S8 ATPase. We identified that mGluR1α and long Homer-3s immunoprecipitate with the 26S proteasome both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that the mGluR1α receptor can be ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome and that Homer-3A facilitates this process. Furthermore, the siRNA mediated silencing of Homer-3 led to increased levels of total and plasma membrane-associated mGluR1α receptors. These results suggest that long Homer-3 proteins control the degradation of mGluR1α receptors by shuttling ubiquitinated mGluR-1α receptors to the 26S proteasome via the S8 ATPase which may modulate synaptic transmission.

  20. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Frances L; Kirk, Matthew E; Rennie, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K(+) channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K(+) channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space. PMID:26082693

  1. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization.

  2. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  3. Drosophila-Cdh1 (Rap/Fzr) a regulatory subunit of APC/C is required for synaptic morphology, synaptic transmission and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Wise, Alexandria; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Hua, Shao-Ying; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2013-11-01

    The assembly of functional synapses requires the orchestration of the synthesis and degradation of a multitude of proteins. Protein degradation and modification by the conserved ubiquitination pathway has emerged as a key cellular regulatory mechanism during nervous system development and function (Kwabe and Brose, 2011). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase complex primarily characterized for its role in the regulation of mitosis (Peters, 2002). In recent years, a role for APC/C in nervous system development and function has been rapidly emerging (Stegmuller and Bonni, 2005; Li et al., 2008). In the mammalian central nervous system the activator subunit, APC/C-Cdh1, has been shown to be a regulator of axon growth and dendrite morphogenesis (Konishi et al., 2004). In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), APC2, a ligase subunit of the APC/C complex has been shown to regulate synaptic bouton size and activity (van Roessel et al., 2004). To investigate the role of APC/C-Cdh1 at the synapse we examined loss-of-function mutants of Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related), a Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Cdh1 during the development of the larval neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Our cell biological, ultrastructural, electrophysiological, and behavioral data showed that rap/fzr loss-of-function mutations lead to changes in synaptic structure and function as well as locomotion defects. Data presented here show changes in size and morphology of synaptic boutons, and, muscle tissue organization. Electrophysiological experiments show that loss-of-function mutants exhibit increased frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials, indicating a higher rate of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. In addition, larval locomotion and peristaltic movement were also impaired. These findings suggest a role for Drosophila APC/C-Cdh1 mediated ubiquitination in regulating synaptic morphology

  4. Cholinergic Synaptic Transmissions Were Altered after Single Sevoflurane Exposure in Drosophila Pupa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongfa; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Liting; Chen, Zhen; Ran, Dongzhi; Niu, Yang; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Sevoflurane, one of the most used general anesthetics, is widely used in clinical practice all over the world. Previous studies indicated that sevoflurane could induce neuron apoptosis and neural deficit causing query in the safety of anesthesia using sevoflurane. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on electrophysiology in Drosophila pupa whose excitatory neurotransmitter is acetylcholine early after sevoflurane exposure using whole brain recording technique. Methods. Wide types of Drosophila (canton-s flies) were allocated to control and sevoflurane groups randomly. Sevoflurane groups (1% sevoflurane; 2% sevoflurane; 3% sevoflurane) were exposed to sevoflurane and the exposure lasted 5 hours, respectively. All flies were subjected to electrophysiology experiment using patch clamp 24 hours after exposure. Results. The results showed that, 24 hours after sevoflurane exposure, frequency but not the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism and found that calcium currents density, which partially regulated the frequency of mEPSCs, was significantly reduced after sevoflurane exposure (P < 0.05). Conclusions. All these suggested that sevoflurane could alter the mEPSCs that are related to synaptic plasticity partially through modulating calcium channel early after sevoflurane exposure. PMID:25705662

  5. Long-term potentiation of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto cerebellar Purkinje neurons contributes to adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke; Kawaguchi, Shin-Ya; Shioi, Go; Hirano, Tomoo

    2013-10-23

    Synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum is thought to contribute to motor learning. In particular, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje neuron (PN) excitatory synapses has attracted much attention of neuroscientists as a primary cellular mechanism for motor learning. In contrast, roles of plasticity at cerebellar inhibitory synapses in vivo remain unknown. Here, we have investigated the roles of long-lasting enhancement of transmission at GABAergic synapses on a PN that is known as rebound potentiation (RP). Previous studies demonstrated that binding of GABAA receptor with GABAA receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) is required for RP, and that a peptide that blocks this binding suppresses RP induction. To address the functional roles of RP, we generated transgenic mice that express this peptide fused to a fluorescent protein selectively in PNs using the PN-specific L7 promoter. These mice failed to show RP, although they showed no changes in the basal amplitude or frequency of miniature IPSCs. The transgenic mice also showed no abnormality in gross cerebellar morphology, LTD, or other excitatory synaptic properties, or intrinsic excitability of PNs. Next, we attempted to evaluate their motor control and learning ability by examining reflex eye movements. The basal dynamic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic response, and adaptation of the latter, were normal in the transgenic mice. In contrast, the transgenic mice showed defects in the adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex, a model paradigm of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. These results together suggest that RP contributes to a certain type of motor learning.

  6. The effect of sevoflurane on the cognitive function of rats and its association with the inhibition of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deng-Xin; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Li-Na; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Zhuang, Qing; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    To observe the effects of different concentrations of sevoflurane on synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) expression, synaptic long term depression (LTD), and paired pulse depression (PPD) in the rat hippocampus as well as to investigate the association between these effects and the cognitive function of rats. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (group A), which inhaled air; group B, which inhaled 0.65 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane for 2 h; and group C, which inhaled 1.30 MAC sevoflurane for 2 h. The subsequent experiments were performed after one day. (1) Y maze tests were performed, and the expression of Syt1 in hippocampal tissues was detected using western blot. (2) The changes in LTD and PPD in rat hippocampal slices were examined using electrophysiological techniques. Compared to the control group, the cognitive function was decreased and Syt1 expression in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats in the 1.30 MAC sevoflurane inhalation group. After 60 min of low frequency stimulation, the amplitudes of population spike (PS) potentials in rat hippocampal slices were significantly decreased. After induction of PPD, the P2/P1 ratio was significantly increased. No indicators in the 0.65 MAC sevoflurane inhalation group showed any significant changes. Inhalation of high concentrations of sevoflurane significantly reduced Syt1 protein levels in the rat hippocampus, significantly inhibited the release of presynaptic neurotransmitters, and reduced the efficiency of synaptic transmission, thus causing memory impairment. PMID:26885010

  7. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca(2+)] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  8. CB2 cannabinoid receptors inhibit synaptic transmission when expressed in cultured autaptic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Brady K.; Straiker, Alex; Mackie, Ken

    2012-01-01

    The role of CB2 in the central nervous system, particularly in neurons, has generated much controversy. Fueling the controversy are imperfect tools, which have made conclusive identification of CB2-expressing neurons problematic. Imprecise localization of CB2 has made it difficult to determine its function in neurons. Here we avoid the localization controversy and directly address the question if CB2 can modulate neurotransmission. CB2 was expressed in excitatory hippocampal autaptic neurons obtained from CB1 null mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from these neurons to determine the effects of CB2 on short-term synaptic plasticity. CB2 expression restored depolarization induced suppression of excitation to these neurons, which was lost following genetic ablation of CB1. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) mimicked the effects of depolarization in CB2 expressing neurons. Interestingly, ongoing basal production of 2-AG resulted in constitutive activation of CB2, causing a tonic inhibition of neurotransmission that was relieved by the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC80267. Through immunocytochemistry and analysis of spontaneous EPSCs, paired pulse ratios and coefficients of variation we determined that CB2 exerts its function at a presynaptic site of action, likely through inhibition of voltage gated calcium channels. Therefore CB2 expressed in neurons effectively mimics the actions of CB1. Thus, neuronal CB2 is well suited to integrate into conventional neuronal endocannabinoid signaling processes, with its specific role determined by its unique and highly inducible expression profile. PMID:22579668

  9. Glycinergic synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus of mice with normal hearing and age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruili; Manis, Paul B

    2013-10-01

    The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian cochlear nucleus (CN) is glycine. During age-related hearing loss (AHL), glycinergic inhibition becomes weaker in CN. However, it is unclear what aspects of glycinergic transmission are responsible for weaker inhibition with AHL. We examined glycinergic transmission onto bushy cells of the anteroventral CN in normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice and in DBA/2J mice, a strain that exhibits an early onset AHL. Glycinergic synaptic transmission was examined in brain slices of mice at 10-15 postnatal days old, 20-35 days old, and at 6-7 mo old. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) event frequency and amplitude were the same among all three ages in both strains of mice. However, the amplitudes of IPSCs evoked (eIPSC) from stimulating the dorsal CN were smaller, and the failure rate was higher, with increasing age due to decreased quantal content in both mouse strains, independent of hearing status. The coefficient of variation of the eIPSC amplitude also increased with age. The decay time constant (τ) of sIPSCs and eIPSCs were constant in CBA/CaJ mice at all ages, but were significantly slower in DBA/2J mice at postnatal days 20-35, following the onset of AHL, and not at earlier or later ages. Our results suggest that glycinergic inhibition at the synapses onto bushy cells becomes weaker and less reliable with age through changes in release. However, the hearing loss in DBA/2J mice is accompanied by a transiently enhanced inhibition, which could disrupt the balance of excitation and inhibition.

  10. The postsynaptic induction of nonassociative long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Christofi, G; Nowicky, A V; Bolsover, S R; Bindman, L J

    1993-01-01

    1. Long-term depression (LTD) is an activity-dependent reduction in the strength of synaptic transmission that can persist for hours. It is a neural model for processes underlying learning and memory, such as extinction and forgetting. LTD of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in cells of the CA1 region of hippocampal slices can be induced in an anti-Hebbian paradigm, i.e., by conditioning stimuli that activate the postsynaptic neuron in the absence of evoked synaptic transmission in the test pathway. Past work showed that LTD was not produced consistently in a pharmacologically untreated slice, but it could be induced more reliably when the conditioning stimuli were applied during block of evoked transmitter release. We have now defined further the conditions in which LTD can be obtained using postsynaptic conditioning by investigating 1) whether intracellular conditioning is effective, 2) the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, and 3) the consequences of selective block of glutamate ionotropic receptor subtypes during the conditioning procedure. 2. Intracellular recordings were made from CA1 pyramidal neurons. Test shocks were applied to the stratum radiatum except during conditioning, and the depolarizing slopes and amplitudes of evoked EPSPs were measured. The conditioning procedure activated the postsynaptic neuron either antidromically (via trains of shocks at 100 Hz applied to the axons in the alveus) or intracellularly (via depolarizing pulses of 1.5-3.5 nA). During conditioning, postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by the conditioning stimuli either were transiently blocked by bathing slices for 5 min in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing a high [Mg2+] or were reduced by glutamate antagonists. 3. When slices were bathed in CSF containing 25 mM Mg2+ and 2 mM Ca2+, evoked PSPs were transiently abolished; conditioning, either by antidromic or intracellular stimulation, always evoked a significant LTD. During the LTD produced by

  11. The nuclear calcium signaling target, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), protects against dendrotoxicity and facilitates the recovery of synaptic transmission after an excitotoxic insult.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Hanna; Bas-Orth, Carlos; Freitag, H Eckehard; Hellwig, Andrea; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Bading, Hilmar

    2014-04-01

    The focal swellings of dendrites ("dendritic beading") are an early morphological hallmark of neuronal injury and dendrotoxicity. They are associated with a variety of pathological conditions, including brain ischemia, and cause an acute disruption of synaptic transmission and neuronal network function, which contribute to subsequent neuronal death. Here, we show that increased synaptic activity prior to excitotoxic injury protects, in a transcription-dependent manner, against dendritic beading. Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a nuclear calcium-regulated gene and member of the core gene program for acquired neuroprotection, can protect against dendritic beading. Conversely, knockdown of ATF3 exacerbates dendritic beading. Assessment of neuronal network functions using microelectrode array recordings revealed that hippocampal neurons expressing ATF3 were able to regain their ability for functional synaptic transmission and to participate in coherent neuronal network activity within 48 h after exposure to toxic concentrations of NMDA. Thus, in addition to attenuating cell death, synaptic activity and expression of ATF3 render hippocampal neurons more resistant to acute dendrotoxicity and loss of synapses. Dendroprotection can enhance recovery of neuronal network functions after excitotoxic insults.

  12. Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism in the developing rat impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M E; Paczkowski, C

    2003-10-10

    Reductions in thyroid hormone during critical periods of brain development can have devastating effects on neurological function that are permanent. Neurochemical, molecular and structural alterations in a variety of brain regions have been well documented, but little information is available on the consequences of developmental hypothyroidism on synaptic function. Developing rats were exposed to the thyrotoxicant, propylthiouracil (PTU: 0 or 15 ppm), through the drinking water of pregnant dams beginning on GD18 and extending throughout the lactational period. Male offspring were allowed to mature after termination of PTU exposure at weaning on PND21 and electrophyiological assessments of field potentials in the dentate gyrus were conducted under urethane anesthesia between 2 and 5 months of age. PTU dramatically reduced thyroid hormones on PND21 and produced deficits in body weight that persisted to adulthood. Synaptic transmission was impaired as evidenced by reductions in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitudes at a range of stimulus intensities. Long-term potentiation of the EPSP slope was impaired at both modest and strong intensity trains, whereas a paradoxical increase in PS amplitude was observed in PTU-treated animals in response to high intensity trains. These data are the first to describe functional impairments in synaptic transmission and plasticity in situ as a result of PTU treatment and suggest that perturbations in synaptic function may contribute to learning deficits associated with developmental hypothyroidism.

  13. Impaired Synaptic Development, Maintenance, and Neuromuscular Transmission in LRP4 Myasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Selcen, Duygu; Ohkawara, Bisei; Shen, Xin-Ming; McEvoy, Kathleen; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders. Defining the phenotypic features, genetic basis, and pathomechanisms of a CMS is relevant to prognosis, genetic counseling, and therapy. OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical, structural, electrophysiologic, and genetic features of a CMS and search for optimal therapy. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Two sisters, 34 and 20 years of age suffering from a CMS affecting the limb-girdle muscles were investigated at an academic medical center by clinical observation, in vitro analysis of neuromuscular transmission, cytochemical and electron microscopy studies of the neuromuscular junction, exome sequencing, expression studies in HEK293 and COS-7 cells, and for response to therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We identified the disease gene and mutation, confirmed pathogenicity of the mutation by expression studies, and instituted optimal pharmacotherapy. RESULTS Intercostal muscle endplates (EPs) were abnormally small with attenuated reactivities for the acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine esterase. Most EPs had poorly differentiated or degenerate junctional folds and some appeared denuded of nerve terminals. The amplitude of the EP potential (EPP), the miniature EPP, and the quantal content of the EPP were all markedly reduced. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous p.Glu1233Ala mutation in LRP4, a coreceptor for agrin to activate MuSK, required for EP development and maintenance. Expression studies indicate the mutation compromises ability of LRP4 to bind to, phosphorylate, and activate MuSK. Albuterol improved the patients’ symptoms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We identify a second CMS kinship harboring mutations in LRP4, identify the mechanisms that impair neuromuscular transmission, and mitigate the disease by appropriate therapy. PMID:26052878

  14. Altered neuronal intrinsic properties and reduced synaptic transmission of the rat's medial geniculate body in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Su, Yan-Yan; Luo, Bin; Jin, Yan; Wu, Shu-Hui; Lobarinas, Edward; Salvi, Richard J; Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSal), an aspirin metabolite, can cause tinnitus in animals and human subjects. To explore neural mechanisms underlying salicylate-induced tinnitus, we examined effects of NaSal on neural activities of the medial geniculate body (MGB), an auditory thalamic nucleus that provides the primary and immediate inputs to the auditory cortex, by using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique in MGB slices. Rats treated with NaSal (350 mg/kg) showed tinnitus-like behavior as revealed by the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm. NaSal (1.4 mM) decreased the membrane input resistance, hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, suppressed current-evoked firing, changed the action potential, and depressed rebound depolarization in MGB neurons. NaSal also reduced the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic response in the MGB evoked by stimulating the brachium of the inferior colliculus. Our results demonstrate that NaSal alters neuronal intrinsic properties and reduces the synaptic transmission of the MGB, which may cause abnormal thalamic outputs to the auditory cortex and contribute to NaSal-induced tinnitus. PMID:23071681

  15. Reduction of the Cholesterol Sensor SCAP in the Brains of Mice Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Altered Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The sterol sensor SCAP is a key regulator of SREBP-2, the major transcription factor controlling cholesterol synthesis. Recently, we showed that there is a global down-regulation of cholesterol synthetic genes, as well as SREBP-2, in the brains of diabetic mice, leading to a reduction of cholesterol synthesis. We now show that in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, this is, in part, the result of a decrease of SCAP. Homozygous disruption of the Scap gene in the brains of mice causes perinatal lethality associated with microcephaly and gliosis. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Scap in the brain show a 60% reduction of SCAP protein and ∼30% reduction in brain cholesterol synthesis, similar to what is observed in diabetic mice. This results in impaired synaptic transmission, as measured by decreased paired pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, and is associated with behavioral and cognitive changes. Thus, reduction of SCAP and the consequent suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brain may play an important role in the increased rates of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease observed in diabetic states. PMID:23585733

  16. GABAergic interneuronal loss and reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 region after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Suhett, Camila P; Prager, Eric M; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr; Figueiredo, Taiza H; Marini, Ann M; Li, Zheng; Eiden, Lee E; Braga, Maria F M

    2015-11-01

    Patients that suffer mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) often develop cognitive impairments, including memory and learning deficits. The hippocampus shows a high susceptibility to mTBI-induced damage due to its anatomical localization and has been implicated in cognitive and neurological impairments after mTBI. However, it remains unknown whether mTBI cognitive impairments are a result of morphological and pathophysiological alterations occurring in the CA1 hippocampal region. We investigated whether mTBI induces morphological and pathophysiological alterations in the CA1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. Seven days after CCI, animals subjected to mTBI showed cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test and deficits to long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Deficiencies in inducing or maintaining LTP were likely due to an observed reduction in the activation of NMDA but not AMPA receptors. Significant reductions in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous and miniature GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were also observed 7 days after CCI. Design-based stereology revealed that although the total number of neurons was unaltered, the number of GABAergic interneurons is significantly reduced in the CA1 region 7 days after CCI. Additionally, the surface expression of α1, ß2/3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor were reduced, contributing to a reduced mIPSC frequency and amplitude, respectively. Together, these results suggest that mTBI causes a significant reduction in GABAergic inhibitory transmission and deficits to NMDA receptor mediated currents in the CA1, which may contribute to changes in hippocampal excitability and subsequent cognitive impairments after mTBI.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced mitochondrial motility arrest and presynaptic docking contribute to BDNF-enhanced synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo; Ji, Yun-Song; Sun, Xu-lu; Liu, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2014-01-17

    Appropriate mitochondrial transport and distribution are essential for neurons because of the high energy and Ca(2+) buffering requirements at synapses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, whether and how BDNF can regulate mitochondrial transport and distribution are still unclear. Here, we find that in cultured hippocampal neurons, application of BDNF for 15 min decreased the percentage of moving mitochondria in axons, a process dependent on the activation of the TrkB receptor and its downstream PI3K and phospholipase-Cγ signaling pathways. Moreover, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping requires the activation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 and 6 (TRPC3 and TRPC6) channels and elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. The Ca(2+) sensor Miro1 plays an important role in this process. Finally, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping leads to the accumulation of more mitochondria at presynaptic sites. Mutant Miro1 lacking the ability to bind Ca(2+) prevents BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic accumulation and synaptic transmission, suggesting that Miro1-mediated mitochondrial motility is involved in BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic docking and neurotransmission. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial transport and distribution play essential roles in BDNF-mediated synaptic transmission.

  18. Autism-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 impair synaptic transmission and neurexin-neuroligin-mediated transsynaptic signaling.

    PubMed

    Arons, Magali H; Thynne, Charlotte J; Grabrucker, Andreas M; Li, Dong; Schoen, Michael; Cheyne, Juliette E; Boeckers, Tobias M; Montgomery, Johanna M; Garner, Craig C

    2012-10-24

    Mutations in several postsynaptic proteins have recently been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Neuroligins, Neurexins, and members of the ProSAP/Shank family, thereby suggesting that these genetic forms of autism may share common synaptic mechanisms. Initial studies of ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 support a role for this protein in glutamate receptor function and spine morphology, but these synaptic phenotypes are not universally penetrant, indicating that other core facets of ProSAP2/Shank3 function must underlie synaptic deficits in patients with ASDs. In the present study, we have examined whether the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of Neuroligins functions to coordinate pre/postsynaptic signaling through the Neurexin-Neuroligin signaling complex in hippocampal neurons of Rattus norvegicus. Indeed, we find that synaptic levels of ProSAP2/Shank3 regulate AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and induce widespread changes in the levels of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins via Neurexin-Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling. ASD-associated mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 disrupt not only postsynaptic AMPA and NMDA receptor signaling but also interfere with the ability of ProSAP2/Shank3 to signal across the synapse to alter presynaptic structure and function. These data indicate that ASD-associated mutations in a subset of synaptic proteins may target core cellular pathways that coordinate the functional matching and maturation of excitatory synapses in the CNS.

  19. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  20. Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission is differentially influenced by two ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in the hippocampal slice preparation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Authors: Kyung Ho; Inan, Salim Yalcin; Berman, Robert F.; Pessah, Isaac N.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls impairs cognition and behavior in ‘children. Two environmental PCBs 2,2′3,3′4,4′5-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB170) and 2,2′3,5′6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) were examined in vitro for influences on synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slices. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 region using a multi-electrode array. Perfusion with PCB170 (10 nM) had no effect on fEPSP slope relative to baseline period, whereas (100 nM) initially enhanced then depressed fEPSP slope. Perfusion of PCB95 (10 or 100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope >200%, an effect that could be inhibited by dantrolene, a drug that attenuates ryanodine receptor signaling. Perfusion with picrotoxin (PTX) to block GABA neurotransmission resulted in a modest increase in fEPSP slope, whereas PTX+PCB170 (1–100 nM) persistently enhanced fEPSP slope in a dose dependent manner. fEPSP slope reached >250% of baseline period in the presence of PTX+100 nM PCB170, conditions that evoked marked epileptiform after-potential discharges. PCB95 and PCB170 were found to differentially influence the Ca2+-dependence of [3H]ryanodine-binding to hippocampal ryanodine receptors. Non-coplanar PCB congeners can differentially alter neurotransmission in a manner suggesting they can elicit imbalances between inhibitory and excitatory circuits within the hippocampus. Differential sensitization of ryanodine receptors by Ca2+ appears to mediate, at least in part, hippocampal excitotoxicity by non-coplanar PCBs. PMID:19289137

  1. Target-controlled differentiation of axon terminals and synaptic organization.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, G; Frost, D O

    1987-01-01

    These experiments investigate the processes regulating the morphological differentiation of synaptic connections. Electron microscopy showed that the terminal boutons and synaptic complexes of retinal afferent axons in the main thalamic visual nucleus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, differ in their morphology from those of ascending afferent axons in the main thalamic somatosensory (ventrobasal) nucleus. Developing retinal ganglion cell axons in hamsters were made to project permanently to the ventrobasal nucleus, rather than to the lateral geniculate nucleus. With respect to most of the ultrastructural features examined, the terminals and synaptic complexes of mature, anterogradely labeled retino-ventrobasal axons more closely resembled those of normal somatosensory afferents to the ventrobasal nucleus than they did those of normal retinofugal axons within the lateral geniculate nucleus. These results suggest that the ultrastructural differentiation of axon terminals and synaptic complexes is regulated largely by the target environment, although some features appear to be intrinsic to the afferent axons themselves. Images PMID:2443913

  2. Translational control of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel D

    2010-12-01

    Synapses, points of contact between axons and dendrites, are conduits for the flow of information in the circuitry of the central nervous system. The strength of synaptic transmission reflects the interconnectedness of the axons and dendrites at synapses; synaptic strength in turn is modified by the frequency with which the synapses are stimulated. This modulation of synaptic strength, or synaptic plasticity, probably forms the cellular basis for learning and memory. RNA metabolism, particularly translational control at or near the synapse, is one process that controls long-lasting synaptic plasticity and, by extension, memory formation and consolidation. In the present paper, I review some salient features of translational control of synaptic plasticity.

  3. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (5α3α-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5α3α-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR δ subunit (δ0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, δ0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of δ0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress

  4. Dendritic HCN Channels Shape Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials at the Inner Hair Cell Afferent Synapse in the Mammalian Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eunyoung; Roux, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic transmission at the inner hair cell (IHC) afferent synapse, the first synapse in the auditory pathway, is specialized for rapid and reliable signaling. Here we investigated the properties of a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), expressed in the afferent dendrite of auditory nerve fibers, and its role in shaping postsynaptic activity. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings from afferent dendrites directly where they contact the IHC in excised postnatal rat cochlear turns. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of variable amplitude (1–35 mV) were found with 10–90% rise times of about 1 ms and time constants of decay of about 5 ms at room temperature. Current–voltage relations recorded in afferent dendrites revealed Ih. The pharmacological profile and reversal potential (−45 mV) indicated that Ih is mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels. The HCN channel subunits HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 were found to be expressed in afferent dendrites using immunolabeling. Raising intracellular cAMP levels sped up the activation kinetics, increased the magnitude of Ih and shifted the half activation voltage (Vhalf) to more positive values (−104 ± 3 to −91 ± 2 mV). Blocking Ih with 50 μM ZD7288 resulted in hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential (∼4 mV) and slowing the decay of the EPSP by 47%, suggesting that Ih is active at rest and shortens EPSPs, thereby potentially improving rapid and reliable signaling at this first synapse in the auditory pathway. PMID:20220080

  5. Dendritic HCN channels shape excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the inner hair cell afferent synapse in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eunyoung; Roux, Isabelle; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    Synaptic transmission at the inner hair cell (IHC) afferent synapse, the first synapse in the auditory pathway, is specialized for rapid and reliable signaling. Here we investigated the properties of a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)), expressed in the afferent dendrite of auditory nerve fibers, and its role in shaping postsynaptic activity. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings from afferent dendrites directly where they contact the IHC in excised postnatal rat cochlear turns. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of variable amplitude (1-35 mV) were found with 10-90% rise times of about 1 ms and time constants of decay of about 5 ms at room temperature. Current-voltage relations recorded in afferent dendrites revealed I(h). The pharmacological profile and reversal potential (-45 mV) indicated that I(h) is mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels. The HCN channel subunits HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 were found to be expressed in afferent dendrites using immunolabeling. Raising intracellular cAMP levels sped up the activation kinetics, increased the magnitude of I(h) and shifted the half activation voltage (V(half)) to more positive values (-104 +/- 3 to -91 +/- 2 mV). Blocking I(h) with 50 microM ZD7288 resulted in hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential (approximately 4 mV) and slowing the decay of the EPSP by 47%, suggesting that I(h) is active at rest and shortens EPSPs, thereby potentially improving rapid and reliable signaling at this first synapse in the auditory pathway.

  6. Relation between discharge regularity and responses to externally applied galvanic currents in vestibular nerve afferents of the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J M; Smith, C E; Fernández, C

    1984-06-01

    response thresholds to shocks, synchronized to follow naturally occurring impulses at several different delays. Recovery in irregular units was more rapid than in regular units. Evidence is presented that externally applied currents acted at the spike trigger site rather than elsewhere in the sensory transduction process. We argue that the irregular discharge of some vestibular afferents offers no functional advantage in the encoding and transmission of sensory information. Rather, the irregularity of discharge is better viewed as a consequence of the enhanced sensitivity of these units to depolarizing influences, including afferent and efferent synaptic inputs.

  7. Cannabinoid-induced depression of synaptic transmission is switched to stimulation when dopaminergic tone is increased in the globus pallidus of the rodent.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Florán, Rene Nahum; Conde-Rojas, Israel; Oviedo Chávez, Aldo; Cortes-Calleja, Hernán; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Isom, Lori L; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2016-11-01

    Because activation of D2 receptors reverses the neurochemical effects of cannabinoids, we examined whether increasing dopaminergic tone in the globus pallidus (GPe) switches cannabinoid induced depression of synaptic transmission. GABAergic synaptic currents evoked in pallidal neurons by stimulation of striatal projections (IPSCs) were depressed by perfusion with the CB1R agonist ACEA. Coactivation of D2Rs with quinpirole converted the depression into stimulation. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) to limit Gi/o protein coupling also switched the CB1R-induced depression of IPSCs. The stimulation of IPSCs was blocked by the selective PKA blocker H89. Changes in the paired pulse ratio during both inhibitory and stimulatory responses indicate that the effects are due to changes in transmitter release. Postsynaptic depolarization induces endocannabinoid release that inhibits transmitter release (DSI). When D2Rs were activated with quinpirole, depolarization increased transmission instead of depressing it. This increase was blocked by AM251. We also examined the effects of CB1R/D2R coactivation on cAMP accumulation in the GPe to further verify that the AC/PKA cascade is involved. CB1R/D2R coactivation converted the inhibition of cAMP seen when each receptor is stimulated alone into a stimulation. We also determined the effects on turning behavior of unilateral injection of ACEA into the GPe of awake animals and its modification by dopamine antagonists. Blockade of D2 family receptors with sulpiride antagonized the motor effects of ACEA. We show, for the first time, that cannabinoid-inhibition of synaptic transmission in the GPe becomes a stimulation after D2Rs or PTX treatment and that the switch is probably relevant for the control of motor behavior.

  8. Cannabinoid-induced depression of synaptic transmission is switched to stimulation when dopaminergic tone is increased in the globus pallidus of the rodent.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Florán, Rene Nahum; Conde-Rojas, Israel; Oviedo Chávez, Aldo; Cortes-Calleja, Hernán; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Isom, Lori L; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2016-11-01

    Because activation of D2 receptors reverses the neurochemical effects of cannabinoids, we examined whether increasing dopaminergic tone in the globus pallidus (GPe) switches cannabinoid induced depression of synaptic transmission. GABAergic synaptic currents evoked in pallidal neurons by stimulation of striatal projections (IPSCs) were depressed by perfusion with the CB1R agonist ACEA. Coactivation of D2Rs with quinpirole converted the depression into stimulation. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) to limit Gi/o protein coupling also switched the CB1R-induced depression of IPSCs. The stimulation of IPSCs was blocked by the selective PKA blocker H89. Changes in the paired pulse ratio during both inhibitory and stimulatory responses indicate that the effects are due to changes in transmitter release. Postsynaptic depolarization induces endocannabinoid release that inhibits transmitter release (DSI). When D2Rs were activated with quinpirole, depolarization increased transmission instead of depressing it. This increase was blocked by AM251. We also examined the effects of CB1R/D2R coactivation on cAMP accumulation in the GPe to further verify that the AC/PKA cascade is involved. CB1R/D2R coactivation converted the inhibition of cAMP seen when each receptor is stimulated alone into a stimulation. We also determined the effects on turning behavior of unilateral injection of ACEA into the GPe of awake animals and its modification by dopamine antagonists. Blockade of D2 family receptors with sulpiride antagonized the motor effects of ACEA. We show, for the first time, that cannabinoid-inhibition of synaptic transmission in the GPe becomes a stimulation after D2Rs or PTX treatment and that the switch is probably relevant for the control of motor behavior. PMID:27506997

  9. Plasticity of inhibitory synaptic network interactions in the lateral amygdala upon fear conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Szinyei, Csaba; Narayanan, Rajeevan T; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2007-02-01

    After fear conditioning, plastic changes of excitatory synaptic transmission occur in the amygdala. Fear-related memory also involves the GABAergic system, although no influence on inhibitory synaptic transmission is known. In the present study we assessed the influence of Pavlovian fear conditioning on the plasticity of GABAergic synaptic interactions in the lateral amygdala (LA) in brain slices prepared from fear-conditioned, pseudo-trained and naïve adult mice. Theta-burst tetanization of thalamic afferent inputs to the LA evoked an input-specific potentiation of inhibitory postsynaptic responses in projection neurons; the cortical input was unaffected. Philanthotoxin (10 microM), an antagonist of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors, disabled this plastic phenomenon. Surgical isolation of the LA, extracellular application of a GABA(B) receptor antagonist (CGP 55845A, 10 microM) or an NMDA receptor antagonist (APV, 50 microM), or intracellular application of BAPTA (10 mM), did not influence the plasticity. The plasticity also showed as a potentiation of monosynaptic excitatory responses in putative GABAergic interneurons. Pavlovian fear conditioning, but not pseudo-conditioning, resulted in a significant reduction in this potentiation that was evident 24 h after training. Two weeks after training, the potentiation returned to control levels. In conclusion, a reduction in potentiation of inhibitory synaptic interactions occurs in the LA and may contribute to a shift in synaptic balance towards excitatory signal flow during the processes of fear-memory acquisition or consolidation.

