Science.gov

Sample records for affiliated pacific islands

  1. Crustose coralline algal diseases in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo

    2010-12-01

    Despite the critical role of crustose coralline algae (CCA) in coral reef formation, maintenance, and ecology, little is known about coralline algal disease abundance, distribution, etiology, or the potential implications of declining CCA flora. This paper presents the first quantitative study of CCA disease on U.S. Pacific coral reefs, based on Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 337 discrete sites, at 42 different U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and Atolls, within 5 major geographical regions: main Hawaiian Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, the Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA), and Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Five major disease categories were enumerated, and a disease occurrence index was estimated, based on case counts relative to percent CCA cover. CCA disease occurrence exhibited considerable spatial variability both between and within islands/atolls, with some regions being disproportionately affected by disease. No diseases were observed at remote Johnston and Wake Atolls, or the main Hawaiian Islands. Diseases were rare in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands; occasional to common around the PRIA, and common to abundant in American Samoa, Guam, and the Southern Mariana Islands. Pacific-wide, disease occurrence was statistically associated with CCA percent cover and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) but not with human population density; nonetheless, disease occurrence and population density were statistically correlated for those islands containing disease. Although Pacific-wide, the occurrence of disease was low, with no active outbreaks detected in any region, hot spots of disease were detected around Guam, the southern CNMI, American Samoa, and the PRIA. The high levels of spatial and temporal variability in disease occurrence herein underscore the patchy nature and fluctuating distribution dynamics of these afflictions. Also, the widespread dispersal

  2. A BASELINE PROFILE OF ASBESTOS IN THE US-AFFILIATED PACIFIC ISLANDS

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Ogawa, Hisashi; Takahashi, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos is a recognized occupational and environmental hazard in the Asia-Pacific Region, yet information regarding asbestos consumption, exposure and asbestos-related diseases in the US affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is scarce and the situation regarding asbestos in these islands, particularly with regards to disease burden, surveillance and health care capacity, is not well understood. Searching through scientific and “grey” literature and interviews with local cancer registry personnel and health professionals yielded no published data but sufficient indirect evidence of past and ongoing asbestos exposure, documented cases of mesothelioma and asbestosis, and minimal capacity for preventing and recognizing asbestos-related illnesses. The relatively low levels of capacity and resources within the USAPIs can impede regional progress in asbestos prevention and highlight the need for an integrated regional approach to address these data and capacity gaps. A regional mechanism to share expertise and resources and facilitate technical assistance to the USAPIs is urgently needed. PMID:22550694

  3. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  4. Mapping ENSO: Precipitation for the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, E.; Price, J.; Kruk, M. C.; Luchetti, N.; Marra, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) are highly susceptible to extreme precipitation events such as drought and flooding, which directly affect their freshwater availability. Precipitation distribution differs by sub-region, and is predominantly influenced by phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Forecasters currently rely on ENSO climatologies from sparse in situ station data to inform their precipitation outlooks. This project provided an updated ENSO-based climatology of long-term precipitation patterns for each USAPI Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) using the NOAA PERSIANN Climate Data Record (CDR). This data provided a 30-year record (1984-2015) of daily precipitation at 0.25° resolution, which was used to calculate monthly, seasonal, and yearly precipitation. Results indicated that while the PERSIANN precipitation accurately described the monthly, seasonal, and annual trends, it under-predicted the precipitation on the islands. Additionally, maps showing percent departure from normal (30 year average) were made for each three month season based on the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) for five ENSO phases (moderate-strong El Niño and La Niña, weak El Niño and La Niña, and neutral). Local weather service offices plan on using these results and maps to better understand how the different ENSO phases influence precipitation patterns.

  5. Building Tobacco Cessation Capacity in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Cruz, Peter J.; Mercado, Susan P.; Dan, Li

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control stakeholders in priority populations are searching for culturally appropriate cessation training models to strengthen cessation capacity and infrastructure. We adapted the University of Arizona model for Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions (BTI) training for Pacific Islanders and pilot-tested it in four Pacific Islands - Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Marshall Islands. All participants completed a post-training knowledge assessment exam, pre- and post-confidence assessments and a quality improvement evaluation. Of 70 participants, 65 (93%) completed the training. Forty-one (63%) passed the post-training knowledge assessment exam at the 1st attempt; an additional 9 (14%) successfully passed on their 2nd attempt, for a total pass rate of 77%. The pre and post confidence surveys demonstrated a statistically significant increase in confidence across all competency areas for delivering brief advice. The quality improvement survey revealed high acceptance and approval for the content and delivery of the locally adapted training model. As Pacific Island communities enact tobacco control policies, cessation demand is growing. The Guam cessation training model used culturally relevant data, materials and training approaches and appeared effective in four different Pacific island countries. This underscores the importance of culturally competent adaptation of cessation training for priority populations like Pacific Islanders. PMID:23632079

  6. Assessing the Health Care System of Services for Non-Communicable Diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: A Pacific Regional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs. PMID:23901369

  7. Future wave and wind projections for United States and United-States-affiliated Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Shope, James B.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christine A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Spatially and temporally varying waves dominate coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of the islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through the year 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5, for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive a global WAVEWATCH-III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific for the years 1976–2005 (historical), 2026–2045 (mid-century projection), and 2085–2100 (end-of-century projection). Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall the December-February extreme significant wave heights, defined as the mean of the top 5 percent of significant wave height time-series data modeled within a specific period, increase from present to mid-century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights increase throughout the century within the Central region of the study area; and September-November wave heights decrease strongly throughout the 21st century, displaying the largest and most widespread decreases of any season. Peak wave periods increase east of the International Date Line during the December-February and June-August seasons under RCP4.5. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line during December-February but increase in the eastern half of the study area. Otherwise, wave periods decrease

  8. Modeled changes in extreme wave climate for US and US-affiliated Pacific Islands during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, J. B.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Erikson, L. H.; Hegermiller, C.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in future wave climates in the tropical Pacific Ocean from global climate change are not well understood. Waves are the dominant spatially- and temporally-varying processes that influence the coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of the islands throughout the tropical Pacific. Waves also impact the coastal infrastructure, natural and cultural resources, and coastal-related economic activities of these islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast through 2100 using wind parameter outputs from four coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project, Phase 5., for Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 that correspond to moderately mitigated and unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. Wind fields from the global climate models were used to drive the global WAVEWATCH III wave model and generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific. Although the results show some spatial heterogeneity, overall, the December-February extreme significant wave heights increase from present to mid century and then decrease toward the end of the century; June-August extreme wave heights decrease throughout the century. Peak wave periods decrease west of the International Date Line through all seasons, whereas peak periods increase in the eastern half of the study area; these trends are smaller during December-February and greatest during June-August. Extreme wave directions in equatorial Micronesia during June-August undergo an approximate 30 degree counter-clockwise rotation from primarily northwest to west. The spatial patterns and trends are similar between the two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios, with the magnitude of the trends greater for the higher scenario.

  9. A systems-based approach to transform climate education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. English is the common language of instruction in all jurisdictions, but is not the language spoken at home for most students outside of Hawai'i. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. PCEP has developed a regional network, tools, and an emerging plan to systemically transform K-14 climate education in the USAPI. More than 50 organizations and networks have joined the partnership. These partners include all of the region's state departments of education, major universities, and community colleges, and a wide range of local partners, particularly conservation organizations. One of PCEP's major tools is general, multidisciplinary K-14 climate science education framework that organizes major underlying concepts and skills within appropriate grade-span progressions. This framework is based largely upon prior national science and climate literacy work and the National Research Council's recent document "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The PCEP climate education framework has an Earth System Science foundation that is directly applicable in all locations, and it also has orientations that are

  10. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  11. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  12. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  13. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  14. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  15. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  16. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations.

  17. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  18. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  19. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  20. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  1. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  2. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  3. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  5. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Diabetes Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian Americans are 20 percent less likely ... Diagnosed with Diabetes Ratio vs. General Population Asians/Pacific Islanders 7.8 1.1 U.S. General Public ...

  6. Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Asian American > Cancer Cancer and Asians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans generally have lower cancer rates ... At a glance - Top Cancer Sites for Asian/Pacific Islander (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  7. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Reaching REMOTE Learners: Successes and Challenges for Students in an Online Graduate Degree Program in the Pacific Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Kavita; Giuli, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Access to higher education in the U.S-affiliated Pacific Islands is limited. The island nations and territories in this Pacific region are geographically dispersed and separated by thousands of miles of ocean. Although local and regional colleges offer undergraduate degrees (associate's and bachelor's levels), islanders who seek graduate-level…

  9. Modeled changes in extreme wave climates in the Pacific Ocean during the 21st century and implications for low-lying U.S. and U.S.-affiliated atoll islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, J. B.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Erikson, L. H.; Hegermiller, C.

    2014-12-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on the coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. 21st century wave heights, periods, and directions were forecast using output from four IPCC's CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (GCMs), for representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. Wind fields from the GCMs were used to drive the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters for 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean. Extreme significant wave heights decreased by the end of the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical runs (1976-2010), except during the June - August season. Trends under both scenarios were similar, with the higher-emission 8.5 scenario displaying a greater decrease in significant wave heights compared to the lower-emission 4.5 scenario. The islands in the central Equatorial Pacific displayed the most change from historical values. Extreme significant wave heights within the region decreased by more than 30 cm during the December - February season, whereas in June - August, extreme wave heights increased by more than 20 cm and associated wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise. The largest directional changes occurred under RCP 4.5, possibly indicating a weakening of the trade winds' influence on extreme wave directions during June - August and increasing influence of forcing from the Southern Ocean. Though the June - August season historically demonstrated smaller significant wave heights, the forecasted increase, coupled with a dramatic change in the direction of these extreme events, could result in changes to the morphology of these small coral islands. Large changes in wave direction would result in modifications to alongshore sediment transport gradients and, in turn, new accretional and erosional patterns, potentially damaging infrastructure and impacting the limited freshwater lenses on atoll islets

  10. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTRA) Study: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    The mission of Pacific Resources for Education and Learning includes maintaining cultural literacy and strengthening educational programs for American-affiliated Pacific Islanders. On islands where no substitute teacher pool is available, students' educational opportunities may be seriously compromised. Policymakers and program managers in all 10…

  11. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  12. Pacific Islands Literature: One Hundred Basic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, A. Grove

    One hundred books in English about the Pacific islands are reviewed. The primary work of each of 100 authors is the primary topic of the reviews, but information is also given about other writings of these authors on the Pacific islands, as well as some biographical information. Books by other writers on similar subjects are mentioned at times.…

  13. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... death was 79.6 years; how- ever, blacks, American Indian/ Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders had younger ... 2011 show that among low-income preschool children, American Indians/Alaskan Natives have an obesity rate of 17. ...

  14. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  15. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  16. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information How to Talk to Your ... Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Asthma ...

  17. Overview of Pacific Island carbonate beach systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach systems in Pacific Islands are Holocene deposits of reef-dervied and terrigenous sediment. Thus, geologic setting is important in determining the success at which beach systems are established. Generally, older islands exhibit better beach system development. Although modern beach systems are composed of Holocene sediment, development of suitable accommodation space requires more geologic time.

  18. Roving the Pacific: Pacific Manuscripts Bureau Microfilming in the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidment, Ewan

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of microfilming by the Pacific Manuscripts Bureau (PMB), a non-profit organization established in 1968 to identify and preserve archives, manuscripts, and rare printed documents relating to the South Pacific Islands. Describes a 1997 PMB microfilming expedition to Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. (PEN)

  19. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders Among Asian Americans, chronic liver disease is ... women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for Asian/Pacific Islanders (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  20. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  1. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ... group is the Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander population. According to the combined 2008 to ...

  2. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... for the U.S. Live births for Asian or Pacific Islander population Number of births: 282,723 Births ...

  3. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  4. The Impact of Church Affiliation on Language Use in Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann; Gegeo, David Welchman

    1991-01-01

    The impact of church affiliation on language use, identity, and change among Kwara'ae speakers in the Solomon Islands is examined. It was found that members of different sects signal their separate identities not only through linguistic code but also through discourse patterns and nonverbal aspects of communication. (26 references) (JL)

  5. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere.

    Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  6. Union List of Serials in Pacific Island Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene G., Comp.; Yoshida, Patricia, Comp.

    This union list contains the serial holdings from Pacific Island libraries, including the University of the South Pacific Library (Fiji), the University of Guam Robert F. Kennedy Library, Guam Public Library, College of Micronesia-FSM Library, College of the Marshall Islands Library, Micronesian Seminar Library, Palau Community College Library,…

  7. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  8. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  9. Modernisation, migration and nutritional health of Pacific Island populations.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of obesity and fatness across the second part of the 20th century has been documented for a number of Pacific Island populations. While dietary change and reduced physical activity levels associated with economic modernisation have been identified as the key factors fuelling the emergence of obesity, it is argued here that increasing numbers of Pacific Island migrants in the United States, New Zealand, France and Australia have provided the basis for the acceleration of the modernisation process by way of remittances, and the transmission of ideas of economic opportunity and change. Potential for migration for the Pacific Island nations is estimated from available data on population growth, total fertility rates and total mortality rates. Pacific Islander migrants form approximately one quarter of the total global Pacific Islander population, the majority of whom are from Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Per capita energy and fats and meat intake for the period 1961 to 2000 is described for five Pacific Island nations, showing that, in general, energy intakes have increased, as have the energy densities of the diets consumed. Thus the increase in mean body mass index observed in Pacific Islanders in the second half of the twentieth century can in general be attributed to dietary change associated with greater food and energy intake, and with increased consumption of fatty foods and meat, most of which are imports.

  10. Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

  11. Prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans among young children in the children's healthy living program in the United States Affiliated Pacific.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Li, Fenfang; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Bersamin, Andrea; Tufa, Aifili; Deenik, Jonathan; Coleman, Patricia; Guerrero, Rachael Leon; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2016-09-01

    Estimate prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans (AN) among children in United States Affiliated Pacific (USAP) jurisdictions.Cross-sectional measurement of weight, height, and AN in 5775, 2 to 8 years old in 51 communities-Hawai'i, Alaska, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 4 Federated States of Micronesia (Pohnpei, Yap, Kosrae, Chuuk). Analyses weighted to jurisdiction-specific sex and age distributions accounting for clustering of communities within jurisdictions.Prevalence of obesity was 14.0%, overweight 14.4%, healthy weight 68.9%, and underweight 2.6%, higher in males (16.3%) than females (11.6%), higher among 6 to 8 years old (16.3%) than 2 to 5 years old (12.9%), highest in American Samoa (21.7%), and absent in RMI. In total, 4.7% of children had AN, with no sex difference, higher in 6 to 8 years old (6.8%) than 2 to 5 years old (3.5%) and highest in Pohnpei (11.9%), and absent in Alaska. Obesity was highly associated with AN (odds ratio = 9.25, 95% confidence interval = 6.69-12.80), with the strongest relationships among Asians, followed by Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI).Obesity, age, and Asian and NHPI race were positively associated with AN. PMID:27631218

  12. Prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans among young children in the children's healthy living program in the United States Affiliated Pacific.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Li, Fenfang; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Bersamin, Andrea; Tufa, Aifili; Deenik, Jonathan; Coleman, Patricia; Guerrero, Rachael Leon; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2016-09-01

    Estimate prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans (AN) among children in United States Affiliated Pacific (USAP) jurisdictions.Cross-sectional measurement of weight, height, and AN in 5775, 2 to 8 years old in 51 communities-Hawai'i, Alaska, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 4 Federated States of Micronesia (Pohnpei, Yap, Kosrae, Chuuk). Analyses weighted to jurisdiction-specific sex and age distributions accounting for clustering of communities within jurisdictions.Prevalence of obesity was 14.0%, overweight 14.4%, healthy weight 68.9%, and underweight 2.6%, higher in males (16.3%) than females (11.6%), higher among 6 to 8 years old (16.3%) than 2 to 5 years old (12.9%), highest in American Samoa (21.7%), and absent in RMI. In total, 4.7% of children had AN, with no sex difference, higher in 6 to 8 years old (6.8%) than 2 to 5 years old (3.5%) and highest in Pohnpei (11.9%), and absent in Alaska. Obesity was highly associated with AN (odds ratio = 9.25, 95% confidence interval = 6.69-12.80), with the strongest relationships among Asians, followed by Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI).Obesity, age, and Asian and NHPI race were positively associated with AN.

  13. Eliminating tobacco-related disparities among Pacific Islanders through leadership and capacity building - Promising practices and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    David, Annette M.; Lew, Rod; Lyman, Annabel K.; Otto, Caleb; Robles, Rebecca; Cruz, George

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco remains a major risk factor for premature death and ill health among Pacific Islanders, and tobacco-related disparities persist. Eliminating these disparities requires a comprehensive approach to transform community norms about tobacco use through policy change, as contained in the World Health Organization (WHO) international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Three of the six US-affiliated Pacific Islands – the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Palau and the Marshall Islands – are Parties to the FCTC; the remaining three territories – American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and Guam – are excluded from the treaty by virtue of US non-ratification. Capacity building and leadership development are essential in achieving policy change and health equity within Pacific Islander communities. We describe promising practices from American Samoa, CNMI, FSM, Guam and Palau and highlight some of the key lessons learned in supporting and sustaining the reduction in tobacco use among Pacific Islanders as a first step towards eliminating tobacco-related disparities in these populations. PMID:23690256

  14. 33 CFR 80.1495 - U.S. Pacific Island Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. Pacific Island Possessions... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island... Island Possessions of American Samoa, Baker, Howland, Jarvis, Johnson, Palmyra, Swains and Wake...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1495 - U.S. Pacific Island Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false U.S. Pacific Island Possessions... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island... Island Possessions of American Samoa, Baker, Howland, Jarvis, Johnson, Palmyra, Swains and Wake...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1495 - U.S. Pacific Island Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. Pacific Island Possessions... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island... Island Possessions of American Samoa, Baker, Howland, Jarvis, Johnson, Palmyra, Swains and Wake...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1495 - U.S. Pacific Island Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. Pacific Island Possessions... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island... Island Possessions of American Samoa, Baker, Howland, Jarvis, Johnson, Palmyra, Swains and Wake...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1495 - U.S. Pacific Island Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. Pacific Island Possessions... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1495 U.S. Pacific Island... Island Possessions of American Samoa, Baker, Howland, Jarvis, Johnson, Palmyra, Swains and Wake...

  19. Unity and Diversity in the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley-Smith, Terence

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the three Pacific cultural areas of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia and identifies the differences within and between the groups. States that a regionwide sense of identity has emerged because these small nations have gained independence from colonizing countries and joined regional institutions such as the South Pacific Forum. (GEA)

  20. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: The Case of Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022

  1. Three phases of the Pacific Islands Project (1995-2010).

    PubMed

    Watters, David A K; Ewing, Hamish; McCaig, Eddie

    2012-05-01

    The Pacific Islands Project (PIP), funded by AusAid and managed by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS), has progressed through three phases from 1995 to 2010. During this time, it has sent over 520 teams to 11 Pacific Island Countries, providing over 60,000 consultations and some 16,000 procedures. In addition to this delivery of specialist medical and surgical services that were not previously available in-country, the project has contributed as a partner in capacity building with the Fiji School of Medicine and Ministries of Health of the individual nations. By 2011, Fiji School of Medicine, which began postgraduate specialist training in 1998, had awarded 51 doctors a diploma in surgery (1 year), 20 of whom had completed their Masters in Medicine (4 years). PIP was independently evaluated on completion of every phase, including the bridging Phase III (2006-2010). The project delivered on its design, to deliver services, and also helped build capacity. The relationship established with the RACS throughout the project allowed Pacific Island graduates to access the Rowan Nicks scholarship, and the majority of MMed graduates received International Travel Grants to attend the Annual Scientific Meeting. PIP has been a highly successful partnership in delivering and building specialist medical services. Although AusAid contributed some $20 million over 16 years, the value added from pro bono contributions by Specialist Teams, Specialty Coordinators and the Project Directors amounted to an equivalent amount. With the emergence of Pacific Island-trained specialists, PIP is ready to move into a new phase where the agendas are set, monitored and managed within the Pacific, and RACS fulfils the role of a service provider. A critical mass of Pacific Island surgeons has been trained, so that sub-specialization will be an option for the general surgeons of the larger island nations.

  2. Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006 Asian Liver Center What every Asian and Pacific Islander should know about hepatitis B and liver ... or liver failure. » 1 in 10 Asian and Pacific Islanders is living with chronic (life-long) hepatitis ...

  3. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem ... in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol is their ...

  4. Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternate Language URL Hepatitis B: What Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Need to Know Page Content On ... 8):1–20. [ Top ] Why are Asian and Pacific Islander Americans at higher risk? Since 1986, a ...

  5. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common is Hepatitis B among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)? In the US, Hepatitis B is ... common in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, making it easy for many people born ...

  6. Progress in island health in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region contains many islands, perhaps up to 100 000. The provision of public health and health care to small isolated groups poses particular challenges in the 21st century. The health of island populations has improved over the past 3 decades, but maintaining and improving current levels of health is made more difficult by emigration and the difficulty of maintaining communications. PMID:25475082

  7. Mesozoic possibilities seen on Tonga islands in Southwest Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Helu, S.P. ); Khanna, S.N.

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Kingdom of Tonga in the southwestern Pacific Ocean comprises 171 islands of which only 37 are inhabited. There are four main groups of islands: Tongatapu, H'apai, Vava'u, and the Niuas. The total land area is 700 sq km, and the territorial waters extend to 700,000 sq km. The kingdom is bordered by New Zealand, Fiji, Walhis and Fortuna, the Samoas, and Niue.

  8. Progress in island health in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region contains many islands, perhaps up to 100 000. The provision of public health and health care to small isolated groups poses particular challenges in the 21st century. The health of island populations has improved over the past 3 decades, but maintaining and improving current levels of health is made more difficult by emigration and the difficulty of maintaining communications.