  10. Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxin-Induced Blockade of Synaptic Transmission in Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beske, Phillip H; Bradford, Aaron B; Grynovicki, Justin O; Glotfelty, Elliot J; Hoffman, Katie M; Hubbard, Kyle S; Tuznik, Kaylie M; McNutt, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical manifestations of tetanus and botulism result from an intricate series of interactions between clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) and nerve terminal proteins that ultimately cause proteolytic cleavage of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and functional blockade of neurotransmitter release. Although detection of cleaved SNARE proteins is routinely used as a molecular readout of CNT intoxication in cultured cells, impaired synaptic function is the pathophysiological basis of clinical disease. Work in our laboratory has suggested that the blockade of synaptic neurotransmission in networked neuron cultures offers a phenotypic readout of CNT intoxication that more closely replicates the functional endpoint of clinical disease. Here, we explore the value of measuring spontaneous neurotransmission frequencies as novel and functionally relevant readouts of CNT intoxication. The generalizability of this approach was confirmed in primary neuron cultures as well as human and mouse stem cell-derived neurons exposed to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G and tetanus neurotoxin. The sensitivity and specificity of synaptic activity as a reporter of intoxication was evaluated in assays representing the principal clinical and research purposes of in vivo studies. Our findings confirm that synaptic activity offers a novel and functionally relevant readout for the in vitro characterizations of CNTs. They further suggest that the analysis of synaptic activity in neuronal cell cultures can serve as a surrogate for neuromuscular paralysis in the mouse lethal assay, and therefore is expected to significantly reduce the need for terminal animal use in toxin studies and facilitate identification of candidate therapeutics in cell-based screening assays.

  11. Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxin-Induced Blockade of Synaptic Transmission in Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beske, Phillip H; Bradford, Aaron B; Grynovicki, Justin O; Glotfelty, Elliot J; Hoffman, Katie M; Hubbard, Kyle S; Tuznik, Kaylie M; McNutt, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical manifestations of tetanus and botulism result from an intricate series of interactions between clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) and nerve terminal proteins that ultimately cause proteolytic cleavage of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and functional blockade of neurotransmitter release. Although detection of cleaved SNARE proteins is routinely used as a molecular readout of CNT intoxication in cultured cells, impaired synaptic function is the pathophysiological basis of clinical disease. Work in our laboratory has suggested that the blockade of synaptic neurotransmission in networked neuron cultures offers a phenotypic readout of CNT intoxication that more closely replicates the functional endpoint of clinical disease. Here, we explore the value of measuring spontaneous neurotransmission frequencies as novel and functionally relevant readouts of CNT intoxication. The generalizability of this approach was confirmed in primary neuron cultures as well as human and mouse stem cell-derived neurons exposed to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G and tetanus neurotoxin. The sensitivity and specificity of synaptic activity as a reporter of intoxication was evaluated in assays representing the principal clinical and research purposes of in vivo studies. Our findings confirm that synaptic activity offers a novel and functionally relevant readout for the in vitro characterizations of CNTs. They further suggest that the analysis of synaptic activity in neuronal cell cultures can serve as a surrogate for neuromuscular paralysis in the mouse lethal assay, and therefore is expected to significantly reduce the need for terminal animal use in toxin studies and facilitate identification of candidate therapeutics in cell-based screening assays. PMID:26615023

  12. Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Dopamine Receptors Induces a Facilitation of Glutamate-Mediated Synaptic Transmission in the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Glovaci, Iulia; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lateral entorhinal cortex receives strong inputs from midbrain dopamine neurons that can modulate its sensory and mnemonic function. We have previously demonstrated that 1 µM dopamine facilitates synaptic transmission in layer II entorhinal cortex cells via activation of D1-like receptors, increased cAMP-PKA activity, and a resulting enhancement of AMPA-receptor mediated currents. The present study assessed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D1 receptors to the dopaminergic facilitation of transmission in layer II of the rat entorhinal cortex, and the involvement of phospholipase C activity and release of calcium from internal stores. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents were obtained from pyramidal and fan cells. Activation of D1-like receptors using SKF38393, SKF83959, or 1 µM dopamine induced a reversible facilitation of EPSCs which was abolished by loading cells with either the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Neither the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, nor the L/N-type channel blocker cilnidipine, blocked the facilitation of synaptic currents. However, the facilitation was blocked by blocking Ca2+ release from internal stores via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors or ryanodine receptors. Follow-up studies demonstrated that inhibiting CaMKII activity with KN-93 failed to block the facilitation, but that application of the protein kinase C inhibitor PKC(19-36) completely blocked the dopamine-induced facilitation. Overall, in addition to our previous report indicating a role for the cAMP-PKA pathway in dopamine-induced facilitation of synaptic transmission, we demonstrate here that the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic responses in layer II entorhinal neurons also relies on a signaling cascade dependent on PI-linked D1 receptors, PLC, release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and PKC activation which is likely dependent

  13. Neutralization of inhibitory molecule NG2 improves synaptic transmission, retrograde transport, and locomotor function after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Hayk A; Hunanyan, Arsen S; Alessi, Valentina; Schnell, Lisa; Levine, Joel; Arvanian, Victor L

    2013-02-27

    NG2 belongs to the family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that are upregulated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are major inhibitory factors restricting the growth of fibers after SCI. Neutralization of NG2's inhibitory effect on axon growth by anti-NG2 monoclonal antibodies (NG2-Ab) has been reported. In addition, recent studies show that exogenous NG2 induces a block of axonal conduction. In this study, we demonstrate that acute intraspinal injections of NG2-Ab prevented an acute block of conduction by NG2. Chronic intrathecal infusion of NG2-Ab improved the following deficits induced by chronic midthoracic lateral hemisection (HX) injury: (1) synaptic transmission to lumbar motoneurons, (2) retrograde transport of fluororuby anatomical tracer from L5 to L1, and (3) locomotor function assessed by automated CatWalk gait analysis. We collected data in an attempt to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the NG2-Ab-induced improvement of synaptic transmission in HX-injured spinal cord. These data showed the following: (1) that chronic NG2-Ab infusion improved conduction and axonal excitability in chronically HX-injured rats, (2) that antibody treatment increased the density of serotonergic axons with ventral regions of spinal segments L1-L5, (3) and that NG2-positive processes contact nodes of Ranvier within the nodal gap at the location of nodal Na(+) channels, which are known to be critical for propagation of action potentials along axons. Together, these results demonstrate that treatment with NG2-Ab partially improves both synaptic and anatomical plasticity in damaged spinal cord and promotes functional recovery after HX SCI. Neutralizing antibodies against NG2 may be an excellent way to promote axonal conduction after SCI. PMID:23447612

  14. Differential sensitivity of cerebellar purkinje neurons to ethanol in selectively outbred lines of mice: maintenance in vitro independent of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Hoffer, B; Dunwiddie, T

    1983-03-28

    The effects of ethanol on spontaneous firing of cerebellar Purkinje neurons were examined in outbred lines of mice (short-sleep, SS; and long-sleep, LS) which exhibit differential behavioral sensitivity to ethanol. In order to determine whether the differences in Purkinje cell ethanol sensitivity which are observed in situ reflect differences in intrinsic properties of Purkinje neurons, we developed an isolated in vitro preparation of mouse cerebellum. Even when synaptic transmission was largely inhibited by elevating Mg2+ and decreasing Ca2+ concentrations, Purkinje cells demonstrated stable long-term firing rates quite similar to those observed in vivo. Purkinje cells responded to superfusion of ethanol with both increases and decreases in firing rate. Inhibition of rate was more commonly observed, and was the only response which was demonstrably dose-dependent. The differential sensitivity to ethanol which we have previously reported in vivo was maintained even under under these conditions, with the LS mice being approximately 5 times more sensitive to the depressant effects of ethanol. In addition, it was shown that ethanol, at the concentrations used in these experiments, decreased the amplitude and increased the duration of single action potentials. Thus, taken together, these results suggest that the differential sensitivity of outbred lines to the soporific effects of ethanol are paralleled by differences in the sensitivity of Purkinje neurons in vitro to superfusion with ethanol. Because these differences can be observed even when synaptic transmission is largely suppressed, it would appear that these differences are intrinsic to the purkinje neurons themselves.

  15. Altered pallido-pallidal synaptic transmission leads to aberrant firing of globus pallidus neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Miguelez, Cristina; Morin, Stéphanie; Martinez, Audrey; Goillandeau, Michel; Bezard, Erwan; Bioulac, Bernard; Baufreton, Jérôme

    2012-11-15

    The pattern of activity of globus pallidus (GP) neurons is tightly regulated by GABAergic inhibition. In addition to extrinsic inputs from the striatum (STR-GP) the other source of GABA to GP neurons arises from intrinsic intranuclear axon collaterals (GP-GP). While the contribution of striatal inputs has been studied, notably its hyperactivity in Parkinson's disease (PD), the properties and function of intranuclear inhibition remain poorly understood. Our objective was therefore to test the impact of chronic dopamine depletion on pallido-pallidal transmission. Using patch-clamp whole-cell recordings in rat brain slices, we combined electrical and optogenetic stimulations with pharmacology to differentiate basic synaptic properties of STR-GP and GP-GP GABAergic synapses. GP-GP synapses were characterized by activity-dependent depression and insensitivity to the D(2) receptor specific agonist quinpirole and STR-GP synapses by frequency-dependent facilitation and quinpirole modulation. Chronic dopamine deprivation obtained in 6-OHDA lesioned animals boosted the amplitude of GP-GP IPSCs but did not modify STR-GP transmission and increased the amplitude of miniature IPSCs. Replacement of calcium by strontium confirmed that the quantal amplitude was increased at GP-GP synapses. Finally, we demonstrated that boosted GP-GP transmission promotes resetting of autonomous activity and rebound-burst firing after dopamine depletion. These results suggest that GP-GP synaptic transmission (but not STR-GP) is augmented by chronic dopamine depletion which could contribute to the aberrant GP neuronal activity observed in PD.

  16. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Idaira; Wanat, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects of drugs. In this review, we present evidence implicating the VTA in drug-related behaviors, highlight the diversity of neuronal populations in the VTA, and discuss the behavioral effects of selectively manipulating VTA afferents. Future experiments are needed to determine which VTA afferents and what neuronal populations in the VTA mediate specific drug-dependent behaviors. Further studies are also necessary for identifying the afferent-specific synaptic alterations onto dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA following drug administration. The identification of neural circuits and adaptations involved with drug-dependent behaviors can highlight potential neural targets for pharmacological and deep brain stimulation interventions to treat substance abuse disorders. PMID:27014097

  17. Differential regulation of synaptic transmission by mGlu2 and mGlu3 at the perforant path inputs to the dentate gyrus and CA1 revealed in mGlu2 -/- mice.

    PubMed

    Kew, James N C; Pflimlin, Marie-Claire; Kemp, John A; Mutel, Vincent

    2002-08-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors can act as presynaptic autoinhibitory receptors at perforant path inputs to the hippocampus under conditions of high frequency synaptic activation. We have used mGlu2 -/- mice to examine the relative roles of mGlu2 and mGlu3 in the regulation of perforant path synaptic transmission mediated by both the selective group II receptor agonist, DCG-IV, and by synaptically released glutamate. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of either the perforant path inputs to the dentate gyrus mid-moleculare or the CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare were inhibited by DCG-IV with IC(50) values and maximum percentage inhibition of: 169 nM (60%) and 41 nM (72%) in wild-type mice and 273 nM (19%) and 116 nM (49%) in mGlu2 -/- mice, respectively. Activation of presynaptic group II mGlu autoreceptors by synaptically released glutamate, as revealed by a LY341495-mediated increase in the relative amplitude of a test fEPSP evoked after a conditioning burst, was observed in both the dentate gyrus and the stratum lacunosum of wild-type, but not mGlu2 -/- mice. These observations demonstrate that activation of mGlu3 receptors can regulate synaptic transmission at perforant path synapses but suggest that mGlu2 is the major presynaptic group II autoreceptor activated by synaptically released glutamate. PMID:12213275

  18. Synaptic transmission changes in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Amer; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Gispen, Willem Hendrik; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2006-02-16

    The central nervous system complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) include defects in hippocampal synaptic plasticity induction and difficulties in learning and memory. DM was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in rats. After 12 weeks of DM duration, the rats were decapitated, and hippocampal slices were prepared for in vitro study. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded after repeated stimulations with 50 impulses given either in 10 or 20 Hz. The responses were significantly smaller in the diabetic animals than in the age-matched control rats. The summation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) responses was tested in both groups by stimulating the synapses with five consecutive stimuli given in 50-Hz frequency. Intracellular recording from the pyramidal hippocampal cells of the AMPA summation responses from diabetic and aged-matched control animals revealed a significant lower summation in the diabetic animals compared to the control. It is concluded that responses evoked by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) were significantly higher in the control animals. The defects in diabetic slices could be related to pre- as well as postsynaptic changes, and these defects play an important role in the synaptic plasticity changes seen in STZ-induced diabetic animals.

  19. Sex differences in cerebellar synaptic transmission and sex-specific responses to autism-linked Gabrb3 mutations in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Audrey A; Palarz, Kristin J; Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine S; Raman, Indira M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CbN) transmit cerebellar signals to premotor areas. The cerebellum expresses several autism-linked genes, including GABRB3, which encodes GABAA receptor β3 subunits and is among the maternal alleles deleted in Angelman syndrome. We tested how this Gabrb3 m-/p+ mutation affects CbN physiology in mice, separating responses of males and females. Wild-type mice showed sex differences in synaptic excitation, inhibition, and intrinsic properties. Relative to females, CbN cells of males had smaller synaptically evoked mGluR1/5-dependent currents, slower Purkinje-mediated IPSCs, and lower spontaneous firing rates, but rotarod performances were indistinguishable. In mutant CbN cells, IPSC kinetics were unchanged, but mutant males, unlike females, showed enlarged mGluR1/5 responses and accelerated spontaneous firing. These changes appear compensatory, since mutant males but not females performed indistinguishably from wild-type siblings on the rotarod task. Thus, sex differences in cerebellar physiology produce similar behavioral output, but provide distinct baselines for responses to mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07596.001 PMID:27077953

  20. Adenosine (ADO) released during orthodromic stimulation of the frog sympathetic ganglion inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover (PI) associated with synaptic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Curnish, R.; Bencherif, M.; Rubio, R.; Berne, R.M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously demonstrated that /sup 3/H-purine release was enhanced during synaptic activation of the prelabelled frog sympathetic ganglion. In addition, during orthodromic stimulation, there is an increased /sup 3/H-inositol release (an index of PI) that occurs during the poststimulation period and not during the period of stimulation. They hypothesized that endogenous ADO inhibits PI turnover during orthodromic stimulation. To test this hypothesis (1) they performed experiments to directly measure ADO release in the extracellular fluid by placing the ganglion in a 5 ..mu..l drop of Ringer's and let it come to equilibrium with the interstitial fluid, (2) they destroyed endogenous ADO by suffusing adenosine deaminase (ADA) during the stimulation period. Their results show (1) orthodromic stimulation increases release of ADO into the bathing medium, (2) ADA induced an increase of PI during the stimulation period in contrast to an increase seen only during the poststimulation period when ADA was omitted. They conclude that there is dual control of PI during synaptic activity, a stimulatory effect (cause unknown) and a short lived inhibitory effect that is probably caused by adenosine.

  1. Sex differences in cerebellar synaptic transmission and sex-specific responses to autism-linked Gabrb3 mutations in mice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Audrey A; Palarz, Kristin J; Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine S; Raman, Indira M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CbN) transmit cerebellar signals to premotor areas. The cerebellum expresses several autism-linked genes, including GABRB3, which encodes GABAA receptor β3 subunits and is among the maternal alleles deleted in Angelman syndrome. We tested how this Gabrb3 m-/p+ mutation affects CbN physiology in mice, separating responses of males and females. Wild-type mice showed sex differences in synaptic excitation, inhibition, and intrinsic properties. Relative to females, CbN cells of males had smaller synaptically evoked mGluR1/5-dependent currents, slower Purkinje-mediated IPSCs, and lower spontaneous firing rates, but rotarod performances were indistinguishable. In mutant CbN cells, IPSC kinetics were unchanged, but mutant males, unlike females, showed enlarged mGluR1/5 responses and accelerated spontaneous firing. These changes appear compensatory, since mutant males but not females performed indistinguishably from wild-type siblings on the rotarod task. Thus, sex differences in cerebellar physiology produce similar behavioral output, but provide distinct baselines for responses to mutations.

  2. Sex differences in cerebellar synaptic transmission and sex-specific responses to autism-linked Gabrb3 mutations in mice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Audrey A; Palarz, Kristin J; Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine S; Raman, Indira M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CbN) transmit cerebellar signals to premotor areas. The cerebellum expresses several autism-linked genes, including GABRB3, which encodes GABAA receptor β3 subunits and is among the maternal alleles deleted in Angelman syndrome. We tested how this Gabrb3 m-/p+ mutation affects CbN physiology in mice, separating responses of males and females. Wild-type mice showed sex differences in synaptic excitation, inhibition, and intrinsic properties. Relative to females, CbN cells of males had smaller synaptically evoked mGluR1/5-dependent currents, slower Purkinje-mediated IPSCs, and lower spontaneous firing rates, but rotarod performances were indistinguishable. In mutant CbN cells, IPSC kinetics were unchanged, but mutant males, unlike females, showed enlarged mGluR1/5 responses and accelerated spontaneous firing. These changes appear compensatory, since mutant males but not females performed indistinguishably from wild-type siblings on the rotarod task. Thus, sex differences in cerebellar physiology produce similar behavioral output, but provide distinct baselines for responses to mutations. PMID:27077953

  3. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors induce differential effects on synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and CA1 of the hippocampus in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Laroche, S

    1996-03-01

    Activation of ACPD-sensitive metabotropic receptors induced differential effects on synaptic transmission and the induction of LTP in CA1 and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus i.c.v. injections of (1.S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid [(1S,3R)-ACPD] induced enduring potentiation of the fEPSP in CA1, which occluded tetanically induced LTP. In contrast, ACPD induced a dose-dependent biphasic effect on the fEPSP in the dentate gyrus, consisting of an initial short lasting potentiation, followed by enduring depression of the response, and blockade of LTP. These two effects are likely to be mediated by two different classes of the receptor as in the dentate gyrus the selective class I agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) induced sustained potentiation of the fEPSP, whereas the mixed mGluR2 agonist-mGluR1 antagonist, (S)-4-carboxy-3-hydrophenylglycine((S)-4C3H-PG) induced only depression. Increasing the concentration of calcium directly in the dentate gyrus prior to, and in conjunction with, injections of ACPD induced sustained potentiation rather than depression. The differential effects indicate that the second messenger cascades the subtypes of receptors are linked with, mediate different forms of synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus and have important implications for their role in learning.

  4. 5-HT7 receptors as modulators of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and plasticity: physiological role and possible implications in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ciranna, Lucia; Catania, Maria Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin type 7 receptors (5-HT7) are expressed in several brain areas, regulate brain development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, and therefore are involved in various brain functions such as learning and memory. A number of studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptors could be potential pharmacotherapeutic target for cognitive disorders. Several abnormalities of serotonergic system have been described in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including abnormal activity of 5-HT transporter, altered blood and brain 5-HT levels, reduced 5-HT synthesis and altered expression of 5-HT receptors in the brain. A specific role for 5-HT7 receptors in ASD has not yet been demonstrated but some evidence implicates their possible involvement. We have recently shown that 5-HT7 receptor activation rescues hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, a monogenic cause of autism. Several other studies have shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior, mood disorders and epilepsy, which include core and co-morbid symptoms of ASD. These findings further suggest an involvement of 5-HT7 receptors in ASD. Here, we review the physiological roles of 5-HT7 receptors and their implications in Fragile X Syndrome and other ASD. PMID:25221471

  5. Effects of intratympanic gentamicin on vestibular afferents and hair cells in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Minor, Lloyd B; Hullar, Timothy E; Carey, John P

    2005-02-01

    Gentamicin is toxic to vestibular hair cells, but its effects on vestibular afferents have not been defined. We treated anesthetized chinchillas with one injection of gentamicin (26.7 mg/ml) into the middle ear and made extracellular recordings from afferents after 5-25 (early) or 90-115 days (late). The relative proportions of regular, intermediate, and irregular afferents did not change after treatment. The spontaneous firing rate of regular afferents was lower (P < 0.001) on the treated side (early: 44.3 +/- 16.3; late: 33.9 +/- 13.2 spikes x s(-1)) than on the untreated side (54.9 +/- 16.8 spikes x s(-1)). Spontaneous rates of irregular and intermediate afferents did not change. The majority of treated afferents did not measurably respond to tilt or rotation (82% in the early group, 76% in the late group). Those that did respond had abnormally low sensitivities (P < 0.001). Treated canal units that responded to rotation had mean sensitivities only 5-7% of the values for untreated canal afferents. Treated otolith afferents had mean sensitivities 23-28% of the values for untreated otolith units. Sensitivity to externally applied galvanic currents was unaffected for all afferents. Intratympanic gentamicin treatment reduced the histological density of all hair cells by 57% (P = 0.04). The density of hair cells with calyx endings was reduced by 99% (P = 0.03), although some remaining hair cells had other features suggestive of type I morphology. Type II hair cell density was not significantly reduced. These findings suggest that a single intratympanic gentamicin injection causes partial damage and loss of vestibular hair cells, particularly type I hair cells or their calyceal afferent endings, does not damage the afferent spike initiation zones, and preserves enough hair cell synaptic activity to drive the spontaneous activity of vestibular afferents.

  6. Neurons derived from human mesenchymal stem cells show synaptic transmission and can be induced to produce the neurotransmitter substance P by interleukin-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Jin; Trzaska, Katarzyna A; Greco, Steven J; McArdle, Joseph; Wang, Fu Shun; Ye, Jiang-Hong; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2005-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immune-suppressive properties, follow a pattern of multilineage differentiation, and exhibit transdifferentiation potential. Ease in expansion from adult bone marrow, as well as its separation from ethical issues, makes MSCs appealing for clinical application. MSCs treated with retinoic acid resulted in synaptic transmission, based on immunostaining of synaptophysin and electrophysiological studies. In situ hybridization indicated that the neurotransmitter gene preprotachykinin-I was expressed in these cells. However, translation of this gene only occurred after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1 alpha. This effect was blunted by costimulation with IL-1 receptor antagonist. This study reports on the ability of MSCs to be transdifferentiated into neurons with functional synapses with the potential to become polarized towards producing specific neurotransmitters.

  7. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth.

    PubMed

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2006-04-26

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein, and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated, and died in the first postnatal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the CNS. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that although alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and thus the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior, and neonatal demise.

  8. Potentiation of Acetylcholine-Mediated Facilitation of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission by an Azaindolizione Derivative, ZSET1446 (ST101), in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Yoshimasa; Hino, Masataka; Kato, Fusao

    2016-02-01

    The integrity of the hippocampal network depends on the coordination of excitatory and inhibitory signaling, which are under dynamic control by various regulatory influences such as the cholinergic systems. ZSET1446 (ST101; spiro[imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3,2-indan]-2(3H)-one) is a newly synthesized azaindolizinone derivative that significantly improves learning deficits in various types of Alzheimer disease (AD) models in rats. We examined the effect of ZSET1446 on the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats. ZSET1446 significantly potentiated the facilitatory effect of nicotine and ACh on the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) recorded in CA1 pyramidal neurons with a maximum effect at 100 pM (tested range, 10 pM-1000 pM). The basal sPSC frequency without ACh was not affected. Such potentiation by ZSET1446 was observed in both the pharmacologic isolations of inhibitory and excitatory sPSCs and markedly reduced by blockade of either α7 or α4β2 nAChRs. ZSET1446 did not affect ACh-activated inward currents or depolarization of interneurons in the stratum radiatum and the lacunosum moleculare. These results indicate that ZSET1446 potentiates the nicotine-mediated enhancement of synaptic transmission in the hippocampal neurons without affecting nAChRs themselves, providing a novel possible mechanism of procognitive action that might improve learning deficits in clinical therapy.

  9. Dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor synergistically alter basolateral amygdala-to-medial prefrontal cortex synaptic transmission: functional switch after chronic cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis; Liu, Jie; Pollandt, Sebastian; Schmidt, Kady; Shinnick-Gallagher, Patricia; Gallagher, Joel P

    2008-01-01

    Basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons provide a major excitatory input to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-layer V pyramidal neurons. Under stressful conditions, commonly associated with chronic cocaine abuse, altered BLA-to-mPFC synaptic transmission could lead to defective emotional information processing and decision making within the mPFC and result in misguided and inappropriate behaviors. We examined the effects of cocaine administered chronically in vivo on EPSCs recorded from a putative BLA-mPFC pathway in vitro and their modulation by dopamine (DA), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and their combination (DA plus CRF). In saline-treated animals, activation of D(1/5) receptors depressed BLA-mPFC EPSCs, whereas CRF1 receptor activation alone had no effect on EPSCs. Activating D(1/5) and CRF1 receptors in combination, however, worked synergistically through presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms to depress EPSCs to levels greater than D(1/5) receptor activation alone. After chronic cocaine administration, the function of DA(1/5) and CRF receptors switched from inhibitory to excitatory. In slices from cocaine-treated animals, putative BLA-mPFC EPSCs were depressed through a presynaptic mechanism. Now, activation of either D(1/5) or CRF2 receptors increased the cocaine-induced, depressed EPSCs. Additionally, simultaneous activation of presynaptic D(1/5) and CRF2 receptors led to further enhancement of EPSCs. These data indicate that CRF acting synergistically with DA normally potentiates D(1/5)-induced synaptic depression. However, after chronic cocaine, the combined synergistic actions of DA and CRF switched polarity to enhance facilitation of BLA-mPFC glutamatergic transmission. Also unmasked after acute withdrawal from chronic cocaine are endogenous, tonic-inhibitory D2-like and tonic-facilitatory CRF2 receptor actions. These multiple functional and receptor changes may underlie the altered, possibly aberrant, decision-making process after chronic cocaine.

  10. Role of primary afferents in the developmental regulation of motor axon synapse numbers on Renshaw cells.

    PubMed

    Siembab, Valerie C; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Rotterman, Travis M; Shneider, Neil A; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2016-06-15

    Motor function in mammalian species depends on the maturation of spinal circuits formed by a large variety of interneurons that regulate motoneuron firing and motor output. Interneuron activity is in turn modulated by the organization of their synaptic inputs, but the principles governing the development of specific synaptic architectures unique to each premotor interneuron are unknown. For example, Renshaw cells receive, at least in the neonate, convergent inputs from sensory afferents (likely Ia) and motor axons, raising the question of whether they interact during Renshaw cell development. In other well-studied neurons, such as Purkinje cells, heterosynaptic competition between inputs from different sources shapes synaptic organization. To examine the possibility that sensory afferents modulate synaptic maturation on developing Renshaw cells, we used three animal models in which afferent inputs in the ventral horn are dramatically reduced (ER81(-/-) knockout), weakened (Egr3(-/-) knockout), or strengthened (mlcNT3(+/-) transgenic). We demonstrate that increasing the strength of sensory inputs on Renshaw cells prevents their deselection and reduces motor axon synaptic density, and, in contrast, absent or diminished sensory afferent inputs correlate with increased densities of motor axons synapses. No effects were observed on other glutamatergic inputs. We conclude that the early strength of Ia synapses influences their maintenance or weakening during later development and that heterosynaptic influences from sensory synapses during early development regulates the density and organization of motor inputs on mature Renshaw cells. PMID:26660356

  11. Virtual leak channels modulate firing dynamics and synaptic integration in rat sympathetic neurons: implications for ganglionic transmission in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Mitchell G; Kullmann, Paul H M; Horn, John P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The excitability of rat sympathetic neurons and integration of nicotinic EPSPs were compared in primary cell culture and in the acutely isolated intact superior cervical ganglion using whole cell patch electrode recordings. When repetitive firing was classified by Hodgkin's criteria in cultured cells, 18% displayed tonic class 1 excitability, 36% displayed adapting class 2 excitability and 46% displayed phasic class 3 excitability. In the intact ganglion, 71% of cells were class 1 and 29% were class 2. This diverges from microelectrode reports that nearly 100% of superior cervical ganglion neurons show phasic class 3 firing. The hypothesis that the disparity between patch and microelectrode data arises from a shunt conductance was tested using the dynamic clamp in cell culture. Non-depolarizing shunts of 3–10 nS converted cells from classes 1 and 2 to class 3 dynamics with current–voltage relations that replicated microelectrode data. Primary and secondary EPSPs recorded from the intact superior cervical ganglion were modelled as virtual synapses in cell culture using the dynamic clamp. Stimulating sympathetic neurons with virtual synaptic activity, designed to replicate in vivo recordings of EPSPs in muscle vasoconstrictor neurons, produced a 2.4-fold amplification of presynaptic activity. This gain in postsynaptic output did not differ between neurons displaying the three classes of excitability. Mimicry of microelectrode damage by virtual leak channels reduced and eventually obliterated synaptic gain by inhibiting summation of subthreshold EPSPs. These results provide a framework for interpreting sympathetic activity recorded from intact animals and support the hypothesis that paravertebral ganglia function as activity-dependent amplifiers of spinal output from preganglionic circuitry. PMID:25398531

  12. Modulation of serotonergic transmission by eltoprazine in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: Behavioral, molecular, and synaptic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghiglieri, Veronica; Mineo, Desiree; Vannelli, Anna; Cacace, Fabrizio; Mancini, Maria; Pendolino, Valentina; Napolitano, Francesco; di Maio, Anna; Mellone, Manuela; Stanic, Jennifer; Tronci, Elisabetta; Fidalgo, Camino; Stancampiano, Roberto; Carta, Manolo; Calabresi, Paolo; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Usiello, Alessandro; Picconi, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the main side effect of Parkinson's Disease (PD) therapy. Among the various pharmacological targets for novel therapeutic approaches, the serotonergic system represents a promising one. In experimental models of PD and in PD patients the development of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and LIDs, respectively, is accompanied by the impairment of bidirectional synaptic plasticity in key structures such as striatum. Recently, it has been shown that the 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonist, eltoprazine, significantly decreased LIDs in experimental PD and human patients. Despite the fact that several papers have tested this and other serotonergic drugs, nothing is known about the electrophysiological consequences on this combined serotonin receptors modulation at striatal neurons. The present study demonstrates that activation of 5-HT1A/1B receptors reduces AIMs via the restoration of Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and synaptic depotentiation in a sub-set of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). This recovery is associated with the normalization of D1 receptor-dependent cAMP/PKA and ERK/mTORC signaling pathways, and the recovery of NMDA receptor subunits balance, indicating these events as key elements in AIMs induction. Moreover, we analyzed whether the manipulation of the serotonergic system might affect motor behavior and cognitive performances. We found that a defect in locomotor activity in parkinsonian and L-DOPA-treated rats was reversed by eltoprazine treatment. Conversely, the impairment in the striatal-dependent learning was found exacerbated in L-DOPA-treated rats and eltoprazine failed to recover it.

  13. General Anesthesia Causes Long-term Impairment of Mitochondrial Morphogenesis and Synaptic Transmission in Developing Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Feinstein, Shawn D.; Lunardi, Nadia; Joksovic, Pavle M.; Boscolo, Annalisa; Todorovic, Slobodan M.; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinically used general anesthetics, alone or in combination, are damaging to the developing mammalian brain. In addition to causing widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in vulnerable brain regions, exposure to general anesthesia at the peak of synaptogenesis causes learning and memory deficiencies later in life. Our in-vivo rodent studies have suggested that activation of the intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) apoptotic pathway is the earliest warning sign of neuronal damage, suggesting that a disturbance in mitochondrial integrity and function could be the earliest triggering events. Methods Since proper and timely mitochondrial morphogenesis is critical for brain development, we examined the long-term effects of a commonly used anesthesia combination (isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and midazolam) on the regional distribution, ultrastructural properties, and electron transport chain function of mitochondria, as well as synaptic neurotransmission, in the subiculum of rat pups. Results This anesthesia, administered at the peak of synaptogenesis, causes protracted injury to mitochondria, including significant enlargement of mitochondria (over 30%, p < 0.05), impairment of their structural integrity, about 28% increase in their complex IV activity (p < 0.05) and two-fold decrease in their regional distribution in presynaptic neuronal profiles (p < 0.05) where their presence is crucially important for the normal development and functioning of synapses. Consequently, we showed that impaired mitochondrial morphogenesis is accompanied by heightened autophagic activity, decrease in mitochondrial density (about 27%, p < 0.05) and long-lasting disturbances in inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission. The interrelation of these phenomena remains to be established. Conclusion Developing mitochondria are exquisitely vulnerable to general anesthesia and may be important early target of anesthesia-induced developmental neurodegeneration. PMID:21909020

  14. Haploinsufficiency in peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase leads to altered synaptic transmission in the amygdala and impaired emotional responses

    PubMed Central

    Gaier, ED; Rodriguiz, RM; Ma, XM; Sivaramakrishnan, S; Bousquet-Moore, D; Wetsel, WC; Eipper, BA

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian amygdala expresses various neuropeptides whose signaling has been implicated in emotionality. Many neuropeptides require amidation for full activation by peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a transmembrane vesicular cuproenzyme and regulator of the secretory pathway. Mice heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/−) exhibit physiological and behavioral abnormalities related to specific peptidergic pathways. In the present study, we evaluated emotionality and examined molecular and cellular responses that characterize neurophysiological differences in the PAM+/− amygdala. PAM+/− mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero maze that were alleviated by diazepam. PAM+/− animals were deficient in short- and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning and required higher shock intensities to establish fear-potentiated startle than their wildtype littermates. Immunohistochemical analysis of the amygdala revealed PAM expression in pyramidal neurons and local interneurons that synthesize γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We performed whole-cell recordings of pyramidal neurons in the PAM+/− amygdala to elucidate neurophysiological correlates of the fear behavioral phenotypes. Consistent with these observations, thalamic afferent synapses in the PAM+/− lateral nucleus were deficient in long-term potentiation. This deficit was apparent in the absence and presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and was abolished when both GABAA and GABAB receptors were blocked. Both evoked and spontaneous excitatory signals were enhanced in the PAM+/− lateral nucleus. Phasic GABAergic signaling was also augmented in the PAM+/− amygdala, and this difference was comprised of activity-independent and activity-dependent components. These physiological findings represent perturbations in the PAM+/− amygdala that may underlie the aberrant emotional responses in the intact animal. PMID:20943906

  15. Neuronal MHC Class I Molecules are Involved in Excitatory Synaptic Transmission at the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses of Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingyue; Schlumbohm, Christina; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Flügge, Gabriele; Zhang, Weiqi; Walter, Lutz; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies suggested a role for neuronal major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules in certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of rodents. Here, we report for the first time on the expression pattern and functional properties of MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). We detected a presynaptic, mossy fiber-specific localization of MHCI proteins within the marmoset hippocampus. MHCI molecules were present in the large, VGlut1-positive, mossy fiber terminals, which provide input to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, whole-cell recordings of CA3 pyramidal neurons in acute hippocampal slices of the common marmoset demonstrated that application of antibodies which specifically block MHCI proteins caused a significant decrease in the frequency, and a transient increase in the amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. These findings add to previous studies on neuronal MHCI molecules by describing their expression and localization in the primate hippocampus and by implicating them in plasticity-related processes at the mossy fiber–CA3 synapses. In addition, our results suggest significant interspecies differences in the localization of neuronal MHCI molecules in the hippocampus of mice and marmosets, as well as in their potential function in these species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10571-010-9510-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20232136

  16. Effects of 3-aminoglutarate, a "silent" false transmitter for glutamate neurons, on synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng; Foster, Alan C; Staubli, Ursula; Wu, Xia; Sun, Chicheng; Tang, Xin; Li, Yong-Xin; Chen, Gong

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacological tools that interact with the mechanisms that regulate vesicular filling and release of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate would be of enormous value. In this study, we provide physiological evidence that the glutamate analog, 3-aminoglutarate (3-AG), acts as a false transmitter to reduce presynaptic glutamate release. 3-AG inhibits glutamate-mediated neurotransmission both in primary neuronal cultures and in brain slices with more intact neural circuits. When assayed with the low affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-DGG, we demonstrate that 3-AG significantly reduces the synaptic cleft glutamate concentration, suggesting that 3-AG may act as a false transmitter to compete with glutamate during vesicle filling. Furthermore, using three different epileptic models (Mg(2+)-free, 4-AP, and high K(+)), we demonstrate that 3-AG is capable of suppressing epileptiform activity both before and after its induction. Our studies, along with those of the companion paper by Foster et al. (2015) indicate that 3-AG is a "silent" false transmitter for glutamate neurons that is a useful pharmacological tool to probe the mechanisms governing vesicular storage and release of glutamate under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. 3-AG may have potential therapeutic value in conditions where the glutamate neurotransmitter system is pathologically overactive.

  17. Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Biao; Huang, Fen-Sheng; Fen, Ban; Yin, Jun-Bin; Wang, Wei; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The function of the urinary bladder is partly controlled by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN). Our recent work demonstrated that endomorphin-2 (EM-2)-immunoreactive (IR) terminals form synapses with μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-expressing PPNs in the rat SPN. Here, we examined the effects of EM-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of the PPNs in young rats (24–30 days old) using a whole-cell patch-clamp approach. PPNs were identified by retrograde labeling with the fluorescent tracer tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR). EM-2 (3 μM) markedly decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of the spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and mEPSCs) of PPNs. EM-2 not only decreased the resting membrane potentials (RMPs) in 61.1% of the examined PPNs with half-maximal response at the concentration of 0.282 μM, but also increased the rheobase current and reduced the repetitive action potential firing of PPNs. Analysis of the current–voltage relationship revealed that the EM-2-induced current was reversed at −95 ± 2.5 mV and was suppressed by perfusion of the potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or BaCl2 or by the addition of guanosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt (GDP-β-S) to the pipette solution, suggesting the involvement of the G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel. The above EM-2-invoked inhibitory effects were abolished by the MOR selective antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), indicating that the effects of EM-2 on PPNs were mediated by MOR via pre- and/or post-synaptic mechanisms. EM-2 activated pre- and post-synaptic MORs, inhibiting excitatory neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminals and decreasing the excitability of PPNs due to hyperpolarization of their membrane potentials, respectively. These inhibitory effects of EM-2 on PPNs at the spinal cord level may

  18. The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

    2015-01-29

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular

  19. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  20. Dopaminergic Presynaptic Modulation of Nigral Afferents: Its Role in the Generation of Recurrent Bursting in Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Neurons

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Aceves, José; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernández, Ricardo; Plata, Víctor; Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown the functions associated with activation of dopamine presynaptic receptors in some substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) afferents: (i) striatonigral terminals (direct pathway) posses presynaptic dopamine D1-class receptors whose action is to enhance inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and GABA transmission. (ii) Subthalamonigral terminals posses D1- and D2-class receptors where D1-class receptor activation enhances and D2-class receptor activation decreases excitatory postsynaptic currents. Here we report that pallidonigral afferents posses D2-class receptors (D3 and D4 types) that decrease inhibitory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. No action of D1-class agonists was found on pallidonigral synapses. In contrast, administration of D1-receptor antagonists greatly decreased striatonigral IPSCs in the same preparation, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels help in maintaining the function of the striatonigral (direct) pathway. When both D3 and D4 type receptors were blocked, pallidonigral IPSCs increased in amplitude while striatonigral connections had no significant change, suggesting that tonic dopamine levels are repressing a powerful inhibition conveyed by pallidonigral synapses (a branch of the indirect pathway). We then blocked both D1- and D2-class receptors to acutely decrease direct pathway (striatonigral) and enhance indirect pathways (subthalamonigral and pallidonigral) synaptic force. The result was that most SNr projection neurons entered a recurrent bursting firing mode similar to that observed during Parkinsonism in both patients and animal models. These results raise the question as to whether the lack of dopamine in basal ganglia output nuclei is enough to generate some pathological signs of Parkinsonism. PMID:21347219

  1. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  2. Galantamine prevents long-lasting suppression of excitatory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons of soman-challenged guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, E A; Alkondon, M; Aracava, Y; Pereira, E F R; Albuquerque, E X

    2014-09-01

    Galantamine, a drug currently approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has recently emerged as an effective pretreatment against the acute toxicity and delayed cognitive deficits induced by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, including soman. Since cognitive deficits can result from impaired glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hippocampal glutamatergic transmission declines following an acute exposure to soman and that this effect can be prevented by galantamine. To test this hypothesis, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices obtained at 1h, 24h, or 6-9 days after guinea pigs were injected with: (i) 1×LD50 soman (26.3μg/kg, s.c.); (ii) galantamine (8mg/kg, i.m.) followed 30min later by 1×LD50 soman, (iii) galantamine (8mg/kg, i.m.), or (iv) saline (0.5ml/kg, i.m.). In soman-injected guinea pigs that were not pretreated with galantamine, the frequency of EPSCs was significantly lower than that recorded from saline-injected animals. There was no correlation between the severity of soman-induced acute toxicity and the magnitude of soman-induced reduction of EPSC frequency. Pretreatment with galantamine prevented the reduction of EPSC frequency observed at 6-9 days after the soman challenge. Prevention of soman-induced long-lasting reduction of hippocampal glutamatergic synaptic transmission may be an important determinant of the ability of galantamine to counter cognitive deficits that develop long after an acute exposure to the nerve agent. PMID:25064080

  3. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely

  4. Concentration of carbon dioxide, interstitial pH and synaptic transmission in hippocampal formation of the rat.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, M; Somjen, G G

    1988-02-01

    1. Interstitial pH (pHo) was measured with ion-selective microelectrodes in the fascia dentata of rats anaesthetized with urethane, while CO2 levels were controlled by varying pulmonary ventilation and CO2 content of inspired air. In the CA1 sector of hippocampal tissue slices in vitro pHo was similarly measured and altered by varying CO2 in the gas phase, or by adding HCl or NaOH to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) of the bath, or by changing the concentration of HCO3-. 2. Orthodromically evoked compound action potentials ('population spikes') were depressed in hypercapnia and increased in hypocapnia. In the fascia dentata of intact brains the population spike of the granule cells varied on average by more than 40% of control amplitude for each 0.1 change of pHo. In the CA1 zone of tissue slices in vitro, the change of population spike amplitude was approximately 30% per pH change of 0.1 caused by altered CO2 or HCO3- concentration, but only about 15% per pH change of 0.1 when HCl or NaOH were administered. 3. In anaesthetized rats the focal synaptic potential (FEPSP) evoked by a given stimulus intensity was weakly influenced by varying [CO2]; in tissue slices weak effects on FEPSP were inconsistent. In hippocampus both in situ and in vitro the population spike triggered by a given magnitude of FEPSP increased in hypocapnia and decreased in hypercapnia. This suggests that the main effect of CO2 is on the electric excitability of postsynaptic cells, with minor or no effect on transmitter release and on the interaction of the transmitter with its receptors. 4. Hypercapnia of anaesthetized rats was usually associated with a slight increase of [K+]o in the fascia dentata. Tissue [Ca2+]o changed little and not consistently. Neither of these two ions, nor concomitant changes of blood pressure or tissue partial pressure of oxygen, (Pt, O2), could account for the effects of pH on neuronal excitability. 5. The results show that increasing the extracellular

  5. μ-Opioid Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Intercalated Neurons and Effect on Synaptic Transmission to the Central Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Blaesse, Peter; Goedecke, Lena; Bazelot, Michaël; Capogna, Marco; Pape, Hans-Christian; Jüngling, Kay

    2015-05-13

    The amygdala is a key region for the processing of information underlying fear, anxiety, and fear extinction. Within the local neuronal networks of the amygdala, a population of inhibitory, intercalated neurons (ITCs) modulates the flow of information among various nuclei of amygdala, including the basal nucleus (BA) and the centromedial nucleus (CeM) of the amygdala. These ITCs have been shown to be important during fear extinction and are target of a variety of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Here we provide evidence that the activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) by the specific agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin) hyperpolarizes medially located ITCs (mITCs) in acute brain slices of mice. Moreover, we use whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in combination with local electrical stimulation or glutamate uncaging to analyze the effect of MOR activation on local microcircuits. We show that the GABAergic transmission between mITCs and CeM neurons is attenuated by DAMGO, whereas the glutamatergic transmission on CeM neurons and mITCs is unaffected. Furthermore, MOR activation induced by theta burst stimulation in BA suppresses plastic changes of feedforward inhibitory transmission onto CeM neurons as revealed by the MOR antagonist CTAP d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2. In summary, the mITCs constitute a target for the opioid system, and therefore, the activation of MOR in ITCs might play a central role in the modulation of the information processing between the basolateral complex of the amygdala and central nuclei of the amygdala. PMID:25972162

  6. μ-Opioid Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Intercalated Neurons and Effect on Synaptic Transmission to the Central Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Blaesse, Peter; Goedecke, Lena; Bazelot, Michaël; Capogna, Marco; Pape, Hans-Christian; Jüngling, Kay

    2015-05-13

    The amygdala is a key region for the processing of information underlying fear, anxiety, and fear extinction. Within the local neuronal networks of the amygdala, a population of inhibitory, intercalated neurons (ITCs) modulates the flow of information among various nuclei of amygdala, including the basal nucleus (BA) and the centromedial nucleus (CeM) of the amygdala. These ITCs have been shown to be important during fear extinction and are target of a variety of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Here we provide evidence that the activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) by the specific agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin) hyperpolarizes medially located ITCs (mITCs) in acute brain slices of mice. Moreover, we use whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in combination with local electrical stimulation or glutamate uncaging to analyze the effect of MOR activation on local microcircuits. We show that the GABAergic transmission between mITCs and CeM neurons is attenuated by DAMGO, whereas the glutamatergic transmission on CeM neurons and mITCs is unaffected. Furthermore, MOR activation induced by theta burst stimulation in BA suppresses plastic changes of feedforward inhibitory transmission onto CeM neurons as revealed by the MOR antagonist CTAP d-Phe-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2. In summary, the mITCs constitute a target for the opioid system, and therefore, the activation of MOR in ITCs might play a central role in the modulation of the information processing between the basolateral complex of the amygdala and central nuclei of the amygdala.

  7. Aberrant Synaptic Integration in Adult Lamina I Projection Neurons Following Neonatal Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Craig, Paige E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that neonatal tissue damage evokes alterations in spinal pain reflexes which persist into adulthood. However, less is known about potential concomitant effects on the transmission of nociceptive information to the brain, as the degree to which early injury modulates synaptic integration and membrane excitability in mature spinal projection neurons remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that neonatal surgical injury leads to a significant shift in the balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition onto identified lamina I projection neurons of the adult mouse spinal cord. The strength of direct primary afferent input to mature spino-parabrachial neurons was enhanced following neonatal tissue damage, whereas the efficacy of both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition onto the same population was compromised. This was accompanied by reorganization in the pattern of sensory input to adult projection neurons, which included a greater prevalence of monosynaptic input from low-threshold A-fibers when preceded by early tissue damage. In addition, neonatal incision resulted in greater primary afferent-evoked action potential discharge in mature projection neurons. Overall, these results demonstrate that tissue damage during early life causes a long-term increase in the gain of spinal nociceptive circuits, and suggest that the prolonged consequences of neonatal trauma may not be restricted to the spinal cord but rather include excessive ascending signaling to supraspinal pain centers. PMID:25673839

  8. Microbial Rhodopsin Optogenetic Tools: Application for Analyses of Synaptic Transmission and of Neuronal Network Activity in Behavior.

    PubMed

    Glock, Caspar; Nagpal, Jatin; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics was introduced as a new technology in the neurosciences about a decade ago (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002; Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005; Zemelman et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:1352-1357, 2003). It combines optics, genetics, and bioengineering to render neurons sensitive to light, in order to achieve a precise, exogenous, and noninvasive control of membrane potential, intracellular signaling, network activity, or behavior (Rein and Deussing, Mol Genet Genomics 287:95-109, 2012; Yizhar et al., Neuron 71:9-34, 2011). As C. elegans is transparent, genetically amenable, has a small nervous system mapped with synapse resolution, and exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire, it is especially open to optogenetic methods (White et al., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 314:1-340, 1986; De Bono et al., Optogenetic actuation, inhibition, modulation and readout for neuronal networks generating behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, In: Hegemann P, Sigrist SJ (eds) Optogenetics, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2013; Husson et al., Biol Cell 105:235-250, 2013; Xu and Kim, Nat Rev Genet 12:793-801, 2011). Optogenetics, by now an "exploding" field, comprises a repertoire of different tools ranging from transgenically expressed photo-sensor proteins (Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005) or cascades (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002) to chemical biology approaches, using photochromic ligands of endogenous channels (Szobota et al., Neuron 54:535-545, 2007). Here, we will focus only on optogenetics utilizing microbial rhodopsins, as these are most easily and most widely applied in C. elegans. For other optogenetic tools, for example the photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs, that drive neuronal activity by increasing synaptic vesicle priming, thus exaggerating rather than overriding the intrinsic activity of a neuron, as occurs with

  9. 5-HT2 receptors mediate functional modulation of GABAa receptors and inhibitory synaptic transmissions in human iPS-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Zhenghui; Wang, Lihui; Pan, Guangjin; Guo, Yiping; He, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Neural progenitors differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) hold potentials for treating neurological diseases. Serotonin has potent effects on neuronal functions through multiple receptors, underlying a variety of neural disorders. Glutamate and GABA receptors have been proven functional in neurons differentiated from iPS, however, little is known about 5-HT receptor-mediated modulation in such neuronal networks. In the present study, human iPS were differentiated into cells possessing featured physiological properties of cortical neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to examine the involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in functional modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission. We found that serotonin and DOI (a selective agonist of 5-HT2A/C receptor) reversibly reduced GABA-activated currents, and this 5-HT2A/C receptor mediated inhibition required G protein, PLC, PKC, and Ca2+ signaling. Serotonin increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), which could be mimicked by α-methylserotonin, a 5-HT2 receptor agonist. In contrast, DOI reduced both frequency and amplitude of mIPSCs. These findings suggested that in iPS-derived human neurons serotonin postsynaptically reduced GABAa receptor function through 5-HT2A/C receptors, but presynaptically other 5-HT2 receptors counteracted the action of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Functional expression of serotonin receptors in human iPS-derived neurons provides a pre-requisite for their normal behaviors after grafting. PMID:26837719

  10. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1(dw)) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1(dw) mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1(dw) IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1(dw) IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1(dw) IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses.

  11. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T.; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J.; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1dw mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1dw IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1dw IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1dw IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  12. Vanilloids selectively sensitize thermal glutamate release from TRPV1 expressing solitary tract afferents.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Vanilloids, high temperature, and low pH activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. In spinal dorsal root ganglia, co-activation of one of these gating sites on TRPV1 sensitized receptor gating by other modes. Here in rat brainstem slices, we examined glutamate synaptic transmission in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons where most cranial primary afferents express TRPV1, but TRPV1 sensitization is unknown. Electrical shocks to the solitary tract (ST) evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSCs). Activation of TRPV1 with capsaicin (100 nM) increased spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) but inhibited ST-EPSCs. High concentrations of the ultra-potent vanilloid resiniferatoxin (RTX, 1 nM) similarly increased sEPSC rates but blocked ST-EPSCs. Lowering the RTX concentration to 150 pM modestly increased the frequency of the sEPSCs without causing failures in the evoked ST-EPSCs. The sEPSC rate increased with raising bath temperature to 36 °C. Such thermal responses were larger in 150 pM RTX, while the ST-EPSCs remained unaffected. Vanilloid sensitization of thermal responses persisted in TTX but was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Our results demonstrate that multimodal activation of TRPV1 facilitates sEPSC responses in more than the arithmetic sum of the two activators, i.e. co-activation sensitizes TRPV1 control of spontaneous glutamate release. Since action potential evoked glutamate release is unaltered, the work provides evidence for cooperativity in gating TRPV1 plus a remarkable separation of calcium mechanisms governing the independent vesicle pools responsible for spontaneous and evoked release at primary afferents in the NTS.

  13. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid/glycinergic synaptic transmission in mediating bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation in developing auditory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin-Lu; Liang, Min; Shi, Hai-Bo; Wang, Lu-Yang; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical phenomenon observed in human newborns. A high level of bilirubin can result in severe jaundice and bilirubin encephalopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin excitotoxicity are unclear. Our previous studies showed the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine switches from excitatory to inhibitory during development in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), one of the most sensitive auditory nuclei to bilirubin toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of GABAA/glycine receptors in the induction of bilirubin hyperexcitation in early developing neurons. Using the patch clamp technique, GABAA/glycine receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded from bushy and stellate cells in acute brainstem slices from young mice (postnatal day 2-6). Bilirubin significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was prevented by pretreatments of slices with either fast or slow Ca(2+) chelators BAPTA-AM and EGTA-AM suggesting that bilirubin can increase the release of GABA/glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. Using cell-attached recording configuration, we found that antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors strongly attenuated spontaneous spiking firings in P2-6 neurons but produced opposite effect in P15-19 neurons. Furthermore, these antagonists reversed bilirubin-evoked hyperexcitability in P2-6 neurons, indicating that excitatory action of GABA/glycinergic transmission specifically contribute to bilirubin-induced hyperexcitability in the early stage of development. Our results suggest that bilirubin-induced enhancement of presynaptic release GABA/Glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms may play a critical role in mediating neuronal hyperexcitation associated with jaundice, implicating potential new strategies for predicting, preventing, and treating bilirubin neurotoxicity.

  14. Afferent-specific properties of interneuron synapses underlie selective long-term regulation of feedback inhibitory circuits in CA1 hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Croce, Ariane; Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Tartas, Maylis; Lacaille, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-15

    Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) develops at specific synapses onto hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus interneurons (OA-INs), suggesting selective regulation of distinct input pathways. Afferent-specific properties at interneuron synapses have been characterized extensively in CA3 stratum lucidum cells, but given interneuron diversity these rules of transmission and plasticity may not hold in other interneuron types. Here, we used paired recordings and demonstrate that CA2/3 pyramidal cell (PC) feedforward and CA1 PC feedback synapses onto OA-INs show distinct AMPA receptor rectification and Ca(2+) permeability, short-term plasticity and mGluR2/3-mediated inhibition. Only feedback synapses undergo Hebbian LTP. OA-IN firing during repeated synaptic stimulation displays onset-transient or late-persistent responses consistent with activation of feedforward and feedback inputs, respectively. Input-output functions are preserved after theta-burst stimulation, but late-persistent responses selectively show mGluR1-dependent long-term increases. Thus, cell type- and afferent-specific rules of transmission and plasticity underlie distinct OA-IN input-output functions, providing selective long-term regulation in feedback inhibitory networks.

  15. Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Buran, B.N.; Strenzke, N.; Neef, A.; Gundelfinger, E.D.; Moser, T.; Liberman, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons, found at the pre-synaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In Bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed fewer than 3% of the hair cells’ afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range and post-onset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase-lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system. PMID:20519533

  16. Variation in response dynamics of regular and irregular vestibular-nerve afferents during sinusoidal head rotations and currents in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Sung; Minor, Lloyd B; Della Santina, Charles C; Lasker, David M

    2011-05-01

    In mammals, vestibular-nerve afferents that innervate only type I hair cells (calyx-only afferents) respond nearly in phase with head acceleration for high-frequency motion, whereas afferents that innervate both type I and type II (dimorphic) or only type II (bouton-only) hair cells respond more in phase with head velocity. Afferents that exhibit irregular background discharge rates have a larger phase lead re-head velocity than those that fire more regularly. The goal of this study was to investigate the cause of the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents at high-frequency head rotations. Under the assumption that externally applied galvanic currents act directly on the nerve, we derived a transfer function describing the dynamics of a semicircular canal and its hair cells through comparison of responses to sinusoidally modulated head velocity and currents. Responses of all afferents were fit well with a transfer function with one zero (lead term). Best-fit lead terms describing responses to current for each group of afferents were similar to the lead term describing responses to head velocity for regular afferents (0.006 s + 1). This finding indicated that the pre-synaptic and synaptic inputs to regular afferents were likely to be pure velocity transducers. However, the variation in phase lead between regular and irregular afferents could not be explained solely by the ratio of type I to II hair cells (Baird et al 1988), suggesting that the variation was caused by a combination of pre- (type of hair cell) and post-synaptic properties.

  17. Central connectivity of the chorda tympani afferent terminals in the rat rostral nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    Park, Sook Kyung; Lee, Dae Seop; Bae, Jin Young; Bae, Yong Chul

    2016-03-01

    The rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) receives gustatory input via chorda tympani (CT) afferents from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and transmits it to higher brain regions. To help understand how the gustatory information is processed at the 1st relay nucleus of the brain stem, we investigated the central connectivity of the CT afferent terminals in the central subdivision of the rat rNST through retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase, immunogold staining for GABA, glycine, and glutamate, and quantitative ultrastructural analysis. Most CT afferents were small myelinated fibers (<5 µm(2) in cross-sectional area) and made simple synaptic arrangements with 1-2 postsynaptic dendrites. It suggests that the gustatory signal is relayed to a specific group of neurons with a small degree of synaptic divergence. The volume of the identified synaptic boutons was positively correlated with their mitochondrial volume and active zone area, and also with the number of their postsynaptic dendrites. One-fourth of the boutons received synapses from GABA-immunopositive presynaptic profiles, 27 % of which were also glycine-immunopositive. These results suggest that the gustatory information mediated by CT afferents to the rNST is processed in a simple and specific manner. They also suggest that the minority of CT afferents are presynaptically modulated by GABA- and/or glycine-mediated mechanism.

  18. Changes in synaptic transmission of substantia gelatinosa neurons after spinal cord hemisection revealed by analysis using in vivo patch-clamp recording

    PubMed Central

    Kozuka, Yuji; Furue, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takashi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background After spinal cord injury, central neuropathic pain develops in the majority of spinal cord injury patients. Spinal hemisection in rats, which has been developed as an animal model of spinal cord injury in humans, results in hyperexcitation of spinal dorsal horn neurons soon after the hemisection and thereafter. The hyperexcitation is likely caused by permanent elimination of the descending pain systems. We examined the change in synaptic transmission of substantia gelatinosa neurons following acute spinal hemisection by using an in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results An increased spontaneous action potential firings of substantia gelatinosa neurons was detected in hemisected rats compared with that in control animals. The frequencies and amplitudes of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currentss in response to non-noxious and noxious stimuli were not different between hemisected and control animals. On the contrary, the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents of substantia gelatinosa neurons in hemisected animals were significantly smaller and lower, respectively, than those in control animals (P < 0.01). Large amplitude and high-frequency spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents, which could not be elicited by mechanical stimuli, were seen in 44% of substantia gelatinosa neurons in control animals but only in 17% of substantia gelatinosa neurons in hemisected animals. In control animals, such large amplitude spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents were suppressed by spinal application of tetrodotoxin (1 µM). Cervical application of lidocaine (2%, 10 µl) also inhibited such large amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. The proportion of multi-receptive substantia gelatinosa neurons, which exhibit action potential firing in response to non-noxious and noxious stimuli, was much larger in hemisected animals than in control animals

  19. Utricular afferents: morphology of peripheral terminals

    PubMed Central

    Huwe, J. A.; Logan, G. J.; Williams, B.; Rowe, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The utricle provides critical information about spatiotemporal properties of head movement. It comprises multiple subdivisions whose functional roles are poorly understood. We previously identified four subdivisions in turtle utricle, based on hair bundle structure and mechanics, otoconial membrane structure and hair bundle coupling, and immunoreactivity to calcium-binding proteins. Here we ask whether these macular subdivisions are innervated by distinctive populations of afferents to help us understand the role each subdivision plays in signaling head movements. We quantified the morphology of 173 afferents and identified six afferent classes, which differ in structure and macular locus. Calyceal and dimorphic afferents innervate one striolar band. Bouton afferents innervate a second striolar band; they have elongated terminals and the thickest processes and axons of all bouton units. Bouton afferents in lateral (LES) and medial (MES) extrastriolae have small-diameter axons but differ in collecting area, bouton number, and hair cell contacts (LES >> MES). A fourth, distinctive population of bouton afferents supplies the juxtastriola. These results, combined with our earlier findings on utricular hair cells and the otoconial membrane, suggest the hypotheses that MES and calyceal afferents encode head movement direction with high spatial resolution and that MES afferents are well suited to signal three-dimensional head orientation and striolar afferents to signal head movement onset. PMID:25632074

  20. Glutamate receptor δ2 associates with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), protein kinase Cγ, and canonical transient receptor potential 3 and regulates mGluR1-mediated synaptic transmission in cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiko S; Knierman, Michael D; Siuda, Edward R; Isaac, John T R; Nisenbaum, Eric S; Bredt, David S

    2012-10-31

    Cerebellar motor coordination and cerebellar Purkinje cell synaptic function require metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1, Grm1). We used an unbiased proteomic approach to identify protein partners for mGluR1 in cerebellum and discovered glutamate receptor δ2 (GluRδ2, Grid2, GluΔ2) and protein kinase Cγ (PKCγ) as major interactors. We also found canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3), which is also needed for mGluR1-dependent slow EPSCs and motor coordination and associates with mGluR1, GluRδ2, and PKCγ. Mutation of GluRδ2 changes subcellular fractionation of mGluR1 and TRPC3 to increase their surface expression. Fitting with this, mGluR1-evoked inward currents are increased in GluRδ2 mutant mice. Moreover, loss of GluRδ2 disrupts the time course of mGluR1-dependent synaptic transmission at parallel fiber-Purkinje cells synapses. Thus, GluRδ2 is part of the mGluR1 signaling complex needed for cerebellar synaptic function and motor coordination, explaining the shared cerebellar motor phenotype that manifests in mutants of the mGluR1 and GluRδ2 signaling pathways.