  9. Tobacco Smoking in Islands of the Pacific Region, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Kessaram, Tara; McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    We provide an overview of tobacco smoking patterns in Pacific island countries and territories to facilitate monitoring progress toward the goal of a Tobacco-Free Pacific by 2025. We examined data from 4 surveys conducted in the region between 2001 and 2013, including the STEPwise approach to surveillance for adults (25-64 years); the Global School-Based Student Health Survey and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (students 13-15 years); and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (grade 9-12 students) in United States affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs). Adult smoking prevalence ranged from less than 5% of women in Vanuatu to almost 75% of men in Kiribati. Smoking prevalence among students (13-15 years) ranged between 5.6% and 52.1%. There were declines in smoking among youths in many USAPIs. To achieve the tobacco-free goal and reduce disease burden, accelerated action is needed to align national legislation with international agreements and build capacity for tobacco control at all levels. PMID:26632953

  10. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history. PMID:27185765

  11. Instructional Accomplishment Patterns of Asian/Pacific Islander Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, George

    The performance patterns of about 13,000 Asian/Pacific Islander (API) students in mathematics, written composition, and reading in grades 1 through 6 were examined. Student information was obtained through the Los Angeles Unified School District's data base for the Survey of Essential Skills (May 1982). Predominantly English-speaking, the students…

  12. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  13. Regional Meeting of Pacific Islands Women's Non-Governmental Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Pacific Commission, Noumea (New Caledonia).

    Papers presented at a 1985 regional conference of the Pacific Islands Women's Non-Governmental Organizations are provided in this document. Each paper reports on a different country and discusses developmental issues relating to women's role, such as medical programs, health, social status and welfare, education, employment, and other subjects.…

  14. Developing Disability-Inclusive Indicators in the Pacific Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Sprunt, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Island nations are in the process of transforming education to support all learners through the application of more inclusive approaches. In order to measure progress, they are working collaboratively to develop a set of local and contextually applicable indicators for inclusive education. This article reports the initial step in this…

  15. Cultural Specific Training in Corruption Reporting for Pacific Island Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Stephen; McCarthy, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Notes that very few journalists have formal training in corruption reporting. Discusses workshops held in 2000 and 2001 on the subject of corruption reporting for Pacific Island journalists. Explains the role of the media as an anti-corruption mechanism and the difficulty journalists face in identifying and sometimes stamping out corruption. Looks…

  16. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history.

  17. Techniques for assessing the wind energy resource in Hawaii and Pacific Islands region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the procedures utilized in preparing the Wind Energy Resource Atlas: Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region and contrasts these methods with those used in the other regional assessments. Techniques generally paralleled those of the northwest wind resource assessment. Quality of data bases differed drastically between Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. For example, research data sets constituted a primary data source for Hawaii, but such sets were nonexistent for the Pacific Islands. Forest Service data had minor impact in Hawaii, none in the Pacific Islands. Many Pacific Island anemometers are poorly exposed since limited open spaces exist on small atolls.

  18. Ground Water on Tropical Pacific Islands - Understanding a Vital Resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tribble, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To a casual observer, tropical Pacific islands seem idyllic. Closer scrutiny reveals that their generally small size makes them particularly vulnerable to economic and environmental stresses imposed by rapidly growing populations, increasing economic development, and global climate change. On these islands, freshwater is one of the most precious resources. Ground water is the main source of drinking water on many islands, and for quite a few islands, it is the only reliable source of water throughout the year. Faced with a growing demand for this valuable resource, and the potential negative effects on its availability and quality from changes in global climate, increasingly sophisticated management approaches will be needed to ensure a dependable supply of freshwater for the residents of these islands. Much scientific information has been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and other organizations about the ground-water resources of tropical Pacific islands. The aim of this Circular is to give members of the public, policymakers, and other stakeholders knowledge that will help ensure that this information can be used to make informed decisions about the management of these life-giving resources. As the demand for freshwater grows, new monitoring and research efforts will be needed to (1) characterize the extent and sustainability of ground-water resources on different tropical Pacific islands, (2) better understand linkages between ground-water discharge and freshwater and nearshore ecosystems, and (3) prepare for the effects of climate change, which will likely include the loss of habitable land and reduced areas for the accumulation of ground water as a result of rising sea levels.

  19. A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Warren L.; Lorence, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular phylogenetic studies and reevaluation of morphological characters have led to the inclusion of Glochidion within a broader delimitation of Phyllanthus. It is necessary for preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands to make new combinations for the Marquesan species. We also provide the relevant combinations and listing of all of the currently accepted species of Phyllanthus on Pacific oceanic islands for a total of 69 native species in oceanic Pacific islands. Glochidion tooviianum J. Florenceis here placed into synonymy of Phyllanthus marchionicus (F. Br.) W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new assessment of recently collected specimens from Nuku Hiva. Glochidion excorticans Fosberg var. calvum Fosberg is placed into synonomy of Phyllanthus ponapense (Hosokawa) W. L. Wagner & Lorenceand Glochidion puberulum Hosokawa and Glochidion excorticans Fosberg are placed in synonymy of Phyllanthus senyavinianus (Glassman)W. L. Wagner & Lorence based on new study of all Micronesian specimens available to us. No infraspecific taxa are recognized within Phyllanthus pacificus of the Marquesas Islands. Species already with valid names in Phyllanthus are also listed for completeness and convenience. Brief distributional comments are given for each species. We propose new names for species for which a new combination is not possible: Phyllanthus florencei W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus mariannensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., Phyllanthus otobedii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus raiateaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, Phyllanthus st-johnii W. L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov., and Phyllanthus vitilevuensis W.L. Wagner & Lorence, nom. nov. We provide information for four additional naturalized species within the region (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus debilis, Phyllanthus tenellus, and Phyllanthus urinaria). The name Glochidion ramiflorum widely applied to Pacific island populations is here considered to be a species further

  20. The Pacific Way: Sustainability in Higher Education in the South Pacific Island Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Koshy, Kanayathu Chacko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create an area profile of significant activity and possibility in higher education for sustainable development (ESD) in the island nations of the South Pacific Ocean. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive research paper on philosophy, policy, and practice according to a methodology of…

  1. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by...

  5. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  6. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  7. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, around San... REGULATIONS § 334.980 Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area—(1) Perimeter (restricted). The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicholas Island,...

  8. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  10. Environmental predictors of pre-European deforestation on Pacific islands.

    PubMed

    Rolett, Barry; Diamond, Jared

    2004-09-23

    Some Pacific island societies, such as those of Easter Island and Mangareva, inadvertently contributed to their own collapse by causing massive deforestation. Others retained forest cover and survived. How can those fateful differences be explained? Although the answers undoubtedly involve both different cultural responses of peoples and different susceptibilities of environments, how can one determine which environmental factors predispose towards deforestation and which towards replacement of native trees with useful introduced tree species? Here we code European-contact conditions and nine environmental variables for 81 sites on 69 Pacific islands from Yap in the west to Easter in the east, and from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the south. We thereby detect statistical decreases in deforestation and/or forest replacement with island rainfall, elevation, area, volcanic ash fallout, Asian dust transport and makatea terrain (uplifted reef), and increases with latitude, age and isolation. Comparative analyses of deforestation therefore lend themselves to much more detailed interpretations than previously possible. These results might be relevant to similar deforestation-associated collapses (for example, Fertile Crescent, Maya and Anasazi) or the lack thereof (Japan and highland New Guinea) elsewhere in the world.

  11. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  12. Using the ANGELO Model To Develop the Children's Healthy Living Program Multilevel Intervention To Promote Obesity Preventing Behaviors for Young Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Butel, Jean; Hollyer, James R.; Barber, L. Robert; Bersamin, Andrea; Coleman, Patricia; Teo-Martin, Ursula; Vargo, Agnes M.; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Almost 40% of children are overweight or obese by age 8 years in the US-Affiliated Pacific, inclusive of the five jurisdictions of Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. This article describes how the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program used the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Environments/Elements Linked to Obesity) model to design a regional intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake, water consumption, physical activity, and sleep duration and decrease recreational screen time and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children ages 2–8 years. Methods: Using the ANGELO model, CHL (1) engaged community to identify preferred intervention strategies, (2) reviewed scientific literature, (3) merged findings from community and literature, and (4) formulated the regional intervention. Results: More than 900 community members across the Pacific helped identify intervention strategies on importance and feasibility. Nine common intervention strategies emerged. Participants supported the idea of a regional intervention while noting that cultural and resource differences would require flexibility in its implementation in the five jurisdictions. Community findings were merged with the effective obesity-reducing strategies identified in the literature, resulting in a regional intervention with four cross-cutting functions: (1) initiate or strengthen school wellness policies; (2) partner and advocate for environmental change; (3) promote CHL messages; and (4) train trainers to promote CHL behavioral objectives for children ages 2–8 years. These broad functions guided intervention activities and allowed communities to tailor activities to maximize intervention fit. Conclusions: Using the ANGELO model assured that the regional intervention was evidence based while recognizing jurisdiction context, which should increase effectiveness and sustainability. PMID:25369548

  13. Venereal diseases in the islands of the South Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1980-01-01

    The island territories of the South Pacific vary considerably in area and in size of population; Pitcairn has a population of 100 in two square miles whereas Papua New Guinea has a population of 2,990,000 in approximately 175,000 square miles. Today the whole ocean is traversed by air routes. Recently, the prevalence of gonorrhoea has decreased in the northern region but increased in the eastern and western; in all these regions the reported prevalence exceeds 200 cases per 100,00 population. In an area where yaws was once widespread, syphilis is being increasingly recognised. Although the figures for syphilis are clearly higher because of the greater use of serological screening, many of the reported cases are of early infection. Yaws has been eliminated from most of the South Pacific Islands but is still present in the western region--more than 99% of the reported cases occurring in Papua New Guinea, particularly in the offshore islands. PMID:7427693

  14. The Pacific Islands Internet Project (PIIP) in UNDP, Suva.

    PubMed

    Borg, M

    2000-09-01

    The Pacific Islands Internet Project (PIIP) aims to expose interested parties to emerging technologies by creating initial, core national Internet-based information systems, and by training users on how to take advantage of such systems for sustainable development purposes. PIIP works closely with Small Islands Development States Network SIDSNET (http://www.sidsnet.org) and Asia and Pacific Development Information Programme APDIP (http://www.apdip.net), both UNDP initiatives in this field. The Target Beneficiaries are 15 countries in the sub-region including Tuvalu, Niue and Tokelau which are still without Internet access. PIIP will assist these three countries in their connectivity needs and all other countries in other components of the project. Priority is given to the smaller island states. There are four components to the project. These are: Connectivity (WWW access for Tuvalu, Niue and Tokelau); Training and Awareness (through national seminars and training programmes); Internet Applications (in areas such as telemedicine, distance education, SIDSnet and other fields in the private sector); and Policy (work with telecom and regional organisations in facilitating national telecommunications policies that provide a basis for development of an ICT strategy). Some of the progress made since the inception of PIIP are covered in this paper. PMID:11588936

  15. [Arboviral diseases in South-West Pacific islands (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Le Gonidec, G; Fauran, P

    1981-01-01

    Islands of the south-west Pacific area belong to the melanesian group, excepted Niue, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna which are polynesian. Through New Guinea, there is a geographic relation to the eastern part of Australia, rich of 42 arbovirus types. Dengue and Ross River fever are the most important arboviral diseases in the region; both affect islanders after introduction of virus by travellers to localities where efficient vectors are present. Dengue types 1, 2 and 4 were isolated from man and from mosquitoes in this area. Successive outbreaks, transmitted by Aedes aegypti or by Ae. polynesiensis, resulted in thousands of cases with a few fatal hemorrhagic forms. Ross River virus, responsible of epidemic polyarthritis, evaded in 1979, from Australia to Fidji, Wallis, Futuna and New Caledonia. Suspected vectors are Aedes vigilax and Culex annulirostris. Aedes aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis are also possible carriers. Murray Valley encephalitis virus caused severe outbreaks in Australia and fatal cases in New Guinea; it is a possible invader when Culex annulirostris is abundant. Expansion of arboviral diseases is a major epidemiological problem in south-west Pacific islands. Research work on pathogeny and vectors control must be intensified in this area.

  16. Anthropometric Measurement Standardization in the US-Affiliated Pacific: Report from the Children’s Healthy Living Program

    PubMed Central

    LI, FENFANG; WILKENS, LYNNE R.; NOVOTNY, RACHEL; FIALKOWSKI, MARIE K.; PAULINO, YVETTE C.; NELSON, RANDALL; BERSAMIN, ANDREA; MARTIN, URSULA; DEENIK, JONATHAN; BOUSHEY, CAROL J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anthropometric standardization is essential to obtain reliable and comparable data from different geographical regions. The purpose of this study is to describe anthropometric standardization procedures and findings from the Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) Program, a study on childhood obesity in 11 jurisdictions in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Methods Zerfas criteria were used to compare the measurement components (height, waist, and weight) between each trainee and a single expert anthropometrist. In addition, intra- and inter-rater technical error of measurement (TEM), coefficient of reliability, and average bias relative to the expert were computed. Results From September 2012 to December 2014, 79 trainees participated in at least 1 of 29 standardization sessions. A total of 49 trainees passed either standard or alternate Zerfas criteria and were qualified to assess all three measurements in the field. Standard Zerfas criteria were difficult to achieve: only 2 of 79 trainees passed at their first training session. Intra-rater TEM estimates for the 49 trainees compared well with the expert anthropometrist. Average biases were within acceptable limits of deviation from the expert. Coefficient of reliability was above 99% for all three anthropometric components. Conclusions Standardization based on comparison with a single expert ensured the comparability of measurements from the 49 trainees who passed the criteria. The anthropometric standardization process and protocols followed by CHL resulted in 49 standardized field anthropometrists and have helped build capacity in the health workforce in the Pacific Region. PMID:26457888

  17. The Status of the Preparation and Hiring of School Principals in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Region. REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, Sharon; Keir, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This technical brief describes the current status of the preparation and hiring of school principals in the Pacific Region--American Samoa, Guam, Hawaii, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Republic of Palau. The brief answers the…

  18. Seasonality of vital events in a Pacific Island population.

    PubMed

    Underwood, J H

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of vital data derived from a family record register for the native population of Guam reveal significant variations in births, deaths, and marriages over the period 1901-41. Although lacking marked photoperiod or temperature changes of temperate zones, the tropical island is subject to marked seasonal differences in rainfall characteristic of western Pacific islands. Marital patterns exhibit troughs associated respectively with the Lenten period and with Christmas celebrations. Infant and childhood deaths show close correspondence with rainfall patterns, consistently exceeding expected values during the rainy season (July-November) when conditions are optimal for the spread of communicable and gastrointestinal diseases. Births attain a peak in November, or at the beginning of the more advantageous season for infant health and survival. Seasonality in vital events, reported for many Euroamerican and some African and Asian populations of modern and historical periods, has rarely been documented for native populations of the tropical Pacific. Comparisons of differences in these patterns among different populations in varied environments provide unique opportunities to evaluate causal models of interactions among biological, sociocultural, and physioenvironmental factors. PMID:1749959

  19. Seasonality of vital events in a Pacific Island population.

    PubMed

    Underwood, J H

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of vital data derived from a family record register for the native population of Guam reveal significant variations in births, deaths, and marriages over the period 1901-41. Although lacking marked photoperiod or temperature changes of temperate zones, the tropical island is subject to marked seasonal differences in rainfall characteristic of western Pacific islands. Marital patterns exhibit troughs associated respectively with the Lenten period and with Christmas celebrations. Infant and childhood deaths show close correspondence with rainfall patterns, consistently exceeding expected values during the rainy season (July-November) when conditions are optimal for the spread of communicable and gastrointestinal diseases. Births attain a peak in November, or at the beginning of the more advantageous season for infant health and survival. Seasonality in vital events, reported for many Euroamerican and some African and Asian populations of modern and historical periods, has rarely been documented for native populations of the tropical Pacific. Comparisons of differences in these patterns among different populations in varied environments provide unique opportunities to evaluate causal models of interactions among biological, sociocultural, and physioenvironmental factors.

  20. Asian and Pacific Islander American Poverty: The Working Poor and the Jobless Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toji, Dean S.; Johnson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Assesses the incidence of Asian-American and Pacific Islander-American poverty, and offers a theoretical explanation for its existence. It is argued that poverty of Americans of Asian and Pacific Island descent is best understood in the context of the linkage of labor migration and U.S. labor market segmentation. (SLD)

  1. The Relevance of Asian Americans & Pacific Islanders in the College Completion Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education (CARE), consisting of a national commission, research advisory group, and research team at New York University, aims to provoke thoughtful and actionable discussions about the mobility and educational opportunities for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)…

  2. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  4. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  5. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  7. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  8. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  12. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  13. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  14. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  17. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  1. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  2. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. (a) The warning...

  4. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  5. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  10. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... budget revision procedures set forth in 7 CFR part 3015 and shall be approved by FNS prior to any... the Pacific Islands. 250.64 Section 250.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Pacific Islands. (a) Distribution. The distributing agency shall make donated foods available...

  11. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... budget revision procedures set forth in 7 CFR part 3015 and shall be approved by FNS prior to any... the Pacific Islands. 250.64 Section 250.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Pacific Islands. (a) Distribution. The distributing agency shall make donated foods available...

  12. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Asian or Pacific Islander. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Asian or Pacific Islander include: (1) Top 10 Asian and Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs: SY 2013-14; (2)…

  13. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  14. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... American dream for centuries. Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have helped develop and... Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This month, our Nation celebrates the contributions and accomplishments of Asian Americans and...

  15. Making Sense of Knowledge Transfer and Social Capital Generation for a Pacific Island Aid Infrastructure Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Christopher; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate how lessons learned from a case study of a construction project undertaken in the Pacific Islands relates to the interaction between social capital and knowledge transfer. The paper is reflective in nature focusing upon the experiences of one of the authors, being a Pacific Islander and…

  16. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  17. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  18. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD... proposing to amend an existing danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range..., and increased threat conditions. The proposed amendment would expand the existing danger zone...

  19. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Mark P.; Brewer, Tom D.; Johnstone, Ron; Fleming, Lora E.; Lewis, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ciguatera is a type of fish poisoning that occurs throughout the tropics, particularly in vulnerable island communities such as the developing Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). After consuming ciguatoxin-contaminated fish, people report a range of acute neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms, with some experiencing chronic neurologic symptoms lasting weeks to months. Unfortunately, the true extent of illness and its impact on human communities and ecosystem health are still poorly understood. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to the Health and Fisheries Authorities of the PICTs to quantify the extent of ciguatera. The data were analyzed using t-test, incidence rate ratios, ranked correlation, and regression analysis. Results There were 39,677 reported cases from 17 PICTs, with a mean annual incidence of 194 cases per 100,000 people across the region from 1998–2008 compared to the reported annual incidence of 104/100,000 from 1973–1983. There has been a 60% increase in the annual incidence of ciguatera between the two time periods based on PICTs that reported for both time periods. Taking into account under-reporting, in the last 35 years an estimated 500,000 Pacific islanders might have suffered from ciguatera. Conclusions This level of incidence exceeds prior ciguatera estimates locally and globally, and raises the status of ciguatera to an acute and chronic illness with major public health significance. To address this significant public health problem, which is expected to increase in parallel with environmental change, well-funded multidisciplinary research teams are needed to translate research advances into practical management solutions. PMID:22180797

  20. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  3. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  5. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  6. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  7. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  9. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an outlying possession of the United States shall comply...

  10. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. 46.6 Section 46.6 Foreign... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or an outlying possession of the United States shall comply...

  11. Pacific islands which escaped the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic and their subsequent mortality experiences.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Brundage, J F

    2013-02-01

    Very few Pacific islands escaped the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. Subsequent influenza epidemics in the established colonial outposts of American Samoa and New Caledonia infected many but killed very few persons whereas the extraordinarily isolated Niue, Rotuma, Jaliut and Yule islands experienced high mortality influenza epidemics (>3% of population) following 1918. These dichotomous outcomes indicate that previous influenza exposure and degree of epidemiological isolation were important mortality risk factors during influenza epidemics on Pacific islands.

  12. The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chague-Goff, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

  13. Providing oceanographic data and information for Pacific Island communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, James; Maurer, John; Burns, Echelle

    2016-04-01

    The Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS; http://pacioos.org) is a data-serving group that relies on and promotes data interoperability. The PacIOOS "enterprise" is part of a large, US National effort aimed at providing information about the ocean environment to a wide range of users. These users range from casual beach-goers interested in the latest weather forecast or wave conditions to federal agencies responsible for public safety. In an effort to bridge the gap between the scientific community, who are responsible for making measurements and running forecast models, and the wide-ranging end-users, the data management group in PacIOOS has developed the infrastructure to host and distribute ocean-related data. The efficiency of this system has also allowed the group to build web-based tools to further help users. In this presentation we describe these efforts in more detail.

  14. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance: The Need for a Different Approach.

    PubMed

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-10-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning pharmacovigilance (PV) system. We argue that a different approach is required to move PV forward in such countries. Although the long-term aim is to build adequate national PV capacity, we propose an approach in which resources are focused initially towards ensuring a proper system for the reporting of "problems with medicines" such as substandard and counterfeit products. The limited health system resources in these countries require that PV will be supported by some of the organizations also giving funding aid for the supply of medicines. PMID:27364632

  15. Healthcare Disparities in Asians and Pacific Islanders with hepatocellular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Linda L.; Hernandez, Brenda; Kwee, Sandi; Albright, Cheryl L.; Okimoto, Gordon; Tsai, Naoky

    2012-01-01

    Background Hawaii has the highest incidence of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in the U.S. and the largest proportion of Asian/Pacific Islanders(PI). HCC studies generally combine these groups into one ethnicity and we sought to examine differences between Asian/PI subpopulations. Methods Demographic, clinical, and treatment data for 617 HCC cases ( 420 Asian, 114 white, and 83 PI patients) were reviewed. Main outcome measures included HCC screening and liver transplant. Results Asian/PI subgroups had significantly more immigrants and age was different between groups. Compared to Whites, the PI and Filipinos had less HCC screening and liver transplants, fewer met Milan criteria and a smaller proportion of those with Milan criteria actually underwent transplant. Conclusion There were significant differences in risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment and access to care between Asian, PI and White patients with HCC. Future HCC studies may benefit from differentiating subgroups within Asian/PI populations to better focus these efforts. PMID:22227170

  16. Stroke Disparities: Disaggregating Native Hawaiians from other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; MacDonald, Pippa R.; Asai, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical characteristics of Native Hawaiians (NH) and other Pacific Islanders (PI) who are hospitalized with ischemic stroke. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of medical records. Setting Tertiary, Primary Stroke Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Patients Consecutive patients with race/ethnicity identified as NH or PI who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between January 2006 and December 2012. Outcome Measures Age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) utilization rate and hospital length of stay. Results A total of 561 patients (57% NH and 43% PI) were studied. PI were younger (59 ± 13 years vs 62 ± 14 years, ,P=.002), had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (58% vs 41%, P<.0001) and prosthetic valve (6% vs 2%, P=.007), lower prevalence of smoking (14% vs 21%, P=.03), lower HDL cholesterol (38 ± 11 mg/dL vs 41 ± 13 mg/dL, P=.004), and higher discharge diastolic blood pressure (79 ± 15 vs 76 mm Hg ± 14 mm Hg, P=.04) compared to NH. No difference was seen in other cardiovascular risk factors. The IV-tPA utilization rate (5% vs 6%, P=.48) and the hospital length of stay (10 ± 17 days vs 10 ± 49 days, P=.86) were not different between the two groups. Conclusion Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke have modestly different age of stroke presentation and burden of risk factors compared to each other. Disaggregating these two racial groups may be important to unmask any potential clinical differences in future studies. PMID:26118142

  17. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.