  1. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Produces an Antidepressant-Like Effect and Elicits N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Independent Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-lei; Colechio, Elizabeth M.; Ghoreishi-Haack, Nayereh; Gross, Amanda; Kroes, Roger A.; Stanton, Patric K.; Moskal, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play an important role in regulating neurogenesis and synapse formation and may be involved in regulating the antidepressant response to conventional antidepressants. To date, Insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the only growth factor that has shown antidepressant properties in human clinical trials. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods: The antidepressant-like effect of a single IV dose of IGFI was determined using a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm in the rat Porsolt, sucrose preference, novelty-induced hypophagia, and ultrasonic vocalization models. The dependence of the medial prefrontal cortex for these effects was determined by direct medial prefrontal cortex injection followed by Porsolt testing as well as IGFI receptor activation in the medial prefrontal cortex following an optimal IV antidepressant-like dose of IGFI. The effect of IGFI on synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength was assessed in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The dependence of these effects on IGFI and AMPA receptor activation and protein synthesis were also determined. Results: IGFI produced a rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant-like effect in each of the depression models. These effects were blocked by IGFI and AMPA receptor antagonists, and medial prefrontal cortex was localized. IGFI robustly increased synaptic strength in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex and these effects were IGFI receptor and protein synthesis-dependent but N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor independent. IGFI also robustly facilitated hippocampal metaplasticity 24 hours postdosing. Conclusions: These data support the conclusion that the antidepressant-like effects of IGFI are mediated by a persistent, LTP-like enhancement of synaptic strength requiring both IGFIR activation and ongoing protein synthesis. PMID:26374350

  2. Optogenetics and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu-feng; Jackson, Michael F; Macdonald, John F

    2013-11-01

    The intricate and complex interaction between different populations of neurons in the brain has imposed limits on our ability to gain detailed understanding of synaptic transmission and its integration when employing classical electrophysiological approaches. Indeed, electrical field stimulation delivered via traditional microelectrodes does not permit the targeted, precise and selective control of neuronal activity amongst a varied population of neurons and their inputs (eg, cholinergic, dopaminergic or glutamatergic neurons). Recently established optogenetic techniques overcome these limitations allowing precise control of the target neuron populations, which is essential for the elucidation of the neural substrates underlying complex animal behaviors. Indeed, by introducing light-activated channels (ie, microbial opsin genes) into specific neuronal populations, optogenetics enables non-invasive optical control of specific neurons with milliseconds precision. These approaches can readily be applied to freely behaving live animals. Recently there is increased interests in utilizing optogenetics tools to understand synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. Here, we summarize recent progress in applying optogenetics in in the study of synaptic plasticity.

  3. Novel Afferent Terminal Structure in the Crista Ampullaris of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanford, Pamela J.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1996-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we have identified a new type of afferent terminal structure in the crista ampullaris of the goldfish Carassius auratus. In addition to the bouton-type afferent terminals previously described in the ear of this species, the crista also contained enlarged afferent terminals that enveloped a portion of the basolateral hair cell membrane. The hair cell membrane was evaginated and protruded into the afferent terminal in a glove-and-finger configuration. The membranes of the two cells were regularly aligned in the protruded region of the contact and had a distinct symmetrical electron density. The electron-dense profiles of these contacts were easily identified and were present in every crista sampled. In some cases, efferent terminals synapsed onto the afferents at a point where the hair cell protruded into the terminal. The ultrastructural similarities of the goldfish crista afferents to calyx afferents found in amniotes (birds, reptiles, and mammals) are discussed. The results of the study support the hypothesis that structural variation in the vertebrate inner ear may have evolved much earlier in evolution than previously supposed.

  4. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  5. Matched pre- and post-synaptic changes underlie synaptic plasticity over long time scales.

    PubMed

    Loebel, Alex; Le Bé, Jean-Vincent; Richardson, Magnus J E; Markram, Henry; Herz, Andreas V M

    2013-04-10

    Modifications of synaptic efficacies are considered essential for learning and memory. However, it is not known how the underlying functional components of synaptic transmission change over long time scales. To address this question, we studied cortical synapses from young Wistar rats before and after 12 h intervals of spontaneous or glutamate-induced spiking activity. We found that, under these conditions, synaptic efficacies can increase or decrease by up to 10-fold. Statistical analyses reveal that these changes reflect modifications in the number of presynaptic release sites, together with postsynaptic changes that maintain the quantal size per release site. The quantitative relation between the presynaptic and postsynaptic transmission components was not affected when synaptic plasticity was enhanced or reduced using a broad range of pharmacological agents. These findings suggest that ongoing synaptic plasticity results in matched presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications, in which elementary modules that span the synaptic cleft are added or removed as a function of experience.

  6. Effects of memantine and MK-801 on NMDA-induced currents in cultured neurones and on synaptic transmission and LTP in area CA1 of rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Frankiewicz, T.; Potier, B.; Bashir, Z. I.; Collingridge, G. L.; Parsons, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, memantine (1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane) and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzocyclo-hepten-5,10-imin e maleate) were compared on synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices and on NMDA-induced currents in cultured superior collicular neurones. 2. Memantine (10-100 microM) reversibly reduced, but did not abolish, NMDA receptor-mediated secondary population spikes recorded in area CA1 of hippocampal slices bathed in Mg(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. 3. Memantine (100 microM) antagonized NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded in area CA1 in a strongly voltage-dependent manner i.e. depressed to 11 +/- 4% of control at -35 mV and 95 +/- 5% of control at +40 mV (n = 9), with no apparent effect on response kinetics. 4. The effects of MK-801 and memantine on the induction of LTP were assessed after prolonged pre-incubations with these antagonists. When present for 6.6 +/- 0.4 h prior to tetanic stimulation, memantine blocked the induction of LTP with an IC50 of 11.6 +/- 0.53 microM. By comparison, similar long pre-incubations with MK-801 (6.4 +/- 0.4 h) blocked the induction of LTP with an IC50 of 0.13 +/- 0.02 microM. 5. Memantine and MK-801 reduced NMDA-induced currents in cultured superior colliculus neurones recorded at -70 mV with IC50s of 2.2 +/- 0.2 microM and 0.14 +/- 0.04 microM respectively. The effects of memantine were highly voltage-dependent and behaved as though the affinity decreased epsilon fold per 50 mV of depolarization (apparent delta = 0.71). In contrast, under the conditions used, MK-801 appeared to be much less voltage-dependent i.e. affinity decreased epsilon fold per 329 mV of depolarization (apparent delta = 0.15). 6. Depolarizing steps from -70 mV to +50 mV in the continuous presence of memantine (10 microM) caused a rapid relief of blockade of NMDA-induced currents from 83.7 +/- 1

  7. Molecular underpinnings of synaptic vesicle pool heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Devon C; Kavalali, Ege T

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal communication relies on chemical synaptic transmission for information transfer and processing. Chemical neurotransmission is initiated by synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic active zone resulting in release of neurotransmitters. Classical models have assumed that all synaptic vesicles within a synapse have the same potential to fuse under different functional contexts. In this model, functional differences among synaptic vesicle populations are ascribed to their spatial distribution in the synapse with respect to the active zone. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that synaptic vesicles are not a homogenous population of organelles, and they possess intrinsic molecular differences and differential interaction partners. Recent studies have reported a diverse array of synaptic molecules that selectively regulate synaptic vesicles' ability to fuse synchronously and asynchronously in response to action potentials or spontaneously irrespective of action potentials. Here we discuss these molecular mediators of vesicle pool heterogeneity that are found on the synaptic vesicle membrane, on the presynaptic plasma membrane, or within the cytosol and consider some of the functional consequences of this diversity. This emerging molecular framework presents novel avenues to probe synaptic function and uncover how synaptic vesicle pools impact neuronal signaling.

  8. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the reduction of amyloid-β deposits and the improvement of synaptic transmission in a mouse model of pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae-sung; Jin, Hee Kyung; Lee, Jong Kil; Richardson, Jill C; Carter, Janet E

    2013-06-01

    The remarkable potentiality of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) after transplantation to models of neurological disease and injury has been described. We have previously published data confirming the influence of BM-MSCs on β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. However, therapeutic approaches in neurological diseases such as AD, including those for BM-MSCs, are increasingly centered on the potential for prophylactic therapy in pro-dromal states where the underlying cause of the disease is apparent but functional deficits are not. In order to investigate whether BM-MSCs could have a beneficial effect in high-risk pre-dementia AD individuals, we treated young AD mice, at an age at which they display neuropathological, but not cognitive features of AD. Following a single intra-cerebral injection of BM-MSCs, interestingly, we found a significant decrease in the cerebral Aβ deposition compared with controls treated with PBS that was sustained up to 2 months post-injection. Expression of dynamin 1 and Synapsin 1, key pre-synaptic proteins associated with synaptic transmission, which are typically decreased in brains of AD patients, were considerably enhanced in the brains of AD mice treated with BM-MSCs and this response was sustained beyond 2 months. These data demonstrate that BM-MSCs produce an acute reduction in Aβ deposits and facilitate changes in key proteins required for synaptic transmission. These findings suggest that BM-MSC transplantation warrants further investigation as a potential therapy for early intervention in pro-dromal AD.

  9. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  10. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins. PMID:27630986

  11. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins.

  12. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins. PMID:27630986

  13. Learning with two sites of synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Körding, K P; König, P

    2000-02-01

    Since the classical work of D O Hebb 1949 The Organization of Behaviour (New York: Wiley) it is assumed that synaptic plasticity solely depends on the activity of the pre- and the postsynaptic cells. Synapses influence the plasticity of other synapses exclusively via the post-synaptic activity. This confounds effects on synaptic plasticity and neuronal activation and, thus, makes it difficult to implement networks which optimize global measures of performance. Exploring solutions to this problem, inspired by recent research on the properties of apical dendrites, we examine a network of neurons with two sites of synaptic integration. These communicate in such a way that one set of synapses mainly influences the neurons' activity; the other set gates synaptic plasticity. Analysing the system with a constant set of parameters reveals: (1) the afferents that gate plasticity act as supervisors, individual to every cell. (2) While the neurons acquire specific receptive fields the net activity remains constant for different stimuli. This ensures that all stimuli are represented and, thus, contributes to information maximization. (3) Mechanisms for maximization of coherent information can easily be implemented. Neurons with non-overlapping receptive fields learn to fire correlated and preferentially transmit information that is correlated over space. (4) We demonstrate how a new measure of performance can be implemented: cells learn to represent only the part of the input that is relevant to the processing at higher stages. This criterion is termed 'relevant infomax'.

  14. Learning with two sites of synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Körding, K P; König, P

    2000-02-01

    Since the classical work of D O Hebb 1949 The Organization of Behaviour (New York: Wiley) it is assumed that synaptic plasticity solely depends on the activity of the pre- and the postsynaptic cells. Synapses influence the plasticity of other synapses exclusively via the post-synaptic activity. This confounds effects on synaptic plasticity and neuronal activation and, thus, makes it difficult to implement networks which optimize global measures of performance. Exploring solutions to this problem, inspired by recent research on the properties of apical dendrites, we examine a network of neurons with two sites of synaptic integration. These communicate in such a way that one set of synapses mainly influences the neurons' activity; the other set gates synaptic plasticity. Analysing the system with a constant set of parameters reveals: (1) the afferents that gate plasticity act as supervisors, individual to every cell. (2) While the neurons acquire specific receptive fields the net activity remains constant for different stimuli. This ensures that all stimuli are represented and, thus, contributes to information maximization. (3) Mechanisms for maximization of coherent information can easily be implemented. Neurons with non-overlapping receptive fields learn to fire correlated and preferentially transmit information that is correlated over space. (4) We demonstrate how a new measure of performance can be implemented: cells learn to represent only the part of the input that is relevant to the processing at higher stages. This criterion is termed 'relevant infomax'. PMID:10735527

  15. Distinct recurrent versus afferent dynamics in cortical visual processing.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Kimberly; Lien, Anthony D; Scanziani, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    How intracortical recurrent circuits in mammalian sensory cortex influence dynamics of sensory representation is not understood. Previous methods could not distinguish the relative contributions of recurrent circuits and thalamic afferents to cortical dynamics. We accomplish this by optogenetically manipulating thalamus and cortex. Over the initial 40 ms of visual stimulation, excitation from recurrent circuits in visual cortex progressively increased to exceed direct thalamocortical excitation. Even when recurrent excitation exceeded thalamic excitation, upon silencing thalamus, sensory-evoked activity in cortex decayed rapidly, with a time constant of 10 ms, which is similar to a neuron's integration time window. In awake mice, this cortical decay function predicted the time-locking of cortical activity to thalamic input at frequencies <15 Hz and attenuation of the cortical response to higher frequencies. Under anesthesia, depression at thalamocortical synapses disrupted the fidelity of sensory transmission. Thus, we determine dynamics intrinsic to cortical recurrent circuits that transform afferent input in time.

  16. Identified proprioceptive afferents and motor rhythm entrainment in the crayfish walking system.

    PubMed

    Elson, R C; Sillar, K T; Bush, B M

    1992-03-01

    1. In crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, remotion of a walking leg stretches the thoraco-coxal (TC) muscle receptor organ (TCMRO), located at the leg's articulation with the thorax. In vitro, alternate stretch and release of the fourth leg's TCMRO entrained the centrally generated rhythmic motor output to that leg, with the remotor phase of the rhythm entraining to TCMRO stretch, the promoter phase to release. This coordination of motor bursts to afferent input corresponds to that of active, rhythmic movements in vivo. 2. Entrainment was rapid in onset (stable coordination resulting within the first or second stimulus cycle) and was relatively phase-constant (whatever the stimulus frequency, during 1:1 entrainment, remotor bursts began near the onset of stretch and promotor bursts began near the onset of release). Outside the range of 1:1 entrainment, 2:1, 1:2, and 1:3 coordination ratios (rhythm:stimulus) were encountered. Resetting by phasic stimulation of the TCMRO was complete and probabilistic: effective stimuli triggered rapid transitions between the two burst phases. 3. The TCMRO is innervated by two afferents, the nonspiking S and T fibers, which generate graded depolarizing receptor potentials in response to stretch. During proprioceptive entrainment, the more phasic T fiber depolarized and hyperpolarized more rapidly or in advance of the more tonic S fiber. These receptor potentials were modified differently in the two afferents by interaction with central synaptic inputs that were phase-locked to the entrained motor rhythm. 4. Injecting slow sinusoidal current into either afferent alone could entrain motor rhythms: promoter phase bursts were entrained to depolarization of the S fiber or hyperpolarization of the T fiber, whereas the converse response was obtained for remotor phase bursts. 5. During proprioceptive entrainment, tonic hyperpolarization of the S fiber weakened entrained promotor bursts and allowed remotor burst durations to increase

  17. Unitary synaptic connections among substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Matthew H; Wilson, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    Neurons in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are synaptically coupled by local axon collaterals, providing a potential mechanism for local signal processing. Because SNr neurons fire spontaneously, these synapses are constantly active. To investigate their properties, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from SNr neurons in brain slices, in which afferents from upstream nuclei are severed, and the cells fire rhythmically. The sIPSC trains contained a mixture of periodic and aperiodic events. Autocorrelation analysis of sIPSC trains showed that a majority of cells had one to four active unitary inputs. The properties of the unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) were analyzed for cells with one unitary input, using a model of periodic presynaptic firing and stochastic synaptic transmission. The inferred presynaptic firing rates and coefficient of variation of interspike intervals (ISIs) corresponded well with direct measurements of spiking in SNr neurons. Methods were developed to estimate the success probability, amplitude distributions, and kinetics of the uIPSCs, while removing the contribution from aperiodic sIPSCs. The sIPSC amplitudes were not increased upon release from halorhodopsin silencing, suggesting that most synapses were not depressed at the spontaneous firing rate. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings indicated that the average reversal potential of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was -64 mV. Because of the change in driving force across the ISI, the unitary inputs are predicted to have a larger postsynaptic impact when they arrive late in the ISI. Simulations of network activity suggest that this very sparse inhibitory coupling may act to desynchronize the activity of SNr neurons while having only a small effect on firing rate.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of afferent renal nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stella, A; Weaver, L; Golin, R; Genovesi, S; Zanchetti, A

    1987-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of afferent renal nerves elicits an increase in arterial pressure and heart rate. The hypertensive response is presumably due to the widespread activation of the sympathetic nervous system leading to peripheral vasoconstriction. Interestingly, the kidney does not appear involved in this reflex excitatory response to afferent renal nerve stimulation since changes in vascular conductances and excretory functions are equal in both the innervated and denervated kidney, and secondary to changes in renal perfusion pressure. In addition, no changes in renin release from either kidneys are observed during afferent renal nerve stimulation. It is likely that the electrical stimulation of afferent renal nerves activates other reflexes exerting an inhibitory influence on efferent renal nerve activity. Indeed, neural renorenal reflexes which tonically inhibit renal functions have clearly been demonstrated. Furthermore, preferential inhibition of efferent renal nerve activity by cardiopulmonary and sinoaortic receptors has recently been shown during activation of other visceral afferents.

  19. A Model of Bidirectional Synaptic Plasticity: From Signaling Network to Channel Conductance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellani, Gastone C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.; Bersani, Ferdinando; Cooper, Leon N.; Shouval, Harel Z.

    2005-01-01

    In many regions of the brain, including the mammalian cortex, the strength of synaptic transmission can be bidirectionally regulated by cortical activity (synaptic plasticity). One line of evidence indicates that long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term synaptic depression (LTD), correlate with the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of…

  20. A Mouse Model for MeCP2 Duplication Syndrome: MeCP2 Overexpression Impairs Learning and Memory and Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Na, Elisa S.; Nelson, Erika D.; Adachi, Megumi; Autry, Anita E.; Mahgoub, Melissa A.; Kavalali, Ege T.; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome and MECP2 duplication syndrome are neurodevelopmental disorders that arise from loss of function and gain of function alterations in Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) expression, respectively. Although there have been studies examining MeCP2 loss of function in animal models, there is limited information on MeCP2 overexpression in animal models. Here, we characterize a mouse line with MeCP2 overexpression restricted to neurons (Tau-Mecp2). This MeCP2 overexpression line shows motor coordination deficits, heightened anxiety, and impairments in learning and memory that are accompanied by deficits in long-term potentiation and short-term synaptic plasticity. Whole cell voltage clamp recordings of cultured hippocampal neurons from Tau-Mecp2 mice reveal augmented frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents indicating that overexpression of MeCP2 selectively impacts excitatory synapse function. Moreover, we show that alterations in transcriptional repression mechanisms underlie the synaptic phenotypes in hippocampal neurons from the Tau-Mecp2 mice. These results demonstrate the Tau-Mecp2 mouse line recapitulates many key phenotypes of MECP2 duplication syndrome and support the use of these mice to further study this devastating disorder. PMID:22378884

  1. Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons.

    PubMed

    Buran, Bradley N; Strenzke, Nicola; Neef, Andreas; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Moser, Tobias; Liberman, M Charles

    2010-06-01

    Synaptic ribbons, found at the presynaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed that fewer than 3% of the hair cells' afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range, and postonset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or Bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system.

  2. Differential regulation of primary afferent input to spinal cord by muscarinic receptor subtypes delineated using knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Wei-Xiu; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2014-05-16

    Stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) inhibits nociceptive transmission at the spinal level. However, it is unclear how each mAChR subtype regulates excitatory synaptic input from primary afferents. Here we examined excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of dorsal horn neurons evoked by dorsal root stimulation in spinal cord slices from wild-type and mAChR subtype knock-out (KO) mice. In wild-type mice, mAChR activation with oxotremorine-M decreased the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs in ∼67% of neurons but increased it in ∼10% of neurons. The inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M was attenuated by the M2/M4 antagonist himbacine in the majority of neurons, and the remaining inhibition was abolished by group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists in wild-type mice. In M2/M4 double-KO mice, oxotremorine-M inhibited monosynaptic EPSCs in significantly fewer neurons (∼26%) and increased EPSCs in significantly more neurons (33%) compared with wild-type mice. Blocking group II/III mGluRs eliminated the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M in M2/M4 double-KO mice. In M2 single-KO and M4 single-KO mice, himbacine still significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M. However, the inhibitory and potentiating effects of oxotremorine-M on EPSCs in M3 single-KO and M1/M3 double-KO mice were similar to those in wild-type mice. In M5 single-KO mice, oxotremorine-M failed to potentiate evoked EPSCs, and its inhibitory effect was abolished by himbacine. These findings indicate that activation of presynaptic M2 and M4 subtypes reduces glutamate release from primary afferents. Activation of the M5 subtype either directly increases primary afferent input or inhibits it through indirectly stimulating group II/III mGluRs. PMID:24695732

  3. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Robert J; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  4. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  5. Endogenous Rho-kinase signaling maintains synaptic strength by stabilizing the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    González-Forero, David; Montero, Fernando; García-Morales, Victoria; Domínguez, Germán; Gómez-Pérez, Laura; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Moreno-López, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) regulates neural cell migration, proliferation and survival, dendritic spine morphology, and axon guidance and regeneration. There is, however, little information about whether ROCK modulates the electrical activity and information processing of neuronal circuits. At neonatal stage, ROCKα is expressed in hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs) and in their afferent inputs, whereas ROCKβ is found in synaptic terminals on HMNs, but not in their somata. Inhibition of endogenous ROCK activity in neonatal rat brainstem slices failed to modulate intrinsic excitability of HMNs, but strongly attenuated the strength of their glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. The mechanism acts presynaptically to reduce evoked neurotransmitter release. ROCK inhibition increased myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which is known to trigger actomyosin contraction, and reduced the number of synaptic vesicles docked to active zones in excitatory boutons. Functional and ultrastructural changes induced by ROCK inhibition were fully prevented/reverted by MLC kinase (MLCK) inhibition. Furthermore, ROCK inhibition drastically reduced the phosphorylated form of p21-associated kinase (PAK), which directly inhibits MLCK. We conclude that endogenous ROCK activity is necessary for the normal performance of motor output commands, because it maintains afferent synaptic strength, by stabilizing the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. The mechanism of action involves a tonic inhibition of MLCK, presumably through PAK phosphorylation. This mechanism might be present in adults since unilateral microinjection of ROCK or MLCK inhibitors into the hypoglossal nucleus reduced or increased, respectively, whole XIIth nerve activity.

  6. Botulinum toxin in Migraine: Role of transport in trigemino-somatic and trigemino-vascular afferents

    PubMed Central

    Roshni, Ramachandran; Carmen, Lam; Yaksh Tony, L

    2015-01-01

    Migraine secondary to meningeal input is referred to extracranial regions innervated by somatic afferents that project to homologous regions in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). Reported efficacy of extracranial botulinum toxin (BoNT) in treating migraine is surprising since a local extracranial effect of BoNT cannot account for its effect upon meningeal input. We hypothesize that intradermal BoNT acts through central transport in somatic afferents. Anesthetized C57Bl/6 mice (male) received unilateral supraorbital (SO) injections of BoNT-B (1.5 U/40 μl) or saline. 3 days later, mice received ipsilateral (ipsi) -SO capsaicin (2.5 μg/30 μl) or meningeal capsaicin (4 μl of 1mg/ml). Pre-treatment with ipsi-SO BONT-B i) decreased nocicsponsive ipsilateral wiping behavior following ipsi-SO capsaicin; ii) produced cleavage of VAMP in the V1 region of ipsi-TG and in TG neurons showing WGA after SO injection; iii) reduced expression of c-fos in ipsi-TNC following ipsi-SO capsaicin; iv) reduced c-fos activation and NK-1 internalization in ipsi-TNC secondary to ipsi-meningeal capsaicin; vi) SO WGA did not label dural afferents. We conclude that BoNT-B is taken up by peripheral afferents and transported to central terminals where it inhibits transmitter release resulting in decreased activation of second order neurons. Further, this study supports the hypothesis that SO BoNT exerts a trans-synaptic action on either the second order neuron (which receives convergent input from the meningeal afferent) or the terminal/TG of the converging meningeal afferent. PMID:25958249

  7. Optogenetics reveal delayed afferent synaptogenesis on grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Avaliani, Natalia; Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Ledri, Marco; Bengzon, Johan; Koch, Philipp; Brüstle, Oliver; Deisseroth, Karl; Andersson, My; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-12-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency stem cell state has opened new opportunities in cell replacement therapy and disease modeling in a number of neurological disorders. It still remains unknown, however, to what degree the grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiate into a functional neuronal phenotype and if they integrate into the host circuitry. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the functional properties and synaptic integration of hiPSC-derived neurons grafted in an in vitro model of hyperexcitable epileptic tissue, namely organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), and in adult rats in vivo. The hiPSCs were first differentiated into long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial stem (lt-NES) cells, which are known to form primarily GABAergic neurons. When differentiated in OHSCs for 6 weeks, lt-NES cell-derived neurons displayed neuronal properties such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents and action potentials (APs), as well as both spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents, indicating functional afferent synaptic inputs. The grafted cells had a distinct electrophysiological profile compared to host cells in the OHSCs with higher input resistance, lower resting membrane potential, and APs with lower amplitude and longer duration. To investigate the origin of synaptic afferents to the grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons, the host neurons were transduced with Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and optogenetically activated by blue light. Simultaneous recordings of synaptic currents in grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 6 weeks after grafting revealed limited synaptic connections from host neurons. Longer differentiation times, up to 24 weeks after grafting in vivo, revealed more mature intrinsic properties and extensive synaptic afferents from host neurons to the lt-NES cell-derived neurons, suggesting that these cells require extended time for differentiation

  8. Deep mRNA Sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea Brain Transcriptome Provides Access to Gene Homologues for Neuronal Excitability, Synaptic Transmission and Peptidergic Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level. Results We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes). BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis) revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA. Conclusions Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain. PMID:25719197

  9. Ventral hippocampal afferents to the nucleus accumbens regulate susceptibility to depression

    PubMed Central

    Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parise, Eric M.; Peña, Catherine J.; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Maze, Ian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Persaud, Brianna; Cachope, Roger; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.; Cheer, Joseph; Deisseroth, Karl; Han, Ming-Hu; Nestler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region critical for reward and motivation, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression; however, the afferent source of this increased glutamate tone is not known. The NAc receives glutamatergic inputs from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and basolateral amygdala (AMY). Here, we demonstrate that glutamatergic vHIP afferents to NAc regulate susceptibility to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). We observe reduced activity in vHIP in mice resilient to CSDS. Furthermore, attenuation of vHIP-NAc transmission by optogenetic induction of long-term depression is pro-resilient, whereas acute enhancement of this input is pro-susceptible. This effect is specific to vHIP afferents to the NAc, as optogenetic stimulation of either mPFC or AMY afferents to the NAc is pro-resilient. These data indicate that vHIP afferents to NAc uniquely regulate susceptibility to CSDS, highlighting an important, novel circuit-specific mechanism in depression. PMID:25952660

  10. Modeling the spinal pudendo-vesical reflex for bladder control by pudendal afferent stimulation.

    PubMed

    McGee, Meredith J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is a promising approach to restore continence and micturition following bladder dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury. Although the pudendo-vesical reflex and its physiological properties are well established, there is limited understanding of the specific neural mechanisms that mediate this reflex. We sought to develop a computational model of the spinal neural network that governs the reflex bladder response to PN stimulation. We implemented and validated a neural network architecture based on previous neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies. Using synaptically-connected integrate and fire model neurons, we created a network model with realistic spiking behavior. The model produced expected sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) neuron firing rates from prescribed neural inputs and predicted bladder activation and inhibition with different frequencies of pudendal afferent stimulation. In addition, the model matched experimental results from previous studies of temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation and selective pharmacological blockade of inhibitory neurons. The frequency- and pattern-dependent effects of pudendal afferent stimulation were determined by changes in firing rate of spinal interneurons, suggesting that neural network interactions at the lumbosacral level can mediate the bladder response to different frequencies or temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation. Further, the anatomical structure of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the network model was necessary and sufficient to reproduce the critical features of the pudendo-vesical reflex, and this model may prove useful to guide development of novel, more effective electrical stimulation techniques for bladder control. PMID:26968615

  11. Impact of Synaptic Neurotransmitter Concentration Time Course on the Kinetics and Pharmacological Modulation of Inhibitory Synaptic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Barberis, Andrea; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2011-01-01

    The time course of synaptic currents is a crucial determinant of rapid signaling between neurons. Traditionally, the mechanisms underlying the shape of synaptic signals are classified as pre- and post-synaptic. Over the last two decades, an extensive body of evidence indicated that synaptic signals are critically shaped by the neurotransmitter time course which encompasses several phenomena including pre- and post-synaptic ones. The agonist transient depends on neurotransmitter release mechanisms, diffusion within the synaptic cleft, spill-over to the extra-synaptic space, uptake, and binding to post-synaptic receptors. Most estimates indicate that the neurotransmitter transient is very brief, lasting between one hundred up to several hundreds of microseconds, implying that post-synaptic activation is characterized by a high degree of non-equilibrium. Moreover, pharmacological studies provide evidence that the kinetics of agonist transient plays a crucial role in setting the susceptibility of synaptic currents to modulation by a variety of compounds of physiological or clinical relevance. More recently, the role of the neurotransmitter time course has been emphasized by studies carried out on brain slice models that revealed a striking, cell-dependent variability of synaptic agonist waveforms ranging from rapid pulses to slow volume transmission. In the present paper we review the advances on studies addressing the impact of synaptic neurotransmitter transient on kinetics and pharmacological modulation of synaptic currents at inhibitory synapses. PMID:21734864

  12. Distinct Subunit Domains Govern Synaptic Stability and Specificity of the Kainate Receptor.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christoph; Noam, Yoav; Nomura, Toshihiro; Yamasaki, Miwako; Yan, Dan; Fernandes, Herman B; Zhang, Ping; Howe, James R; Watanabe, Masahiko; Contractor, Anis; Tomita, Susumu

    2016-07-12

    Synaptic communication between neurons requires the precise localization of neurotransmitter receptors to the correct synapse type. Kainate-type glutamate receptors restrict synaptic localization that is determined by the afferent presynaptic connection. The mechanisms that govern this input-specific synaptic localization remain unclear. Here, we examine how subunit composition and specific subunit domains contribute to synaptic localization of kainate receptors. The cytoplasmic domain of the GluK2 low-affinity subunit stabilizes kainate receptors at synapses. In contrast, the extracellular domain of the GluK4/5 high-affinity subunit synergistically controls the synaptic specificity of kainate receptors through interaction with C1q-like proteins. Thus, the input-specific synaptic localization of the native kainate receptor complex involves two mechanisms that underlie specificity and stabilization of the receptor at synapses.

  13. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Robin W.; Peled, Einat; Guerrero, Giovanna; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strength between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  14. Quantitative proteomics of synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria: insights for synaptic mitochondrial vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Kelly L; Purnell, Phillip R; Fox, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    Synaptic mitochondria are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis and producing ATP, processes vital for neuronal integrity and synaptic transmission. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased oxidative damage during aging and are more vulnerable to calcium insult than nonsynaptic mitochondria. Why synaptic mitochondria are specifically more susceptible to cumulative damage remains to be determined. In this study, the generation of a super-SILAC mix that served as an appropriate internal standard for mouse brain mitochondria mass spectrometry based analysis allowed for the quantification of the proteomic differences between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria isolated from 10-month-old mice. We identified a total of 2260 common proteins between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria of which 1629 were annotated as mitochondrial. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the proteins common between synaptic and nonsynaptic mitochondria revealed significant differential expression of 522 proteins involved in several pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial fission/fusion, calcium transport, and mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance. In comparison to nonsynaptic mitochondria, synaptic mitochondria exhibited increased age-associated mitochondrial DNA deletions and decreased bioenergetic function. These findings provide insights into synaptic mitochondrial susceptibility to damage.