    PubMed

    Sulu, Reuben J; Eriksson, Hampus; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Andrew, Neil L; Orirana, Grace; Sukulu, Meshach; Oeta, Janet; Harohau, Daykin; Sibiti, Stephen; Toritela, Andrew; Beare, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations. PMID:26599412

  18. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations. PMID:26599412

  19. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.

    PubMed

    Sulu, Reuben J; Eriksson, Hampus; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Andrew, Neil L; Orirana, Grace; Sukulu, Meshach; Oeta, Janet; Harohau, Daykin; Sibiti, Stephen; Toritela, Andrew; Beare, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations.

  20. White paper on the health status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and recommendations for research.

    PubMed

    Louie, K B

    2001-01-01

    A literature review of various reports sponsored by federal governmental agencies and proceedings of conferences of Asian Americans' and Pacific Islanders' health organizations provides data of health disparities among and between these diverse ethnic groups. Specifically, demographic and socio-economic data, as well as health care issues, are reported. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders exceed other groups in health disparities in the area of tuberculosis and hepatitis B, whereas cancer and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of death within the Asian American and Pacific Islander populations. Recommendations for areas of research are provided.

  1. [Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island.

  2. [Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island. PMID:23885581

  3. Maternal and Child Health of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) women and infants, but do not ... and childbirth are meaningful and important to many AA and NHPI families. The health care system must ...

  4. Pacific Islands Creative Writing. A Select, Annotated Guide for Students, Librarians, and the General Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenderup, Vibeke

    This annotated bibliography provides information about critical articles and creative writing by and about Pacific Islanders available in European libraries. Although western writers often use the South Pacific as an exotic background for their narratives, they generally portray Polynesians as terrifying cannibals or gentle primitives. The aim of…

  5. Progress towards Licensing and Chartering Pacific Islands Early Childhood Centres in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mara, Diane L.

    There has been concern in New Zealand about whether the level and pace of licensing and chartering Pacific Islands early childhood centers (PIECCs) are sufficient to meet current needs. This study identified obstacles to the attainment of licensed and chartered status as assessed by key informants from agencies working with Pacific Islands…

  6. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  7. Breastfeeding Practices among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Tanaka, Keiko; Polanin, Joshua R.; Koempel, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models. Results. Few studies disaggregated NHPI populations when examining breastfeeding practices. Most studies were cross-sectional and our search yielded no randomized or quasirandomized control trials. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that 46.5% NHPI women initiated breastfeeding with 40.8% breastfeeding exclusively. These pooled analyses show that NHPI breastfeeding practices are below the recommended national and international goals and guidelines. Conclusion. Breastfeeding practices among NHPI are heterogeneous and critical disparities exist among certain NHPI subgroups and additional research needs to be conducted to determine the reasons for the disparity. Future studies should work to disaggregate data for NHPI and the various subpopulations. Multicomponent, multilevel strategies are needed to support breastfeeding practices among NHPI. PMID:27774314

  8. Educational Technology and the World Wide Web in the Pacific Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iding, Marie; Skouge, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes technology issues that educators, teacher educators and students in the Pacific Islands confront, specifically in American Samoa (a U.S. territory) and Chuuk (one of the Federated States of Micronesia). It will also briefly mention issues relevant to Yap and Kosrae (two other states in Micronesia), and the Marshall Islands.…

  9. 76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... ecosystems with a biomass of top predators that exceeds the Great Barrier Reef's. At the conclusion of a 3..., Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Atoll. When the draft... the following methods: E-mail: Pacific_Reefs@fws.gov . Fax: (808) 792-9586. U.S. Mail: Susan...

  10. Suicide and Suicidal-Related Behaviors among Indigenous Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…

  11. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  16. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness... Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Refuge Complex), to identify Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs), and...: Information about the Refuge Complex is available on our Web ] site http://www.pacificislands.fws.gov ....

  17. 76 FR 22675 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Permit Family of Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Islands Region Permit Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...) Pacific Islands Region (PIR) manages the U.S. Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the...: Regular submission. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations; individuals or...

  18. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1557, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR...

  19. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Guam. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  20. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Hawai'i. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1)American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  1. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of Palau. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  2. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  3. Satellite communications for the Pacific islands. Second year report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E.; Hurd, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements, options and costs for use of communications satellites in underserved areas of the Pacific Basin are described with emphasis on extended utilization of INTELSAT. The economic structures within and among Pacific Basin entities are examined, particularly the relationship between the growth of regional trade and telecommunications potential for the region. Suitable satellite services are recommended and the financial implications for extended utilization of communications satellites in the Pacific Basin are considered.

  4. Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial. PMID:11076241

  5. Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

    2000-11-01

    The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial.

  6. A response for substance and harm reduction in Pacific Island countries and territories.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert; Schmich, Lucina; Nosa, Vili

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific is characterised as a region for the purposes of many international interventions and assistance programmes. Representatives of Pacific States participate in regional fora to build a strategic and unified approach to development. Regionally, bilateral trade agreements impact upon strategies to regulate alcohol imports. Policing and customs initiatives are increasingly supporting prevention of illicit drug production and trafficking, and model laws have been proposed to achieve consistency in enforcement. The aim of this commentary is to provide a response for policies using the case of alcohol and other drug research in the Pacific Islands Countries Territories. This commentary undertook a review of the current literature for regional developments for alcohol and other drug use in the Pacific Island Countries Territories region. A total of 14 articles were used in this article. The publication date for the articles used in this review ranged from 1997 to 2011. The findings of the review found that there should be a co-ordinated approach for adopting alcohol and other drug approaches. Furthermore, there should be a co-ordinated regional response with the inclusion of targeted domestic programming that will meet the needs for the Pacific Island countries and territories. Countries in the Pacific Island territories are characterised by varying degrees of political stability. Without stable government and democratic process, it is likely to remain difficult to develop consistent and effective legislation and policy for implementation of successful alcohol and other drug programmes. We found that there is a lack of robust and current data for alcohol and other drugs in Pacific Island countries and territories. Further research funding is needed to build the limited knowledge of alcohol and other drug substance use. PMID:26471976

  7. A response for substance and harm reduction in Pacific Island countries and territories.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert; Schmich, Lucina; Nosa, Vili

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific is characterised as a region for the purposes of many international interventions and assistance programmes. Representatives of Pacific States participate in regional fora to build a strategic and unified approach to development. Regionally, bilateral trade agreements impact upon strategies to regulate alcohol imports. Policing and customs initiatives are increasingly supporting prevention of illicit drug production and trafficking, and model laws have been proposed to achieve consistency in enforcement. The aim of this commentary is to provide a response for policies using the case of alcohol and other drug research in the Pacific Islands Countries Territories. This commentary undertook a review of the current literature for regional developments for alcohol and other drug use in the Pacific Island Countries Territories region. A total of 14 articles were used in this article. The publication date for the articles used in this review ranged from 1997 to 2011. The findings of the review found that there should be a co-ordinated approach for adopting alcohol and other drug approaches. Furthermore, there should be a co-ordinated regional response with the inclusion of targeted domestic programming that will meet the needs for the Pacific Island countries and territories. Countries in the Pacific Island territories are characterised by varying degrees of political stability. Without stable government and democratic process, it is likely to remain difficult to develop consistent and effective legislation and policy for implementation of successful alcohol and other drug programmes. We found that there is a lack of robust and current data for alcohol and other drugs in Pacific Island countries and territories. Further research funding is needed to build the limited knowledge of alcohol and other drug substance use.

  8. The influence of climate variation and change on diarrheal disease in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Hales, S; de Wet, N; Raj, R; Hearnden, M; Weinstein, P

    2001-02-01

    Freshwater resources are a high-priority issue in the Pacific region. Water shortage is a serious problem in many small island states, and many depend heavily on rainwater as the source of their water. Lack of safe water supplies is an important factor in diarrheal illness. There have been no previous studies looking specifically at the relationship between climate variability and diarrhea in the Pacific region. We carried out two related studies to explore the potential relationship between climate variability and the incidence of diarrhea in the Pacific Islands. In the first study, we examined the average annual rates of diarrhea in adults, as well as temperature and water availability from 1986 to 1994 for 18 Pacific Island countries. There was a positive association between annual average temperature and the rate of diarrhea reports, and a negative association between water availability and diarrhea rates. In the second study, we examined diarrhea notifications in Fiji in relation to estimates of temperature and rainfall, using Poisson regression analysis of monthly data for 1978-1998. There were positive associations between diarrhea reports and temperature and between diarrhea reports and extremes of rainfall. These results are consistent with previous research and suggest that global climate change is likely to exacerbate diarrheal illness in many Pacific Island countries. PMID:11266326

  9. The influence of climate variation and change on diarrheal disease in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, R B; Hales, S; de Wet, N; Raj, R; Hearnden, M; Weinstein, P

    2001-01-01

    Freshwater resources are a high-priority issue in the Pacific region. Water shortage is a serious problem in many small island states, and many depend heavily on rainwater as the source of their water. Lack of safe water supplies is an important factor in diarrheal illness. There have been no previous studies looking specifically at the relationship between climate variability and diarrhea in the Pacific region. We carried out two related studies to explore the potential relationship between climate variability and the incidence of diarrhea in the Pacific Islands. In the first study, we examined the average annual rates of diarrhea in adults, as well as temperature and water availability from 1986 to 1994 for 18 Pacific Island countries. There was a positive association between annual average temperature and the rate of diarrhea reports, and a negative association between water availability and diarrhea rates. In the second study, we examined diarrhea notifications in Fiji in relation to estimates of temperature and rainfall, using Poisson regression analysis of monthly data for 1978-1998. There were positive associations between diarrhea reports and temperature and between diarrhea reports and extremes of rainfall. These results are consistent with previous research and suggest that global climate change is likely to exacerbate diarrheal illness in many Pacific Island countries. PMID:11266326

  10. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  12. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  13. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  15. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  17. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  19. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  1. Reading and Written Expression Performance of Ten Asian/Pacific-Islander Ethnic Groups on the Eighth Grade California Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; And Others

    For the first time, Asian and Pacific-Islander (API) eighth-grade students taking part in the California Assessment Program (CAP) were identified as belonging to one of the following 10 API ethnic groups: Asian-Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Pacific-Islander, and Vietnamese. In school districts associated…

  2. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  3. 33 CFR 110.218 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. 110.218 Section 110.218 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; in vicinity of Wilson Cove. (a) The anchorage...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  5. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The main purpose of this survey was to…

  6. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works closely with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau.…

  7. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: (1) American Samoa; (2) the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; (3) the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap); (4) Guam; (5) Hawaii; (6) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and (7) the Republic of Palau. This…

  8. The late Quaternary decline and extinction of palms on oceanic Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prebble, M.; Dowe, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoecological records of palm decline, extirpation and extinction are explored from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Despite the severe reduction of faunal diversity coincidental with human colonisation of these previously uninhabited oceanic islands, relatively few plant extinctions have been recorded. At low taxonomic levels, recent faunal extinctions on oceanic islands are concentrated in larger bodied representatives of certain genera and families. Fossil and historic records of plant extinction show a similar trend with high representation of the palm family, Arecaceae. Late Holocene decline of palm pollen types is demonstrated from most islands where there are palaeoecological records including the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Rapanui. A strong correspondence between human impact and palm decline is measured from palynological proxies including increased concentrations of charcoal particles and pollen from cultivated plants and invasive weeds. Late Holocene extinctions or extirpations are recorded across all five of the Arecaceae subfamilies of the oceanic Pacific islands. These are most common for the genus Pritchardia but also many sedis fossil palm types were recorded representing groups lacking diagnostic morphological characters.

  9. Toward a comprehensive information system to assist invasive species management in Hawaii and Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Loope, L.

    2004-01-01

    The need for coordinated regional and global electronic databases to assist prevention, early detection, rapid response, and control of biological invasions is well accepted. The Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN), a node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure, has been increasingly engaged in the invasive species enterprise since its establishment in 2001. Since this time, PBIN has sought to support frontline efforts at combating invasions, through working with stakeholders in conservation, agriculture, forestry, health, and commerce to support joint information needs. Although initial emphasis has been on Hawaii, cooperative work with other Pacific islands and countries of the Pacific Rim is already underway and planned.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by a....2″ 13°24′51.2″ 144°36′31.9″ 13°25′28.7″ 144°37′59.1″ 13°25′43.2″ 144°38′09.5″ (b) The...

  11. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  12. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  13. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  14. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  15. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  16. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  17. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  18. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  19. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  20. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  1. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  2. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  3. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.961 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.961 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, California, naval danger zone off the northwest shore. (a) The danger zone: The waters of the Pacific Ocean adjacent to San...

  5. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  7. 3 CFR 8659 - Proclamation 8659 of April 29, 2011. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... history and integrated future with the dynamic Asia-Pacific region. During Asian American and Pacific....gov to learn more about the history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and to observe this... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8659 of April 29, 2011. Asian...

  8. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) is a nonprofit corporation that serves schools in 10 Pacific island political entities, whose affiliation with the United States ranges from statehood to free association. PREL's main office is in Honolulu, Hawaii, with service centers in American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana…

  9. A profile of six community-based HIV prevention programs targeting Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Chng, C L; Lo, W

    1998-06-01

    Based on a framework (i.e., research and evaluation, prevention and services, and advocacy and policy), the goal of this article is to profile six community-based HIV prevention programs targeting Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Americans, especially among men who have sex with men. These six programs were chosen based on one or more of the following three criteria: (a) epidemiological profiles of AIDS cases among Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, (b) ethnic diversity, and (b) community development among Asian and Pacific Islander Americans in the fight against HIV. The six programs are (a) the Kokua Kalih Valley Health Center, Honolulu; (b) the Asian and Pacific Islander Wellness Center, San Francisco; (c) the Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team, Los Angeles; (d) the Asian and Pacific Islander Coalition on HIV and AIDS, New York City; (e) the AIDS Services in Asian Communities, Philadelphia; and (f) the Massachusetts Asian AIDS Prevention Project, Boston. The present analysis reveals that five programs have their roots in the gay or bisexual communities. Two programs have existed for about 3 years (the epidemic is going into its 17th year). Major financial support for the six programs are federal, state, or county sources; private support is generally minimal. All six programs offer a wide range of culturally competent and linguistically appropriate prevention activities and services (including two national projects) targeting a diverse API population. However, gaps in services exist in the younger programs. In addition to a paucity of epidemiological, surveillance, and empirical data, most reported that barriers fall into one or two interrelated categories: (a) structural (e.g., lack of governmental or private funding) or (b) cultural (e.g., denial of risk, homophobia, fear of confidentiality). These findings suggest that HIV prevention activities and services for Asian and Pacific Islander Americans should be based on empirical and cultural data, and that

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Bratton, Sally I.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzed were the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of Asian Pacific Islander (API) California community college students who took the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) survey. This was done to identify characteristics related to sexual behavior and choice of birth control and examine the association between condom use and history…

  11. Asian American and Pacific Islander Serving Institutions: The Motivations and Challenges behind Seeking a Federal Designation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of legislation to create a Minority Serving Institution federal designation for Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) serving institutions. Specifically, the article draws from interviews with nineteen policy makers, congressional staffers, and community advocates in order to address their motivations for…

  12. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  13. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  14. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the designated low-use... regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the...

  15. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Richard N.; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, Mike N.; Towns, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  16. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  17. A Comparison of Mathematics Achievement Outcomes among Three Instruction Programs for Pacific Island Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Jonathan Christian Amor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mathematics achievement outcomes of 3rd grade students from some Pacific Island elementary schools that use 1 of 3 different modes of instruction: Direct Instruction (DI), Success for All (SFA), and noncomprehensive school reform (non-CSR). The need for this research stems from the large proportion of…

  18. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (Is There Such An Ethnic Group?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignacio, Lemuel F.

    This introductory book on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders is written by a Pilipino American who writes with a personal point of view. The book begins with a discussion of the history of Pilipino immigration into the U.S. It describes an Asian American community in San Francisco. The growth and development of the Pilipino Organizing Committee…

  19. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  20. 76 FR 18202 - Applications for New Awards; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486) (Supplemental NFP). Competitive Preference... subcontinent (including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine... October 30, 1997 (62 FR 58789)). Native American Pacific Islander means any descendant of the...

  1. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Irum F.; Crepaz, Nicole; Song, Ruiguang; Wan, Choi K.; Lin, Lillian S.; Hu, Dale J.; Sy, Francisco S.

    2005-01-01

    Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and…

  2. Grades of the Not So Modeled: Asian American and Pacific Islander Transfer Students at Middle University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) students, beyond stereotypes, has been limited (Museus, 2009). Although literature on transfer students has grown, the limited research on AAPI transfer students is lacking. A more accurate portrayal of their academic progress needs to be examined. One of the ways to better understand…

  3. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 250.64 Section 250.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  4. 7 CFR 250.64 - Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food Distribution Program in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 250.64 Section 250.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  5. Communicating Appropriately with Asian and Pacific Islander Audiences. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuramoto, Ford H.

    Developing culturally appropriate prevention messages and materials for Asian and Pacific Islander audiences is challenging. It is important to recognize and respect their geographic, ethnic, racial, cultural, economic, social, and linguistic diversity. The health communication process enables planners to meet the challenge of developing programs…

  6. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S. health care policies…

  7. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI) include: (1) Local Education Agencies (LEAs) With the Largest Number…

  8. Evaluation of a Health Careers Program for Asian American and Pacific Islander High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated a health careers program in a U.S. urban public high school. After small subgroups of the original sample were removed, participants included 162 Asian American and Pacific Islander students. Analyses of covariance indicated that, compared with the comparison group, the treatment group reported significantly higher levels of…

  9. Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…

  10. Diversity within: Subgroup Differences of Youth Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonsun

    2008-01-01

    This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…

  11. 75 FR 54858 - President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... development, monitoring, and coordination of executive branch efforts to improve the quality of life of AAPIs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION President's Advisory Commission on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders AGENCY: U.S. Department...

  12. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  13. Barriers to Educational Access. A Study of the Enrollment and Attrition Patterns of Pacific Islands Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthewson, Claire

    1992-01-01

    The University of the South Pacific serves 11 island states over 30 million square kilometers. Regional and national field surveys are being conducted to identify and assess barriers to women's participation in distance education and factors contributing to withdrawal, continuity, and failure in a course. (SK)

  14. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Adult Basic Education Program. Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Donald A.

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) program conducted by the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands was evaluated. Data were collected via staff interviews and record reviews during site visits at ABE facilities located in five of six district comprising the Trust Territory. Focus of the evaluation activities was on program administration,…

  15. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  16. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  17. [West and South West Pacific Ocean Islands: General Information and a Bibliography of English-Language Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    This collection of 10 bibliographies covers islands located in the west and southwest region of the Pacific Ocean. The islands include American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Pohnpei, Tonga, Truk, Nauru and the New Hebrides (Vanuatu). All the bibliographies focus on education, and all except two (American Samoa and Fiji)…

  18. Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology projects for the US Pacific Islands. Final report, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Case, C.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the status of 18 of the 33 Department of Energy (DOE) Appropriate Energy Technology (AET) Projects on the US Pacific Islands (excluding the Hawaiian Islands) as of August 1, 1982. The projects include: shallow lens water pumping on the Marshall Islands; hydroelectric power systems on Micronesia; hospital solar hot water system on Micronesia; wind and solar equipment for the Aramas Kapw school in Micronesia; sail powered fishing boat in Micronesia; wind electric power project in Micronesia; smokeless cooking stoves in the Marshall Islands; demonstration programs in the Mariana Islands; typhoon-proof greenhouse on Guam; evaporative cooling for buildings in Guam, solar photovoltaic refrigerator in Micronesia; and a solar dryer demonstration in Micronesia.

  19. Biodiversity and Environmental Gradients Across the Tropical Pacific Islands: A New Strategy for Research and Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Dombois, Dieter

    The theory of island biogeography of MacArthur and Wilson (1967) represents a first attempt at developing a unifying concept for biodiversity research across islands and fragmented biomes. It uses two physical parameters, distance (or isolation) and size of area to define species equilibria. This contribution expands on the theory by adding a third physical parameter, elevation (or topography), to focus on biodiversity relationships. This third parameter allows island ecosystems to be connected horizontally across Pacific-wide biomes. It also permits the establishment of ecological gradients across the Pacific to study and compare the structure and function of enriched versus impoverished biodiversities in similar habitats. In combination with this horizontal approach, a vertical approach is suggested for interdisciplinary research. For this, the fresh-water flow or hydrology is seen as the unifying parameter that links several ecosystems in an upland/lowland relationship. The two approaches represent a new strategy for biodiversity research and conservation in the Pacific area. A biodiversity transect with ILTER (International Long-Term Ecological Research) sites forming a network from Eastern and Northern Polynesia to Borneo, and including the oceanic archipelagoes near the American continents, is currently envisioned by the PSA (Pacific Science Association) Task Force on Biodiversity (Kitayama and Mueller-Dombois 1997). This new program, which has evolved from a first synthesis of Pacific island vegetation and landscapes (Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg 1998) is to become a contribution to the DIVERSITAS program launched in 1994 under the auspices of the IUBS (International Union of Biological Sciences) and the International Council of Scientific Unions in Paris, and by DIWPA (Diversitas in Western Pacific and Asia in Kyoto).

  20. Advanced dental maturation in New Zealand Maori and Pacific Island children.

    PubMed

    Moananui, Raymond Te; Kieser, Jules A; Herbison, Peter; Liversidge, Helen M

    2008-01-01

    This study employs Demirjian's (1994: CD Rom. Norwood, MA: Silver Platter Education) method for assessing dental maturation to compare the rates of development in children of three ethnic populations living in New Zealand-Maori, Pacific Island, and European. We test the hypothesis that Maori and Pacific Island children will have significantly advanced dental maturation compared with New Zealand children of European extraction. The study population consists of orthopantomographs of 1,343 children (623 females and 660 males) between the ages of 2.5 and 14 years, and involves three ethnic groups-Maori, European, and Pacific Islander. Bland/Altman plots for the mean chronological age against the age difference suggest that dental age as determined by the Demirjian method is consistently lower than the chronological age of the children examined. A mixed model regression analysis shows that this difference between dental and chronological age is significantly greater in Maori than in European children (regression coefficient = 0.414; z = 7.01; P < 0.001) and also significantly greater in Pacific Island children than European children (regression coefficient = 0.574; z = 6.25; P < 0.001). Regression analysis shows that the 50th quantile maturity score of boys and girls differs by 1.49 (t = -6.18, P < 0.01) and the interaction of sex and age is also significantly different (t = -2.44, P < 0.01). Similarly, Maori girls show a difference in maturity score of 1.28 (t = -3.77, P < 0.01). However, the slopes for Maori boys and girls did not differ significantly (age/sex interaction, t = -1.25, P = 0.212). We conclude that Pacific Island children are advanced in dental maturity compared with Maori children who in turn are more advanced than New Zealand children of European origin. PMID:17929243

  1. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  2. Art of the Pacific Islands. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    Oceanic art has long been recognized for its quality and its influence on Western art. This CD-ROM presents over 100 of the finest examples of art from the Pacific region in the form of museum photos, contemporary video segments, and music. The CD-ROM includes such artifacts as masks and carvings from Melanesia, canoes and storyboards from…

  3. Communicable disease in the South Pacific Islands, 1.

    PubMed

    Hirshman, J H

    1976-11-13

    An outline is given of the pattern of communicable disease in the South Pacific, as far as it is known. Surveillance and research are imcomplete and the World Health Organization is assisting in carrying these out. Reporting and laboratory diagnosis of communicable disease are inadequate and sometimes inaccurate. This is being improved. Medical checks for intending migrants from the South Pacific are, in a number of cases, inadequately performed in the country of origin and this situation should be altered. The risks to surrounding developed countries from migrants, temporary workers and returning travellers are not tremendous but they cannot be neglected and vigilance has to be maintained. Tuberculosis importation does present risks, as does that of typhoid. Malaria importation carries risks for Northern Australia. Leprosy poses little real risk to Australia or New Zealand and neither does filariasis. Cholera would have to be watched for closely should there ever be a South Pacific outbreak, but the developed countries around the South Pacific which are cholera-non-receptive can control occasional cases. Other than malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid and possibly dengue, problems are thus mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals.

  4. Differential mortality and transplantation rates among Asians and Pacific Islanders with ESRD.

    PubMed

    Hall, Yoshio N; Sugihara, Jared G; Go, Alan S; Chertow, Glenn M

    2005-12-01

    Few studies in patients with ESRD have examined outcomes in Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups compared with white individuals. The objective of this study was to assess ethnic disparities in mortality and kidney transplantation among a multiethnic cohort of incident dialysis patients. A total of 24,963 patients who initiated dialysis within the TransPacific Renal Network (Network 17) between April 1, 1995, and September 30, 2001, were studied to ascertain death and kidney transplantation through September 30, 2002. Overall, 12,902 deaths and 2258 kidney transplantations were observed during 59,075 person-years of follow-up. Mortality on dialysis among Asians and Pacific Islanders (except Chamorros) was lower than that of white individuals after controlling for differences in sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, and other risk factors for death (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] versus white individuals: Japanese 0.64 [0.57 to 0.72], Chinese 0.64 [0.52 to 0.78], Filipino 0.64 [0.57 to 0.72], Native Hawaiian 0.84 [0.72 to 0.96], Samoan 0.62 [0.48 to 0.82], and Chamorro 0.96 [0.84 to 1.20]). In contrast, Asians and Pacific Islanders were much less likely to undergo kidney transplantation (adjusted rate ratio [95% confidence interval] versus white individuals: Japanese 0.34 [0.24 to 0.46], Chinese 0.54 [0.30 to 0.88], Filipino 0.32 [0.26 to 0.47], Native Hawaiian 0.17 [0.10 to 0.30], Samoan 0.17 [0.07 to 0.38], and Chamorro 0.04 [0.01 to 0.14]). Despite wide variations in primary cause of ESRD, clinical characteristics, and body size at dialysis initiation, Asians and Pacific Islanders experience better survival but substantially lower transplantation rates compared with white individuals. Strategies that are aimed at improving access to transplantation in Asian and Pacific Islander communities may further enhance survival among Asians and Pacific Islanders with ESRD.

  5. The age and origin of the Pacific islands: a geological overview.

    PubMed

    Neall, Vincent E; Trewick, Steven A

    2008-10-27

    The Pacific Ocean evolved from the Panthalassic Ocean that was first formed ca 750 Ma with the rifting apart of Rodinia. By 160 Ma, the first ocean floor ascribed to the current Pacific plate was produced to the west of a spreading centre in the central Pacific, ultimately growing to become the largest oceanic plate on the Earth. The current Nazca, Cocos and Juan de Fuca (Gorda) plates were initially one plate, produced to the east of the original spreading centre before becoming split into three. The islands of the Pacific have originated as: linear chains of volcanic islands on the above plates either by mantle plume or propagating fracture origin, atolls, uplifted coralline reefs, fragments of continental crust, obducted portions of adjoining lithospheric plates and islands resulting from subduction along convergent plate margins. Out of the 11 linear volcanic chains identified, each is briefly described and its history summarized. The geology of 10 exemplar archipelagos (Japan, Izu-Bonin, Palau, Solomons, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Society, Galápagos and Hawaii) is then discussed in detail. PMID:18768382

  6. Australian and Pacific contributions to the genetic diversity of Norfolk Island feral chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norfolk Island has a population of feral chickens which could be the result of domestic stock introduced onto the island by British settlers in 1788. However, there is ongoing debate about their origins because multiple human arrivals to the island may have brought chickens with them. Here we investigate the genetic origins of these feral chickens by sequencing their mitochondrial control region. We infer their phylogenetic relationships using a large dataset of novel sequences from Australian mainland domestic chickens and published sequences from around the world. Results Eleven control region haplotypes were found among the Norfolk Island feral and Australian mainland domestic chickens. Six of the Norfolk Island haplotypes fall within haplogroup E, but given the worldwide distribution of this haplogroup, the putative European origin of these chickens requires further investigation. One haplotype common among Norfolk Island and Australian samples belonged to a subgroup of haplogroup D, which appears to be restricted to chickens from Indonesia, Vanuatu and Guam. Conclusions Our data show that at least two mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (D and E) have contributed to the genetic make-up of Norfolk Island feral chickens. In addition, we have provided insights into the discrete geographical distribution and diversity of the chicken haplogroup D. In view of the worldwide interest in the characterisation of poultry resources, further assessment of chicken populations of Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific region is warranted. PMID:24063717

  7. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  8. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an "uninhabited" island.

    PubMed

    Steadman, D W; Olson, S L

    1985-09-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with (14)C dates of approximately 800 and approximately 500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention.

  9. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an "uninhabited" island.

    PubMed

    Steadman, D W; Olson, S L

    1985-09-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with (14)C dates of approximately 800 and approximately 500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention. PMID:16593606

  10. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J.; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists’ cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints. PMID:27232713

  11. Cultural and Environmental Predictors of Pre-European Deforestation on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Quentin D; Coomber, Ties; Passmore, Sam; Greenhill, Simon J; Kushnick, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The varied islands of the Pacific provide an ideal natural experiment for studying the factors shaping human impact on the environment. Previous research into pre-European deforestation across the Pacific indicated a major effect of environment but did not account for cultural variation or control for dependencies in the data due to shared cultural ancestry and geographic proximity. The relative importance of environment and culture on Pacific deforestation and forest replacement and the extent to which environmental impact is constrained by cultural ancestry therefore remain unexplored. Here we use comparative phylogenetic methods to model the effect of nine ecological and two cultural variables on pre-European Pacific forest outcomes at 80 locations across 67 islands. We show that some but not all ecological features remain important predictors of forest outcomes after accounting for cultural covariates and non-independence in the data. Controlling for ecology, cultural variation in agricultural intensification predicts deforestation and forest replacement, and there is some evidence that land tenure norms predict forest replacement. These findings indicate that, alongside ecology, cultural factors also predict pre-European Pacific forest outcomes. Although forest outcomes covary with cultural ancestry, this effect disappears after controlling for geographic proximity and ecology. This suggests that forest outcomes were not tightly constrained by colonists' cultural ancestry, but instead reflect a combination of ecological constraints and the short-term responses of each culture in the face of those constraints. PMID:27232713

  12. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  13. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  14. Traps and baits for flies (Diptera) on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Pickens, L G; Jaworski, J; Kovac, B; Mills, G D

    1994-11-01

    Studies conducted on Oahu, HI, and on islands of the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, demonstrated that adult house flies, Musca domestica L., were attracted to a mixture of cooked rice and chicken and to a commercial bait, whereas adults of Chrysomya megacephala F. and Musca sorbens Wiedemann were attracted to shark fluids or to ripe breadfruit. M. domestica and M. sorbens could be captured in standard inverted-cone traps, whereas C. megacephala could be captured in traps fitted with horizontal entry cones or in cone traps in which the bait was placed inside the cone chamber. M. sorbens and C. megacephala were killed by horizontal electric grids placed over yellow plastic or paper at ground level. M. sorbens was attracted to 15-cm cubes, but not to larger objects.

  15. A quantitative analysis of inter-island telephony traffic in the Pacific Basin Region (PBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. D.; Arth, C. H.

    1980-09-01

    As part of NASA's continuing assessment of future communication satellite requirements, a study was conducted to quantitatively scope current and future telecommunication traffic demand in the South Pacific Archipelagos. This demand was then converted to equivalent satellite transponder capacities. Only inter-island telephony traffic for the Pacific Basin Region was included. The results show that if all this traffic were carried by a satellite system, one-third of a satellite transponder would be needed to satisfy the base-year (1976-1977) requirement and about two-thirds of a satellite transponder would be needed to satisfy the forecasted 1985 requirement.

  16. A quantitative analysis of inter-island telephony traffic in the Pacific Basin Region (PBR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Arth, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    As part of NASA's continuing assessment of future communication satellite requirements, a study was conducted to quantitatively scope current and future telecommunication traffic demand in the South Pacific Archipelagos. This demand was then converted to equivalent satellite transponder capacities. Only inter-island telephony traffic for the Pacific Basin Region was included. The results show that if all this traffic were carried by a satellite system, one-third of a satellite transponder would be needed to satisfy the base-year (1976-1977) requirement and about two-thirds of a satellite transponder would be needed to satisfy the forecasted 1985 requirement.

  17. Pacific Basin Tsunami Hazards Associated with Mass Flows in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.; Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    The Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands formed by an intra-oceanic subduction zone. This area consists of a submerged chain of mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low- relief continental shelf above about 1000-2000 m water depth. Part of the island chain is fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of km in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault- controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are geomorphically low areas between the higher relief blocks and are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. The physical setting of the Aleutian Islands indicates that mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine mass flows or as subaerial debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been identified on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, primarily because the area has never been mapped or examined at the resolution required to identify such features. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. We suggest that tsunamigenic mass flows are a plausible geologic process in the Aleutian Islands and that the tsunamis produced by such flows may be large enough to cross the Pacific Ocean basin. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides. The flows

  18. Ten years of research for the Pacific Islands Families Study: a comparative review of publications.

    PubMed

    Savila, Fa'asisila; Sundborn, Gerhard; Hirao, Amor; Paterson, Janis

    2011-09-01

    In 2000, the Pacific Islands Families Study (PIFS) initiated research into developmental pathways of health outcomes for Pacific children and families. Not only was the study premised on addressing the gap in longitudinal research of Pacific peoples, it also aimed to increase Pacific-researcher capacity. After ten years of operation, this paper reviews the journal publications and Pacific authorship from the PIFS. The PIFS team published 55 journal articles in 29 peer reviewed journals. Forty-four (80.0%) of these articles had a Pacific author, including seven (12.7%) where the first-author was Pacific. Most articles used cross-sectional data (n = 38, 69.1%) and a quarter used longitudinal data (n = 15, 27.3%). Eighteen (62.1%) of the 29 journals that PIFS articles were published in were registered on the Journal Citations Report database, with 2009 5-year journal impact factors ranging from 1.064 to 6.504. The PIFS achieved a similar number of publications compared with the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS, n = 48) and Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS, n = 67). Further analysis, showed that the PIFS (27.3%) had the lowest proportion of publications using longitudinal data compared to the DMHDS (n = 37.5%) and CHDS (65.7%). This review provides a stocktake of publications in the first decade of the PIFS and shows that although the development of Pacific-researcher capacity has been promising, greater attention must be given to increasing first-authorship of academic writing and to utilising longitudinal data to better understand the origins of health status of Pacific peoples.

  19. Asian/Pacific Islander Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk in Guam

    PubMed Central

    Pinhey, Thomas K.; Millman, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of same-sex orientation on suicide risks for Guam’s Asian/Pacific Islander adolescents. Methods. We used a probability sample and logistic regression analysis to identify suicide risk factors. Results. Same-sex orientation was associated with a greater risk of suicide attempt, especially for boys. Adolescents who reported suffering physical abuse in the context of a romantic relationship, engaging in binge drinking, and experiencing feelings of hopelessness were at greater risk for suicidal ideation and attempts. Race/ethnicity was associated with suicide risk for both boys and girls, and patterns suggest that membership in the same racial/ethnic group decreased suicide risk for girls and increased risk of suicide for boys. Conclusions. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual Asian/Pacific Islander adolescents in Guam deserve intervention and counseling programs to reduce suicide risk. PMID:15226144

  20. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. PMID:24093735

  1. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  2. Pacific Bridges: The New Immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, James T., Ed.; Carino, Benjamin V., Ed.

    The following papers are collected in this anthology of research on East-West international migration: (1) "International Migration and Pacific Basin Development" (James T. Fawcett and Benjamin V. Carino); (2) "The Global Picture of Contemporary Immigration Patterns" (Mary M. Kritz); (3) "One Field, Many Views: Competing Theories of International…

  3. Actual and perceived HBV status among Asian Pacific Islander Americans in Rhode Island: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Austin Y; Nguyen, Joyce E; Doyle, Richard J; Feller, Edward

    2015-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) in the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) American population is an under-recognized health issue in the United States. Among foreign-born API, the prevalence of HBV is approximately 10%. The prevalence in the general population is below 0.5%; among non-Hispanic whites it is below 0.2%. We examined beliefs held by the API populations in Rhode Island (RI) about personal HBV status and compared them with their actual HBV status. Of 59 total study participants, only 19 (32%) participants correctly knew their HBV status. Six (10%) participants were carriers of HBV; 18 (31%) lacked immunity to the virus. This pilot study suggests the RI API population is not knowledgeable about their own HBV status and are inadequately screened, vaccinated against, and treated for HBV. Increased statewide screening and education efforts, tailored to address this population, are needed to identify and inform those in need of medical attention or vaccination.

  4. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  5. Biogeographical history and coalescent species delimitation of Pacific island skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Emoia cyanura species group)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Elaine; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, Robert N.; Reeder, Tod

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the expectations of a stepping-stone model, E. cyanura and E. impar each exhibit the genetic signature of a rapid radiation during the mid to late Pleistocene, with evidence for newly identified lineages, mainly on western islands. Of these recovered lineages, we propose three to be elevated to species status. These findings expand our understanding of endemic Pacific biota, which are subject to conservation threats from human impacts and climate change.

  6. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  7. Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius

    The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…

  8. 8 CFR 215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust... FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.6 Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific... alien who seeks to depart from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or...

  9. 3 CFR 8508 - Proclamation 8508 of April 29, 2010. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., dedicated to improving the quality of life and opportunities for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders... Pacific. Generations of brave men and women have crossed this vast ocean, seeking better lives and... of American life. They stood shoulder to shoulder with their fellow citizens during the civil...

  10. Use of a United States mid-Pacific Island territory for a Pacific Island Repository System (PIRS): Extended summary

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1987-08-01

    The concept of using a mid-ocean island for a geologic high-level waste repository was investigated. The technical advantages include geographical isolation and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup to repository geological waste isolation. The institutional advantages are reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of international waste repository would allow cost sharing, aid US nonproliferation goals, and assure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. The major uncertainties in this concept are rock conditions at waste disposal depths and costs. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

  12. Culturally Responsive Instruction Leaves No Child Behind: The Story of Juan, a Pacific Island Special Needs Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoicovy, Catherine Eileen; Fee, Richard; Fee, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to explore the use of retelling as a culturally responsive literacy strategy for Juan, a Pacific Island (Chamorro) special needs student on the island of Guam. Data were collected from the following sources: (1) participant-observation (2) fieldnotes (3) audiotaped recordings of students' oral…

  13. Amphidromy Links a Newly Documented Fish Community of Continental Australian Streams, to Oceanic Islands of the West Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Paul A.; Ebner, Brendan C.; Larson, Helen; Keith, Philippe; Silcock, Rebecca M.; Prince, Jason; Russell, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Indo-Pacific high island streams experience extreme hydrological variation, and are characterised by freshwater fish species with an amphidromous life history. Amphidromy is a likely adaptation for colonisation of island streams following stochastic events that lead to local extirpation. In the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Australia, steep coastal mountain streams share similar physical characteristics to island systems. These streams are poorly surveyed, but may provide suitable habitat for amphidromous species. However, due to their ephemeral nature, common non-diadromous freshwater species of continental Australia are unlikely to persist. Consequently, we hypothesise that coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar, to distant Pacific island communities, than to nearby faunas of large continental rivers. Methods/Principal Findings Surveys of coastal Wet Tropics streams recorded 26 species, 10 of which are first records for Australia, with three species undescribed. This fish community is unique in an Australian context in that it contains mostly amphidromous species, including sicydiine gobies of the genera Sicyopterus, Sicyopus, Smilosicyopus and Stiphodon. Species presence/absence data of coastal Wet Tropics streams were compared to both Wet Tropics river networks and Pacific island faunas. ANOSIM indicated the fish fauna of north-eastern Australian coastal streams were more similar to distant Pacific islands (R = 0.76), than to nearby continental rivers (R = 0.98). Main Conclusions/Significance Coastal Wet Tropics streams are faunally more similar to distant Pacific islands (79% of species shared), than to nearby continental fauna due to two factors. First, coastal Wet Tropics streams lack many non-diadromous freshwater fish which are common in nearby large rivers. Second, many amphidromous species found in coastal Wet Tropics streams and Indo-Pacific islands remain absent from large rivers of the Wet Tropics. The evolutionary and

  14. Miocene reef platforms from northwestern Tuamotu Islands, central Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Montaggioni, L.F.; Mnhn-Ephe, A.

    1988-02-01

    Reef deposits of Miocene age occur on several northwestern Tuamotu atolls as either pointed residual and scattered reliefs through the Holocene reef sequence (Mataiva, Rangiroa, Tikehau, Kaukura) or elevated atoll-shaped platforms (Makatea). Throughout the region considered, the depositional/diagenetic history of Miocene reefs can be reconstructed as follows. During early Miocene times (e-f range-biozones), reef platforms developed on top of older carbonate banks, capping a midplate volcanic ridge of early Tertiary age. More than 100 m thick, these platforms displayed concentrically zoned environments of deposition: a peripheral subemergent rim composed of coralgalforaminiferal boundstones, and a very shallow central area in which foraminiferal and molluscan fine sands and muds were subhorizontally deposited. Local evidence of internal unconformity surfaces and subaerially produced features indicates that periods of relative emergency occurred as the reef piles grew upward. The ultimate stage of platform development is believed to have been a complete upfilling of the back-reef areas and subsequent emergence. Correlatively, a freshwater lens would have been formed close to the surface level of each of the so-formed islands. Dolomitization may have been initiated in the marine water/freshwater phreatic mixing zone. During lowstands, severe meteoric alteration affected emergent carbonate deposits, forming incipient cavity systems; the usual atoll morphology is considered to have been initiated at this time (presumably middle Micoene).

  15. Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christy, M.T.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  16. A review of domestic animal diseases within the Pacific Islands region.

    PubMed

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    The Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) are reported to be free of the most serious infectious livestock diseases which are prevalent in other parts of the globe, such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Foot and Mouth Disease or Rabies. Yet there is a lack of scientifically based evidence to confirm this animal health status. This paper reviews what has been published on diseases of domestic animals in the Pacific Islands region with a particular focus on data from the last 20 years (1992-2012). Relevant published papers were identified by a computerized literature search of two electronic databases (PubMed and Web of Knowledge). The latest reports on the animal health situation submitted by the PICTs to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) were accessed on the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and included in this review. Additionally, paper searches of resources were undertaken at the library of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) in Fiji to retrieve any relevant grey literature for this review. The study eligibility criteria included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease (bacterial, viral, parasitic and other health disorders) affecting domestic terrestrial animals (mammals, reptiles, birds and bees) in any of the 22 PICTs members of the SPC. A total of 158 eligible references were retrieved of which only 77 (48.7%) were published since 1992 and analysed in more details. One hundred and one diseases and pathogens were reported on for bee, bird, carabao, cat, cattle, crocodile, deer, dog, donkey, goat, horse, pig, pigeon, poultry and sheep in the Oceania region and in 17 PICTs in particular. The paper gives information about known animal diseases, their reported prevalence and diseases not reported within the Pacific Islands region. The study found retrieved literature on animal diseases in PICTs was scarce and no longer up to date. There is a need to improve the published knowledge on

  17. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    PubMed

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation. PMID:22675810

  18. Dispersal and behavior of pacific halibut hippoglossus stenolepis in the bering sea and Aleutian islands region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, A.C.; Loher, T.; Norcross, B.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is assumed that eastern Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis belong to a single, fully mixed population extending from California through the Bering Sea, in which adult halibut disperse randomly throughout their range during their lifetime. However, we hypothesize that hali but dispersal is more complex than currently assumed and is not spatially random. To test this hypo thesis, we studied the seasonal dispersal and behavior of Pacific halibut in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). Pop-up Archival Transmitting tags attached to halibut (82 to 154 cm fork length) during the summer provided no evidence that individuals moved out of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region into the Gulf of Alaska during the mid-winter spawning season, supporting the concept that this region contains a separate spawning group of adult halibut. There was evidence for geographically localized groups of halibut along the Aleutian Island chain, as all of the individuals tagged there displayed residency, with their movements possibly impeded by tidal currents in the passes between islands. Mid-winter aggregation areas of halibut are assumed to be spawning grounds, of which 2 were previously unidentified and extend the species' presumed spawning range ~1000 km west and ~600 km north of the nearest documented spawning area. If there are indeed independent spawning groups of Pacific halibut in the BSAI, their dynamics may vary sufficiently from those of the Gulf of Alaska, so that specifically accounting for their relative segregation and unique dynamics within the larger population model will be necessary for correctly predicting how these components may respond to fishing pressure and changing environmental conditions.?? Inter-Research 2011.