  15. Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Tim D.; Ostrowski, Daniela; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), and its 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) subtype, is a powerful modulator of the cardiorespiratory system and its sensory reflexes. The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) serves as the first central station for visceral afferent integration and is critical for cardiorespiratory reflex responses. However, the physiological and synaptic role of 5-HT1ARs in the nTS is relatively unknown. In the present study, we examined the distribution and modulation of 5-HT1ARs on cardiorespiratory and synaptic parameters in the nTS. 5-HT1ARs were widely distributed to cell bodies within the nTS but not synaptic terminals. In anesthetized rats, activation of 5-HT1ARs by microinjection of the 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OH-DPAT into the caudal nTS decreased minute phrenic neural activity via a reduction in phrenic amplitude. In brain stem slices, 8-OH-DPAT decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, and reduced overall spontaneous excitatory nTS network activity. These effects persisted in the presence of GABAA receptor blockade and were antagonized by coapplication of 5-HT1AR blocker WAY-100135. 5-HT1AR blockade alone had no effect on tractus solitarii-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents, but increased excitatory network activity. On the other hand, GABAergic nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents did not change by activation of the 5-HT1ARs, but spontaneous inhibitory nTS network activity decreased. Blocking 5-HT1ARs tended to increase nTS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents and inhibitory network activity. Taken together, 5-HT1ARs in the caudal nTS decrease breathing, likely via attenuation of afferent transmission, as well as overall nTS network activity. PMID:24671532

  16. Early developmental bisphenol-A exposure sex-independently impairs spatial memory by remodeling hippocampal dendritic architecture and synaptic transmission in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Ding, Jin-Jun; Yang, Qian-Qian; Song, Hua-Zeng; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Gui-Ran; Wang, Hui-Li

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4'-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect. Further investigation indicated that BPA exposure causes significant impairment of dendrite and spine structure, manifested as decreased dendritic complexity, dendritic spine density and percentage of mushroom shaped spines in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Furthermore, a significant reduction in Arc expression was detected upon BPA exposure. Strikingly, BPA exposure significantly increased the mIPSC amplitude without altering the mEPSC amplitude or frequency, accompanied by increased GABAARβ2/3 on postsynaptic membrane in cultured CA1 neurons. In summary, our study indicated that Arc, together with the increased surface GABAARβ2/3, contributed to BPA induced spatial memory deficits, providing a novel molecular basis for BPA achieved brain impairment. PMID:27578147

  17. Early developmental bisphenol-A exposure sex-independently impairs spatial memory by remodeling hippocampal dendritic architecture and synaptic transmission in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Ding, Jin-Jun; Yang, Qian-Qian; Song, Hua-Zeng; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Gui-Ran; Wang, Hui-Li

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4‧-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect. Further investigation indicated that BPA exposure causes significant impairment of dendrite and spine structure, manifested as decreased dendritic complexity, dendritic spine density and percentage of mushroom shaped spines in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Furthermore, a significant reduction in Arc expression was detected upon BPA exposure. Strikingly, BPA exposure significantly increased the mIPSC amplitude without altering the mEPSC amplitude or frequency, accompanied by increased GABAARβ2/3 on postsynaptic membrane in cultured CA1 neurons. In summary, our study indicated that Arc, together with the increased surface GABAARβ2/3, contributed to BPA induced spatial memory deficits, providing a novel molecular basis for BPA achieved brain impairment.

  18. Early developmental bisphenol-A exposure sex-independently impairs spatial memory by remodeling hippocampal dendritic architecture and synaptic transmission in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Ding, Jin-Jun; Yang, Qian-Qian; Song, Hua-Zeng; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Gui-Ran; Wang, Hui-Li

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4′-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect. Further investigation indicated that BPA exposure causes significant impairment of dendrite and spine structure, manifested as decreased dendritic complexity, dendritic spine density and percentage of mushroom shaped spines in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Furthermore, a significant reduction in Arc expression was detected upon BPA exposure. Strikingly, BPA exposure significantly increased the mIPSC amplitude without altering the mEPSC amplitude or frequency, accompanied by increased GABAARβ2/3 on postsynaptic membrane in cultured CA1 neurons. In summary, our study indicated that Arc, together with the increased surface GABAARβ2/3, contributed to BPA induced spatial memory deficits, providing a novel molecular basis for BPA achieved brain impairment. PMID:27578147

  19. Finite Post Synaptic Potentials Cause a Fast Neuronal Response

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A generic property of the communication between neurons is the exchange of pulses at discrete time points, the action potentials. However, the prevalent theory of spiking neuronal networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons relies on two assumptions: the superposition of many afferent synaptic impulses is approximated by Gaussian white noise, equivalent to a vanishing magnitude of the synaptic impulses, and the transfer of time varying signals by neurons is assessable by linearization. Going beyond both approximations, we find that in the presence of synaptic impulses the response to transient inputs differs qualitatively from previous predictions. It is instantaneous rather than exhibiting low-pass characteristics, depends non-linearly on the amplitude of the impulse, is asymmetric for excitation and inhibition and is promoted by a characteristic level of synaptic background noise. These findings resolve contradictions between the earlier theory and experimental observations. Here we review the recent theoretical progress that enabled these insights. We explain why the membrane potential near threshold is sensitive to properties of the afferent noise and show how this shapes the neural response. A further extension of the theory to time evolution in discrete steps quantifies simulation artifacts and yields improved methods to cross check results. PMID:21427776

  20. Synaptic dynamics: linear model and adaptation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali; Dibazar, Alireza A; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-08-01

    In this research, temporal processing in brain neural circuitries is addressed by a dynamic model of synaptic connections in which the synapse model accounts for both pre- and post-synaptic processes determining its temporal dynamics and strength. Neurons, which are excited by the post-synaptic potentials of hundred of the synapses, build the computational engine capable of processing dynamic neural stimuli. Temporal dynamics in neural models with dynamic synapses will be analyzed, and learning algorithms for synaptic adaptation of neural networks with hundreds of synaptic connections are proposed. The paper starts by introducing a linear approximate model for the temporal dynamics of synaptic transmission. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies the analysis and training of spiking neural networks. Furthermore, it is capable of replicating the synaptic response of the non-linear facilitation-depression model with an accuracy better than 92.5%. In the second part of the paper, a supervised spike-in-spike-out learning rule for synaptic adaptation in dynamic synapse neural networks (DSNN) is proposed. The proposed learning rule is a biologically plausible process, and it is capable of simultaneously adjusting both pre- and post-synaptic components of individual synapses. The last section of the paper starts with presenting the rigorous analysis of the learning algorithm in a system identification task with hundreds of synaptic connections which confirms the learning algorithm's accuracy, repeatability and scalability. The DSNN is utilized to predict the spiking activity of cortical neurons and pattern recognition tasks. The DSNN model is demonstrated to be a generative model capable of producing different cortical neuron spiking patterns and CA1 Pyramidal neurons recordings. A single-layer DSNN classifier on a benchmark pattern recognition task outperforms a 2-Layer Neural Network and GMM classifiers while having fewer numbers of free parameters and

  1. Dopamine facilitates long-term depression of glutamatergic transmission in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Otani, S; Blond, O; Desce, J M; Crépel, F

    1998-08-01

    Using sharp-electrode intracellular recordings, we studied the dopaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity in layer I-II afferents--layer V neuron glutamatergic synapses in rat prefrontal cortex in vitro. Tetanic stimulation (100 pulses at 50 Hz, four times at 0.1 Hz) to layer I-II afferents induced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-independent long-term depression (>40 min) of the glutamatergic synapses when the stimulation was coupled with a bath-application of dopamine. Tetanic stimulation alone did not induce lasting synaptic changes. Dopamine application alone transiently depressed synaptic responses, which fully recovered within 30 min. Pharmacological analyses with antagonists suggested that dopamine action on either D1-like or D2-like receptors can facilitate the induction of long-term depression. However, results with agonists were not fully consistent with the antagonist results: while a D2 agonist mimicked the facilitatory dopamine effect, D1 agonists failed to mimic the effect. We also analysed the synaptic responses during tetanus and found that dopamine prolongs membrane depolarization during high-frequency inputs. Postsynaptic membrane depolarization is indeed critical for long-term depression induction in the presence of dopamine, since postsynaptic hyperpolarization during tetanus blocked the dopaminergic facilitation of long-term depression induction. Postsynaptic injection of the Ca2+ chelator bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid (100 mM in the electrode) also blocked long-term depression induction. Our results show that dopamine lowers the threshold for long-term depression induction in rat prefrontal glutamatergic transmission. A possible underlying mechanism of this dopaminergic facilitation is the enhancement of postsynaptic depolarization during tetanus by dopamine, which may increase the amount of Ca2+ entry from voltage-gated channels to the level sufficient for plasticity induction.

  2. Piezo2 expression in corneal afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Bron, Romke; Wood, Rhiannon J; Brock, James A; Ivanusic, Jason J

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a novel class of mechanically sensitive channels has been identified and have been called Piezo channels. In this study, we explored Piezo channel expression in sensory neurons supplying the guinea pig corneal epithelium, which have well-defined modalities in this species. We hypothesized that a proportion of corneal afferent neurons express Piezo2, and that these neurons are neurochemically distinct from corneal polymodal nociceptors or cold-sensing neurons. We used a combination of retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons and double label in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry to determine their molecular and/or neurochemical profile. We found that Piezo2 expression occurs in ∼26% of trigeminal ganglion neurons and 30% of corneal afferent neurons. Piezo2 corneal afferent neurons are almost exclusively non-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (-IR), medium- to large-sized neurons that are NF200-IR, suggesting they are not corneal polymodal nociceptors. There was no coexpression of Piezo2 and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) transcripts in any corneal afferent neurons, further suggesting that Piezo2 is not expressed in corneal cold-sensing neurons. We also noted that TRPM8-IR or CGRP-IR corneal afferent neurons are almost entirely small and lack NF200-IR. Piezo2 expression occurs in a neurochemically distinct subpopulation of corneal afferent neurons that are not polymodal nociceptors or cold-sensing neurons, and is likely confined to a subpopulation of pure mechano-nociceptors in the cornea. This provides the first evidence in an in vivo system that Piezo2 is a strong candidate for a channel that transduces noxious mechanical stimuli.

  3. Rapid temperature changes induce adenosine-mediated depression of synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from rats (non-hibernators) but not in slices from golden hamsters (hibernators).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, A; Klussmann, F W; Igelmund, P

    1998-09-01

    Disturbances in neuronal communication induced by rapid temperature changes are a risk in the context of accidental hypothermia and would be fatal for hibernators during arousal from hibernation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rapid temperature changes on synaptically induced CA1 population spikes in hippocampal slices from golden hamsters (hibernators) and rats (non-hibernators). Temperature was changed ramp-like by 0.3 degrees C/min, which corresponds to the rise of body temperature in golden hamsters during arousal from hibernation. During cooling from 35 to 10-15 degrees C, the population spike amplitude increased, reached maximal values at 25-30 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C in hamster and rat slices, respectively, and then decreased with further cooling. During rewarming, hamster slices displayed the same temperature dependence as during cooling. In contrast, in rat slices dynamic effects of the temperature change occurred. These were most obvious in a strong depression of the spike amplitude during rewarming as compared to cooling. Above 26-29 degrees C, the depression was superimposed by an excitatory effect. The depression was largely attenuated by theophylline (100-200 microM) and thus seems to be based on an increase of the concentration of endogenous adenosine, which in turn may result from an imbalance in energy metabolism during warming. The lack of warming-related depression in hamster slices can be explained by a lower sensitivity for adenosine as compared to rat slices. In addition, a better resistance of metabolic balance against rapid temperature changes may prevent large elevations of endogenous adenosine in the hamster hippocampus. For hibernators, the avoidance of temperature change-induced disturbances of neuronal communication may be a prerequisite for safe arousal from hibernation. PMID:9692744

  4. Methamphetamine blunts Ca2+ currents and excitatory synaptic transmission through D1/5 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    González, Betina; Rivero-Echeto, Celeste; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; García-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is associated with dysfunctions in frontal cortex. Previous data demonstrated that repeated exposure to methamphetamine (METH) can alter prefrontal cortex (PFC) dependent functions. Here, we show that withdrawal from repetitive non-contingent METH administration (7 days, 1mg/kg) depressed voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa) and increased IH amplitude and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in deep-layer pyramidal mPFC neurons. Most of these effects were blocked by systemic co-administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.5 and 0.05 mg/kg). In vitro METH (i.e bath-applied to slices from naïve-treated animals) was able to emulate its systemic effects on ICa and evoked EPSCs paired-pulse ratio. We also provide evidence of altered mRNA expression of i) voltage-gated calcium channels P/Q-type Cacna1a (Cav2.1), N-type Cacna1b (Cav2.2), T-type Cav3.1 Cacna1g, Cav3.2 Cacna1h, Cav3.3 Cacna1i and the auxiliary subunit Cacna2d1 (α2δ1), ii) hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels Hcn1 and Hcn2 and iii) glutamate receptors subunits AMPA-type Gria1, NMDA-type Grin1 and metabotropic Grm1 in the mouse mPFC after repeated METH treatment. Moreover, we show that some of these changes in mRNA expression were sensitive D1/5 receptor blockade. Altogether these altered mechanisms affecting synaptic physiology and transcriptional regulation may underlie prefrontal cortex functional alterations that could lead to PFC impairments observed in METH-addicted individuals. PMID:25871318

  5. Methamphetamine blunts Ca(2+) currents and excitatory synaptic transmission through D1/5 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    González, Betina; Rivero-Echeto, Celeste; Muñiz, Javier A; Cadet, Jean Lud; García-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica

    2016-05-01

    Psychostimulant addiction is associated with dysfunctions in frontal cortex. Previous data demonstrated that repeated exposure to methamphetamine (METH) can alter prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent functions. Here, we show that withdrawal from repetitive non-contingent METH administration (7 days, 1 mg/kg) depressed voltage-dependent calcium currents (ICa ) and increased hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH ) amplitude and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in deep-layer pyramidal mPFC neurons. Most of these effects were blocked by systemic co-administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.5 and 0.05 mg/kg). In vitro METH (i.e. bath-applied to slices from naïve-treated animals) was able to emulate its systemic effects on ICa and evoked EPSCs paired-pulse ratio. We also provide evidence of altered mRNA expression of (1) voltage-gated calcium channels P/Q-type Cacna1a (Cav 2.1), N-type Cacna1b (Cav 2.2), T-type Cav 3.1 Cacna1g, Cav 3.2 Cacna1h, Cav 3.3 Cacna1i and the auxiliary subunit Cacna2d1 (α2δ1); (2) hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels Hcn1 and Hcn2; and (3) glutamate receptors subunits AMPA-type Gria1, NMDA-type Grin1 and metabotropic Grm1 in the mouse mPFC after repeated METH treatment. Moreover, we show that some of these changes in mRNA expression were sensitive D1/5 receptor blockade. Altogether, these altered mechanisms affecting synaptic physiology and transcriptional regulation may underlie PFC functional alterations that could lead to PFC impairments observed in METH-addicted individuals.

  6. Ultrastructural and neurochemical analysis of synaptic input to trigemino-thalamic projection neurones in lamina I of the rat: a combined immunocytochemical and retrograde labelling study.

    PubMed

    Priestley, J V; Cuello, A C

    1989-07-22

    The synaptology of lamina I thalamic projection neurones in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the rat was investigated by combining electron microscopic immunocytochemistry with the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Fifteen retrogradely labelled neurones were serially sectioned and their dendrites were traced for up to 160 microns in order to characterise the synaptic input to their cell bodies and proximal dendrites. Projection neurones receive synapses from dome-shaped substance P and enkephalin immunoreactive terminals, which make simple axosomatic or axodendritic synapses. In addition, the cells receive synapses from numerous nonimmunoreactive terminals including a wide range of different dome-shaped terminals and various scalloped or glomerular terminals. Dome-shaped terminals synapse with small stubby spines in addition to cell bodies or dendritic shafts and they are probably derived from lamina II interneurones and from descending bulbospinal pathways. Glomerular terminals occur in two main classes: small type A terminals with dark axoplasm and larger type B terminals. Type B terminals participate in synaptic triads in which a peripheral terminal synapses both axoaxonically with the glomerular terminal and axodendritically with the projection neurone. Type A and type B terminals closely resemble the central terminals of spinal cord lamina II glomeruli and are probably derived from C and A delta I degrees afferent fibers. The results indicate that lamina I projection neurones are under pre- and postsynaptic control from diverse sources. Their complex synaptic organisation highlights the key role that such cells play in the rostrad transmission of somatosensory information. PMID:2474583

  7. Projection of cat jaw muscle spindle afferents related to intrafusal fibre influence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Durbaba, R; Rodgers, J F

    1993-06-01

    1. A method of classification of muscle spindle afferents using succinylcholine (SCh) and ramp stretches has recently been described, which appears to estimate separately the strength of influence of bag1 (b1) and of bag2 (b2) intrafusal fibres. Increase in dynamic difference (delta DD) indicates b1 influence whilst increase in initial frequency (delta IF) indicates b2 influence. The significance of this classification has now been examined by correlation with the strength of synaptic projection of jaw muscle spindle afferents to the fifth motor nucleus (MotV) and the supratrigeminal region (STR) in anaesthetized cats. 2. Projection strength was estimated by computing the extracellular focal synaptic potential (FSP) from spike-triggered averages of 1024 sweeps at 100 microns intervals along tracks through STR and MotV. Trigger pulses were derived from spindle afferent cell bodies of the jaw-closer muscles recorded in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, and characterized by the effect of SCh on their responses to ramp-and-hold stretches. 3. The maximum size of FSPs in tracks traversing STR and MotV ranged from 2.08 to 36.99 microV with a mean of 7.55 microV. The amplitudes were bimodally distributed into roughly equal-sized groups with high and low amplitude FSPs. 4. Mean values of delta IF were significantly greater for the group with large FSPs than for those with small FSPs. There were no significant differences in delta DD. FSP amplitude was significantly positively correlated with delta IF, but not with delta DD. 5. Spindle afferents with high values of FSP amplitude in MotV had a wide range of values of delta DD (b1b2c and b2c groups), while units with large FSPs in STR were all in the b2c category. Some evidence is presented to indicate that this reflects a preferential projection of secondary afferents to the STR. 6. For those units with projection to both STR and to MotV, there was a significant positive correlation between FSP amplitude in the two nuclei

  8. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Kristin L.; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M.; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A.; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca2+ levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca2+-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca2+-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca2+-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26443861

  9. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse.

  10. Innervation regulates synaptic ribbons in lateral line mechanosensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Suli, Arminda; Pujol, Remy; Cunningham, Dale E; Hailey, Dale W; Prendergast, Andrew; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-06-01

    Failure to form proper synapses in mechanosensory hair cells, the sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance, leads to deafness and balance disorders. Ribbons are electron-dense structures that tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic zone of mechanosensory hair cells where they are juxtaposed with the post-synaptic endings of afferent fibers. They are initially formed throughout the cytoplasm, and, as cells mature, ribbons translocate to the basolateral membrane of hair cells to form functional synapses. We have examined the effect of post-synaptic elements on ribbon formation and maintenance in the zebrafish lateral line system by observing mutants that lack hair cell innervation, wild-type larvae whose nerves have been transected and ribbons in regenerating hair cells. Our results demonstrate that innervation is not required for initial ribbon formation but suggest that it is crucial for regulating the number, size and localization of ribbons in maturing hair cells, and for ribbon maintenance at the mature synapse. PMID:27103160

  11. Stability of long term facilitation and expression of zif268 and Arc in the spinal cord dorsal horn is modulated by conditioning stimulation within the physiological frequency range of primary afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Haugan, F; Wibrand, K; Fiskå, A; Bramham, C R; Tjølsen, A

    2008-07-17

    Long term facilitation (LTF) of C-fiber-evoked firing of wide dynamic range neurons in the spinal dorsal horn in response to conditioning stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers is a widely studied cellular model of spinal nociceptive sensitization. Although 100 Hz CS of primary afferent fibers is commonly used to induce spinal cord LTF, this frequency exceeds the physiological firing range. Here, we examined the effects of electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve within the physiological frequency range on the magnitude and stability of the C-fiber-evoked responses of wide dynamic range neurons and the expression of immediate early genes (c-fos, zif268, and Arc) in anesthetized rats. Stimulation frequencies of 3, 30 and 100 Hz all induced facilitation of similar magnitude as recorded at 1 h post-CS. Strikingly, however, 3 Hz-induced potentiation of the C-fiber responses was decremental, whereas both 30 and 100 Hz stimulation resulted in stable, non-decremental facilitation over 3 h of recording. The number of dorsal horn neurons expressing c-fos, but not zif268 or Arc, was significantly elevated after 3 Hz CS and increased proportionally with stimulation rate. In contrast, a stable LTF of C-fiber responses was obtained at 30 and 100 Hz CS, and at these frequencies there was a sharp increase in zif268 expression and appearance of Arc-positive neurons. The results show that response facilitation can be induced by stimulation frequencies in the physiological range (3 and 30 Hz). Three hertz stimulation induced the early phase of LTF, but the responses were decremental. Arc and zif268, two genes previously coupled to LTP of synaptic transmission in the adult brain, are upregulated at the same frequencies that give stable LTF (30 and 100 Hz). This frequency-dependence is important for understanding how the afferent firing pattern affects neuronal plasticity and nociception in the spinal dorsal horn.

  12. Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katherine J.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Yáñez, Julián; Anadón, Ramón; Wilson, Stephen W.; Folgueira, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al. (2014). Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus (dENT). Consequently, we confirm that the vENT (and not the dENT) should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus “proper” in zebrafish. Furthermore, comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus, being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals (internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates) by both embryonic origin and projections, as previously suggested by Amo et al. (2014). PMID:27199671

  13. Vestibular afferent responses to microrotational stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1991-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode recording/labeling techniques were used to investigate vestibular afferent responses in the bullfrog, to very small amplitude (less than 5 deg p-p) sinusoidal rotations in the vertical plane over the frequency range of 0.063-4 Hz. Robust responses to peak accelerations as low as 0.031 deg/sec per sec were obtained from units subsequently traced to either the central portion of the anterior canal crista or the striolar region of the utricle. All of these microrotationally sensitive afferent neurons had irregular resting discharge rates, and the majority had transfer ratios (relative to rotational velocity) of 1-40 spikes/sec per deg/sec. Individual utricular afferent velocity transfer ratios were nearly constant over the frequency range of 0.125-4 Hz. Canal units displayed decreasing response transfer ratios as stimulus frequencies increased. These findings indicate that, although utricular striolar and central crista afferent velocity transfer ratios to microrotations were very similar, utricular striolar afferent neurons were more faithful sensors of very small amplitude rotational velocity in the vertical plane.

  14. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+) channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca(2+) influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca(2+) dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca(2+) influx at voltages sub

  15. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Robert P; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C; Boyle, Kieran A; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda; Riddell, John S; Todd, Andrew J

    2015-05-13

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to "unclassified" cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn.

  16. AMPA receptor inhibition by synaptically released zinc.

    PubMed

    Kalappa, Bopanna I; Anderson, Charles T; Goldberg, Jacob M; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-12-22

    The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of synaptic AMPA responses by endogenous modulators remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that endogenous zinc, released by single presynaptic action potentials, inhibits synaptic AMPA currents in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and hippocampus. Exposure to loud sound reduces presynaptic zinc levels in the DCN and abolishes zinc inhibition, implicating zinc in experience-dependent AMPAR synaptic plasticity. Our results establish zinc as an activity-dependent, endogenous modulator of AMPARs that tunes fast excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses.

  17. AMPA receptor inhibition by synaptically released zinc

    PubMed Central

    Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Anderson, Charles T.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of synaptic AMPA responses by endogenous modulators remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that endogenous zinc, released by single presynaptic action potentials, inhibits synaptic AMPA currents in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and hippocampus. Exposure to loud sound reduces presynaptic zinc levels in the DCN and abolishes zinc inhibition, implicating zinc in experience-dependent AMPAR synaptic plasticity. Our results establish zinc as an activity-dependent, endogenous modulator of AMPARs that tunes fast excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26647187

  18. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in the substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kari A; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Xiang, Zixiu

    2011-10-24

    Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3) has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating both motor symptoms and progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Modulation of excitatory transmission in the basal ganglia represents a possible mechanism by which group II mGlu agonists could exert antiparkinsonian effects. Previous studies have identified reversible effects of mGlu2/3 activation on excitatory transmission at various synapses in the basal ganglia, including the excitatory synapse between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Using whole-cell patch clamp studies of GABAergic SNr neurons in rat midbrain slices, we have found that a prolonged activation of group II mGlus by the selective agonist LY379268 induces a long-term depression (LTD) of evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitude. Bath application of LY379268 (100nM, 10min) induced a marked reduction in EPSC amplitude, and excitatory transmission remained depressed for at least 40min after agonist washout. The effect of LY379268 was concentration-dependent and was completely blocked by the group II mGlu-preferring antagonist LY341495 (500nM). To determine the relative contributions of mGlu2 and mGlu3 to the LTD induced by LY379268, we tested the ability of LY379268 (100nM) to induce LTD in wild type mice and mice lacking mGlu2 or mGlu3. LY379268 induced similar LTD in wild type mice and mGlu3 knockout mice, whereas LTD was absent in mGlu2 knockout mice, indicating that mGlu2 activation is necessary for the induction of LTD in the SNr. These studies suggest a novel role for mGlu2 in the long-term regulation of excitatory transmission in the SNr and invite further exploration of mGlu2 as a therapeutic target for treating the motor symptoms of PD. PMID:21945652

  19. Synaptic connectivity in engineered neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Peter; Kang, Jung-Fong; Bhargava, Neelima; Das, Mainak; Hickman, James J

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a method to organize cells in dissociated cultures using engineered chemical clues on a culture surface and determined their connectivity patterns. Although almost all elements of the synaptic transmission machinery can be studied separately in single cell models in dissociated cultures, the complex physiological interactions between these elements are usually lost. Thus, factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, brain slices, or in vivo where the cellular architecture generally remains intact. However, by utilizing engineered neuronal networks complex phenomenon such as synaptic transmission or synaptic plasticity can be studied in a simple, functional, cell culture-based system. We have utilized self-assembled monolayers and photolithography to create the surface templates. Embryonic hippocampal cells, plated on the resultant patterns in serum-free medium, followed the surface clues and formed the engineered neuronal networks. Basic whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was applied to characterize the synaptic connectivity in these engineered two-cell networks. The same technology has been used to pattern other cell types such as cardiomyocytes or skeletal muscle fibers.

  20. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  1. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  2. Transcriptional coupling of synaptic transmission and energy metabolism: role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in co-regulating neuronal nitric oxide synthase and cytochrome c oxidase genes in neurons.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shilpa S; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2009-10-01

    Neuronal activity is highly dependent on energy metabolism; yet, the two processes have traditionally been regarded as independently regulated at the transcriptional level. Recently, we found that the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) co-regulates an important energy-generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase, as well as critical subunits of glutamatergic receptors. The present study tests our hypothesis that the co-regulation extends to the next level of glutamatergic synapses, namely, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide as a downstream signaling molecule. Using in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and NRF-1 silencing, we documented that NRF-1 functionally bound to Nos1, but not Nos2 (inducible) and Nos3 (endothelial) gene promoters. Both COX and Nos1 transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl treatment and down-regulated by TTX-mediated impulse blockade in neurons. However, NRF-1 silencing blocked the up-regulation of both Nos1 and COX induced by KCl depolarization, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued both Nos1 and COX transcripts down-regulated by TTX. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that synaptic neuronal transmission and energy metabolism are tightly coupled at the molecular level.

  3. Ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA4 and T-type calcium channel Cav 3.1 subunits control key aspects of synaptic transmission at the mouse L5B-POm giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Seol, Min; Kuner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The properties and molecular determinants of synaptic transmission at giant synapses connecting layer 5B (L5B) neurons of the somatosensory cortex (S1) with relay neurons of the posteriomedial nucleus (POm) of the thalamus have not been investigated in mice. We addressed this by using direct electrical stimulation of fluorescently labelled single corticothalamic terminals combined with molecular perturbations and whole-cell recordings from POm relay neurons. Consistent with their function as drivers, we found large-amplitude excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and multiple postsynaptic action potentials triggered by a single presynaptic action potential. To study the molecular basis of these two features, ionotropic glutamate receptors and low voltage-gated T-type calcium channels were probed by virus-mediated genetic perturbation. Loss of GluA4 almost abolished the EPSC amplitude, strongly delaying the onset of action potential generation, but maintaining the number of action potentials generated per presynaptic action potential. In contrast, knockdown of the Cav 3.1 subunit abrogated the driver function of the synapse at a typical resting membrane potential of -70 mV. However, when depolarizing the membrane potential to -60 mV, the synapse relayed single action potentials. Hence, GluA4 subunits are required to produce an EPSC sufficiently large to trigger postsynaptic action potentials within a defined time window after the presynaptic action potential, while Cav 3.1 expression is essential to establish the driver function of L5B-POm synapses at hyperpolarized membrane potentials.

  4. Endogenous Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Tonically Regulates Synaptic and Autonomic Function

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Catharine G.; Hasser, Eileen M.; Kunze, Diana L.; Katz, David M.; Kline, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, are highly expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS), the principal target of cardiovascular primary afferent input to the brainstem. However, little is known about the role of BDNF signaling in nTS in cardiovascular homeostasis. We examined whether BDNF in nTS modulates cardiovascular function in vivo and regulates synaptic and/or neuronal activity in isolated brainstem slices. Microinjection of BDNF into the rat medial nTS (mnTS), a region critical for baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow, produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) that were blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. In contrast, immunoneutralization of endogenous BDNF (antiBDNF), or microinjection of K252a alone, decreased MAP, HR and LSNA. The effects of antiBDNF were abolished by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors, indicating a role for glutamate signaling in the response to BDNF. In vitro, BDNF reduced the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) as well as solitary tract (TS)-evoked EPSC amplitude and action potential discharge (APD) in second-order nTS neurons. BDNF effects on EPSCs were independent of GABAergic signaling and ablated by AMPA receptor blockade. In contrast, K252a increased spontaneous EPSC frequency and TS-evoked EPSC amplitude. BDNF also attenuated APD evoked by injection of depolarizing current into second-order neurons, indicating reduced intrinsic neuronal excitability. Our data demonstrate that BDNF signaling in mnTS plays a tonic role in regulating cardiovascular function, likely via modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic excitatory transmission and neural activity. PMID:21865474

  5. Chronic intermittent hypoxia depresses afferent neurotransmission in NTS neurons by a reduction in the number of active synapses.

    PubMed

    Almado, Carlos Eduardo L; Machado, Benedito H; Leão, Ricardo M

    2012-11-21

    Long-term synaptic plasticity has been recently described in brainstem areas associated to visceral afferent sensory integration. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an animal model for studying obstructive sleep apnea in humans, depresses the afferent neurotransmission in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurons, which affect respiratory and autonomic regulation. Here we identified the synaptic mechanisms of CIH-induced depression of the afferent neurotransmission in NTS neurons in juvenile rats. We verified that CIH reduced the amplitude of both NMDA and non-NMDA glutamatergic excitatory currents (eEPSCs) evoked by tractus solitarii stimulation (TS-eEPSC) of second-order neurons in the NTS. No changes were observed in release probability, evidenced by absence of any CIH-elicited effects on short-term depression and failures in EPSCs evoked in low calcium. CIH also produced no changes in TS-eEPSC quantal size, since the amplitudes of both low calcium-evoked EPSCs and asynchronous TS-eEPSCs (evoked in the presence of Sr(2+)) were unchanged. Using single TS afferent fiber stimulation in slices from control and CIH rats we clearly show that CIH reduced the quantal content of the TS-eEPSCs without affecting the quantal size or release probability, suggesting a reduction in the number of active synapses as the mechanism of CIH induced TS-eEPSC depression. In accordance with this concept, the input-output relationship of stimulus intensity and TS-eEPSC amplitude shows an early saturation in CIH animals. These findings open new perspectives for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the synaptic plasticity in the brainstem sensory neurons under challenges such as those produced by CIH in experimental and pathological conditions.