  19. Biocultural interpretations of trauma in two prehistoric Pacific Island populations from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rachel M; Buckley, Hallie R

    2010-08-01

    Two Pacific Island skeletal samples originating from the inland site of Nebira, Papua New Guinea (1230-1650) and a coastal site on the small island of Taumako, Solomon Islands (1530-1698) were examined for evidence of skeletal trauma using a biocultural approach. The types of trauma identified were cranial trauma, postcranial fractures, and piercing and sharp force trauma. Both samples exhibit trauma (Nebira, n = 9/28, 32.1%; Taumako, n = 17/133, 12.8%). Postcranial fractures are significantly higher in males from Nebira (Fisher Exact P value = 0.025). The prevalence of cranial trauma (n = 6/28, 21.4%) is significantly higher in Nebira individuals (Fisher Exact P value = 0.007). There is no conclusive evidence of piercing trauma at Nebira unlike Taumako, which has four individuals with evidence of piercing or sharp force trauma. Both samples show evidence of interpersonal violence and warfare. The results suggest the environment may have contributed to the pattern of trauma at these sites. These patterns are discussed within their cultural and environmental contexts.

  20. The Education Pacific Islands Children Deserve: The Learn and Play Project in the Solomon Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maebuta, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The Learn and Play Project was initiated by Solomon Islands Football Federation and aimed at educating and providing football skills training for primary school dropouts. The aim of this paper is to report the implementation of the programme in a case study school. Because the project is still being implemented, this paper is not intended to…

  1. The late Quaternary extinction and future resurrection of birds on Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.

    2003-04-01

    People have lived on tropical Pacific islands over the past 30,000 years (Bismarcks, Solomons) or 3000 to 1000 years (the rest of Oceania). Their activities have led to the loss of many thousands of populations and as many as 2000 species of birds that probably otherwise would exist today. This extinction event is documented by avian fossils from archaeological (cultural) and paleontological (noncultural) sites from nearly 70 islands in 19 island groups. Extinction of birds in Oceania rivals the late Pleistocene loss of large mammals in North America as the best substantiated rapid extinction episode in the vertebrate fossil record. Some avian extinctions in Oceania occurred within a century or less after human arrival, while others required millennia or even tens of millennia. Any of these time frames is rapid in an evolutionary or geochronological sense. Inter-island differences in the speed and extent of extinction can be explained by variation in abiotic (A), biotic (B), and cultural (C) factors. Levels of extinction on large, near islands can be comparable to those on small, remote islands when C factors (such as high human population density and introduction of invasive plants and animals) override A factors (such as large land area or little isolation) or B factors (such as rich indigenous floras and faunas). An innovative, proactive conservation strategy is needed not only to prevent further extinctions of birds in Oceania, but also to restart evolution of some of the lineages that have suffered the most loss, such as flightless rails. This strategy should focus on islands with ABC traits that retard rather than enhance extinction.

  2. Measuring maternal mortality in developing Pacific island countries: experience with the sisterhood method in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J; Wierzba, T; Knott, S; Pikacha, J

    1994-07-13

    The aim was to estimate the maternal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands and to assist health planning in the implementation of effective interventions. In many Pacific Island countries, registration of deaths is inaccurate and incomplete. The survey in the Solomon Islands was conducted in June 1992, and 2580 randomly chosen women were interviewed using the standard World Health Organization cluster sampling technique. The sisterhood method, an indirect technique for deriving population-based estimates of maternal mortality, was used in interviews reporting on the fertility and mortality experience of subjects' sisters. The sisterhood method was developed at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 1987 as an indirect technique for deriving population-based estimates of maternal mortality. In order to calculate the proportions of sisters dying of maternal causes, 4 questions were asked about deaths of their sisters 15 years of age or over during pregnancy, delivery or the puerperium. These, together with the 5-year age group of the respondents, formed the basic data for deriving an estimate of maternal mortality. An overall estimate of lifetime risk of maternal death across all respondent age groups was derived by dividing the total reported maternal deaths by the sum of the units of risk exposure across all age groups (73/2227 = 0.033) or a lifetime risk of 1 in 30. Through a series of well-defined mathematical calculations, it was possible to convert the information into retrospective estimates of maternal mortality. The maternal mortality ratio in this study was 549/100,000 (95% CI 431, 684), equivalent to 1 maternal death in every 180 pregnancies. The sisterhood method was found to be easy to administer, inexpensive, and quick, and is recommended as a measurement tool to other developing countries. The publication of the results has prompted the government of the Solomon Islands to act. PMID:8022583

  3. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the Pacific... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at... Pacific Missile Range Facility range boats, beach markings including beach signs along the north and...

  4. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  5. More than black and white: differences in predictors of obesity among Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Madan, Alok; Archambeau, Olga G; Milsom, Vanessa A; Goldman, Rachel L; Borckardt, Jeffery J; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Tuerk, Peter W; Frueh, B Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Although Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders exhibit the highest rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases of any racial/ethnic group, they remain vastly underrepresented in health research. In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 402) we examined BMI and health outcomes in an ethno-racially diverse rural sample of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (25.1%), Asian Americans (39.8%), and European Americans (35.1%). Measures assessed BMI, health status, health behaviors, frequency of exercise, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance abuse and dependence). Regression analyses revealed that an overall model of five predictors (gender, race, regular exercise, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety) was significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.001) and correctly classified 84.2% of cases. A 30.7% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were obese as compared with 9.2% of European Americans and 10.6% of Asian Americans. These findings suggest that Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islanders are at high risk for obesity and associated medical comorbidities, but that regular physical activity may ameliorate this risk. Further, these results support the consideration of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial/ethnic subgroup separate from other Asian populations.

  6. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  7. Overview of hepatitis B prevalence, prevention, and management in the Pacific Islands and Territories.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jessica; Van Gemert, Caroline; Lemoine, Maud; Thursz, Mark; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-11-01

    There are over 500-750 000 deaths per year because of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide and the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region has some of the highest endemic levels of HBV in the world, particularly within China, South East Asia and Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICT). The PICT have unique ethnic diversity and a very high prevalence of smoking and metabolic syndrome, both important risk factors for liver fibrosis and liver cancer. However, in contrast to many Asian countries, there is little published data on HBV prevalence and related liver disease burden in PICT. In this review, the available published literature and World Health Organization data for HBV prevalence and related liver disease and liver cancer burden in PICT is outlined, and unmet needs for improving HBV prevention and control in the region are highlighted.

  8. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  9. Tsunami Risk Management in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs): Some Issues, Challenges and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Goff, James

    2013-09-01

    The Pacific is well known for producing tsunamis, and events such as the 2011 Tōhoku-oki, Japan disaster demonstrate the vulnerability of coastal communities. We review what is known about the current state of tsunami risk management for Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs), identify the issues and challenges associated with affecting meaningful tsunami disaster risk reduction (DRR) efforts and outline strategies and possible ways forward. Small island states are scattered across the vast Pacific region and these states have to varying degrees been affected by not only large tsunamis originating in circum-Pacific subduction zones, but also more regionally devastating events. Having outlined and described what is meant by the risk management process, the various problems associated with our current understanding of this process are examined. The poorly understood hazard related to local, regional and distant sources is investigated and the dominant focus on seismic events at the expense of other tsunami source types is noted. We reflect on the challenges of undertaking numerical modelling from generation to inundation and specifically detail the problems as they relate to PICTs. This is followed by an exploration of the challenges associated with mapping exposure and estimating vulnerability in low-lying coastal areas. The latter part of the paper is devoted to exploring what mitigation of the tsunami risk can look like and draw upon good practice cases as exemplars of the actions that can be taken from the local to regional level. Importantly, given the diversity of PICTs, no one approach will suit all places. The paper closes by making a series of recommendations to assist PICTs and the wider tsunami research community in thinking through improvements to their tsunami risk management processes and the research that can underpin these efforts.

  10. Premature gestures: a speculative dialogue on Asian Pacific Islander lesbian and gay writing.

    PubMed

    Hom, A Y; Ma, M Y

    1993-01-01

    A collaborative exploration of the political realities and implications faced by self-identified Asian Pacific Islander lesbian and gay writers. Mixed-genre piece combining the essay and dialogue form, it contains sections co-written as well as individual pieces by the authors. The issues touched upon through this discussion are: available community-based and mainstream publishing venues, development of community-based writing, relation between grassroots political organizing and writing, API and lesbian/gay identity issues, internalized racism and homophobia, and other barriers for API lesbian and gay writers.

  11. Developing an ATOD prevention campaign for Asian and Pacific Islanders: some considerations.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, F; Nakashima, J

    2000-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in the United States as it relates to developing targeted alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention media. Although APIs represent several ethnic subgroups, many API communities face the same risk factors including pressure on youth to achieve, immigration and acculturation stressors, shame and denial in addressing substance abuse, and racism and discrimination. The authors recommend that media prevention campaigns targeting API communities emphasize cultural and family strengths and the active involvement of parents. The article concludes with an introduction to eight API communities in the United States.

  12. Chromosome numbers and pollen stainability of three species of Pacific Island breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Ragone, D

    2001-04-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined for 48 accessions of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, A. mariannensis, and A. camansi [Moraceae]) from 16 Pacific Island groups, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Artocarpus camansi and A. mariannensis exhibit counts of 2n = 56; 2n = 56 (diploidy) and 2n = 84 (triploidy) were observed for A. altilis. Most diploid cultivars of A. altilis were seeded, but two cultivars with reduced seed number were observed. Micronesian accessions included putative interspecific hybrids between A. altilis and A. mariannensis. The majority of these accessions were seedless diploids, but triploid putative hybrids were also observed. Pollen stainablility was shown to correlate with the degree of seediness.

  13. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  14. Will the effects of sea-level rise create ecological traps for Pacific Island seabirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Berkowitz, Paul; Storlazzi, Curt; Moore, Janet; Flint, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of

  15. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Berkowitz, Paul; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Moore, Janet; Flint, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of rising

  16. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Moreno, A.; Bao, R.; Pueyo, J. J.; Hernández, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sedimentary architecture and paleoclimate for the last 34 000 cal years BP and human activity during the last 850 years have been reconstructed from the Raraku Lake sediments in Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) using a high-resolution multiproxy study of 8 cores, 36 AMS radiocarbon dates and correlation with previous core studies. The Last Glacial period was characterized by cold and relatively humid conditions between 34 to 28 cal kyr BP. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake and a relatively open forest developed at that time. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major floods due to the erosion of littoral sediments. The Deglaciation Period (Termination 1) occurred between 17.3 and 12.5 cal kyr BP, characterized by an increase in lake productivity, a decrease in the terrigenous input and a rapid lake level recovery inaugurating a period of intermediate lake levels. During this period, the dominance of algal lamination is interpreted as a warmer climate. The timing and duration of this warming trend in Easter Island broadly agrees with other mid- and low latitude circum South Pacific terrestrial records. The early Holocene was characterized by low lake levels. The lake level dropped during the early Holocene (ca. 9.5 cal kyr BP) and peatbog and shallow lake conditions dominated till mid Holocene, partially caused by the colmatation of the lacustrine basin. During the mid Holocene an intense drought occurred that led to a persistent low water table period, subaerial exposure and erosion of some of the sediments, generating a sedimentary gap in the Raraku sequence, from 4.2 to 0.8 cal kyr BP. The palm deforestation of the Easter Island, attributed to the human colonization at about 850 cal yr

  17. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Michelle H; Courtot, Karen N; Berkowitz, Paul; Storlazzi, Curt D; Moore, Janet; Flint, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2). However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR) and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m) at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca). Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the face of rising

  18. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable.

  19. Understanding a Pacific Islander Young Adult Perspective on Access to Higher Education.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline H; Wong, Michelle; Wright, Erin Kahunawaika'ala; Fa'avae, Joe; Cheri, Ashley; Wat, Eric; Camacho, Keith L; Foo, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific Islander (PI) community suffers disproportionately from illnesses and diseases, including diabetes, heart disease and cancer. While there are tremendous health needs within the PI community, there are few health care providers from the community that exist to help address these particular needs. Many efforts have focused on health care workforce diversity to reduce and eliminate health disparities, but few have examined the issues faced in the health care work force pipeline. Understanding educational attainment among PI young adults is pivotal in speaking to a diverse health care workforce where health disparities among Pacific Islanders (PIs) may be addressed. This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative assessment of the various environmental, structural, socio-economic, and social challenges that prevent PIs from attaining higher education; it also discusses the various needs of PI young adults as they relate to psychosocial support, retention and recruitment, and health career knowledge and access. This paper represents a local, Southern California, assessment of PI young adults regarding educational access barriers. We examine how these barriers impact efforts to address health disparities and look at opportunities for health and health-related professionals to reduce and care for the high burden of illnesses and diseases in PI communities. PMID:24948880

  20. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Anthony S.; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F.; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui’one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March – August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents’ role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes’ “risk and enabling environment” heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention. PMID:22647562

  1. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. PMID:24102909

  2. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui'one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-08-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March-August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents' role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes' "risk and enabling environment" heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention.

  3. Trade policy and obesity prevention: challenges and innovation in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, W; Thow, A M

    2013-11-01

    The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region.

  4. Observations on Australian Humpback Dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) in Waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Isabel; Jedensjö, Maria; Wijaya, Gede Mahendra; Anamiato, Jim; Kahn, Benjamin; Kreb, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian humpback dolphin, Sousa sahulensis, has recently been described to occur in northern Australian coastal waters. However, its distribution in adjacent waters of the Pacific Islands and New Guinea remains largely unknown. Although there have been few studies conducted on inshore dolphins in these regions, the available information records humpback dolphins primarily from the Kikori Delta in Papua New Guinea, and Bird's Head Seascape in West Papua. Research in southern Papua New Guinea indicates that humpback dolphins are indeed S. sahulensis, based on cranial and external morphometrics, external colouration and the preliminary genetic analysis presented here. A similar situation exists for the Australian snubfin dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni, where it is assumed that the species also occurs along the Sahul Shelf coastal waters of northern Australia and New Guinea. There are anecdotal reports of direct catch of Australian humpback dolphins for use as shark bait, coastal development is increasing, and anthropogenic impacts will continue to escalate as human populations expand into previously uninhabited regions. Future research and management priorities for the Governments of the Pacific Islands and Indonesia will need to focus on inshore dolphins in known regional hotspots, as current bycatch levels appear unsustainable. PMID:26790894

  5. Supporting Pacific Island Countries to Strengthen Their Resistance to Tobacco Industry Interference in Tobacco Control: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  6. Supporting Pacific Island countries to strengthen their resistance to tobacco industry interference in tobacco control: a case study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

  7. Supporting Pacific Island countries to strengthen their resistance to tobacco industry interference in tobacco control: a case study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate.

  8. Inter-annual Variations and Decadal Trends in Surface Equatorial Pacific Phosphate Concentrations: Coral Records from the Line Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; LaVigne, M.; Tudhope, A. W.; Cobb, K.

    2011-12-01

    Coralline P/Ca is a newly-calibrated proxy for oceanic phosphate concentration (LaVigne et al. 2010, Anagnostuou et al. 2011). This proxy is an important tool for reconstructing tropical ocean nutrient dynamics, especially in remote regions, such as the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which are poorly covered by instrumental records. Here we present P/Ca records in 4 Porites corals from the Line Islands in the central Equatorial Pacific spanning the last ~ 30 years. The coral from Jarvis Island (0°22'S) has a significantly higher P/Ca concentration than two independent coral records from Christmas Island (1°53'N), and a coral from Fanning Island (3°51'N). This is consistent with the strong meridional gradient in surface phosphate in the central equatorial Pacific. All corals record a long-term 2-fold decrease in phosphate concentration from the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s, in agreement with observed slowing of the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation (McPhadden and Zhang 2002). On inter-annual time scales, the corals all capture strong El Niño events as a decrease in surface phosphate consistent with deepening of the eastern Pacific thermocline. The magnitude of this suppression is significantly larger in the Jarvis Island coral, again consistent with its location in the high phosphate tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The Jarvis Island coral record shows hints of a decadal oscillation in P which so far does not appear to be captured by the Christmas Island coral. Further analyses are underway to extend these records and to study P dynamics in other Line Island corals. Our preliminary results suggest that Porites corals are recording P variations in the central Pacific which accord with known oceanographic changes. This study demonstrates the potential for reconstructing nutrient dynamics at annual to multidecadal resolutions. Citations LaVigne M., Matthews K. A., Grottoli A. G., Cobb K. M., Anagnostou E., Cabioch G., and Sherrell R. M. (2010) Coral skeleton P

  9. Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning program: supporting climate science and enhancing climate services in Pacific Island Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Jones, David; Hendon, Harry; Charles, Andrew; Shelton, Kay; de Wit, Roald; Cottrill, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Seuseu, Sunny; Kaniaha, Salesa

    2013-04-01

    Over the past few years, significant progress in developing climate science for the Pacific has been achieved through a number of research projects undertaken under the Australian government International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI). Climate change has major impact on Pacific Island Countries and advancement in understanding past, present and futures climate in the region is vital for island nation to develop adaptation strategies to their rapidly changing environment. This new science is now supporting new services for a wide range of stakeholders in the Pacific through the National Meteorological Agencies of the region. Seasonal climate prediction is particularly important for planning in agriculture, tourism and other weather-sensitive industries, with operational services provided by all National Meteorological Services in the region. The interaction between climate variability and climate change, for example during droughts or very warm seasons, means that much of the early impacts of climate change are being felt through seasonal variability. A means to reduce these impacts is to improve forecasts to support decision making. Historically, seasonal climate prediction has been developed based on statistical past relationship. Statistical methods relate meteorological variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) to indices which describe large-scale environment (e.g. ENSO indices) using historical data. However, with observed climate change, statistical approaches based on historical data are getting less accurate and less reliable. Recognising the value of seasonal forecasts, we have used outputs of a dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia), to develop web-based information tools (http://poama.bom.gov.au/experimental/pasap/index.shtml) which are now used by climate services in 15 partner countries in the Pacific for preparing seasonal climate outlooks. Initial comparison conducted during 2012 has shown that the

  10. Large-scale impact of the island mass effect through nitrogen fixation in the western South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Kodama, Taketoshi; Furuya, Ken

    2014-04-01

    We describe a new mechanism for the island mass effect fueled by nitrogen fixation. The nitrogen fixation activities and δ15N of suspended particles in the surface water in the South Pacific were examined. Active nitrogen fixation and abundant Trichodesmium spp. were observed near islands in the western subtropical region, which was attributable to the material supplied by land runoff. High primary production was extensively centered around the islands and was characterized by low δ15N of suspended particles and a reduction in phosphate concentrations at the surface compared with the subtropical gyre and eastern equatorial upwelling. This suggested that Trichodesmium spp. were advected to areas remote from these islands, and consequently, the elevated primary production fueled by nitrogen fixation extended over a large area around them. Because the proposed island mass effect is triggered by a terrigenous nutrient supply, this ecosystem is potentially vulnerable to human activity on small islands.

  11. Crustal anisotropy beneath Pacific Ocean-Islands from harmonic decomposition of receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, Tolulope Morayo; Park, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath ocean islands can be attributed to preferentially aligned minerals, cracks, or dike structures. Stacked with harmonic weighting, receiver functions from permanent ocean-island stations display evidence of strong and distinct anisotropy parameters in the underlying crust and underplated layer. We analyze data for 11 IRIS-GSN stations in the Pacific Ocean. We observe the prevalence of two-lobed receiver function (RF) amplitude variations with back-azimuth, consistent with "slow" tilted-axis anisotropy. In most cases the anisotropy is accommodated in the underplated crust. Synthetic modeling of a representative station indicates that the strength of anisotropy of Vp=10% and Vs=5% is possible. The strike direction of the inferred symmetry axis tends to align with plate motion, with some scatter. At stations in the northwest Pacific i.e., KWAJ, TARA, and WAKE, the strike direction of the symmetry axis aligns with plate motion at the time of volcano emplacement. Beneath station POHA and the closest stations to the present-day Hawaiian hotspot, alignment of the symmetry axis is almost orthogonal to the plate motion. We attribute the crustal anisotropy to the preferred alignment of dike structures that transported asthenospheric magma toward the seafloor volcanic edifice. Our results suggest that the thermal-plume origin for ocean islands must be supplemented by tectonic-stress heterogeneities that allow magma to penetrate the lithosphere via fractures. Magma-transport fractures should align normal to the least-compressive direction, which are predicted by theoretical models to align approximately with plate motion at the time of emplacement.