  6. Patterns of saccular afferent innervation in sciaenids.

    PubMed

    Selckmann, G M; Ramcharitar, J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, saccular afferent arborization patterns in Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and spot Leiostomus xanthurus were characterized. Leiostomus xanthurus showed the simplest configuration while M. undulatus displayed the most complex. In addition, hair-cell densities at sites sampled along the rostro-caudal axis of the saccular epithelia correlated with the observed patterns of arborization. PMID:23991887

  7. Pronounced differences in signal processing and synaptic plasticity between piriform-hippocampal network stages: a prominent role for adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Brian H; Kramár, Enikö A; Cox, Conor D; Jia, Yousheng; Wang, Weisheng; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Key points Extended trains of theta rhythm afferent activity lead to a biphasic response facilitation in field CA1 but not in the lateral perforant path input to the dentate gyrus. Processes that reverse long-term potentiation in field CA1 are not operative in the lateral perforant path: multiple lines of evidence indicate that this reflects differences in adenosine signalling. Adenosine A1 receptors modulate baseline synaptic transmission in the lateral olfactory tract but not the associational afferents of the piriform cortex. Levels of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73), an enzyme that converts extracellular ATP into adenosine, are markedly different between regions and correlate with adenosine signalling and the efficacy of theta pulse stimulation in reversing long-term potentiation. Variations in transmitter mobilization, CD73 levels, and afferent divergence result in multivariate differences in signal processing through nodes in the cortico-hippocampal network. Abstract The present study evaluated learning-related synaptic operations across the serial stages of the olfactory cortex-hippocampus network. Theta frequency stimulation produced very different time-varying responses in the Schaffer-commissural projections than in the lateral perforant path (LPP), an effect associated with distinctions in transmitter mobilization. Long-term potentiation (LTP) had a higher threshold in LPP field potential studies but not in voltage clamped neurons; coupled with input/output relationships, these results suggest that LTP threshold differences reflect the degree of input divergence. Theta pulse stimulation erased LTP in CA1 but not in the dentate gyrus (DG), although adenosine eliminated potentiation in both areas, suggesting that theta increases extracellular adenosine to a greater degree in CA1. Moreover, adenosine A1 receptor antagonism had larger effects on theta responses in CA1 than in the DG, and concentrations of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) were much higher in CA1

  8. Oligosynaptic inhibition of group I afferents between the brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis in humans.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Hayashi, Masahiro; Shinozaki, Katsuhiro; Nito, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Wataru; Miyasaka, Takuji; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Spinal reflex arcs mediated by low threshold afferents between the brachioradialis (BR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR) were studied in eleven healthy human subjects using a post-stimulus time-histogram method. Electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the radial nerve branch innervating BR with the intensity below the motor threshold (MT) induced an early and significant trough (inhibition) in 32/85 FCR motor units (MUs) in 9/9 subjects. Such inhibition was never provoked by cutaneous stimulation. The central synaptic delay (CSD) of the inhibition was approximately 1.1ms longer than that of the homonymous FCR facilitation. ES to the median nerve branch innervating FCR with the intensity below MT induced an inhibition in 27/71 BR-MUs in 10/10 subjects. CSD of the inhibition was about 1.1ms longer than that of the homonymous BR facilitation. These findings suggest that inhibition between BR and FCR exists in humans. Group I afferents seem to mediate the inhibition through an oligo(di or tri)-synaptic path. PMID:26996830

  9. Short-latency afferent inhibition determined by the sensory afferent volley.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Aaron Z; Asmussen, Michael J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2016-08-01

    Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is characterized by the suppression of the transcranial magnetic stimulation motor evoked potential (MEP) by the cortical arrival of a somatosensory afferent volley. It remains unknown whether the magnitude of SAI reflects changes in the sensory afferent volley, similar to that observed for somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). The present study investigated stimulus-response relationships between sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), SAI, and SEPs and their interrelatedness. Experiment 1 (n = 23, age 23 ± 1.5 yr) investigated the stimulus-response profile for SEPs and SAI in the flexor carpi radialis muscle after stimulation of the mixed median nerve at the wrist using ∼25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the maximum SNAP and at 1.2× and 2.4× motor threshold (the latter equated to 100% of the maximum SNAP). Experiment 2 (n = 20, age 23.1 ± 2 yr) probed SEPs and SAI stimulus-response relationships after stimulation of the cutaneous digital nerve at ∼25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the maximum SNAP recorded at the elbow. Results indicate that, for both nerve types, SAI magnitude is dependent on the volume of the sensory afferent volley and ceases to increase once all afferent fibers within the nerve are recruited. Furthermore, for both nerve types, the magnitudes of SAI and SEPs are related such that an increase in excitation within somatosensory cortex is associated with an increase in the magnitude of afferent-induced MEP inhibition. PMID:27226451

  10. Activation of Group II and Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors by endogenous ligand(s) and the modulation of synaptic transmission in the superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H; Neale, S A; Salt, T E

    2004-11-01

    Previous work from this laboratory indicates that Group II/III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors modulate responses of SC neurones to visual stimuli in vivo. It is thought that tonic levels of glutamate may be sufficient to activate some mGlu receptors. We wished to investigate if these receptors are activated under ambient conditions in SC. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by optic tract stimulation were recorded from 300 microm slices of the adult pigmented rat superior colliculus at 34 degrees C. The Group II receptor selective agonist LY354740 (100-300 nM) had no significant effect on the peak amplitude of the fEPSP, although it did enhance the late phase of the fEPSP. In order to test for activation of Group II receptors by endogenous ligand, the selective antagonists LY341495 (50 nM) or EGLU (200 microM) were applied: these either enhanced or reduced the fEPSP amplitude. In similar experiments carried out at 22 degrees C, no effect was seen. The fEPSP enhancements, but not the fEPSP reductions, could be occluded by GABA antagonists. Application of higher concentrations of LY341495 (300, 600 nM-known to also affect Group III receptors, particularly mGlu8), or co-application of 50 nM LY341495 and the Group III-selective antagonist CPPG (100 microM) produced enhancements of responses, or counteracted response reductions over those seen with 50 nM LY341495 alone. The predominant Group II receptor in SC is mGlu3. It is known that this can be located presynaptically on GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals, postsynaptically, and on glia. Our results indicate that such receptors are tonically activated by endogenous transmitter, have distinct effects, and influence retino-collicular transmission. Furthermore, there is a segregation of effects where receptors exert some of their effects via modulation of GABAergic circuitry. PMID:15527816

  11. Estimating synaptic parameters from mean, variance, and covariance in trains of synaptic responses.

    PubMed Central

    Scheuss, V; Neher, E

    2001-01-01

    Fluctuation analysis of synaptic transmission using the variance-mean approach has been restricted in the past to steady-state responses. Here we extend this method to short repetitive trains of synaptic responses, during which the response amplitudes are not stationary. We consider intervals between trains, long enough so that the system is in the same average state at the beginning of each train. This allows analysis of ensemble means and variances for each response in a train separately. Thus, modifications in synaptic efficacy during short-term plasticity can be attributed to changes in synaptic parameters. In addition, we provide practical guidelines for the analysis of the covariance between successive responses in trains. Explicit algorithms to estimate synaptic parameters are derived and tested by Monte Carlo simulations on the basis of a binomial model of synaptic transmission, allowing for quantal variability, heterogeneity in the release probability, and postsynaptic receptor saturation and desensitization. We find that the combined analysis of variance and covariance is advantageous in yielding an estimate for the number of release sites, which is independent of heterogeneity in the release probability under certain conditions. Furthermore, it allows one to calculate the apparent quantal size for each response in a sequence of stimuli. PMID:11566771

  12. 5,6-EET Is Released upon Neuronal Activity and Induces Mechanical Pain Hypersensitivity via TRPA1 on Central Afferent Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Sisignano, Marco; Park, Chul-Kyu; Angioni, Carlo; Zhang, Dong Dong; von Hehn, Christian; Cobos, Enrique J.; Ghasemlou, Nader; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Kumaran, Vigneswara; Lu, Ruirui; Grant, Andrew; Fischer, Michael J. M.; Schmidtko, Achim; Reeh, Peter; Ji, Ru-Rong; Woolf, Clifford J.; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus; Brenneis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-epoxygenase-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid that act as endogenous signaling molecules in multiple biological systems. Here we have investigated the specific contribution of 5,6-EET to transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation in nociceptor neurons and its consequence for nociceptive processing. We found that, during capsaicin-induced nociception, 5,6-EET levels increased in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and the dorsal spinal cord, and 5,6-EET is released from activated sensory neurons in vitro. 5,6-EET potently induced a calcium flux (100 nm) in cultured DRG neurons that was completely abolished when TRPA1 was deleted or inhibited. In spinal cord slices, 5,6-EET dose dependently enhanced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in lamina II neurons that also responded to mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate), indicating a presynaptic action. Furthermore, 5,6-EET-induced enhancement of sEPSC frequency was abolished in TRPA1-null mice, suggesting that 5,6-EET presynaptically facilitated spinal cord synaptic transmission by TRPA1. Finally, in vivo intrathecal injection of 5,6-EET caused mechanical allodynia in wild-type but not TRPA1-null mice. We conclude that 5,6-EET is synthesized on the acute activation of nociceptors and can produce mechanical hypersensitivity via TRPA1 at central afferent terminals in the spinal cord. PMID:22553041

  13. Resting Discharge Patterns of Macular Primary Afferents in Otoconia-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S. M.; Hoffman, L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestibular primary afferents in the normal mammal are spontaneously active. The consensus hypothesis states that such discharge patterns are independent of stimulation and depend instead on excitation by vestibular hair cells due to background release of synaptic neurotransmitter. In the case of otoconial sensory receptors, it is difficult to test the independence of resting discharge from natural tonic stimulation by gravity. We examined this question by studying discharge patterns of single vestibular primary afferent neurons in the absence of gravity stimulation using two mutant strains of mice that lack otoconia (OTO−; head tilt, het-Nox3, and tilted, tlt-Otop1). Our findings demonstrated that macular primary afferent neurons exhibit robust resting discharge activity in OTO− mice. Spike interval coefficient of variation (CV = SD/mean spike interval) values reflected both regular and irregular discharge patterns in OTO− mice, and the range of values for rate-normalized CV was similar to mice and other mammals with intact otoconia although there were proportionately fewer irregular fibers. Mean discharge rates were slightly higher in otoconia-deficient strains even after accounting for proportionately fewer irregular fibers [OTO− = 75.4 ± 31.1(113) vs OTO+ = 68.1 ± 28.5(143) in sp/s]. These results confirm the hypothesis that resting activity in macular primary afferents occurs in the absence of ambient stimulation. The robust discharge rates are interesting in that they may reflect the presence of a functionally ‘up-regulated’ tonic excitatory process in the absence of natural sensory stimulation. PMID:18661184

  14. Afferent projections to pharynx and soft palate motoneurons: a light and electron microscopical tracing study in the cat.

    PubMed

    Boers, Jose; Hulshoff, Antoinette C; de Weerd, Henk; Mouton, Leonora J; Kuipers, Rutger; Holstege, Gert

    2005-05-23

    Pharynx and soft palate are muscles for respiration, vocalization, swallowing, and vomiting. In cat, motoneurons innervating pharynx/soft palate are located in the dorsal group of the nucleus ambiguus (dgNA) in the medulla oblongata. In cat, dgNA is the only part of nucleus ambiguus that can be distinguished as a separate cell group, which makes it possible to study its afferent input. In two cats, WGA-HRP injections in dgNA and surrounding tegmentum resulted in retrogradely labeled cells at several levels of the neuraxis. In 170 cases anterograde tracers were injected in areas in which the cells of origin were identified. Results demonstrate that dgNA afferents originate from the tegmentum dorsolateral to the superior olivary complex, medullary ventromedial tegmentum, caudal raphe nuclei, medullary lateral tegmental field, nucleus retroambiguus (NRA), and adjoining tegmentum, extending into the first cervical segment of the spinal cord. In order to determine whether periaqueductal gray (PAG) and parabrachial nuclei (PB) make synaptic contacts with dgNA, ultrastructural studies combined anterograde tracing from PAG, PB, and NRA with retrograde tracing of pharyngeal and soft palate motoneurons. The results showed that PB, but not PAG, projects to the dgNA and that NRA afferent synapses are three times as numerous as those from PB. The morphology of PB and NRA synapses is consistent with excitatory input. In conclusion, pharyngeal and soft palate motoneurons receive their afferents almost exclusively from the pontine and medullary tegmentum and first cervical spinal segment.

  15. High-fidelity transmission of sensory information by single cerebellar mossy fibre boutons.

    PubMed

    Rancz, Ede A; Ishikawa, Taro; Duguid, Ian; Chadderton, Paul; Mahon, Séverine; Häusser, Michael

    2007-12-20

    Understanding the transmission of sensory information at individual synaptic connections requires knowledge of the properties of presynaptic terminals and their patterns of firing evoked by sensory stimuli. Such information has been difficult to obtain because of the small size and inaccessibility of nerve terminals in the central nervous system. Here we show, by making direct patch-clamp recordings in vivo from cerebellar mossy fibre boutons-the primary source of synaptic input to the cerebellar cortex-that sensory stimulation can produce bursts of spikes in single boutons at very high instantaneous firing frequencies (more than 700 Hz). We show that the mossy fibre-granule cell synapse exhibits high-fidelity transmission at these frequencies, indicating that the rapid burst of excitatory postsynaptic currents underlying the sensory-evoked response of granule cells can be driven by such a presynaptic spike burst. We also demonstrate that a single mossy fibre can trigger action potential bursts in granule cells in vitro when driven with in vivo firing patterns. These findings suggest that the relay from mossy fibre to granule cell can act in a 'detonator' fashion, such that a single presynaptic afferent may be sufficient to transmit the sensory message. This endows the cerebellar mossy fibre system with remarkable sensitivity and high fidelity in the transmission of sensory information.

  16. Endocannabinoids in Synaptic Plasticity and Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Yi; Chen, Chu

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipid mediators involved in a variety of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological processes. While activation of the eCB system primarily induces inhibitory effects on both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity through acting on presynaptically-expressed CB1 receptors in the brain, accumulated information suggests that eCB signaling is also capable of facilitating or potentiating excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Recent studies show that a long-lasting potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses is induced by spatiotemporally primed inputs, accompanying with a long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission (I-LTD) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This input-timing-dependent long-lasting synaptic potentiation at SC-CA1 synapses is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling triggered by activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and a concurrent rise in intracellular Ca2+. Emerging evidence now also indicates that 2-AG is an important signaling mediator keeping brain homeostasis by exerting its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in response to harmful insults through CB1/2 receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Activation of the nuclear receptor protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) apparently is one of the important mechanisms in resolving neuroinflammation and protecting neurons produced by 2-AG signaling. Thus, the information summarized in this review suggests that the role of eCB signaling in maintaining integrity of brain function is greater than what we thought previously. PMID:24571856

  17. Pain processing by spinal microcircuits: afferent combinatorics.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A; Ratté, Stéphanie

    2012-08-01

    Pain, itch, heat, cold, and touch represent different percepts arising from somatosensory input. How stimuli give rise to these percepts has been debated for over a century. Recent work supports the view that primary afferents are highly specialized to transduce and encode specific stimulus modalities. However, cross-modal interactions (e.g. inhibition or exacerbation of pain by touch) support convergence rather than specificity in central circuits. We outline how peripheral specialization together with central convergence could enable spinal microcircuits to combine inputs from distinctly specialized, co-activated afferents and to modulate the output signals thus formed through computations like normalization. These issues will be discussed alongside recent advances in our understanding of microcircuitry in the superficial dorsal horn.

  18. Pain processing by spinal microcircuits: afferent combinatorics.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A; Ratté, Stéphanie

    2012-08-01

    Pain, itch, heat, cold, and touch represent different percepts arising from somatosensory input. How stimuli give rise to these percepts has been debated for over a century. Recent work supports the view that primary afferents are highly specialized to transduce and encode specific stimulus modalities. However, cross-modal interactions (e.g. inhibition or exacerbation of pain by touch) support convergence rather than specificity in central circuits. We outline how peripheral specialization together with central convergence could enable spinal microcircuits to combine inputs from distinctly specialized, co-activated afferents and to modulate the output signals thus formed through computations like normalization. These issues will be discussed alongside recent advances in our understanding of microcircuitry in the superficial dorsal horn. PMID:22409855

  19. Development, plasticity and modulation of visceral afferents

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Julie A.; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Altier, Christophe; Cenac, Nicolas; Davis, Brian M.; Gebhart, Gerald F.; High, Karin W.; Kollarik, Marian; Randich, Alan; Undem, Brad; Vergnolle, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Visceral pain is the most common reason for doctor visits in the US. Like somatic pain, virtually all visceral pain sensations begin with the activation of primary sensory neurons innervating the viscera and/or the blood vessels associated with these structures. Visceral afferents also play a central role in tissue homeostasis. Recent studies show that in addition to monitoring the state of the viscera, they perform efferent functions through the release of small molecules (e.g. peptides like CGRP) that can drive inflammation, thereby contributing to the development of visceral pathologies (e.g. diabetes Razavi, R., Chan, Y., Afifiyan, F.N., Liu, X.J., Wan, X., Yantha, J., Tsui, H., Tang, L., Tsai, S., Santamaria, P., Driver, J.P., Serreze, D., Salter, M.W., Dosch, H.M., 2006. TRPV1+ sensory neurons control beta cell stress and islet inflammation in autoimmune diabetes, Cell 127 1123–1135). Visceral afferents are heterogeneous with respect to their anatomy, neurochemistry and function. They are also highly plastic in that their cellular environment continuously influences their response properties. This plasticity makes them susceptible to long-term changes that may contribute significantly to the development of persistent pain states such as those associated with irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis, and visceral cancers. This review examines recent insights into visceral afferent anatomy and neurochemistry and how neonatal insults can affect the function of these neurons in the adult. New approaches to the treatment of visceral pain, which focus on primary afferents, will also be discussed. PMID:19150371

  20. Blockage of vibrissae afferents: I. Motor effects.

    PubMed

    Prchal, A; Albarracín, A L; Décima, E E

    2004-02-01

    In the past, it has been proposed that the rat vibrissae play an important role in other hand, postural abnormalities, muscle tone decreases and hypomotility after sensory organ destructions were proposed as evidence supporting the "level setting" or "tonic" hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that afferent activity, besides its well know transductive functions, sets the excitability state of the central nervous system. We thought the vibrissal system to be a good model to dissect these two postulated roles because vibrissae trimming would annul the transductive function without affecting the integrity of nerve activity. Thus we compare the effects of trimming the whiskers with blocking the vibrissal afferent nerves on two types of motor behavior: activity in an open field and walking over a rope connecting two elevated platforms. We found that only vibrissal afferent blockage (both nerve section and local anaesthesia) produced severe failures in the motor performances studied. These effects could not be fully explained by the abolition of the vibrissae as a sensory modality because cutting the whiskers did not significantly affect the motor performance. These data are discussed in reference to a tonic or general excitatory function of sensory inputs upon the central nervous system. PMID:15143620

  1. The Corticohippocampal Circuit, Synaptic Plasticity, and Memory.

    PubMed

    Basu, Jayeeta; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2015-11-02

    Synaptic plasticity serves as a cellular substrate for information storage in the central nervous system. The entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus are interconnected brain areas supporting basic cognitive functions important for the formation and retrieval of declarative memories. Here, we discuss how information flow in the EC-hippocampal loop is organized through circuit design. We highlight recently identified corticohippocampal and intrahippocampal connections and how these long-range and local microcircuits contribute to learning. This review also describes various forms of activity-dependent mechanisms that change the strength of corticohippocampal synaptic transmission. A key point to emerge from these studies is that patterned activity and interaction of coincident inputs gives rise to associational plasticity and long-term regulation of information flow. Finally, we offer insights about how learning-related synaptic plasticity within the corticohippocampal circuit during sensory experiences may enable adaptive behaviors for encoding spatial, episodic, social, and contextual memories.

  2. EONS: an online synaptic modeling platform.

    PubMed

    Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Qiu, Yumei; Ziane, Mohammed B; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

    2006-01-01

    Chemical synapses, although representing the smallest unit of communication between two neurons in the nervous system constitute a complex ensemble of mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms and the way synaptic transmission occurs is critical for our comprehension of CNS functions in general and learning and memory in particular. Here we describe a modeling platform called EONS (Elementary Object of Neural System) accessible online, which allows neuroscientists throughout the world to study qualitatively, but also quantitatively the relative contributions of diverse mechanisms underlying synaptic efficacy: the relevance of each and every elements that comprise a synapse, the interactions between these components and their subcellular distribution, as well as the influence of synaptic geometry (presynaptic terminal, cleft and postsynaptic density).

  3. Presynaptic CaV2.1 calcium channels carrying familial hemiplegic migraine mutation R192Q allow faster recovery from synaptic depression in mouse calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Inchauspe, Carlota González; Urbano, Francisco J.; Di Guilmi, Mariano N.; Ferrari, Michel D.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Forsythe, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    CaV2.1 Ca2+ channels have a dominant and specific role in initiating fast synaptic transmission at central excitatory synapses, through a close association between release sites and calcium sensors. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM-1) is an autosomal-dominant subtype of migraine with aura, caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the α1A pore-forming subunit of CaV2.1 channel. We used knock-in (KI) transgenic mice harboring the FHM-1 mutation R192Q to study the consequences of this mutation in neurotransmission at the giant synapse of the auditory system formed by the presynaptic calyx of Held terminal and the postsynaptic neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). Although synaptic transmission seems unaffected by low-frequency stimulation in physiological Ca2+ concentration, we observed that with low Ca2+ concentrations (<1 mM) excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) showed increased amplitudes in R192Q KI mice compared with wild type (WT), meaning significant differences in the nonlinear calcium dependence of nerve-evoked transmitter release. In addition, when EPSCs were evoked by broadened presynaptic action potentials (achieved by inhibition of K+ channels) via Cav2.1-triggered exocytosis, R192Q KI mice exhibited further enhancement of EPSC amplitude and charge compared with WT mice. Repetitive stimulation of afferent axons to the MNTB at different frequencies caused short-term depression of EPSCs that recovered significantly faster in R192Q KI mice than in WT mice. Faster recovery in R192Q KI mice was prevented by the calcium chelator EGTA-AM, pointing to enlarged residual calcium as a key factor in accelerating the replenishment of synaptic vesicles. PMID:22956801

  4. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-01

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  5. Synaptic amplifier of inflammatory pain in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Stark, Johanna; Fischer, Harald; Wagner, Matthias; Drdla, Ruth; Jäger, Tino; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2006-06-16

    Inflammation and trauma lead to enhanced pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia), which is in part due to altered sensory processing in the spinal cord. The synaptic hypothesis of hyperalgesia, which postulates that hyperalgesia is induced by the activity-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the spinal cord, has been challenged, because in previous studies of pain pathways, LTP was experimentally induced by nerve stimulation at high frequencies ( approximately 100 hertz). This does not, however, resemble the real low-frequency afferent barrage that occurs during inflammation. We identified a synaptic amplifier at the origin of an ascending pain pathway that is switched-on by low-level activity in nociceptive nerve fibers. This model integrates known signal transduction pathways of hyperalgesia without contradiction.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster Scramblases modulate synaptic transmission

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Usha; Edwards, Michael Beth; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Silva, Hugo; Nagashima, Kunio; Labarca, Pedro; Acharya, Jairaj K.

    2006-01-01

    Scramblases are a family of single-pass plasma membrane proteins, identified by their purported ability to scramble phospholipids across the two layers of plasma membrane isolated from platelets and red blood cells. However, their true in vivo role has yet to be elucidated. We report the generation and isolation of null mutants of two Scramblases identified in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that flies lacking either or both of these Scramblases are not compromised in vivo in processes requiring scrambling of phospholipids. Instead, we show that D. melanogaster lacking both Scramblases have more vesicles and display enhanced recruitment from a reserve pool of vesicles and increased neurotransmitter secretion at the larval neuromuscular synapses. These defects are corrected by the introduction of a genomic copy of the Scramb 1 gene. The lack of phenotypes related to failure of scrambling and the neurophysiological analysis lead us to propose that Scramblases play a modulatory role in the process of neurotransmission. PMID:16606691

  7. What Is Transmitted in "Synaptic Transmission"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montagna, Erik; de Azevedo, Adriana M. S.; Romano, Camilla; Ranvaud, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Even students that obtain a high grade in neurophysiology often carry away a serious misconception concerning the final result of the complex set of events that follows the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic terminal. The misconception consists in considering that "at a synapse, information is passed on from one neuron to the next"…

  8. Neurotransmitters and synaptic components in the Merkel cell-neurite complex, a gentle touch receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Srdjan; Baba, Yoshichika; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cells are an enigmatic group of rare cells found in the skin of vertebrates. Most make contacts with somatosensory afferents to form Merkel cell-neurite complexes, which are gentle-touch receptors that initiate slowly adapting type I responses. The function of Merkel cells within the complex remains debated despite decades of research. Numerous anatomical studies demonstrate that Merkel cells form synaptic-like contacts with sensory afferent terminals. Moreover, recent molecular analysis reveals that Merkel cells express dozens of presynaptic molecules that are essential for synaptic vesicle release in neurons. Merkel cells also produce a host of neuro-active substances that can act as fast excitatory neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. Here, we review the major neurotransmitters found in Merkel cells and discuss these findings in relation to the potential function of Merkel cells in touch reception. PMID:23530998

  9. Cross-talk induces bifurcations in nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Terry

    2012-02-01

    Linear models of synaptic plasticity provide a useful starting-point for examining the dynamics of neuronal development and learning, but their inherent problems are well known. Models of synaptic plasticity that embrace the demands of biological realism are therefore typically nonlinear. Viewed from a more abstract perspective, nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity are a subset of nonlinear dynamical systems. As such, they may therefore exhibit bifurcations under the variation of control parameters, including noise and errors in synaptic updates. One source of noise or error is the cross-talk that occurs during otherwise Hebbian plasticity. Under cross-talk, stimulation of a set of synapses can induce or modify plasticity in adjacent, unstimulated synapses. Here, we analyze two nonlinear models of developmental synaptic plasticity and a model of independent component analysis in the presence of a simple model of cross-talk. We show that cross-talk does indeed induce bifurcations in these models, entirely destroying their ability to acquire either developmentally or learning-related patterns of fixed points. Importantly, the critical level of cross-talk required to induce bifurcations in these models is very sensitive to the statistics of the afferents' activities and the number of afferents synapsing on a postsynaptic cell. In particular, the critical level can be made arbitrarily small. Because bifurcations are inevitable in nonlinear models, our results likely apply to many nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity, although the precise details vary by model. Hence, many nonlinear models of synaptic plasticity are potentially fatally compromised by the toxic influence of cross-talk and other sources of noise and errors more generally. We conclude by arguing that biologically realistic models of synaptic plasticity must be robust against noise-induced bifurcations and that biological systems may have evolved strategies to circumvent their possible dangers.

  10. Synaptic depression and short-term habituation are located in the sensory part of the mammalian startle pathway

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Weidenmaier, Nadine S; Weber, Maruschka; Plappert, Claudia F; Pilz, Peter KD; Schmid, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Background Short-term habituation of the startle response represents an elementary form of learning in mammals. The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). Short trains of action potentials in sensory afferent fibers induce depression of synaptic responses in PnC giant neurons, a phenomenon that has been proposed to be the cellular correlate for short-term habituation. We address here the question whether both this synaptic depression and the short-term habituation of the startle response are localized at the presynaptic terminals of sensory afferents. If this is confirmed, it would imply that these processes take place prior to multimodal signal integration, rather than occurring at postsynaptic sites on PnC giant neurons that directly drive motor neurons. Results Patch-clamp recordings in vitro were combined with behavioral experiments; synaptic depression was specific for the input pathway stimulated and did not affect signals elicited by other sensory afferents. Concordant with this, short-term habituation of the acoustic startle response in behavioral experiments did not influence tactile startle response amplitudes and vice versa. Further electrophysiological analysis showed that the passive properties of the postsynaptic neuron were unchanged but revealed some alterations in short-term plasticity during depression. Moreover, depression was induced only by trains of presynaptic action potentials and not by single pulses. There was no evidence for transmitter receptor desensitization. In summary, the data indicates that the synaptic depression mechanism is located presynaptically. Conclusion Our electrophysiological and behavioral data strongly indicate that synaptic depression in the PnC as well as short-term habituation are located in the sensory part of the startle pathway, namely at the axon terminals of sensory afferents in the Pn

  11. Cortical Presynaptic Control of Dorsal Horn C–Afferents in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C–fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C–fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C–fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C–fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory

  12. Cortical presynaptic control of dorsal horn C-afferents in the rat.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Yunuen; Pérez-Sánchez, Jimena; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Lamina 5 sensorimotor cortex pyramidal neurons project to the spinal cord, participating in the modulation of several modalities of information transmission. A well-studied mechanism by which the corticospinal projection modulates sensory information is primary afferent depolarization, which has been characterized in fast muscular and cutaneous, but not in slow-conducting nociceptive skin afferents. Here we investigated whether the inhibition of nociceptive sensory information, produced by activation of the sensorimotor cortex, involves a direct presynaptic modulation of C primary afferents. In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, we analyzed the effects of sensorimotor cortex activation on post tetanic potentiation (PTP) and the paired pulse ratio (PPR) of dorsal horn field potentials evoked by C-fiber stimulation in the sural (SU) and sciatic (SC) nerves. We also explored the time course of the excitability changes in nociceptive afferents produced by cortical stimulation. We observed that the development of PTP was completely blocked when C-fiber tetanic stimulation was paired with cortex stimulation. In addition, sensorimotor cortex activation by topical administration of bicuculline (BIC) produced a reduction in the amplitude of C-fiber responses, as well as an increase in the PPR. Furthermore, increases in the intraspinal excitability of slow-conducting fiber terminals, produced by sensorimotor cortex stimulation, were indicative of primary afferent depolarization. Topical administration of BIC in the spinal cord blocked the inhibition of C-fiber neuronal responses produced by cortical stimulation. Dorsal horn neurons responding to sensorimotor cortex stimulation also exhibited a peripheral receptive field and responded to stimulation of fast cutaneous myelinated fibers. Our results suggest that corticospinal inhibition of nociceptive responses is due in part to a modulation of the excitability of primary C-fibers by means of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons

  13. Afferent innervation patterns of the saccule in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakir, M.; Huss, D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The innervation patterns of vestibular saccular afferents were quantitatively investigated in pigeons using biotinylated dextran amine as a neural tracer and three-dimensional computer reconstruction. Type I hair cells were found throughout a large portion of the macula, with the highest density observed in the striola. Type II hair cells were located throughout the macula, with the highest density in the extrastriola. Three classes of afferent innervation patterns were observed, including calyx, dimorph, and bouton units, with 137 afferents being anatomically reconstructed and used for quantitative comparisons. Calyx afferents were located primarily in the striola, innervated a number of type I hair cells, and had small innervation areas. Most calyx afferent terminal fields were oriented parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and the morphological polarization reversal line. Dimorph afferents were located throughout the macula, contained fewer type I hair cells in a calyceal terminal than calyx afferents and had medium sized innervation areas. Bouton afferents were restricted to the extrastriola, with multi-branching fibers and large innervation areas. Most of the dimorph and bouton afferents had innervation fields that were oriented dorso-ventrally but were parallel to the neighboring reversal line. The organizational morphology of the saccule was found to be distinctly different from that of the avian utricle or lagena otolith organs and appears to represent a receptor organ undergoing evolutionary adaptation toward sensing linear motion in terrestrial and aerial species.