  12. Crustal Anisotropy beneath selected Pacific Ocean-Islands from Harmonic Decomposition of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, T. M.; Park, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath ocean islands can be attributed to preferentially aligned minerals cracks or dike structures. Stacked with harmonic weighting, receiver functions from permanent ocean-island stations display evidence of strong and distinct anisotropy parameters in the underlying crust and in an underplated layer. We conduct analysis for eleven IRIS-GSN stations in the Pacific Ocean, with 211 to 774 seismic events at each station. We observe the prevalence of two-lobed RF amplitude variations with back-azimuth, consistent with tilted-axis anisotropy. With the assumption of a slow-axis hexagonal symmetry, we observe anisotropies in the underlying crust and under-plated crust that are oppositely oriented. Synthetic modeling of representative stations indicate that the strength of anisotropy ~5-10%. The strike of the inferred symmetry axis tends to align with plate motion, with some scatter. At stations in the northwest Pacific i.e. KWAJ, TARA, and WAKE, the symmetry axis aligns with past plate motion. The anisotropy closest to the present-day Hawaiian hotspot, beneath station POHA, aligns almost orthogonal to plate spreading. We attribute the crustal anisotropy to the preferred alignment of dike structures that transported asthenospheric magma toward the seafloor volcanic edifice. Our results argue that the thermal-plume origin for ocean islands must be supplemented by tectonic-stress heterogeneities that allow magma to penetrate the lithosphere via fractures. Magma-transport fractures should align normal to the least-compressive direction, which models predict should align approximately coeval to plate motion.

  13. Seabirds modify El Niño effects on tree growth in a southern Pacific island.

    PubMed

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Gallardo-Cerda, Jorge; Leppe, Marcelo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are particularly sensitive to El Niño effects due to their dependence on energy and nutrient inputs from marine systems. Seabirds play a key role in transporting resources of marine origin to insular ecosystems. We report tree-growth patterns showing how the effects of El Niño rainy events on tree species in a southern Pacific island depend on the presence of local seabird colonies. We performed manipulative experiments in order to assess the mechanisms underlying these patterns. Tree ring data showed that, in normal years, the growth of all tree species (Aextoxicon punctatum, Cryptocarya alba, and Pinus radiata) was significantly lower in seabird sites compared to adjacent patches without seabirds (control sites). In contrast, in El Niño years, trees formerly hosting seabird colonies grew more than those in control sites. Experiments showed that (1) pine plants on soil from seabird sites grew more than those on soil from control sites, (2) pine individuals with seabird feces on their leaves grew less than those sprayed with an aqueous solution, and (3) soil moisture had little effect on plant growth. The stress produced by massive cormorant nesting on trees, which impairs tree growth and physiological performance, is relieved during El Niño events because of seabird migration due to decreased prey availability and pouring rains that flood nests. Soils enriched by the seabird guano, together with the increased water availability associated with El Niño, foster the growth of trees from seabird sites. We suggest that El Niño may be a key determinant of tree performance in forest communities from island and coastal ecosystems of the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Seabirds modify El Niño effects on tree growth in a southern Pacific island.

    PubMed

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Gallardo-Cerda, Jorge; Leppe, Marcelo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are particularly sensitive to El Niño effects due to their dependence on energy and nutrient inputs from marine systems. Seabirds play a key role in transporting resources of marine origin to insular ecosystems. We report tree-growth patterns showing how the effects of El Niño rainy events on tree species in a southern Pacific island depend on the presence of local seabird colonies. We performed manipulative experiments in order to assess the mechanisms underlying these patterns. Tree ring data showed that, in normal years, the growth of all tree species (Aextoxicon punctatum, Cryptocarya alba, and Pinus radiata) was significantly lower in seabird sites compared to adjacent patches without seabirds (control sites). In contrast, in El Niño years, trees formerly hosting seabird colonies grew more than those in control sites. Experiments showed that (1) pine plants on soil from seabird sites grew more than those on soil from control sites, (2) pine individuals with seabird feces on their leaves grew less than those sprayed with an aqueous solution, and (3) soil moisture had little effect on plant growth. The stress produced by massive cormorant nesting on trees, which impairs tree growth and physiological performance, is relieved during El Niño events because of seabird migration due to decreased prey availability and pouring rains that flood nests. Soils enriched by the seabird guano, together with the increased water availability associated with El Niño, foster the growth of trees from seabird sites. We suggest that El Niño may be a key determinant of tree performance in forest communities from island and coastal ecosystems of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:24400493

  15. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  16. The history of brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories and its re-emergence.

    PubMed

    Tukana, Andrew; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    There are few publications on brucellosis within the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The reason is possibly because the cattle population has been reportedly free of the disease for many years until a re-emergence occurred in the Fiji Islands (Viti Levu) in 2009. This paper reports on the outbreak of brucellosis in Fiji and its progression between 2009 and 2013 in the context of an overview of brucellosis in the Pacific Island community. Review of the literature found only 28 articles with the oldest record of brucellosis being in 1965 in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and from human cases in Tonga in 1980. The Fiji outbreak of Brucella abortus occurred in cattle in 2009 (Wainivesi basin) in the Tailevu province. Prior to the outbreak, Fiji declared freedom from B. abortus to OIE in 1996 after a successful eradication campaign. During the course of the outbreak investigation, serum samples were collected from between 9790 and 21,624 cattle per annum between 2009 and 2013 from 87 farms on the main island of Fiji (Viti Levu). Blood samples were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) in 2009 and the indirect ELISA test in subsequent years. At the time of the outbreak in Fiji (2009) the apparent prevalence in cattle was 1.50% and this has fluctuated since the outbreak. The True Prevalence (TP) for the main island in Fiji for the indirect ELISA tests was 2.40% in 2010, reached a peak of 3.49% in 2011 then reduced to 0.12% by 2013. The significant reduction in prevalence compared to 2010 is most likely due to the control programs being implemented in Fiji. The re-emergence of B. abortus in Fiji could be attributed to the lack of monitoring for the disease until 2009 combined with inadequate management of exposed animals, thus illustrating how important it is for authorities not to become complacent. Continued awareness and monitoring for brucellosis is essential if future outbreaks are to be avoided.

  17. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J.; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries—Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Objective: We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. Methods: This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a “likelihood versus impact” matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. Results: The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Conclusion: Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate

  18. Characteristics of a dengue outbreak in a remote pacific island chain--Republic of The Marshall Islands, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Tyler M; Mackay, Andrew J; Santiago, Gilberto A; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1-4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10-29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks.

  19. Human-assisted invasions of pacific islands by litoria frogs: a case study of the bleating tree frog on Lord Howe Island.

    PubMed

    Plenderleith, T Lynette; Smith, Katie L; Donnellan, Stephen C; Reina, Richard D; Chapple, David G

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial differences among taxonomic groups in their capacity to reach remote oceanic islands via long-distance overwater dispersal from mainland regions. Due to their permeable skin and intolerance of saltwater, amphibians generally require human-assisted dispersal to reach oceanic islands. Several Litoria frog species have been introduced to remote islands throughout the Pacific Ocean region. Lord Howe Island (LHI) is an oceanic island that lies approximately 600 km east of the Australian mainland and has a diverse, endemic biota. The bleating tree frog (Litoria dentata) is native to mainland eastern Australia, but was accidentally introduced to LHI in the 1990s, yet its ecology and potential impact on LHI has remained unstudied. We used a mitochondrial phylogeographical approach to determine that L. dentata was introduced from the Ballina region in northeastern New South Wales. The founding population was likely accidentally introduced with cargo shipped from the mainland. We also completed the first detailed investigation of the distribution, ecology and habitat use of L. dentata on LHI. The species is widespread on LHI and is prevalent in human habitat, cattle pasture and undisturbed forest. We discuss the potential impact of introduced Litoria species on Pacific islands and outline what biosecurity protocols could be implemented to prevent the introduction of further amphibian species to the ecologically sensitive oceanic area.

  20. Human-Assisted Invasions of Pacific Islands by Litoria Frogs: A Case Study of the Bleating Tree Frog on Lord Howe Island

    PubMed Central

    Plenderleith, T. Lynette; Smith, Katie L.; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Reina, Richard D.; Chapple, David G.

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial differences among taxonomic groups in their capacity to reach remote oceanic islands via long-distance overwater dispersal from mainland regions. Due to their permeable skin and intolerance of saltwater, amphibians generally require human-assisted dispersal to reach oceanic islands. Several Litoria frog species have been introduced to remote islands throughout the Pacific Ocean region. Lord Howe Island (LHI) is an oceanic island that lies approximately 600 km east of the Australian mainland and has a diverse, endemic biota. The bleating tree frog (Litoria dentata) is native to mainland eastern Australia, but was accidentally introduced to LHI in the 1990s, yet its ecology and potential impact on LHI has remained unstudied. We used a mitochondrial phylogeographical approach to determine that L. dentata was introduced from the Ballina region in northeastern New South Wales. The founding population was likely accidentally introduced with cargo shipped from the mainland. We also completed the first detailed investigation of the distribution, ecology and habitat use of L. dentata on LHI. The species is widespread on LHI and is prevalent in human habitat, cattle pasture and undisturbed forest. We discuss the potential impact of introduced Litoria species on Pacific islands and outline what biosecurity protocols could be implemented to prevent the introduction of further amphibian species to the ecologically sensitive oceanic area. PMID:25962141

  1. Substance Use as a Robust Correlate of School Outcome Measures for Ethnically Diverse Adolescents of Asian/Pacific Islander Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hishinuma, Earl S.; Else, Iwalani R. N.; Chang, Janice Y.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Choi-Misailidis, Soo Jean; Andrade, Naleen N.

    2006-01-01

    School psychologists are generally not provided with the knowledge and skills to address both educational and psychosocial issues of Asian American and Pacific Islander students. The present study is the first of its kind in examining 36 independent (i.e., demographic, social, cultural, psychological) variables in association with four school…

  2. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  3. 22 CFR 46.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust... the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United... the departure of aliens from the United States, any alien who seeks to depart from the Canal Zone,...

  4. 78 FR 27124 - Pacific Ocean Off the Kekaha Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... amend its regulations to establish a new danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Kekaha Range... INFORMATION: Executive Summary The purpose of this regulatory action is to establish a new danger zone...

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Maternal Approval on Sexual Behaviors of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Lee, Jieha; Zerden, Lisa; Ozonoff, Al; Amodeo, Maryann; Adkins, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the longitudinal association between Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents' perceptions of maternal approval of their sexual activity and contraception use, and four sexual outcomes during young adulthood. The study includes a nationally representative…

  6. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. (a) In addition to the... possession without first being accorded a hearing as provided in §§ 1215.4 and 1215.5. (b) The Governor of... referred to in paragraph (a) of this section. The hearing officer so designated shall exercise the...

  7. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. (a) In addition to the... possession without first being accorded a hearing as provided in §§ 1215.4 and 1215.5. (b) The Governor of... referred to in paragraph (a) of this section. The hearing officer so designated shall exercise the...

  8. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. (a) In addition to the... possession without first being accorded a hearing as provided in §§ 1215.4 and 1215.5. (b) The Governor of... referred to in paragraph (a) of this section. The hearing officer so designated shall exercise the...

  9. 8 CFR 1215.6 - Departure from the Canal Zone, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Territory of the Pacific Islands, or outlying possessions of the United States. (a) In addition to the... possession without first being accorded a hearing as provided in §§ 1215.4 and 1215.5. (b) The Governor of... referred to in paragraph (a) of this section. The hearing officer so designated shall exercise the...

  10. Beyond the "Model Minority" Stereotype: Trends in Health Risk Behaviors among Asian/Pacific Islander High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asian/Pacific Islander (API) students have been stereotyped as the "model minority." The objective of this study was to examine the trends in health risk behaviors among API students who participated in the San Diego City Schools Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) between 1993 and 2005. Methods: High school students from the San Diego…

  11. HIV Testing Behavior among Pacific Islanders in Southern California: Exploring the Importance of Race/Ethnicity, Knowledge, and Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…

  12. A Comparison of the Sexual Risk Behaviors of Asian American and Pacific Islander College Students and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arliss, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Background: Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have been neglected in health research. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to (1) describe the sexual risk behaviors of a sample of AAPI community college students using questions from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, and (2) to compare the sexual risk behaviors of AAPI…

  13. A Critical Review of the Model Minority Myth in Selected Literature on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, OiYan; Squire, Dian; Kodama, Corinne; Byrd, Ajani; Chan, Jason; Manzano, Lester; Furr, Sara; Bishundat, Devita

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of 112 works of research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) in higher education. It focuses on ways previous scholarship framed AAPIs in higher education, and specifically on how those works engaged in a sustained project of countering the model minority myth (MMM). Many publications on AAPIs…

  14. A Family and Community Focused Lifestyle Program Prevents Weight Regain in Pacific Islanders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Mau, Marjorie K.; Efird, Jimmy T.; Leake, Anne; West, Margaret; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Kekauoha, B. Puni; Rose, Charles; Gomes, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Preventing weight regain after the loss of excess weight is challenging for people, especially for ethnic minorities in the United States. A 6-month weight loss maintenance intervention designed for Pacific Islanders, called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP), was compared with a 6-month standard behavioral weight loss maintenance program (SBP) in a…

  15. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  16. Maternal Influences on Asian American-Pacific Islander Adolescents' Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…

  17. Overview of Asian and Pacific Islanders in the United States and California: A Series of Community Voices Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Marguerite

    This report presents data on Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs), focusing on California. It discusses: who APIAs are; nativity and citizenship; residence (nearly all APIAs reside in metropolitan areas, particularly California); educational attainment (because of the model minority myth about Asians, APIA children are deprived of…

  18. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

  19. Has Social Work Met Its Commitment to Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders? A Review of the Periodical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Garlock-Tuialii, Jessica; Lee, Palama

    2008-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs) were recognized in the 2000 U.S. census as a distinct racial minority group, with unique histories, values, and traditions. The profession of social work, with its historical commitment to social and cultural diversity, has begun to establish a knowledge base on this population in the…

  20. Conducting HIV Interventions for Asian Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men: Challenges and Compromises in Community Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru; Ng, Terence; Syed, Javid; Mazarei, Mazdak

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the process of implementing a community collaborative HIV prevention intervention research project targeting Asian and Pacific Islander (API) men who have sex with men (MSM). This article traces the genesis of the project--which linked university researchers with an API-focused community based organization--starting from its…

  1. HIV and AIDS in Suburban Asian and Pacific Islander Communities: Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in HIV Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Magalong, Michelle G.; DeBell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by…

  2. Island-Arc Collision Dominates Japan's Sediment Flux to the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codilean, A. T.; Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Matsushi, Y.; Saito, H.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying volumes and rates of delivery of terrestrial sediment to subduction zones is indispensable for refining estimates of the thickness of trench fills that may eventually control the location and timing of submarine landslides and tsunami-generating mega-earthquakes. Despite these motivating insights, knowledge about the rates of erosion and sediment export from the Japanese islands to their Pacific subduction zones has somewhat stagnated despite the increasing availability of highly resolved data on surface deformation, climate, geology, and topography. Traditionally, natural erosion rates across the island arc have been estimated from catchment topographic predictors of reservoir sedimentation rates that were recorded over several years to decades. We correct for a systematic bias in these predictions, and present new estimates of decadal to millennial-scale erosion rates of the Japanese terrestrial inner forearc, drawing on several unprecedented inventories of mass wasting, reservoir sedimentation, and concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in river sands. Our data reveal that catchments draining Japan's eastern seaboard have distinctly different tectonic, lithological, topographic, and climatic characteristics, underscored by a marked asymmetric pattern of erosion rates along and across the island arc. Erosion rates are highest in the Japanese Alps that mark the collision of two subduction zones, where high topographic relief, hillslope and bedrock-channel steepness foster rapid denudation by mass wasting. Comparable, if slightly lower, rates characterize southwest Japan, most likely due to higher typhoon-driven rainfall totals and variability rather than the similarly high relief and contemporary uplift rates that are linked to subduction earthquake cycles, and outpace long-term Quaternary uplift. In contrast, our estimated erosion and flux rates are lowest in the inner forearc catchments that feed sediment into the Japan Trench. We conclude that

  3. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in

  4. Petrology and geochemistry of the San Félix-San Ambrosio islands, Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper Percker, Oliver; Lara, Luis E.

    2015-04-01

    The San Félix-San Ambrosio (SF-SA) islands, Eastern Pacific, are fragments of two volcanic sequences 20 km apart. Both represent the top of an eroded large shield-volcano which rises over the Nazca Plate. Here, new geochemical and 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data are presented in order to understand magmatic evolution and source features. Two units are recognized on the SF island: (1) the Cerro Amarillo unit (CAU) (190±30 ka) formed by a hyaloclastic-tuff cone and basanitic lavas (Ba/Yb=519; Ba/Zr=2.19; La/Yb=49.88; Nb/Ta=17.96; Nb/Y=3.78; Nb/Zr=0.25) with absent or scarce modal content of plagioclase (<5%); and (2) Plateau unit (PU) (210±60 ka) formed by a basanitic lava succession with high modal content of plagioclase (>20%). The hyaloclastic-tuff cone of the CAU contains aphanitic-trachytic lithic fragments of Na-augite and kaersutite, which correspond to the final product of fractional crystallization of olivine+clinopyroxene+Fe-Ti oxides+apatite±plagioclase from alkaline primitive liquids similar to SF-SA lavas. The geochemical data suggest that the islands represent different evolutive stages of a same volcanic intraplate complex. The alkaline to transitional SA lavas (Ba/Yb=249; Ba/Zr=1.60; La/Yb=24.62; Nb/Ta=16.55; Nb/Y=2.22; Nb/Zr=0.19) would represent the shield stage (ca 2.9 Ma), while the basanitic SF lavas the post-erosional stage (ca 0.2 Ma). Considering the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of the SF-SA lavas, previous works have ruled out a genetic relationship between SF-SA islands and the nearby Nazca Ridge. An heterogeneous mantle plume with mantelic metasomatized recycled lithologies is hypothesized as a possible magmatic source capable of explaining the petrologic differences between the SF-SA islands and between the CAU and PU, in SF island. This research is supported by FONDECYT Project 1141303.

  5. Cultural considerations in understanding family violence among Asian American Pacific Islander families.

    PubMed

    Weil, Jennifer M; Lee, Hwayun H

    2004-01-01

    There has been much research conducted in the area of family violence, however, there is a paucity of research specifically addressing family violence in Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities. Because AAPIs are regarded as the model minority, many have the misconception that family violence does not exist in this population. This article examines Asian cultural beliefs and values to gain a better understanding of Asian attitudes towards family violence. A more in-depth exploration of the Cambodian and Vietnamese cultures regarding attitudes towards violence is included because of the higher tolerance of family violence among these 2 cultures than other Asian cultures. Public health nurses working with AAPI families can provide culturally appropriate care by taking Asian attitudes, values, and beliefs into account when developing nursing interventions with victims of abuse. PMID:15537547

  6. How Did Zika Virus Emerge in the Pacific Islands and Latin America?

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, John H.-O.; Eldholm, Vegard; Seligman, Stephen J.; Lundkvist, Åke; Falconar, Andrew K.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Musso, Didier; Nougairède, Antoine; Charrel, Remi; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS) (which includes microcephaly) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence. PMID:27729507

  7. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  8. The mis-measurement of extreme global poverty: A case study in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Gubhaju, Bina

    2015-01-01

    Debate over the measurement of global poverty in low- and middle-income countries continues unabated. There is considerable controversy surrounding the ‘dollar a day’ measure used to monitor progress against the Millennium Development Goals. This article shines fresh light on the debate with new empirical analyses of poverty (including child poverty), inequality and deprivation levels in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. The study focuses not only on economic and monetary metrics and measures, but also the measures of deprivation derived from sociology in relation to shelter, sanitation, water, information, nutrition, health and education. Until recently, there had been few, if any, attempts to study poverty and deprivation disparities among children in this part of the world. Different measures yield strikingly different estimates of poverty. The article, therefore, attempts to situate the study findings in the broader international context of poverty measurement and discusses their implications for future research and the post-2015 development agenda. PMID:26336359

  9. Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Goebert, Deborah A; Helm, Susana; Else, Iwalani R N; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2015-01-01

    This study was the first to examine ethnic, sex, and ethnicity-by-sex differences for under-researched, Asian American and Pacific Islander, adolescent groups on youth violence outcomes other than cyberbullying. This effort included the less researched, emotional violence, and included socioeconomic status (SES) measures as covariates. The sample size from 2 high schools in spring 2007 was 881, using an epidemiologic survey design. The pattern of results was higher rates of violence victimization for ethnic groups, with lower representation in the 2 schools' population, and ethnic groups that more recently moved or immigrated to Hawai'i. For emotional victimization, girls of European American and "other", ethnicities self-reported higher rates than boys. Several implications (e.g., need for ethnically and gender-based approaches) and further research (e.g., ethnocultural identity) are discussed.

  10. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved. PMID:12179461

  11. Fiscal and monetary policies in the South Pacific Island countries: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, T K

    2000-06-01

    This paper evaluates the fiscal and monetary policies of South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs) in terms of its efficacy on economic growth. To this effect, the backgrounds on the existing fiscal and monetary policies are discussed with emphasis on their inefficiencies and limitations. In addition, the findings of an empirical study conducted in the countries of Fiji, Tonga, Vanatau, and Samoa regarding the efficacy of the policies are presented. The results, which were subjected to various tests of statistical significance, indicate that both policies were ineffective in all four SPICs. However, monetary policy had a positive impact on growth in Fiji, Tonga, and Vanatau. In view of such, several policy implications are cited, including 1) that delays and inefficiencies involved in the execution of public projects should be minimized; 2) quality and components of public expenditures is of critical significance; and 3) financial sectors should be improved.

  12. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  13. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  14. Slowing the epidemic of tobacco use among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Lew, Rod; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2003-05-01

    Data on tobacco use among the Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) population remain limited, although existing studies indicate that tobacco use prevalence among males from specific AAPI groups is significantly higher than in the general US male population. This high prevalence of tobacco use and the disparities in use result from social norms, targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, lack of culturally and linguistically tailored prevention and control programs, and limited impact of mainstream tobacco control programs for AAPIs. We review the available literature on tobacco use among AAPI men and women, highlight a national agenda that promotes tobacco prevention and control for AAPI communities, and acknowledge recent trends including the increase of tobacco use among AAPI women and girls.

  15. Exploring access to cancer control services for Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Foong, Heng L; Lee, Susan W; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen Ngoc; Rickles, Jordan; Wang, Jennifer S

    2004-01-01

    During the last 25 years, numerous studies have been conducted to promote breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. Most of these studies focused on individual-level factors predicting screening, but we are unaware of any that directly examined community and ecological influences. The goal of this project, Promoting Access to Health for Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women (PATH for Women), was to increase community capacity for breast and cervical cancer screening and follow up in Los Angeles and Orange counties. We focused on Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women because, although they have the lowest rates for cancer, compared to all other ethnic groups, relatively few programs have specifically targeted Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women to promote and sustain screening practices. The PATH for Women project involved a partnership between 5 community-based organizations and 2 universities, and included 7 Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities: Cambodians, Chamorros, Laotians, Thais, Tongans, Samoans, and Vietnamese. In this paper, we share our experiences in developing a Geographic Information System (GIS)-mapping evaluation component that was used to explore availability and accessibility to culturally responsive breast and cervical cancer screening services for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander women in all 7 communities. We describe the methods used to develop the maps, and present the preliminary findings that demonstrate significant geographic and language barriers to accessing healthcare providers, services for breast and cervical cancer screening, and follow up, in each of the communities. Finally, we discuss implications for programs designed to promote breast and cervical screening and policy education.

  16. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks.

  17. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15–385 kg−1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  18. Maternal and Paternal Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes among Asian and Pacific Islanders in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daksha; Patel, Urjeet; Piotrowski, Zdzislaw H.; Nelson, Merwyn

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE. The pupose of this study was to compare maternal and paternal risk factors and the outcomes of Asian Pacific Islander (API) pregnancies with other racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White) in Illinois. METHODS. We examined computerized birth certificate files in Illinois to descriptively analyze birth outcomes and parental characteristics for births occurring between 1989 and 1993. Infant mortality tables were examined for birth cohorts born from 1989 to 1992. Rates among Illinois API groups were presented for the following: maternal and paternal socio-demographic factors; maternal medical risk factors, amount of prenatal care and type of method of delivery; newborn complications and various morbidity outcomes; and, early neonatal mortality. For comparison, simliar Illinois data are presented for Blacks and Whites and Hispanics. We statistically evaluated the significance in variability of rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. APIs in Illinois experienced a lower infant mortality rate. API mothers were more likely to be married, beyond the teenage years, have more education and smoke less often during their pregnancy than any of the other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, API mothers were more likely to experience primiparity rather than high parity. We detected statistically signifacnt differences for maternal and paternal socio-demographic characteristics among the four populations (p<0.0001). Similarly we found statistically significant differences in risk factors during pregnancy and labor and delivery complications among four race/ethnic population (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Fetal, neonatal, post-natal and infant mortality rates were the lowest among APIs when compared to Hispanic, Black and White neonates. These differences were statistically signifacant. However, rates of inadequate prenatal care, labor and elivery complications, prematurity and low birth weight were not similarly lower among APIs. RELEVANCE TO ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER AMERICAN

  19. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  20. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  1. Sugar-sweetened beverages in Pacific Island countries and territories: problems and solutions?

    PubMed

    Snowdon, W

    2014-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases are a major problem in the Pacific Islands, with poor diets an important contributing factor. Available data suggests high levels of intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) across the region, and particularly in adolescents. Due to concerns about the risks to health of high intakes, efforts have been made across the region to reduce the intake of SSBs. French Polynesia, Nauru, Cook Islands, Tonga and Fiji have implemented sales or excise taxes on SSBs to increase the price to the consumer. Many countries in the region have adopted school food policies which intend to limit or ban access to SSBs in schools. Guam also adopted legislation to ensure that healthier foods and beverages were available in all vending machines in schools. Efforts to control advertising and sponsorship of SSBs have been limited to-date in the region, although some school food policies do restrict advertising and sponsorship in schools, school grounds and school vehicles. Efforts around education and awareness raising have shown mixed success in terms of changing behaviour. Greater attention is needed to evaluate the impact of these measures to ensure that actions are effective, and to increase the evidence regionally of the most effective approaches to tackle SSBs. PMID:25928995

  2. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of phosphate mining on the ground water of Anguar, Palau Islands, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted

    1961-01-01

    Mining of phosphate ore on Angaur Island by mechanized methods created large water-table lakes, which became filled with brackish or saline water. A hydrologic investigation was started in 1949 to determine whether the saline water in the lakes would spread to surrounding areas and cause damage to agricultural lands and the water supply. Angaur, which is in the Palau Islands in the southwestern part of Micronesia, is administered as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, under a trusteeship granted to the United States by the United Nations. The island has an area of 3.2 square miles and has a maximum altitude of about 150 feet. The climate is tropical oceanic. The average annual temperature is 82 ? F; the average annual rainfall is about 125 inches; and the average relative humidity is about 80 percent. The northwestern third of Angaur (province A) consists topographically of a series of concentric ridges and depressions which are underlain largely by well-cemented coralline limestone of Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent ages. The remaining two-thirds of Angaur (province B} is a low plain underlain in the northern and central parts by a low platform of coralline rubble of Pleistocene and Recent age and in the southern part by sandy and rubbly beach deposits of Recent age. Province A contained extensive phosphate deposits of which more than 3 million tons were mined in 1909-55. Weekly water-level measurements at 35 wells, test holes, and lakes indicate that the water table averages about 2 feet above mean sea level in the beach deposits, about half a foot above mean sea level in the rubble deposits, and about 1.35 feet above mean sea level in the coralline limestone. Water samples obtained weekly at the observation sites indicate that the ground water in province A is not of uniform quality, as large variations in salinity occur throughout the area. In contrast, the ground water in province B is of relatively uniform quality, and contains less than 1

  4. Characteristics of a Dengue Outbreak in a Remote Pacific Island Chain – Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Mackay, Andrew J.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Nilles, Eric J.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Tikomaidraubuta, Kinisalote S.; Colon, Candimar; Amador, Manuel; Chen, Tai-Ho; Lalita, Paul; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Barrera, Roberto; Langidrik, Justina; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4). Although dengue outbreaks regularly occur in many regions of the Pacific, little is known about dengue in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). To better understand dengue in RMI, we investigated an explosive outbreak that began in October 2011. Suspected cases were reported to the Ministry of Health, serum specimens were tested with a dengue rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and confirmatory testing was performed using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. Laboratory-positive cases were defined by detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 by RDT, DENV nucleic acid by RT-PCR, or anti-DENV IgM antibody by RDT or ELISA. Secondary infection was defined by detection of anti-DENV IgG antibody by ELISA in a laboratory-positive acute specimen. During the four months of the outbreak, 1,603 suspected dengue cases (3% of the RMI population) were reported. Of 867 (54%) laboratory-positive cases, 209 (24%) had dengue with warning signs, six (0.7%) had severe dengue, and none died. Dengue incidence was highest in residents of Majuro and individuals aged 10–29 years, and ∼95% of dengue cases were experiencing secondary infection. Only DENV-4 was detected by RT-PCR, which phylogenetic analysis demonstrated was most closely related to a virus previously identified in Southeast Asia. Cases of vertical DENV transmission, and DENV/Salmonella Typhi and DENV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infection were identified. Entomological surveys implicated water storage containers and discarded tires as the most important development sites for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Although this is the first documented dengue outbreak in RMI, the age groups of cases and high prevalence of secondary infection demonstrate prior DENV circulation. Dengue surveillance should continue to be strengthened in RMI and throughout the Pacific to identify and rapidly respond to future outbreaks. PMID

  5. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  6. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  7. The history of mammal eradications in Hawai`i and the United States associated islands of the Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Jacobi, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Many eradications of mammal taxa have been accomplished on United States associated islands of the Central Pacific, beginning in 1910. Commonly eradicated species are rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rats (Rattus spp.), feral cats (Felis catus), and several feral ungulates from smaller islands and fenced natural areas on larger Hawaiian Islands. Vegetation and avifauna have demonstrated dramatic recovery as a direct result of eradications. Techniques of worldwide significance, including the Judas goat method, were refined during these actions. The land area from which ungulates have been eradicated on large Hawaiian Islands is now greater than the total land area of some smaller Hawaiian Islands. Large multi-tenure islands present the greatest challenge to eradication because of conflicting societal interests regarding introduced mammals, mainly sustained-yield hunting. The difficulty of preventing reinvasion poses a persistent threat after eradication, particularly for feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on multi-tenure islands. Larger areas and more challenging species are now under consideration for eradication. The recovery of endangered Hawaiian birds may depend on the creation of large predator-proof exclosures on some of the larger islands. Large scale eradications of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) would be beneficial to ground-nesting birds such as nēnē (Branta sandvicensis), but this has been achieved only in small exclosures.

  8. Population policies and programmes in the post-ICPD era: can the Pacific Island countries meet the challenge?

    PubMed

    Chee, S; House, W J; Lewis, L

    1999-03-01

    This article describes prospective population policies and programs that may be implemented in the Pacific Island Countries during the post-International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) era (i.e., by the year 2005, the target date of the ICPD Program of Action). Some of the positive indicators in the Pacific Islands are a high annual average income level, high average life expectancy by world standards, absence of absolute poverty, high overall literacy rates, universality of primary education, low infant mortality rate, availability of modern transportation and communication infrastructure, and accessibility of safe water supplies and health services. The challenge is to maintain the overall high standard of living in the Islands without taxing their resources. Addressing this challenge will require innovative population-accommodating and population-influencing policies; these would be incorporated into comprehensive national population and development policies and programs targeting reproductive health. The greatest challenge will be to integrate population issues fully into the development and planning process at time when national development policy options are very limited. National governments and donors should respond to this challenge to ensure the maintenance of past achievements and current progress in the quality of life of Pacific Islanders.

  9. Risk posed by the Ebola epidemic to the Pacific islands: findings of a recent World Health Organization assessment

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Adam T; Ronsse, Axelle; Hardie, Kate; Pavlin, Boris I; Biaukula, Viema

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the public health risk posed by the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa to Pacific island countries and areas and to highlight priority risk management actions for preparedness and response. Method The likelihood of EVD importation and the magnitude of public health impact in Pacific island countries and areas were assessed to determine overall risk. Literature about the hazard, epidemiology, exposure and contextual factors associated with EVD was collected and reviewed. Epidemiological information from the current EVD outbreak was assessed. Results As of 11 March 2015, there have been more than 24 200 reported cases of EVD and at least 9976 deaths in six West African countries. Three EVD cases have been infected outside of the West African region, and all have epidemiological links to the outbreak in West Africa. Pacific island countries’ and areas’ relative geographic isolation and lack of travel or trade links between countries with transmission means that EVD importation is very unlikely. However, should a case be imported, the health and non-health consequences would be major. The capacity of Pacific island countries and areas to respond adequately varies greatly between (and within) states but in general is limited. Discussion This risk assessment highlights the needs to enhance preparedness for EVD in the Pacific by strengthening the capacities outlined in the World Health Organization Framework for Action on Ebola. Priority areas include the ability to detect and respond to suspected EVD cases quickly, isolation and management of cases in appropriately resourced facilities and the prevention of further cases through infection prevention and control. These efforts for Ebola should enhance all-hazards public health preparedness in line with the International Health Regulations (2005). PMID:26306216

  10. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. Objective The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. Methods A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. Results We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. Conclusions The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning

  11. Exploring the role of Micronesian islands in the maintenance of coral genetic diversity in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Davies, S W; Treml, E A; Kenkel, C D; Matz, M V

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic diversity is maintained across patchy marine environments remains a fundamental problem in marine biology. The Coral Triangle, located in the Indo-West Pacific, is the centre of marine biodiversity and has been proposed as an important source of genetic diversity for remote Pacific reefs. Several studies highlight Micronesia, a scattering of hundreds of small islands situated within the North Equatorial Counter Current, as a potentially important migration corridor. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the population genetic structure of two ecologically important congeneric species of reef-building corals across greater Micronesia, from Palau to the Marshall Islands. Genetic divergences between islands followed an isolation-by-distance pattern, with Acropora hyacinthus exhibiting greater genetic divergences than A. digitifera, suggesting different migration capabilities or different effective population sizes for these closely related species. We inferred dispersal distance using a biophysical larval transport model, which explained an additional 15-21% of the observed genetic variation compared to between-island geographical distance alone. For both species, genetic divergence accumulates and genetic diversity diminishes with distance from the Coral Triangle, supporting the hypothesis that Micronesian islands act as important stepping stones connecting the central Pacific with the species-rich Coral Triangle. However, for A. hyacinthus, the species with lower genetic connectivity, immigration from the subequatorial Pacific begins to play a larger role in shaping diversity than input from the Coral Triangle. This work highlights the enormous dispersal potential of broadcast-spawning corals and identifies the biological and physical drivers that influence coral genetic diversity on a regional scale.

  12. Arc segmentation and seismicity in the Solomon Islands arc, SW Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Chu; Frohlich, Cliff; Taylor, Frederick W.; Burr, George; van Ufford, Andrew Quarles

    2011-07-01

    surface trace of the interplate thrust zone defines it adequately. The New Georgia supersegment has smaller arc segments, and more islands due to general late Quaternary forearc uplift very close to the trench where vertical displacement rates tend to be faster; prior to the 2007 earthquake it had much lower rates of seismic activity than the neighboring supersegments. Generally the mean along-arc lateral extent of Solomon arc segments is about 75 km, somewhat smaller than the segments reported in some other island arcs such as Japan (~ 100-260 km), but larger than those of the Tonga (30-80 km) and Central New Hebrides arcs (30-110 km). These differences may be real but it may occur simply because the coral-friendly tropical environment of the South Pacific arcs, numerous emerged forearc islands, and high seismicity rates provide an unusually favorable situation for observing variations in vertical tectonic activity and thus for identifying segment boundaries. Over the past century seismic slip in the Solomons, as indicated by seismic moment release, has corresponded to about half the plate convergence rate; however, there are notable variations along the arc. Even with the 2007 earthquake, the long-term moment release rate in the New Georgia supersegment is relatively low, and this may indicate that large earthquakes are imminent.

  13. The UNEP Shelf Programme: Highlighting efforts in West Africa and the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, E.; Beaudoin, Y. C.; Brekke, H.; Fabres, J.; Halvorsen, O.; Harris, P. T.; Lonne, O.; Nilsen, R.; Sorensen, M.; Thygesen, K.

    2013-12-01

    and refraction seismic data (60 sonobuoys) were also acquired in all areas to support the seismic velocity model used for depth conversion. Work also continued with Tanzania and Madagascar. Based on requests, 10 Pacific Island states (Tonga, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Cook Islands,) have also been assisted in finalizing their work on the outer limits of the continental shelf in partnership with Geoscience Australia, SPC/SOPAC and the Commonwealth Secretariat. In addition, a few other states have received support in transforming their PIDs into full submissions and support has been given to developing states with a later deadline. Efforts with Pacific Island Countries exemplify the value of historical data in continental shelf delineation and emphasize the value of partnerships for sharing of public marine geoscientific data in support of developing countries.

  14. Let's Move for Pacific Islander Communities: an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    LaBreche, Mandy; Cheri, Ashley; Custodio, Harold; Fex, Cleo Carlos; Foo, Mary Anne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; May, Vanessa Tui'one; Orne, Annette; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Surani, Zul; Talavou, Melevesi Fifita; Toilolo, Tupou; Palmer, Paula Healani; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2016-06-01

    Pacific Islander (PI) populations of Southern California experience high obesity and low physical activity levels. Given PI's rich cultural ties, efforts to increase physical activity using a community-tailored strategy may motivate members in a more sustainable manner. In this paper, we (1) detail the program adaptation methodology that was utilized to develop the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) Center's PI Let's Move Program, a culturally tailored program aimed to increase physical activity levels among members of PI organizations in Southern California, and (2) share the program's pilot evaluation results on individual and organizational changes. The WINCART Center applied the National Cancer Institute's program adaptation guidelines to tailor the evidence-based Instant Recess program to fit the needs of PIs. The end product, the PI Let's Move Program, was piloted in 2012 with eight PI organizations, reaching 106 PI adults. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported that they were not physically active, with the average number of days engaged in medium-intensity physical activity at 2.09 days/week. After the 2-month program, participants increased the number of days that they engaged in medium-intensity physical activity from 2.09 to 2.90 days/week. Post-pilot results found that 82 % of participants reported intentions to engage in physical activity for at least the next 6 months. At baseline, only one organization was currently implementing a physical activity program, and none had implemented an evidence-based physical activity program tailored for PIs. After the 2-month timeframe, despite varying levels of capacity, all eight organizations were able to successfully implement the program. In conclusion, results from our program provide evidence that disparity populations, such as PIs, can be successfully reached through programs that are culturally tailored to both individuals and their community

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  16. Systematic Review of Prevalence of Young Child Overweight and Obesity in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Region Compared With the 48 Contiguous States: The Children's Healthy Living Program.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Li, Fenfang; Paulino, Yvette; Vargo, Donald; Jim, Rally; Coleman, Patricia; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio R; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Deenik, Jonathan; Kim, Jang Ho; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2015-01-01

    We estimated overweight and obesity (OWOB) prevalence of children in US-Affiliated Pacific jurisdictions (USAP) of the Children's Healthy Living Program compared with the contiguous United States. We searched peer-reviewed literature and government reports (January 2001-April 2014) for OWOB prevalence of children aged 2 to 8 years in the USAP and found 24 sources. We used 3 articles from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for comparison. Mixed models regressed OWOB prevalence on an age polynomial to compare trends (n = 246 data points). In the USAP, OWOB prevalence estimates increased with age, from 21% at age 2 years to 39% at age 8 years, increasing markedly at age 5 years; the proportion obese increased from 10% at age 2 years to 23% at age 8 years. The highest prevalence was in American Samoa and Guam.

  17. Systematic Review of Prevalence of Young Child Overweight and Obesity in the United States—Affiliated Pacific Region Compared With the 48 Contiguous States: The Children's Healthy Living Program

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Rachel; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Li, Fenfang; Paulino, Yvette; Vargo, Donald; Jim, Rally; Coleman, Patricia; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio R.; Guerrero, Rachael T. Leon; Deenik, Jonathan; Kim, Jang Ho; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated overweight and obesity (OWOB) prevalence of children in US-Affiliated Pacific jurisdictions (USAP) of the Children's Healthy Living Program compared with the contiguous United States. We searched peer-reviewed literature and government reports (January 2001–April 2014) for OWOB prevalence of children aged 2 to 8 years in the USAP and found 24 sources. We used 3 articles from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for comparison. Mixed models regressed OWOB prevalence on an age polynomial to compare trends (n = 246 data points). In the USAP, OWOB prevalence estimates increased with age, from 21% at age 2 years to 39% at age 8 years, increasing markedly at age 5 years; the proportion obese increased from 10% at age 2 years to 23% at age 8 years. The highest prevalence was in American Samoa and Guam. PMID:25393168

  18. Reshaping US Navy Pacific response in mitigating disaster risk in South Pacific Island nations: adopting community-based disaster cycle management.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Erik J; Termini, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M

    2014-02-01

    The US Department of Defense continues to deploy military assets for disaster relief and humanitarian actions around the world. These missions, carried out through geographically located Combatant Commands, represent an evolving role the US military is taking in health diplomacy, designed to enhance disaster preparedness and response capability. Oceania is a unique case, with most island nations experiencing "acute-on-chronic" environmental stresses defined by acute disaster events on top of the consequences of climate change. In all Pacific Island nation-states and territories, the symptoms of this process are seen in both short- and long-term health concerns and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. These factors tend to build on each other. To date, the US military's response to Oceania primarily has been to provide short-term humanitarian projects as part of Pacific Command humanitarian civic assistance missions, such as the annual Pacific Partnership, without necessarily improving local capacity or leaving behind relevant risk-reduction strategies. This report describes the assessment and implications on public health of large-scale humanitarian missions conducted by the US Navy in Oceania. Future opportunities will require the Department of Defense and its Combatant Commands to show meaningful strategies to implement ongoing, long-term, humanitarian activities that will build sustainable, host nation health system capacity and partnerships. This report recommends a community-centric approach that would better assist island nations in reducing disaster risk throughout the traditional disaster management cycle and defines a potential and crucial role of Department of Defense's assets and resources to be a more meaningful partner in disaster risk reduction and community capacity building. PMID:24360285

  19. Reshaping US Navy Pacific response in mitigating disaster risk in South Pacific Island nations: adopting community-based disaster cycle management.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Erik J; Termini, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M

    2014-02-01

    The US Department of Defense continues to deploy military assets for disaster relief and humanitarian actions around the world. These missions, carried out through geographically located Combatant Commands, represent an evolving role the US military is taking in health diplomacy, designed to enhance disaster preparedness and response capability. Oceania is a unique case, with most island nations experiencing "acute-on-chronic" environmental stresses defined by acute disaster events on top of the consequences of climate change. In all Pacific Island nation-states and territories, the symptoms of this process are seen in both short- and long-term health concerns and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. These factors tend to build on each other. To date, the US military's response to Oceania primarily has been to provide short-term humanitarian projects as part of Pacific Command humanitarian civic assistance missions, such as the annual Pacific Partnership, without necessarily improving local capacity or leaving behind relevant risk-reduction strategies. This report describes the assessment and implications on public health of large-scale humanitarian missions conducted by the US Navy in Oceania. Future opportunities will require the Department of Defense and its Combatant Commands to show meaningful strategies to implement ongoing, long-term, humanitarian activities that will build sustainable, host nation health system capacity and partnerships. This report recommends a community-centric approach that would better assist island nations in reducing disaster risk throughout the traditional disaster management cycle and defines a potential and crucial role of Department of Defense's assets and resources to be a more meaningful partner in disaster risk reduction and community capacity building.

  20. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an “uninhabited” island

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Olson, Storrs L.