  14. Afferent Input Selects NMDA Receptor Subtype to Determine the Persistency of Hippocampal LTP in Freely Behaving Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Jesús J.; Buschler, Arne; Köhr, Georg; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2) mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity. In contrast to the hippocampal slice preparation, in behaving mice, the afferent frequencies that induce synaptic plasticity are very restricted and specific. In fact, it is the stimulus pattern and not variations in afferent frequency that determine the longevity of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo. Here, we explored the contribution of GluN2A and GluN2B to LTP of differing magnitudes and persistence in freely behaving mice. We applied differing high-frequency stimulation (HFS) patterns at 100 Hz to the hippocampal CA1 region, to induce NMDAR-dependent LTP in wild-type (WT) mice, that endured for <1 h (early (E)-LTP), (LTP, 2–4 h) or >24 h (late (L)-LTP). In GluN2A-knockout (KO) mice, E-LTP (HFS, 50 pulses) was significantly reduced in magnitude and duration, whereas LTP (HFS, 2 × 50 pulses) and L-LTP (HFS, 4 × 50 pulses) were unaffected compared to responses in WT animals. By contrast, pharmacological antagonism of GluN2B in WT had no effect on E-LTP but significantly prevented LTP. E-LTP and LTP were significantly impaired by GluN2B antagonism in GluN2A-KO mice. These data indicate that the pattern of afferent stimulation is decisive for the recruitment of distinct GluN2A and GluN2B signaling pathways that in turn determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP. Whereas brief bursts of patterned stimulation preferentially recruit GluN2A and lead to weak and short-lived forms of LTP, prolonged

  15. Upward synaptic scaling is dependent on neurotransmission rather than spiking.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ming-fai; Newman, Jonathan P; Potter, Steve M; Wenner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic plasticity encompasses a set of mechanisms that are thought to stabilize firing rates in neural circuits. The most widely studied form of homeostatic plasticity is upward synaptic scaling (upscaling), characterized by a multiplicative increase in the strength of excitatory synaptic inputs to a neuron as a compensatory response to chronic reductions in firing rate. While reduced spiking is thought to trigger upscaling, an alternative possibility is that reduced glutamatergic transmission generates this plasticity directly. However, spiking and neurotransmission are tightly coupled, so it has been difficult to determine their independent roles in the scaling process. Here we combined chronic multielectrode recording, closed-loop optogenetic stimulation, and pharmacology to show that reduced glutamatergic transmission directly triggers cell-wide synaptic upscaling. This work highlights the importance of synaptic activity in initiating signalling cascades that mediate upscaling. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that upscaling functions to homeostatically stabilize firing rates.

  16. Synaptic scaling stabilizes persistent activity driven by asynchronous neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Volman, Vladislav; Gerkin, Richard C

    2011-04-01

    Small networks of cultured hippocampal neurons respond to transient stimulation with rhythmic network activity (reverberation) that persists for several seconds, constituting an in vitro model of synchrony, working memory, and seizure. This mode of activity has been shown theoretically and experimentally to depend on asynchronous neurotransmitter release (an essential feature of the developing hippocampus) and is supported by a variety of developing neuronal networks despite variability in the size of populations (10-200 neurons) and in patterns of synaptic connectivity. It has previously been reported in computational models that "small-world" connection topology is ideal for the propagation of similar modes of network activity, although this has been shown only for neurons utilizing synchronous (phasic) synaptic transmission. We investigated how topological constraints on synaptic connectivity could shape the stability of reverberations in small networks that also use asynchronous synaptic transmission. We found that reverberation duration in such networks was resistant to changes in topology and scaled poorly with network size. However, normalization of synaptic drive, by reducing the variance of synaptic input across neurons, stabilized reverberation in such networks. Our results thus suggest that the stability of both normal and pathological states in developing networks might be shaped by variance-normalizing constraints on synaptic drive. We offer an experimental prediction for the consequences of such regulation on the behavior of small networks.

  17. Epsin1 modulates synaptic vesicle retrieval capacity at CNS synapses.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Jae Won; Bae, Jae Ryul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Song, Woo Keun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle retrieval is an essential process for continuous maintenance of neural information flow after synaptic transmission. Epsin1, originally identified as an EPS15-interacting protein, is a major component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, the role of Epsin1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis at CNS synapses remains elusive. Here, we showed significantly altered synaptic vesicle endocytosis in neurons transfected with shRNA targeting Epsin1 during/after neural activity. Endocytosis was effectively restored by introducing shRNA-insensitive Epsin1 into Epsin1-depleted neurons. Domain studies performed on neurons in which domain deletion mutants of Epsin1 were introduced after Epsin1 knockdown revealed that ENTH, CLAP, and NPFs are essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis, whereas UIMs are not. Strikingly, the efficacy of the rate of synaptic vesicle retrieval (the "endocytic capacity") was significantly decreased in the absence of Epsin1. Thus, Epsin1 is required for proper synaptic vesicle retrieval and modulates the endocytic capacity of synaptic vesicles. PMID:27557559

  18. Epsin1 modulates synaptic vesicle retrieval capacity at CNS synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Jae Won; Bae, Jae Ryul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Song, Woo Keun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle retrieval is an essential process for continuous maintenance of neural information flow after synaptic transmission. Epsin1, originally identified as an EPS15-interacting protein, is a major component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, the role of Epsin1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis at CNS synapses remains elusive. Here, we showed significantly altered synaptic vesicle endocytosis in neurons transfected with shRNA targeting Epsin1 during/after neural activity. Endocytosis was effectively restored by introducing shRNA-insensitive Epsin1 into Epsin1-depleted neurons. Domain studies performed on neurons in which domain deletion mutants of Epsin1 were introduced after Epsin1 knockdown revealed that ENTH, CLAP, and NPFs are essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis, whereas UIMs are not. Strikingly, the efficacy of the rate of synaptic vesicle retrieval (the “endocytic capacity”) was significantly decreased in the absence of Epsin1. Thus, Epsin1 is required for proper synaptic vesicle retrieval and modulates the endocytic capacity of synaptic vesicles. PMID:27557559

  19. Engrailed Alters the Specificity of Synaptic Connections of Drosophila Auditory Neurons with the Giant Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Adeline; Jezzini, Sami H.; Marie, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We show that a subset of sound-detecting Johnston's Organ neurons (JONs) in Drosophila melanogaster, which express the transcription factors Engrailed (En) and Invected (Inv), form mixed electrical and chemical synaptic inputs onto the giant fiber (GF) dendrite. These synaptic connections are detected by trans-synaptic Neurobiotin (NB) transfer and by colocalization of Bruchpilot-short puncta. We then show that misexpressing En postmitotically in a second subset of sound-responsive JONs causes them to form ectopic electrical and chemical synapses with the GF, in turn causing that postsynaptic neuron to redistribute its dendritic branches into the vicinity of these afferents. We also introduce a simple electrophysiological recording paradigm for quantifying the presynaptic and postsynaptic electrical activity at this synapse, by measuring the extracellular sound-evoked potentials (SEPs) from the antennal nerve while monitoring the likelihood of the GF firing an action potential in response to simultaneous subthreshold sound and voltage stimuli. Ectopic presynaptic expression of En strengthens the synaptic connection, consistent with there being more synaptic contacts formed. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of En and Inv in postmitotic neurons reduces SEP amplitude but also reduces synaptic strength at the JON–GF synapse. Overall, these results suggest that En and Inv in JONs regulate both neuronal excitability and synaptic connectivity. PMID:25164665

  20. Response properties of pigeon otolith afferents to linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, X.; Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the sensitivity to sinusoidal linear accelerations in the plane of the utricular macula was tested in afferents. The head orientation relative to the translation axis was varied in order to determine the head position that elicited the maximal and minimal responses for each afferent. The response gain and phase values obtained to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz linear acceleration stimuli were then plotted as a function of head orientation and a modified cosine function was fit to the data. From the best-fit cosine function, the predicted head orientations that would produce the maximal and minimal response gains were estimated. The estimated maximum response gains to linear acceleration in the utricular plane for the afferents varied between 75 and 1420 spikes s-1 g-1. The mean maximal gains for all afferents to 0.5-Hz and 2-Hz sinusoidal linear acceleration stimuli were 282 and 367 spikes s-1 g-1, respectively. The minimal response gains were essentially zero for most units. The response phases always led linear acceleration and remained constant for each afferent, regardless of head orientation. These response characteristics indicate that otolith afferents are cosine tuned and behave as one-dimensional linear accelerometers. The directions of maximal sensitivity to linear acceleration for the afferents varied throughout the plane of the utricle; however, most vectors were directed out of the opposite ear near the interaural axis. The response dynamics of the afferents were tested using stimulus frequencies ranging between 0.25 Hz and 10 Hz (0.1 g peak acceleration). Across stimulus frequencies, most afferents had increasing gains and constant phase values. These dynamic properties for individual afferents were fit with a simple transfer function that included three parameters: a mechanical time constant, a gain constant, and a fractional order distributed adaptation operator.

  1. The active zone protein CAST regulates synaptic vesicle recycling and quantal size in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shizuka; Hida, Yamato; Ishizaki, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Eiji; Tanaka-Okamoto, Miki; Yamasaki, Miwako; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Fukaya, Masahiro; Kitajima, Isao; Takai, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshiya

    2016-09-01

    Synaptic efficacy is determined by various factors, including the quantal size, which is dependent on the amount of neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic terminal. It is essential for stable synaptic transmission that the quantal size is kept within a constant range and that synaptic efficacy during and after repetitive synaptic activation is maintained by replenishing release sites with synaptic vesicles. However, the mechanisms for these fundamental properties have still been undetermined. We found that the active zone protein CAST (cytomatrix at the active zone structural protein) played pivotal roles in both presynaptic regulation of quantal size and recycling of endocytosed synaptic vesicles. In the CA1 region of hippocampal slices of the CAST knockout mice, miniature excitatory synaptic responses were increased in size, and synaptic depression after prolonged synaptic activation was larger, which was attributable to selective impairment of synaptic vesicle trafficking via the endosome in the presynaptic terminal likely mediated by Rab6. Therefore, CAST serves as a key molecule that regulates dynamics and neurotransmitter contents of synaptic vesicles in the excitatory presynaptic terminal in the central nervous system.

  2. The active zone protein CAST regulates synaptic vesicle recycling and quantal size in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shizuka; Hida, Yamato; Ishizaki, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Eiji; Tanaka-Okamoto, Miki; Yamasaki, Miwako; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Fukaya, Masahiro; Kitajima, Isao; Takai, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshiya

    2016-09-01

    Synaptic efficacy is determined by various factors, including the quantal size, which is dependent on the amount of neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic terminal. It is essential for stable synaptic transmission that the quantal size is kept within a constant range and that synaptic efficacy during and after repetitive synaptic activation is maintained by replenishing release sites with synaptic vesicles. However, the mechanisms for these fundamental properties have still been undetermined. We found that the active zone protein CAST (cytomatrix at the active zone structural protein) played pivotal roles in both presynaptic regulation of quantal size and recycling of endocytosed synaptic vesicles. In the CA1 region of hippocampal slices of the CAST knockout mice, miniature excitatory synaptic responses were increased in size, and synaptic depression after prolonged synaptic activation was larger, which was attributable to selective impairment of synaptic vesicle trafficking via the endosome in the presynaptic terminal likely mediated by Rab6. Therefore, CAST serves as a key molecule that regulates dynamics and neurotransmitter contents of synaptic vesicles in the excitatory presynaptic terminal in the central nervous system. PMID:27422015

  3. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13715.001 PMID:26987017

  4. Thalamic Glutamatergic Afferents into the Rat Basolateral Amygdala Exhibit Increased Presynaptic Glutamate Function Following Withdrawal from Chronic Intermittent Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Daniel T; Alexander, Nancy J; Diaz, Marvin R; McCool, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala glutamatergic neurotransmission regulates withdrawal induced anxiety-like behaviors following chronic ethanol exposure. The lateral/basolateral amygdala receives multiple glutamatergic projections that contribute to overall amygdala function. Our lab has previously shown that rat cortical (external capsule) afferents express postsynaptic alterations during chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal. However, thalamic (internal capsule) afferents also provide crucial glutamatergic input during behavioral conditioning, and they have not been studied in the context of chronic drug exposure. We report here that these thalamic inputs express altered presynaptic function during withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure. This is characterized by enhanced release probability, as exemplified by altered paired-pulse ratios and decreased failure rates of unitary events, and increased concentrations of synaptic glutamate. Quantal analysis further implicates a withdrawal-dependent enhancement of the readily-releasable pool of vesicles as a probable mechanism. These functional alterations are accompanied by increased expression of vesicle associated protein markers. These data demonstrate that chronic ethanol modulation of glutamate neurotransmission in the rat lateral/basolateral amygdala is afferent-specific. Further, presynaptic regulation of lateral/basolateral amygdala thalamic inputs by chronic ethanol may be a novel neurobiological mechanism contributing to the increased anxiety-like behaviors that characterize withdrawal. PMID:22982568

  5. Effect of Microgravity on Afferent Innervation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Presentations and publications are: (1) an audiovisual summary web presentation on results from SLM-MIR avian experiments. A color presentation summarizing results from the SLM-MIR and STS-29 avian experiments; (2) color threshold and ratio of S 100B MAP5, NF68/200, GABA and GAD; (3) chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents; (4) microgravity in the STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery affected the vestibular system of chick embryos; (5) expression of S 100B in sensory and secretory cells of the vertebrate inner ear; (6) otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes;(7) the glycan keratin sulfate in inner ear crystals; (8) elliptical-P cells in the avian perilymphatic interface of the tegmentum vasculosum; and (9) LAMP2c and S100B upregulation in brain stem after VIIIth nerve deafferentation.

  6. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  7. Circadian variation in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Stephen J; Frisby, Claudine L; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J

    2013-12-01

    Food intake is coordinated to cellular metabolism by clock gene expression with a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronized by light exposure. Gastric vagal afferents play a role in regulating food intake, but it is unknown whether they exhibit circadian variation in their mechanosensitivity. We aimed to determine whether gastric vagal afferents express clock genes and whether their response to mechanical stimuli oscillates throughout the light/dark cycle. Nodose ganglia were collected from 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice every 3 h starting at lights off (1800 h) to quantify Bmal1, Per1, Per2, and Nr1d1 mRNA by qRT-PCR. Additionally in vitro single-fiber recordings of gastric vagal mechanoreceptors were taken at all time points. Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Nr1d1 mRNA is expressed in the nodose ganglia and levels oscillated over a 24 h period. In mice fed ad libitum, gastric content was 3 times higher at 0000 h and 0300 h than 1200 h. The response of tension receptors to 3 g stretch was reduced by up to 70% at 2100 h, 0000 h, and 0300 h compared with 1200 h. Gastric mucosal receptor response to stroking with a 50 mg von Frey hair was 3 times greater at 1200 h and 1500 h than the response at 0000 h. Similar findings were obtained in mice fasted for 6 h or maintained in darkness for 3 d before study. Therefore, these changes do not result from food intake or the light/dark cycle. Thus, gastric vagal mechanoreceptors display circadian rhythm, which may act to control food intake differentially at different times of the day. PMID:24305819

  8. Vagally evoked synaptic currents in the immature rat nucleus tractus solitarii in an intact in vitro preparation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bret N; Dou, Ping; Barber, William D; Dudek, F Edward

    1998-01-01

    Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in an in vitro brainstem-cranial nerve explant preparation were used to assess the local circuitry activated by vagal input to nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) neurones in immature rats.All neurones that responded to vagal stimulation displayed EPSCs of relatively constant latency. Approximately 50 % of these also demonstrated variable-latency IPSCs, and ∼31 % also displayed variable-latency EPSCs to vagal stimulation. All neurones also had spontaneous EPSCs and IPSCs.Evoked and spontaneous EPSCs reversed near 0 mV and were blocked by the glutamate AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists 6,7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) at rest. Evoked EPSCs had rapid rise times (< 1 s) and decayed monoexponentially (τ= 2.04 ± 0.03 ms) at potentials near rest.At holding potentials positive to ∼−50 mV, a slow EPSC could be evoked in the presence of DNQX or CNQX. This current peaked at holding potentials near −25 mV and was blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5). It was therefore probably due to activation of NMDA receptors by vagal afferent fibres.Fast IPSCs reversed near −70 mV and were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. In addition, bicuculline enhanced excitatory responses to vagal stimulation and increased spontaneous EPSC frequency. Antagonists to AMPA/kainate receptors reversibly blocked stimulus-associated IPSCs and also decreased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs.These findings suggest that glutamate mediates synaptic transmission from the vagus nerve to neurones in the immature NTS by acting at non-NMDA and NMDA receptors. NTS neurones may also receive glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic input from local neurones that can be activated by vagal input and/or regulated by amino acid inputs from other brainstem neurones. PMID:9729625

  9. Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Villalón, Aldo; Künzle, Heinz; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2009-11-24

    The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.

  10. The rapid antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects of YY-21 involve enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of mTOR signaling in the mPFC.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Bing; Fu, Zhiwen; Ma, Yuqin; Gao, Yu; Shen, Fuyi; Huang, Chenggang; Li, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Although antidepressants have been widely prescribed to treat patients with major depressive disease (MDD), there is little disagreement over the need for improved antidepressant therapeutics as the typical treatments have a slow therapeutic onset and moderate efficacy. In the present study, we assessed a novel compound, YY-21, from timosaponin B-III derived from sarsasapogenin of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma. From the initial results, we found that YY-21 obviously increased presynaptic glutamate release and enhanced long-term synaptic activity within 10min as determined by excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) and field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) slices, respectively. YY-21 demonstrated anxiolytic-like effects following acute administration in naïve animals and reversed the depressive-like and anxiety phenotypes induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) with a relatively fast therapeutic onset. Furthermore, analysis of intracellular signaling pathways showed that YY-21 normalized the CMS-induced low protein levels of GluN2B, p-mTOR, synaptic-related proteins, such as BDNF, PSD-95 and GluA1. Pre-application of the mTOR-selective inhibitor rapamycin blocked YY-21-induced long-term synaptic enhancement. These findings suggest that the activation of BDNF-dependent mTOR signaling, which produces a rapid increase in the postsynaptic protein PSD-95 and GluA1 and further triggers the long-term enhancement of synaptic neurotransmission, may be the mechanism underlying the rapid antidepressant and anxiolytic effects induced by YY-21.

  11. Environment matters: synaptic properties of neurons born in the epileptic adult brain develop to reduce excitability.

    PubMed

    Jakubs, Katherine; Nanobashvili, Avtandil; Bonde, Sara; Ekdahl, Christine T; Kokaia, Zaal; Kokaia, Merab; Lindvall, Olle

    2006-12-21

    Neural progenitors in the adult dentate gyrus continuously produce new functional granule cells. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to explore whether a pathological environment influences synaptic properties of new granule cells labeled with a GFP-retroviral vector. Rats were exposed to a physiological stimulus, i.e., running, or a brain insult, i.e., status epilepticus, which gave rise to neuronal death, inflammation, and chronic seizures. Granule cells formed after these stimuli exhibited similar intrinsic membrane properties. However, the new neurons born into the pathological environment differed with respect to synaptic drive and short-term plasticity of both excitatory and inhibitory afferents. The new granule cells formed in the epileptic brain exhibited functional connectivity consistent with reduced excitability. We demonstrate a high degree of plasticity in synaptic inputs to adult-born new neurons, which could act to mitigate pathological brain function.

  12. Applicability of the coefficient of variation method for analyzing synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Faber, D S; Korn, H

    1991-11-01

    The classical coefficient of variation method for "quantal" analysis of synaptic responses allows unambiguous identification of pre- and postsynaptic loci underlying synaptic plasticity only when extensive simplifying restrictions are made. They include invariance of quantal parameters and the assumption that a single afferent produces the evoked potentials or currents. More general theoretical formulations and simulations demonstrate that the standard criteria do not always provide useful guidelines because when the other sources of physiological variance are included, putative pre- and postsynaptic domains may overlap. For example, data typically interpreted as indicating modifications at both sites can be due to a mechanism localized to only one of the two, if parameter variances are taken into consideration in the case of a single input cell, or if there are multiple inputs and the stimulus does not activate all of them reliably. With this perspective, other physiologically realistic hypotheses relevant to the expression of synaptic plasticity, such as that during long-term potentiation, can be envisioned.

  13. Neural Variability, Detection Thresholds, and Information Transmission in the Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soroush G.; Chacron, Maurice J.; Taylor, Michael C.; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neural coding is the role of spike timing variation in information transmission of sensory stimuli. Vestibular afferents are particularly well suited to study this issue because they are classified as either regular or irregular based on resting discharge variability as well as morphology. Here, we compared the responses of each afferent class to sinusoidal and random head rotations using both information theoretic and gain measures. Information theoretic measures demonstrated that regular afferents transmitted, on average, two times more information than irregular afferents, despite having significantly lower gains. Moreover, consistent with information theoretic measures, regular afferents had angular velocity detection thresholds that were 50% lower than those of irregular afferents (~4 vs 8°/s). Finally, to quantify the information carried by spike times, we added spike-timing jitter to the spike trains of both regular and irregular afferents. Our results showed that this significantly reduced information transmitted by regular afferents whereas it had little effect on irregular afferents. Thus, information is carried in the spike times of regular but not irregular afferents. Using a simple leaky integrate and fire model with a dynamic threshold, we show that differential levels of intrinsic noise can explain differences in the resting discharge, the responses to sensory stimuli, as well as the information carried by action potential timings of each afferent class. Our experimental and modeling results provide new insights as to how neural variability influences the strategy used by two different classes of sensory neurons to encode behaviorally relevant stimuli. PMID:17251416

  14. Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian cochlea, acoustic information is carried to the brain by the predominant (95%) large-diameter, myelinated type I afferents, each of which is postsynaptic to a single inner hair cell. The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. Intriguingly, type II afferents remain intact in damaged regions of the cochlea. Here, we show that type II afferents are activated when outer hair cells are damaged. This response depends on both ionotropic (P2X) and metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors, binding ATP released from nearby supporting cells in response to hair cell damage. Selective activation of P2Y receptors increased type II afferent excitability by the closure of KCNQ-type potassium channels, a potential mechanism for the painful hypersensitivity (that we term “noxacusis” to distinguish from hyperacusis without pain) that can accompany hearing loss. Exposure to the KCNQ channel activator retigabine suppressed the type II fiber’s response to hair cell damage. Type II afferents may be the cochlea’s nociceptors, prompting avoidance of further damage to the irreparable inner ear. PMID:26553995

  15. Optical fiber synaptic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; García-Lopez, J. H.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding neuron connections is a great challenge, which is needed to solve many important problems in neurobiology and neuroengineering for recreation of brain functions and efficient biorobotics. In particular, a design of an optical synapse capable to communicate with neuron spike sequences would be crucial to improve the functionality of neuromimmetic networks. In this work we propose an optical synaptic sensor based on an erbium-doped fiber laser driven by a FitzHung-Nagumo electronic neuron, to connect with another electronic neuron. Two possible optical synaptic configurations are analyzed for optoelectronic coupling between neurons: laser cavity loss modulation and pump laser modulation. The control parameters of the proposed optical synapse provide additional degrees of flexibility to the neuron connection traditionally controlled only by coupling strengths in artificial networks.

  16. A regional ultrastructural analysis of the cellular and synaptic architecture in the chinchilla cristae ampullares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysakowski, A.; Goldberg, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The chinchilla crista ampullaris was studied in 10 samples, each containing 32 consecutive ultrathin sections of the entire neuroepithelium. Dissector methods were used to estimate the incidence of various synaptic features, and results were confirmed in completely reconstructed hair cells. There are large regional variations in cellular and synaptic architecture. Type I and type II hair cells are shorter, broader, and less densely packed in the central zone than in the intermediate and peripheral zones. Complex calyx endings are most common centrally. On average, there are 15-20 ribbon synapses and 25-30 calyceal invaginations in each type I hair cell. Synapses and invaginations are most numerous centrally. Central type II hair cells receive considerably fewer afferent boutons than do peripheral type II hair cells, but have similar numbers of ribbon synapses. The numbers are similar because central type II hair cells make more synapses with the outer faces of calyx endings and with individual afferent boutons. Most afferent boutons get one ribbon synapse. Boutons without ribbon synapses were only found peripherally, and boutons getting multiple synapses were most frequent centrally. Throughout the neuroepithelium, there is an average of three to four efferent boutons on each type II hair cell and calyx ending. Reciprocal synapses are rare. Most synaptic ribbons in type I hair cells are spherules; those in type II hair cells can be spherical or elongated and are particularly heterogeneous centrally. Consistent with the proposal that the crista is concentrically organized, the intermediate and peripheral zones are each similar in their cellular and synaptic architecture near the base and near the planum. An especially differentiated subzone may exist in the middle of the central zone.

  17. Synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Liberia, Teresa; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Nácher, Juan; Varea, Emilio; Lanciego, José Luis; Crespo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) of mammals receives cholinergic afferents from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB). At present, the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons on the circuits of the OB has only been investigated in the rat. In this report, we analyze the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the OB of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Our aim is to investigate whether the cholinergic innervation of the bulbar circuits is phylogenetically conserved between macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals. Our results demonstrate that the cholinergic axons form synaptic contacts on interneurons. In the glomerular layer, their main targets are the periglomerular cells, which receive axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses. In the inframitral region, their main targets are the granule cells, which receive synaptic contacts on their dendritic shafts and spines. Although the cholinergic boutons were frequently found in close vicinity of the dendrites of principal cells, we have not found synaptic contacts on them. From a comparative perspective, our data indicate that the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic circuits is highly preserved in the OB of macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals. PMID:25852490

  18. Electrophysiological analysis of synaptic distribution in CA1 of rat hippocampus after chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Abraham, W C; Manis, P B; Hunter, B E; Zornetzer, S F; Walker, D W

    1982-04-01

    This study investigated the long-lasting effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the distribution of Schaffer collateral-commissural (SCH/COM) afferents within stratum radiatum of rat hippocampal CA1. Experimental animals were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 20 weeks but were withdrawn from the special diet for at least 8 weeks prior to acute electrophysiological recordings. Field potential laminar analyses were performed by stepping the recording electrode in 25 microns increments through CA1 and sampling evoked potentials at each point. One-dimensional current-source density (CSD) was calculated from the field potential laminar profiles to enhance spatial resolution of current sources and sinks. Stimulation of the SCH/COM afferents elicits short-latency, negative field potentials throughout the synaptic terminal zone (stratum radiatum). CSD analysis in normal animals revealed that the synaptic currents generated in stratum radiatum concentrate into bimodal yet overlapping components, peaking 71.3 microns and 228.3 microns from the pyramidal cell layer. Chronic ethanol treatment produced: (1) a 13.2% shrinkage of the overall extent of current sinks in stratum radiatum; (2) a 37.4% reduction in the spatial extent of the sink proximal to the cell layer; and (3) an increase in the amplitude of the more distal sink. We tentatively propose the proximal and distal sinks to reflect a separation of the COM and SCH afferents, respectively. Chronic ethanol thus appeared to have selectively produced persistent damage to the COM-CA1 pathway.

  19. Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar

  20. Short-term synaptic plasticity can enhance weak signal detectability in nonrenewal spike trains.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, Niklas; Nelson, Mark E

    2006-12-01

    We study the encoding of weak signals in spike trains with interspike interval (ISI) correlations and the signals' subsequent detection in sensory neurons. Motivated by the observation of negative ISI correlations in auditory and electrosensory afferents, we assess the theoretical performance limits of an individual detector neuron receiving a weak signal distributed across multiple afferent inputs. We assess the functional role of ISI correlations in the detection process using statistical detection theory and derive two sequential likelihood ratio detector models: one for afferents with renewal statistics; the other for afferents with negatively correlated ISIs. We suggest a mechanism that might enable sensory neurons to implicitly compute conditional probabilities of presynaptic spikes by means of short-term synaptic plasticity. We demonstrate how this mechanism can enhance a postsynaptic neuron's sensitivity to weak signals by exploiting the correlation structure of the input spike trains. Our model not only captures fundamental aspects of early electrosensory signal processing in weakly electric fish, but may also bear relevance to the mammalian auditory system and other sensory modalities.

  1. Ultrastructure of synaptic contacts between identified neurons of the auditory pathway in Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer.

    PubMed

    Hirtz, R; Wiese, K

    1997-09-29

    The synaptic contacts between the auditory sensory cells and identified auditory interneurons ON1 and AN2 have been examined at the ultrastructural level by selective electron-dense labeling of two interneurons or of one interneuron and the sensory fibers in the same preparation. The experiments have provided the following information. The auditory afferent fibers have a monosynaptic connection with the lateral inhibitors ON1 and the ascending interneuron AN2, allowing direct activation of these interneurons. Furthermore, our work proves that the paired, lateral, inhibitor ON1 neurons have direct output synapses onto each other. The results also show that the auditory afferent axons, themselves, receive synaptic inputs just before entering the central auditory neuropil. The effects of current injection into the ON1 neuron during auditory processing indicate that these synaptic inputs onto the afferents originate, in part, from the lateral branches of the ipsilateral ON1 neuron and that they have inhibitory function. The significance of these results for auditory processing and a future perspective for electron microscopic analysis of neuropil are discussed.

  2. [Peptidergic modulation of the hippocampus synaptic activity].

    PubMed

    Skrebitskiĭ, V G; Kondratenko, R V; Povarov, I S; Dereviagin, V I

    2011-11-01

    Effects of two newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptides: Noopept and Selank on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) or Selank (2 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependent spontaneous m1PSCs, whereas spike-independent mlPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that both peptides mediated their effect sue to activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion, at least for Noonent. PMID:22390072

  3. The amygdala, synaptic plasticity, and fear memory.

    PubMed

    Maren, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The nature and mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the amygdala and the relation of amygdaloid plasticity to behavior are exciting new areas of study in neuroscience. These issues were at the heart of presentations by Paul Chapman, Michael Fanselow, Patricia Shinnick-Gallagher, and Michael Rogawski in a session entitled "Long-Term Plasticity in Amygdala Synaptic Transmission" that was held at the conference featured in this volume. In this chapter, I briefly summarize these talks and give my perspective on the presentations as the session chair. I argue that we must first understand the role of the amygdala in learning and memory in order to understand the contribution of amygdaloid synaptic plasticity to behavior. Although it is generally agreed that the amygdala is involved in several forms of emotional learning and memory such as pavlovian fear conditioning, a recent debate has emerged concerning the precise role of the amygdala in learning versus performing fear responses. I discuss data from my laboratory that unravel this issue. I argue that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) normally plays an essential role in associative processes in fear conditioning. Nonetheless, rats with BLA lesions acquire and express conditional fear under some conditions. A neuroanatomical model that accounts for these data is presented.

  4. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were

  5. Mast cells drive mesenteric afferent signalling during acute intestinal ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wen; Kirkup, Anthony J; Grundy, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute intestinal ischaemia stimulates visceral afferent nerves but the mechanisms responsible for this excitation are not fully understood. Mast cells may participate in this process as they are known to signal to mesenteric afferents during intestinal anaphylaxis and contribute to early inflammation and neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischaemia. We therefore hypothesised that mast cells are early responders to acute intestinal ischaemia and their activation initiates rapid signalling to the CNS via the excitation of mesenteric afferents. Primary afferent firing was recorded from a mesenteric nerve bundle supplying a segment of jejunum in anaesthetized adult rats. Acute focal ischaemia was produced by clamping the mesenteric vessels for 8 min, and reperfusion followed removal of the vessel clip. Two episodes of ischaemia–reperfusion (I–R) separated by a 30 min interval were performed. Drugs or their vehicles were administered 10 min before the 2nd I–R episode. Ischaemia caused a reproducible, intense and biphasic afferent firing that was temporally dissociated from the concomitantly triggered complex pattern of intestinal motor activity. The L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, significantly attenuated this afferent firing by a mechanism independent of its action on intestinal tone. Ischaemia-induced afferent firing was also abrogated by the mast cell stabilizer, doxantrazole, and the H1 histamine receptor antagonist, pyrilamine. In contrast, the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, and the N-type calcium channel toxin, ω-conotoxin GVIA, each reduced the ischaemia-evoked motor inhibition but not the concurrent afferent discharge. Similarly, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, naproxen, had no effect on the ischaemic afferent response but reduced the intestinal tone shortly from the onset of ischaemia to the early period of reperfusion. These data support a critical role for mast cell-derived histamine in the direct chemoexcitation

  6. Effects of hypoxic preconditioning on synaptic ultrastructure in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhishan; Sun, Shufeng; Duan, Yunxia; Shi, Jingfei; Qi, Zhifeng; Meng, Ran; Sun, Yongxin; Zeng, Xianwei; Chui, Dehua; Ji, Xunming

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) elicits resistance to more drastic subsequent insults, which potentially provide neuroprotective therapeutic strategy, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of HPC on synaptic ultrastructure in olfactory bulb of mice. Mice underwent up to five cycles of repeated HPC treatments, and hypoxic tolerance was assessed with a standard gasp reflex assay. As expected, HPC induced an increase in tolerance time. To assess synaptic responses, Western blots were used to quantify protein levels of representative markers for glia, neuron, and synapse, and transmission electron microscopy was used to examine synaptic ultrastructure and mitochondrial density. HPC did not significantly alter the protein levels of astroglial marker (GFAP), neuron-specific markers (GAP43, Tuj-1, and OMP), synaptic number markers (synaptophysin and SNAP25) or the percentage of excitatory synapses versus inhibitory synapses. However, HPC significantly affected synaptic curvature and the percentage of synapses with presynaptic mitochondria, which showed concomitant change pattern. These findings demonstrate that HPC is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure. PMID:25155519

  7. The role of mitochondrially derived ATP in synaptic vesicle recycling.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Divya; Shields, Lauren Y; Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Haddad, Dominik; Lin, Wei; Gerencser, Akos A; Kim, Hwajin; Brand, Martin D; Edwards, Robert H; Nakamura, Ken

    2015-09-11

    Synaptic mitochondria are thought to be critical in supporting neuronal energy requirements at the synapse, and bioenergetic failure at the synapse may impair neural transmission and contribute to neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the energy requirements of synaptic vesicle release or whether these energy requirements go unmet in disease, primarily due to a lack of appropriate tools and sensitive assays. To determine the dependence of synaptic vesicle cycling on mitochondrially derived ATP levels, we developed two complementary assays sensitive to mitochondrially derived ATP in individual, living hippocampal boutons. The first is a functional assay for mitochondrially derived ATP that uses the extent of synaptic vesicle cycling as a surrogate for ATP level. The second uses ATP FRET sensors to directly measure ATP at the synapse. Using these assays, we show that endocytosis has high ATP requirements and that vesicle reacidification and exocytosis require comparatively little energy. We then show that to meet these energy needs, mitochondrially derived ATP is rapidly dispersed in axons, thereby maintaining near normal levels of ATP even in boutons lacking mitochondria. As a result, the capacity for synaptic vesicle cycling is similar in boutons without mitochondria as in those with mitochondria. Finally, we show that loss of a key respiratory subunit implicated in Leigh disease markedly decreases mitochondrially derived ATP levels in axons, thus inhibiting synaptic vesicle cycling. This proves that mitochondria-based energy failure can occur and be detected in individual neurons that have a genetic mitochondrial defect.

  8. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Fusi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity). Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain. PMID:23641210

  9. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like MAGUKs. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-, NMDA, kainate-type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively-charged lipid bilayers in its phosphorylation dependent manner, and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction. PMID:20547132

  10. Population synaptic potentials evoked in lumbar motoneurons following stimulation of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis during carbachol-induced atonia.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Jiménez, I; Morales, F; Rudomin, P; Chase, M

    1994-03-14

    The effect of electrical stimulation of the medullary nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc) on lumbar spinal cord motoneurons was studied in the decerebrate cat using sucrose-gap recordings from ventral roots. The NRGc was stimulated ipsi- and contralaterally before and during atonia elicited by the microinjection of carbachol into the pontine reticular formation. Prior to carbachol administration, the NRGc-induced response recorded from the sucrose-gap consisted of two consecutive excitatory population synaptic potentials followed by a long-lasting, small amplitude inhibitory population synaptic potential. Following carbachol injection, the same NRGc stimulus evoked a distinct, large amplitude inhibitory population synaptic potential, whereas the excitatory population synaptic potentials decreased in amplitude. In addition, after carbachol administration, the amplitude of the monosynaptic excitatory population synaptic potential, which was evoked by stimulation of group Ia afferents in hindlimb nerves, was reduced by 18 to 43%. When evoked at the peak of the NRGc-induced inhibitory response, this potential was further decreased in amplitude. Systemic strychnine administration (0.07-0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) blocked the NRGc-induced inhibitory population synaptic potential and promoted an increase in the amplitude of the excitatory population synaptic potentials induced by stimulation of the NRGc and group Ia afferents. These data indicate that during the state of carbachol-induced atonia, the NRGc effects on ipsi- and contralateral spinal cord motoneurons are predominantly inhibitory and that glycine is likely to be involved in this inhibitory process. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis is part of the system responsible for state-dependent somatomotor inhibition that occurs during active sleep. PMID:8205484

  11. In vivo long-term synaptic plasticity of glial cells.

    PubMed

    Bélair, Eve-Lyne; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Evidence showing the ability of glial cells to detect, respond to and modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity has contributed to the notion of glial cells as active synaptic partners. However, synaptically induced plasticity of glia themselves remains ill defined. Here we used the amphibian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) to study plasticity of perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs), glial cells at this synapse, following long-term in vivo modifications of synaptic activity. We used two models that altered synaptic activity in different manners. First, chronic blockade of postsynaptic nicotinic receptors using alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) decreased facilitation, increased synaptic depression and decreased post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Second, chronic nerve stimulation increased facilitation and resistance to synaptic depression, while leaving PTP unaltered. Our results indicate that there is no direct relationship between transmitter release and PSC calcium responses. Indeed, despite changes in transmitter release and plasticity in stimulated NMJs, nerve-evoked PSC calcium responses were similar to control. Similarly, PSC calcium responses in alpha-BTx treated NMJs were delayed and smaller in amplitude, even though basal level of transmitter release was increased. Also, when isolating purinergic and muscarinic components of PSC calcium responses, we found an increased sensitivity to ATP and a decreased sensitivity to muscarine in chronically stimulated NMJs. Conversely, in alpha-BTx treated NMJs, PSC sensitivity remained unaffected, but ATP- and muscarine-induced calcium responses were prolonged. Thus, our results reveal complex modifications of PSC properties, with differential modulation of signalling pathways that might underlie receptor regulation or changes in Ca(2+) handling. Importantly, similar to neurons, perisynaptic glial cells undergo plastic changes induced by altered synaptic activity.

  12. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  13. Neonatal inflammation and primary afferent terminal plasticity in the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Walker, Suellen M; Meredith-Middleton, Jacqueta; Cooke-Yarborough, Claire; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2003-09-01

    Abnormal or excessive activity related to pain and injury in early life may alter normal synaptic development and lead to changes in somatosensory processing. The aim of the current study was to define the critical factors that determine long-term plasticity in spinal cord afferent terminals following neonatal inflammation. Hindpaw inflammation was produced in neonatal rat pups with 5 or 25 microl 2% carrageenan, and 5 or 25 microl complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). All groups displayed a clear inflammatory response that recovered in 2 weeks in all but the 25 microl CFA group, who had persistent chronic inflammation confirmed by histological examination of the paw at 8 weeks. The 25 microl CFA group was also the only group that displayed a significant expansion of the sciatic and saphenous nerve terminal field in lamina II of the dorsal horn at 8 weeks, using wheat-germ agglutinin-horse radish peroxidase transganglionic labelling. This effect was not accompanied by changes in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell number, expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), or alterations in calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) or isolectin B4 binding; and was not mimicked by partial nerve damage. No long-term change in mechanical or thermal behavioural sensory thresholds was seen in any group. Lower dose CFA caused an acute, reversible expansion of terminal fields in lamina II in neonatal animals, while CFA did not produce this effect in adults. The duration and effect of neonatal inflammation is therefore dependent on the type and volume of inflammatory agent used. The expansion of afferent terminals in lamina II following neonatal CFA inflammation is maintained into adulthood if the inflammation is also maintained, as seen following 25 microl CFA. This effect is not seen in adult animals, emphasising the plasticity of the nervous system early in development.

  14. Resistance of a crayfish sensory interneurone to hyperinnervation by acceptable afferents.

    PubMed Central

    Krasne, F B; Lee, S H

    1982-01-01

    1. Intact normal innervation of muscle fibres and other peripheral targets usually prevents regenerating nerves from forming synapses with the targets. Whether intact innervation similarly prevents synapse formation on central target neurones has rarely been tested. This question was examined here for interneurone A of the crayfish last abdominal ganglion. 2. Interneurone A normally receives synaptic input from mechanoreceptor neurones distributed over the side of the tailfan ipsilateral to interneurone A's axon and unilateral dendrites. When the five nerve roots carrying mechanoreceptor axons of one side are cut and central and peripheral ends of one or more are sutured together, regeneration and reinnervation of interneurone A occurs over some two to six weeks. If peripheral ends of roots from the 'wrong' (contralateral) side of the body are sutured to ipsilateral central stumps, they also form connexions with interneurone A. When roots from the two sides of the body are simultaneously tied to a central stump, functional connexion formation occurs equally well for afferents from both sides. Therefore, roots of the two sides seem to be equivalent in their ability to reinnervate interneurone A. 3. If peripheral ends of roots from one side of the tailfan are tied to roots on the intact opposite side of the body, the cut axons appear to grow into the last ganglion but usually do not form functional synapses there. The intact innervation therefore seems to exclude further innervation by other acceptable afferents. 4. It is known that mechanoreceptors are added to the tailfan at moult. Exclusion of extra innervation often broke down partially in animals that moulted during the present experiments. This suggests the possibility that synapse formation or exchange may be controlled by moult-inducing hormones. PMID:7153906

  15. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    PubMed

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Margeta, Milica A.; Shen, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Synapses are specialized junctions that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. A striking feature of the nervous system is the specificity of its synaptic connections: an individual neuron will form synapses only with a small subset of available presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. Synaptic specificity has been classically thought to arise from homophilic or heterophilic interactions between adhesive molecules acting across the synaptic cleft. Over the past decade, many new mechanisms giving rise to synaptic specificity have been identified. Synapses can be specified by secreted molecules that promote or inhibit synaptogenesis, and their source can be a neighboring guidepost cell, not just presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Furthermore, lineage, fate, and timing of development can also play critical roles in shaping neural circuits. Future work utilizing large-scale screens will aim to elucidate the full scope of cellular mechanisms and molecular players that can give rise to synaptic specificity. PMID:19969086

  17. A Model of Synaptic Reconsolidation

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, David B.; Schwalger, Tilo; Ziegler, Lorric; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2016-01-01

    Reconsolidation of memories has mostly been studied at the behavioral and molecular level. Here, we put forward a simple extension of existing computational models of synaptic consolidation to capture hippocampal slice experiments that have been interpreted as reconsolidation at the synaptic level. The model implements reconsolidation through stabilization of consolidated synapses by stabilizing entities combined with an activity-dependent reservoir of stabilizing entities that are immune to protein synthesis inhibition (PSI). We derive a reduced version of our model to explore the conditions under which synaptic reconsolidation does or does not occur, often referred to as the boundary conditions of reconsolidation. We find that our computational model of synaptic reconsolidation displays complex boundary conditions. Our results suggest that a limited resource of hypothetical stabilizing molecules or complexes, which may be implemented by protein phosphorylation or different receptor subtypes, can underlie the phenomenon of synaptic reconsolidation. PMID:27242410

  18. Tracking slow modulations in synaptic gain using dynamic causal modelling: Validation in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Margarita; Leite, Marco; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Lemieux, Louis; Friston, Karl; Marinazzo, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a proof of principle that dynamic causal modelling can identify plausible mechanisms at the synaptic level underlying brain state changes over a timescale of seconds. As a benchmark example for validation we used intracranial electroencephalographic signals in a human subject. These data were used to infer the (effective connectivity) architecture of synaptic connections among neural populations assumed to generate seizure activity. Dynamic causal modelling allowed us to quantify empirical changes in spectral activity in terms of a trajectory in parameter space — identifying key synaptic parameters or connections that cause observed signals. Using recordings from three seizures in one patient, we considered a network of two sources (within and just outside the putative ictal zone). Bayesian model selection was used to identify the intrinsic (within-source) and extrinsic (between-source) connectivity. Having established the underlying architecture, we were able to track the evolution of key connectivity parameters (e.g., inhibitory connections to superficial pyramidal cells) and test specific hypotheses about the synaptic mechanisms involved in ictogenesis. Our key finding was that intrinsic synaptic changes were sufficient to explain seizure onset, where these changes showed dissociable time courses over several seconds. Crucially, these changes spoke to an increase in the sensitivity of principal cells to intrinsic inhibitory afferents and a transient loss of excitatory–inhibitory balance. PMID:25498428

  19. Histaminergic afferent system in the cerebellum: structure and function.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Histaminergic afferent system of the cerebellum, having been considered as an essential component of the direct hypothalamocerebellar circuits, originates from the tuberomammillary nucleus in the hypothalamus. Unlike the mossy fibers and climbing fibers, the histaminergic afferent fibers, a third type of cerebellar afferents, extend fine varicose fibers throughout the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. Histamine receptors, belonging to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, are widely present in the cerebellum. Through these histamine receptors, histamine directly excites Purkinje cells and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex, as well as the cerebellar nuclear neurons. Therefore, the histaminergic afferents parallelly modulate these dominant components in the cerebellar circuitry and consequently influence the final output of the cerebellum. In this way, the histaminergic afferent system actively participates in the cerebellum-mediated motor balance and coordination and nonsomatic functions. Accordingly, histaminergic reagents may become potential drugs for clinical treatment of cerebellar ataxia and other cerebellar disease. On the other hand, considering the hypothalamus is a high regulatory center for autonomic and visceral activities, the hypothalamocerebellar histaminergic fibers/projections, bridging the nonsomatic center to somatic structure, may play a critical role in the somatic-nonsomatic integration.

  20. Thermal nociceptive properties of trigeminal afferent neurons in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although nociceptive afferents innervating the body have been heavily studied form many years, much less attention has been paid to trigeminal afferent biology. In particular, very little is known concerning trigeminal nociceptor responses to heat, and almost nothing in the rat. This study uses a highly controlled and reproducible diode laser stimulator to investigate the activation of trigeminal afferents to noxious skin heating. Results The results of this experiment demonstrate that trigeminal thermonociceptors are distinct from themonociceptors innervating the limbs. Trigeminal nociceptors have considerably slower action potential conduction velocities and lower temperature thresholds than somatic afferent neurons. On the other hand, nociceptors innervating both tissue areas separate into those that respond to short pulse, high rate skin heating and those that respond to long pulse, low rate skin heating. Conclusions This paper provides the first description in the literature of the in vivo properties of thermonociceptors in rats. These finding of two separate populations aligns with the separation between C and A-delta thermonociceptors innervating the paw, but have significant differences in terms of temperature threshold and average conduction velocities. An understanding of the temperature response properties of afferent neurons innervating the paw skin have been critical in many mechanistic discoveries, some leading to new pain therapies. A clear understanding of trigeminal nociceptors may be similarly useful in the investigation of trigeminal pain mechanisms and potential therapies. PMID:20609212

  1. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    PubMed

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior.

  2. In vitro Functional Characterization of Mouse Colorectal Afferent Endings

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bin; Gebhart, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    This video demonstrates in detail an in vitro single-fiber electrophysiological recording protocol using a mouse colorectum-nerve preparation. The approach allows unbiased identification and functional characterization of individual colorectal afferents. Extracellular recordings of propagated action potentials (APs) that originate from one or a few afferent (i.e., single-fiber) receptive fields (RFs) in the colorectum are made from teased nerve fiber fascicles. The colorectum is removed with either the pelvic (PN) or lumbar splanchnic (LSN) nerve attached and opened longitudinally. The tissue is placed in a recording chamber, pinned flat and perfused with oxygenated Krebs solution. Focal electrical stimulation is used to locate the colorectal afferent endings, which are further tested by three distinct mechanical stimuli (blunt probing, mucosal stroking and circumferential stretch) to functionally categorize the afferents into five mechanosensitive classes. Endings responding to none of these mechanical stimuli are categorized as mechanically-insensitive afferents (MIAs). Both mechanosensitive and MIAs can be assessed for sensitization (i.e., enhanced response, reduced threshold, and/or acquisition of mechanosensitivity) by localized exposure of RFs to chemicals (e.g., inflammatory soup (IS), capsaicin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)). We describe the equipment and colorectum–nerve recording preparation, harvest of colorectum with attached PN or LSN, identification of RFs in the colorectum, single-fiber recording from nerve fascicles, and localized application of chemicals to the RF. In addition, challenges of the preparation and application of standardized mechanical stimulation are also discussed. PMID:25651300

  3. Semicircular Canal Geometry, Afferent Sensitivity And Animal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry of the semicircular canals has been used in evolutionary studies to predict the behaviors of extinct animals. These predictions have relied on an assumption that the responses of the canals can be determined from their dimensions, and that an organism’s behavior can be determined from these responses. However, the relationship between a canal’s sensitivity and its size is not well known. An intraspecies comparison among canal responses in each of three species (cat, squirrel monkey, and pigeon) was undertaken to evaluate various models of canal function and determine how their dimensions may be related to afferent physiology. All models predicted the responses of the cat afferents, but the models performed less well for squirrel monkey and pigeon. Possible causes for this discrepancy include incorrectly assuming that afferent responses accurately represent canal function, or errors in current biophysical models of the canals. These findings leave open the question as to how reliably canal anatomy can be used to estimate afferent responses and how closely afferent responses are related to behavior. Other labyrinthine features—such as orientation of the horizontal canal, which is reliably held near earth-horizontal across many species—may be better to use when extrapolating the posture and related behavior of extinct animals from labyrinthine morphology. PMID:16550591

  4. Competition with Primary Sensory Afferents Drives Remodeling of Corticospinal Axons in Mature Spinal Motor Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Qiu; Zaaimi, Boubker

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the mature motor system drives significant spontaneous axonal sprouting instead of axon regeneration. Knowing the circuit-level determinants of axonal sprouting is important for repairing motor circuits after injury to achieve functional rehabilitation. Competitive interactions are known to shape corticospinal tract axon outgrowth and withdrawal during development. Whether and how competition contributes to reorganization of mature spinal motor circuits is unclear. To study this question, we examined plastic changes in corticospinal axons in response to two complementary proprioceptive afferent manipulations: (1) enhancing proprioceptive afferents activity by electrical stimulation; or (2) diminishing their input by dorsal rootlet rhizotomy. Experiments were conducted in adult rats. Electrical stimulation produced proprioceptive afferent sprouting that was accompanied by significant corticospinal axon withdrawal and a decrease in corticospinal connections on cholinergic interneurons in the medial intermediate zone and C boutons on motoneurons. In contrast, dorsal rootlet rhizotomy led to a significant increase in corticospinal connections, including those on cholinergic interneurons; C bouton density increased correspondingly. Motor cortex-evoked muscle potentials showed parallel changes to those of corticospinal axons, suggesting that reciprocal corticospinal axon changes are functional. Using the two complementary models, we showed that competitive interactions between proprioceptive and corticospinal axons are an important determinant in the organization of mature corticospinal axons and spinal motor circuits. The activity- and synaptic space-dependent properties of the competition enables prediction of the remodeling of spared corticospinal connection and spinal motor circuits after injury and informs the target-specific control of corticospinal connections to promote functional recovery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuroplasticity is limited in maturity

  5. Neuromuscular synaptic function in mice lacking major subsets of gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Zitman, F M P; Todorov, B; Jacobs, B C; Verschuuren, J J; Furukawa, K; Furukawa, K; Willison, H J; Plomp, J J

    2008-10-28

    Gangliosides are a family of sialylated glycosphingolipids enriched in the outer leaflet of neuronal membranes, in particular at synapses. Therefore, they have been hypothesized to play a functional role in synaptic transmission. We have measured in detail the electrophysiological parameters of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ex vivo of a GD3-synthase knockout mouse, expressing only the O- and a-series gangliosides, as well as of a GM2/GD2-synthase*GD3-synthase double-knockout (dKO) mouse, lacking all gangliosides except GM3. No major synaptic deficits were found in either null-mutant. However, some extra degree of rundown of acetylcholine release at high intensity use was present at the dKO NMJ and a temperature-specific increase in acetylcholine release at 35 degrees C was observed in GD3-synthase knockout NMJs, compared with wild-type. These results indicate that synaptic transmission at the NMJ is not crucially dependent on the particular presence of most ganglioside family members and remains largely intact in the sole presence of GM3 ganglioside. Rather, presynaptic gangliosides appear to play a modulating role in temperature- and use-dependent fine-tuning of transmitter output. PMID:18801416

  6. Spontaneous Activity Drives Local Synaptic Plasticity In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Winnubst, Johan; Cheyne, Juliette E; Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, Christian

    2015-07-15

    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in the mouse visual cortex in vivo. Analyzing activity changes across large populations of synapses revealed a simple and efficient local plasticity rule: synapses that exhibit low synchronicity with nearby neighbors (<12 μm) become depressed in their transmission frequency. Asynchronous electrical stimulation of individual synapses in hippocampal slices showed that this is due to a decrease in synaptic transmission efficiency. Accordingly, experimentally increasing local synchronicity, by stimulating synapses in response to spontaneous activity at neighboring synapses, stabilized synaptic transmission. Finally, blockade of the high-affinity proBDNF receptor p75(NTR) prevented the depression of asynchronously stimulated synapses. Thus, spontaneous activity drives local synaptic plasticity at individual synapses in an "out-of-sync, lose-your-link" fashion through proBDNF/p75(NTR) signaling to refine neuronal connectivity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  7. Synaptic dimorphism in Onychophoran cephalic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Peña-Contreras, Z; Mendoza-Briceño, R V; Miranda-Contreras, L; Palacios-Prü, E L

    2007-03-01

    The taxonomic location of the Onychophora has been controversial because of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, related to both annelids and arthropods. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the neurons and their synapses in the cephalic ganglion of a poorly known invertebrate, the velvet worm Peripatus sedgwicki, from the mountainous region of El Valle, Mérida, Venezuela. Cephalic ganglia were dissected, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. The animal has a high degree of neurobiological development, as evidenced by the presence of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses, as well as the existence of glial cell processes in a wide neuropile zone. The postsynaptic terminals were seen to contain subsynaptic cisterns formed by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum beneath the postsynaptic density, whereas the presynaptic terminal showed numerous electron transparent synaptic vesicles. From the neurophylogenetic perspectives, the ultrastructural characteristics of the central nervous tissue of the Onychophora show important evolutionary acquirements, such as the presence of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, indicating functional synaptic transmission, and the appearance of mature glial cells. PMID:18457135

  8. Classification: Molecular & Synaptic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marc P.; Gu, Xinglong; Lu, Wei; Roche, Katherine W.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the density of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) at synapses is essential for regulating the strength of excitatory neurotransmission. In particular, the phosphorylation of AMPARs is important for defining both synaptic expression and intracellular routing of receptors. Phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification known to regulate many cellular events and the C-termini of glutamate receptors are important targets. Recently, the first intracellular loop1 region of the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs was reported to regulate synaptic targeting through phosphorylation of S567 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Intriguingly, the loop1 region of all four AMPAR subunits contains many putative phosphorylation sites (S/T/Y), leaving the possibility that other kinases may regulate AMPAR surface expression via phosphorylation of the loop regions. To explore this hypothesis, we used in vitro phosphorylation assays with a small panel of purified kinases and found that casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates the GluA1 and GluA2 loop1 regions, but not GluA3 or GluA4. Interestingly, when we reduced the endogenous expression of CK2 using a specific shRNA against the regulatory subunit CK2β, we detected a reduction of GluA1 surface expression, whereas GluA2 was unchanged. Furthermore, we identified S579 of GluA1 as a substrate of CK2, and the expression of GluA1 phospho-deficient mutants in hippocampal neurons displayed reduced surface expression. Therefore, our study identifies CK2 as a regulator of GluA1 surface expression by phosphorylating the intracellular loop1 region. PMID:24712994

  9. Parasagittal zones in the cerebellar cortex differ in excitability, information processing, and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Timothy J; Wang, Xinming; Gao, Wangcai; Cramer, Samuel W; Chen, Gang

    2012-06-01

    At the molecular and circuitry levels, the cerebellum exhibits a striking parasagittal zonation as exemplified by the spatial distribution of molecules expressed on Purkinje cells and the topography of the afferent and efferent projections. The physiology and function of the zonation is less clear. Activity-dependent optical imaging has proven a useful tool to examine the physiological properties of the parasagittal zonation in the intact animal. Recent findings show that zebrin II-positive and zebrin II-negative zones differ markedly in their responses to parallel fiber inputs. These findings suggest that cerebellar cortical excitability, information processing, and synaptic plasticity depend on the intrinsic properties of different parasagittal zones. PMID:22249913

  10. Adipose afferent reflex: sympathetic activation and obesity hypertension.

    PubMed

    Xiong, X-Q; Chen, W-W; Zhu, G-Q

    2014-03-01

    Excessive sympathetic activity contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and the progression of the related organ damage. Adipose afferent reflex (AAR) is a sympatho-excitatory reflex that the afferent activity from white adipose tissue (WAT) increases sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN or PVH) is one of the central sites in the control of the AAR, and ionotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus mediate the AAR. The AAR is enhanced in obesity and obesity hypertension. Enhanced WAT afferent activity and AAR contribute to the excessive sympathetic activation and hypertension in obesity. Blockage of the AAR attenuates the excessive sympathetic activity and hypertension. Leptin may be one of sensors in the WAT for the AAR, and is involved in the enhanced AAR in obesity and hypertension. This review focuses on the neuroanatomical basis and physiological functions of the AAR, and the important role of the enhanced AAR in the pathogenesis of obesity hypertension.

  11. A novel role for TRPM8 in visceral afferent function.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Andrea M; Hughes, Patrick A; Martin, Christopher M; Yang, Jing; Castro, Joel; Isaacs, Nicole J; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Brierley, Stuart M

    2011-07-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperatures and cooling agents, such as menthol and icilin. Compounds containing peppermint are reported to reduce symptoms of bowel hypersensitivity; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. Here we determined the role of TRPM8 in colonic sensory pathways. Laser capture microdissection, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence, and retrograde tracing were used to localise TRPM8 to colonic primary afferent neurons. In vitro extracellular single-fibre afferent recordings were used to determine the effect of TRPM8 channel activation on the chemosensory and mechanosensory function of colonic high-threshold afferent fibres. TRPM8 mRNA was present in colonic DRG neurons, whereas TRPM8 protein was present on nerve fibres throughout the wall of the colon. A subpopulation (24%, n=58) of splanchnic serosal and mesenteric afferents tested responded directly to icilin (5 μmol/L). Subsequently, icilin significantly desensitised afferents to mechanical stimulation (P<.0001; n=37). Of the splanchnic afferents responding to icilin, 21 (33%) also responded directly to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (3 μmol/L), and icilin reduced the direct chemosensory response to capsaicin. Icilin also prevented mechanosensory desensitization and sensitization induced by capsaicin and the TRPA1 agonist AITC (40 μmol/L), respectively. TRPM8 is present on a select population of colonic high threshold sensory neurons, which may also co-express TRPV1. TRPM8 couples to TRPV1 and TRPA1 to inhibit their downstream chemosensory and mechanosensory actions. PMID:21489690

  12. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Mowery, Todd M.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the ACx. PMID:26321918

  13. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity. PMID:27420105

  14. Circadian Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to oscillations in biological processes with a period of approximately 24 h. In addition to the sleep/wake cycle, there are circadian rhythms in metabolism, body temperature, hormone output, organ function and gene expression. There is also evidence of circadian rhythms in synaptic plasticity, in some cases driven by a master central clock and in other cases by peripheral clocks. In this article, I review the evidence for circadian influences on synaptic plasticity. I also discuss ways to disentangle the effects of brain state and rhythms on synaptic plasticity. PMID:27420105

  15. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  16. The afferent pupillary defect in acute optic neuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with acute optic neuritis were studied by the techniques of infrared pupillometry and visual evoked responses (VER) to pattern reversal. A relative afferent pupillary defect was found in all cases and the magnitude of this defect was found to be related to the amplitude, but not to the latency, of the VER. During follow-up the afferent defect was found to remain persistently abnormal while other methods of clinical evaluation could not demonstrate abnormality reliably. The amplitude of the VER also remained low. PMID:501365

  17. The Comparison of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Morphine Administration on Fast Synaptic Transmission in Magnocellular Neurons of Supraoptic Nucleus, Plasma Vasopressin Levels, and Urine Volume of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousefpour, Mitra; Naderi, Nima; Mansouri, Zahra; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) is regulated by a variety of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Opioids are one of the important compounds that affect these inputs at SON synapses. In this study, whole-cell patch clamp recording of SON neurons was used to investigate the effect of acute and repeated morphine administration on spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory post synaptic currents (sIPSCs and sEPSCs) in MCNs. While acute bath application of morphine to brain slice of intact rat produced an increase in sEPSCs frequency and a decrease in sIPSCs frequency, repeated in-vivo administration of morphine produced opposite effect. Moreover, repetitive i.c.v. administration of morphine for three consecutive days caused significant increase in urine volume, but had no significant alteration in water consumption compared to control group. The increase in urine volume was consistent with a significant decrease in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels after repetitive i.p. morphine administration. The results suggest that acute administration of morphine stimulates whereas repeated administration of morphine inhibits the MCNs. Morphine-induced MCN inhibition could result in diminished plasma AVP levels and eventually an increase in urine volume of rats. PMID:25276199

  18. Dendritic Spines as Tunable Regulators of Synaptic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, Jan; Nägerl, U. Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are perpetually receiving vast amounts of information in the form of synaptic input from surrounding cells. The majority of input occurs at thousands of dendritic spines, which mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, and is integrated by the dendritic and somatic compartments of the postsynaptic neuron. The functional role of dendritic spines in shaping biochemical and electrical signals transmitted via synapses has long been intensely studied. Yet, many basic questions remain unanswered, in particular regarding the impact of their nanoscale morphology on electrical signals. Here, we review our current understanding of the structure and function relationship of dendritic spines, focusing on the controversy of electrical compartmentalization and the potential role of spine structural changes in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27340393

  19. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  20. Silent damage of noise on cochlear afferent innervation in guinea pigs and the impact on temporal processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijie; Wang, Hui; Shi, Lijuan; Almuklass, Awad; He, Tingting; Aiken, Steve; Bance, Manohar; Yin, Shankai; Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Noise-exposure at levels low enough to avoid a permanent threshold shift has been found to cause a massive, delayed degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in mouse cochleae. Damage to the afferent innervation was initiated by a loss of synaptic ribbons, which is largely irreversible in mice. A similar delayed loss of SGNs has been found in guinea pig cochleae, but at a reduced level, suggesting a cross-species difference in SGN sensitivity to noise. Ribbon synapse damage occurs "silently" in that it does not affect hearing thresholds as conventionally measured, and the functional consequence of this damage is not clear. In the present study, we further explored the effect of noise on cochlear afferent innervation in guinea pigs by focusing on the dynamic changes in ribbon counts over time, and resultant changes in temporal processing. It was found that (1) contrary to reports in mice, the initial loss of ribbons largely recovered within a month after the noise exposure, although a significant amount of residual damage existed; (2) while the response threshold fully recovered in a month, the temporal processing continued to be deteriorated during this period. PMID:23185359

  1. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151