    1985-01-01

    Long thought never to have been inhabited and to be in a pristine ecological state, Henderson Island (southeast Pacific) is now known to have been colonized and then abandoned by Polynesians. Bones from an archaeological site on the island associated with 14C dates of ≈800 and ≈500 years B.P. include specimens of 12 species of birds, of which 3, a storm-petrel and two pigeons (Nesofregetta fuliginosa, Ducula cf. aurorae or D. pacifica, and Ducula cf. galeata), no longer occur on Henderson, and two others (Puffinus nativitatis and Sula sula) still visit but are not known to breed. The vanished species were presumably exterminated by Polynesians and the biota of Henderson Island can thus no longer be regarded as being in an unaltered state. The prehistoric abandonment of various small, unarable islands by Polynesians may have been due to the depletion of seabirds and pigeons, the only readily available food source. The species of pigeons identified from Henderson are known historically only from distant archipelagos and have never before been found sympatrically. Distributional patterns resulting from man-caused extinctions may give rise to erroneous interpretations of the relationships and evolutionary history of insular organisms. Certain endangered species, such as Ducula galeata, might effectively be preserved by reintroduction to abandoned islands that they occupied before human intervention. Images PMID:16593606

  1. Environmental Influences on Tobacco Use Among Asian American and Pacific Islander Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Lew, Rod; Mouttapa, Michele; Lipton, Rob; Lew, Lillian; Has, Sovanna; Wong, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding individual and environmental influences on youth risk behaviors, including tobacco use. The purpose of this article is to describe the processes and findings from a study that sought to increase the capacity of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community-based organizations to understand and address the environmental influences on tobacco use among AAPI youth. Using a multimethod approach to data collection that included GIS (geographic information system) mapping, Photovoice, and individual youth surveys, a team of community and university researchers conducted a 3-year study to assess and address the environmental influences of tobacco use among youth. Community-based participatory research principles guided the study and facilitated unique capacity building and analyses throughout the study period. Results in Long Beach from all three methods highlighted the associations between youth smoking and environmental factors: GIS mapping identified at least 77 separate locations of pro-tobacco influences, photographs captured many of these locations and provided youth leaders with opportunities to identify how other influences contributed to smoking risk, and surveys of youth indicated that perceived community safety and proximity to pro-tobacco influences were associated with smoking in the past 30 days. Subsequent community-based organization activities undertaken by study partners are also discussed, and lessons learned summarized. PMID:23632078

  2. Diabetes Among Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders--United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Cho, Pyone; Geiss, Linda S

    2015-11-20

    Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) are fast-growing U.S. minority populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Although national studies have described diabetes prevalence, incidence, and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs compared with non-Hispanic whites, little is known about state-level diabetes prevalence among these two racial groups, or about how they differ from one another with respect to diabetes risk factors. To examine state-level prevalence of self-reported, physician-diagnosed (diagnosed) diabetes and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2011-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among five states and Guam with sufficient data about NHPIs for analysis, the age-adjusted diabetes prevalence estimate for NHPIs ranged from 13.4% (New York) to 19.1% (California). Among 32 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Guam that had sufficient data about Asians for analysis, diabetes prevalence estimates for Asians ranged from 4.9% (Arizona) to 15.3% (New York). In the five states and Guam with sufficient NHPI data, NHPIs had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did Asians, and a higher proportion of NHPIs were overweight or obese and had less than a high school education compared with Asians. Effective interventions and policies might reduce the prevalence of diabetes in these growing, high-risk minority populations. PMID:26583766

  3. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation.

  4. Environmental influences on tobacco use among Asian American and Pacific Islander youth.

    PubMed

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Lew, Rod; Mouttapa, Michele; Lipton, Rob; Lew, Lillian; Has, Sovanna; Wong, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    There is growing interest in understanding individual and environmental influences on youth risk behaviors, including tobacco use. The purpose of this article is to describe the processes and findings from a study that sought to increase the capacity of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community-based organizations to understand and address the environmental influences on tobacco use among AAPI youth. Using a multimethod approach to data collection that included GIS (geographic information system) mapping, Photovoice, and individual youth surveys, a team of community and university researchers conducted a 3-year study to assess and address the environmental influences of tobacco use among youth. Community-based participatory research principles guided the study and facilitated unique capacity building and analyses throughout the study period. Results in Long Beach from all three methods highlighted the associations between youth smoking and environmental factors: GIS mapping identified at least 77 separate locations of pro-tobacco influences, photographs captured many of these locations and provided youth leaders with opportunities to identify how other influences contributed to smoking risk, and surveys of youth indicated that perceived community safety and proximity to pro-tobacco influences were associated with smoking in the past 30 days. Subsequent community-based organization activities undertaken by study partners are also discussed, and lessons learned summarized. PMID:23632078

  5. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    PubMed

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables.

  6. Prevalence and secular trends in obesity in Pacific and Indian Ocean island populations.

    PubMed

    Hodge, A M; Dowse, G K; Zimmet, P Z; Collins, V R

    1995-09-01

    Surveys conducted in 10 Pacific island populations and in the multiethnic populations of Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean have provided data on the prevalence of obesity, potential etiological factors and medical hazards associated with obesity. The results indicate that the prevalence of obesity (by body mass index (BMI) in some of these populations is among the highest in the world. Obesity related to degree of modernization is more common in urban than in rural locations and tends to be found more often in women. In two populations where longitudinal data were available, there were dramatic increases in prevalence over relatively short time periods. Obesity contributed to the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and was associated with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in all populations, but no relationship could be found with total mortality in three ethnic groups for whom data were available. A genetic susceptibility to obesity combined with social pressures that favor high energy intakes and reduced physical activity are believed to be important in these populations. The challenge for the future lies in developing culturally appropriate programs for preventing obesity and thus reducing associated morbidity, while continuing to research its behavioral and genetic determinants. PMID:8581792

  7. The NHLBI workshop on Hypertension in Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Asian/Pacific Islander Americans.

    PubMed

    Havas, S; Fujimoto, W; Close, N; McCarter, R; Keller, J; Sherwin, R

    1996-01-01

    In June 1994, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute held a workshop entitled "Epidemiology of Hypertension in Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Asian/Pacific Islander Americans." The studies that served as the basis for the workshop along with a summary of two workshop panel discussions are being published as a supplement by Public Health Reports. In this article, the authors present graphs that compare results across these studies with data for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Hispanics from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The graphs indicate differences in mean blood pressure levels within and among these three population groups; such differences are also apparent in comparisons of these groups with the U.S. white and black populations. Although they appear modest, these differences are sufficient to result in increased mortality rates in populations with higher levels of hypertension. Environmental influences appear to underlie most of these differences. In all of these populations, blood pressure control rates are poor. Based on these studies, hypertension prevention and control programs should be undertaken. Special emphasis should be placed on the underserved minority populations that were the focus of the workshop.

  8. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  9. PTSD and postpartum mental health in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Morland, Leslie; Matsu, Courtenay; Wright, Tricia

    2009-12-01

    To better understand the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postpartum health, this study investigates the relationship of PTSD and associated perinatal behavioral risk factors in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 54 women (18-35 years of age) were interviewed at their postpartum clinic visit for PTSD, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and substance use. PTSD and subclinical PTSD during the postpartum period were associated with behavioral health risks, with PTSD at the onset of pregnancy being a predictor of postpartum PTSD by a factor of three. Women with PTSD and subclinical PTSD were more likely to also experience stress (73%), anxiety (64%), and depression (73%) during the postpartum period compared to those without PTSD. No significant differences were found by ethnicity for postpartum PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity or PTSD status, one in four women in the sample had a probable mental health disorder or risk behavior of some type during the postpartum period. Given the rates of associated mental health risks with PTSD, these findings suggest further research examining the fluctuations of PTSD symptomatology throughout each pregnancy trimester to determine its role as a potential mediator during the perinatal period. Further research is also needed to elucidate the role of ethnic or cultural differences in trauma and PTSD and perinatal health.

  10. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation. PMID:23198528

  11. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  12. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI.

  13. Cigarette smoking among Asian American and Pacific Islander college students: implications for college health promotion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Devan R; Pulvers, Kim

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans (AA) and Pacific Islanders (PI) are an understudied population for health and tobacco use, which is alarming for a fast growing U.S. population. Research in smoking among AA and PI college students is limited, despite 50% of AA and 20% of PI having obtained a college degree. A cross-sectional tobacco survey was administered in a large racially diverse Southern California university (N = 490) that examined smoking behavior, psychosocial, and perceptual factors related to smoking among AA and PI compared with Caucasians. Overall, 19% of participants were smokers. The prevalence of current smoking by race was 26% PI, 19% AA, and 17% Caucasian. AA and PI are light, infrequent smokers who smoke mainly for social reasons and in social locations. Most AA and PI made quit attempts and reported intention to quit smoking. Low to moderate risk perceptions for addiction, disease and difficulty in quitting were observed. Social norms center on family influences, therefore it is recommended that cessation approaches target cigarette smoking norms within this social environment to increase perceptual risks of smoking. Smoking cessation should be placed in college health outreach programs based on culturally tailored approaches for AA and PI that target their unique smoking characteristics.

  14. The Asian-American and Pacific Islander population and the American Cancer Society initiative.

    PubMed

    Vance, Ralph

    2005-12-15

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) Nationwide Asian-American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) Initiative is a continuing collaboration between the ACS and other organizations and community groups. With a view to incorporating access to quality treatment as an over-arching principal, the objectives of the AAPI Initiative are to provide strategic oversight to the ACS for outreach to AAPI populations and to develop a nationwide plan for the purpose of making ACS programs and services available to these populations. After a series of meetings in 2002, including a joint meeting between the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training (AANCART) and the ACS, the first ACS Nationwide AAPI Council meeting was held in early 2003. The goals and objectives of this initiative are 1) to develop a plan for delivery of ACS programs and services to the AAPI population, 2) to develop a program for collaboration with organizations that can help the ACS reach its objectives, 3) to develop an advocacy program that enables the ACS to reach its objectives, and 4) to develop an income-development program to both reach and maintain these objectives. The ACS-AANCART collaboration is a great example of the type of collaboration that will make not only the ACS but also the cancer community as a whole successful in eradicating cancer as a major public health problem.

  15. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  16. Yams (Dioscorea spp.) from the South Pacific Islands contain many novel badnaviruses: implications for international movement of yam germplasm.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Lebas, B S M; Seal, S E

    2008-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) samples (n = 690) from seven South Pacific Islands were screened for badnavirus infection by ELISA using two antisera to African badnaviruses. Positive readings were obtained for 26.4-34.6% of samples representing both known (D. bulbifera, D. nummularia and D. pentaphylla) and unreported host species (D. alata, D. esculenta, D. rotundata and D. trifida) in this region. Total DNAs were extracted from 25 ELISA-positive plants and 4 ELISA-negative controls and subjected to PCR amplification with badnavirus-specific primers targeting the reverse transcriptase (RT)-RNaseH genes. All 29 samples yielded the expected size PCR-product for badnaviruses, which were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting 45 partial (500-527 bp) RT-RNaseH sequences revealed 11 new sequence groups with <79% nucleotide identity to each other or any EMBL sequence. Three sequences (two groups) were highly divergent to the other nine new South Pacific yam badnavirus groups (47.9-57.2% identity) and probably represent either new Caulimoviridae genera or endogenous pararetrovirus sequences. Some sequence groups appeared specific to particular Dioscorea host species. Four 99.9% identical RT-RNaseH sequences possessing nine amino acid deletions from D. esculenta from three islands represent a putative integrated sequence group. The distribution of sequence groups across the islands indicates that badnaviruses have spread extensively between islands and continents through infected germplasm.

  17. Developing an Internet- and Mobile-Based System to Measure Cigarette Use Among Pacific Islanders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Nasya; Sabado-Liwag, Melanie Dee; Orne, Annette; Toilolo, Tupou; Cen, Steven; May, Vanessa; Lee, Cevadne; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Rainer, Michelle A; Vaivao, Dorothy Etimani S; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Palmer, Paula Healani

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent prevalence data indicates that Pacific Islanders living in the United States have disproportionately high smoking rates when compared to the general populace. However, little is known about the factors contributing to tobacco use in this at-risk population. Moreover, few studies have attempted to determine these factors utilizing technology-based assessment techniques. Objective The objective was to develop a customized Internet-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) system capable of measuring cigarette use among Pacific Islanders in Southern California. This system integrated the ubiquity of text messaging, the ease of use associated with mobile phone apps, the enhanced functionality offered by Internet-based Cell phone-optimized Assessment Techniques (ICAT), and the high survey completion rates exhibited by EMA studies that used electronic diaries. These features were tested in a feasibility study designed to assess whether Pacific Islanders would respond to this method of measurement and whether the data gathered would lead to novel insights regarding the intrapersonal, social, and ecological factors associated with cigarette use. Methods 20 young adult smokers in Southern California who self-identified as Pacific Islanders were recruited by 5 community-based organizations to take part in a 7-day EMA study. Participants selected six consecutive two-hour time blocks per day during which they would be willing to receive a text message linking them to an online survey formatted for Web-enabled mobile phones. Both automated reminders and community coaches were used to facilitate survey completion. Results 720 surveys were completed from 840 survey time blocks, representing a completion rate of 86%. After adjusting for gender, age, and nicotine dependence, feeling happy (P=<.001) or wanting a cigarette while drinking alcohol (P=<.001) were positively associated with cigarette use. Being at home (P=.02) or being around people who are not

  18. Geomorphology and geodynamics of the Cook-Austral island-seamount chain in the South Pacific Ocean: Implications for hotspots and plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, W.R.

    1998-12-01

    Among Pacific hotspot tracks, the Cook-Austral island-seamount chain is distinctly anomalous in geodynamic behavior, exhibiting repetitive episodes of volcanism at multiple sites, uplift of selected islands long after initial immersion by subsidence, and multiple alignments of volcanic edifices. Cook-Austral islands include a variety of disparate geomorphic types: volcanic islands without reefs, with fringing reefs, and with barrier reefs enclosing shallow lagoons, low-lying atolls; and makatea islands composted of volcanic cores surrounded by annular limestone tablelands. The distribution of subsided and uplifted islands along the Cook-Austral chain reflects multiple hotspot activity, probably related to multiple mantle diapirs of local character rather than to deep-seated plumes. Rapid Pacific plate motion can generate elongate hotspot tracks from transient hotspot activity unrelated to columnar advective plumes.

  19. The creation of reasonable projections toward sustainable development considering the climate and socioeconomic changes in the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Iida, A.; Nakatani, J.; Noda, K.; Take, M.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate and socioeconomic change in the future are important factors to consider when discussing the issues of sustainable development in the Pacific Islands, since their impacts here are relatively large compared to those in other regions due to the severe limitation of internal resources and the external dependency of the life essentials. The tourism industry is the key driving force behind the economic growth in island region and it is promoted by the environmental attractions. This study constructs scenarios that foresees the effects of these changes and assesses the subsequent impact on both the local community and the tourism industry. In this study, the scenarios have been developed based on the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The progress of climate change was expected to affect the attraction of tourists as well as resources availability and food production. The difference of SSPs was expected to affect the quality of life in the local society and the quantity and/or the quality of tourism. A downscale and bias-correction using a local dataset was applied to assess the impacts of climate change, and the relationships between GDP, population, and estimated land availability in the current situation were applied to assess the impact of socioeconomic change. As case studies, the scenarios were constructed to assess the impacts in the Republic of Palau and Ishigaki Island, Japan. Both are typical islands where tourism is the main industry. The situation of environmental resources, local society, and tourism under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions was assessed using these scenarios. The creation of reasonable projections under appropriate scenarios can contribute to sustainable development not only in these islands but also in most Pacific Islands.

  20. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Barbara Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward of a line beginning at the Santa Barbara Island Light on the northeast end of the island and bearing 23° true a distance of 1.515 nautical...

  1. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Barbara Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward of a line beginning at the Santa Barbara Island Light on the northeast end of the island and bearing 23° true a distance of 1.515 nautical...

  2. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Barbara Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward of a line beginning at the Santa Barbara Island Light on the northeast end of the island and bearing 23° true a distance of 1.515 nautical...

  3. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Barbara Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward of a line beginning at the Santa Barbara Island Light on the northeast end of the island and bearing 23° true a distance of 1.515 nautical...

  4. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Barbara Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds. Shoreward of a line beginning at the Santa Barbara Island Light on the northeast end of the island and bearing 23° true a distance of 1.515 nautical...

  5. Enhanced syndromic surveillance for mass gatherings in the Pacific: a case study of the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts in Solomon Islands, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Damian; Saketa, Salanieta T; Maraka, Roy Roger; Sio, Alison; Wanyeki, Ian; Frison, Pascal; Ogaoga, Divi; Iniakawala, Dennie; Joshua, Cynthia; Duituturaga, Sala; Lepers, Christelle; Roth, Adam; White, Paul; Souares, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose public health challenges to host countries, as they can cause or exacerbate disease outbreaks within the host location or elsewhere. In July 2012, the 11th Festival of Pacific Arts (FOPA), a mass gathering event involving 22 Pacific island states and territories, was hosted by Solomon Islands. An enhanced syndromic surveillance (ESS) system was implemented for the event. Throughout the capital city, Honiara, 15 sentinel sites were established and successfully took part in the ESS system, which commenced one week before the FOPA (25 June) and concluded eight days after the event (22 July). The ESS involved expanding on the existing syndromic surveillance parameters: from one to 15 sentinel sites, from four to eight syndromes, from aggregated to case-based reporting and from weekly to daily reporting. A web-based system was developed to enable data entry, data storage and data analysis. Towards the end of the ESS period, a focus group discussion and series of key informant interviews were conducted. The ESS was considered a success and played an important role in the early detection of possible outbreaks. For the period of the ESS, 1668 patients with syndrome presentations were received across the 15 sentinel sites. There were no major events of public health significance. Several lessons were learnt that are relevant to ESS in mass gathering scenarios, including the importance of having adequate lead in time for engagement and preparation to ensure appropriate policy and institutional frameworks are put in place. PMID:27766181

  6. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal Register (78 FR... closure schedule on its official Navy Web site, http://www.cnic.navy.mil/PMRF/ , and Facebook page, http://www.facebook.com/PacificMissileRangeFacility . The danger zone closure schedule may also be...

  7. Volatiles in Submarine HIMU Basalts from the Austral Islands, South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R.; Hanyu, T.; Shimizu, K.; Dosso, L.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine basalts have been collected from the slopes of Rurutu and Tubuai in the Austral Islands, South Pacific with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. Previous work on the bulk radiogenic isotope and trace element chemistry of these samples suggests that the basalts were generated from a HIMU reservoir derived from an ancient subducted slab that was entrained and mixed with the depleted asthenospheric mantle. Olivines and glasses from the submarine basalts show lower 3He/4He than MORB, similar to subaerial basalts from these islands. Sixteen glass chips from the same submarine samples have now undergone in-situ analysis for major elements (including S and Cl) by EPMA, trace elements by LA-ICP-MS, H2O and CO2 by FTIR, and bulk volatile analysis (S, Cl, F) by ion chromatography combined with pyrohydrolysis. H2O ranges from 0.62-2.44 wt%, while CO2 is below detection (<20 ppm). S measured by EPMA ranges from 612-1889 ppm and by bulk analysis from 582-1301 ppm and, with the exception of one sample, concentrations agree well. Cl measured by EPMA ranges from 151-538 ppm, and by bulk analysis from 188-980 ppm. The higher values suggest that the bulk samples may be contaminated by seawater; otherwise Cl correlates strongly with incompatible elements. F measured in the bulk samples ranges from 221-1243 ppm. S correlates positively with FeO and Cu, but not with incompatible elements, suggesting sulfide saturation. While the highest H2O contents may reflect late-stage hydration and are oversaturated at the depth of collection, the low H2O contents (11 samples with 0.62-0.96 wt%) are undersaturated, and there is a positive correlation between the H2O contents of all chips and their incompatible element concentrations. This suggests that H2O/Ce and Cl/Ce filtered for shallow level processes may reflect source compositions, providing constraints on volatiles in the sources of Rurutu and Tubuai, and indications about the efficiency of subduction-related volatile-loss in the

  8. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Gallego Volcanic Field, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific and geotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petterson, M. G.; Haldane, M. I.; Smith, D. J.; Billy, D.; Jordan, N. J.

    2011-08-01

    The Upper Miocene to present day Gallego Volcanic Field (GVF) is located in northwest Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific, and potentially includes the offshore Savo volcano. The GVF is a multi-centred complex covering an area of ~ 800 km 2 on Guadalcanal and a further ~ 30 km 2 on the island of Savo, north of west Guadalcanal. GVF volcanism is characterised by effusive eruptions of lava, intrusion of sub-volcanic plutons, as well as pyroclastic flow and fall deposits dominated by block and ash flow deposits. Geochemical analysis of a representative suite of samples from the GVF demonstrates that the GVF comprise largely a 'main suite' of basalts to andesites and minor trachyandesites. The predominant mineralogy of the GVF comprises plagioclase, amphibole, clinopyroxene and magnetite-ilmenite. Associated with the 'main suite' are cognate nodules composed of hornblendite, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite. Interpretation of major and trace element geochemistry and petrographic studies suggests that fractionation was dominated by early clinopyroxene, and later amphibole + clinopyroxene + minor plagioclase. Geochemical features such as the incompatibility of Sr suggest that plagioclase largely crystallised en-masse late in the fractionation sequence. The presence of amphibole and late fractionation of plagioclase is suggestive of derivation from initially water-rich magmas. The region is characterised by strong geographically-related geochemical variations as evidenced by the Woodlark (and Manus) basins: basalts become more arc-like within the ocean basins with decreasing distance to the subducting trench. The GVF-Savo volcanoes are spatially and geochemically affected by deep N-S fractures that show some evidence of sympathetic geochemical variations with distance from the trench (e.g. Sr/Y ratios). Comparison with a range of international data for Th/Nb vs Pb/Nb and Dy/Yb vs SiO 2 indicate that: amphibole was indeed a strong controlling phase on magmatic evolution

  9. Relationship between species diversity and reef growth in the Holocene at Ishigaki Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, Chuki; Kayanne, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are influenced by global and local factors, and living corals are currently faced with a potential loss of species diversity. Knowledge of the relationship between species diversity and reef growth during the Holocene is important in terms of accurately reconstructing natural conditions prior to recent disturbances (e.g., human impact, pollution, and over-harvesting) and in predicting future scenarios (e.g., abrupt sea-level rise, coastal change, and economic services). This study seeks to characterize the Holocene and present-day reef at Ishigaki Island in the Ryukyu Islands, focusing on spatial and temporal variations in the relationship between species diversity and reef growth. The analysis is based on a drilling core obtained for the Holocene reefs and quantitative species-diversity data (Shannon and Weaver's diversity index, H') obtained for the present-day reef. H' was calculated for four coral communities surveyed at the Ibaruma and Fukido reefs. The Holocene sequence was dominated by the corymbose coral community (e.g., Acropora digitifera, A. hyacinthus, Goniastrea retiformis, and Platygyra ryukyuensis), yielding an H' value of 1.6. The encrusting coral community (e.g., Echinopora lamellose and Pachyseris rugosa) showed the highest diversity at the reef ( H' = 2.2); however, this community was not one of the main reef builders during the Holocene. The massive coral community (e.g., Porites lutea and Favites chinensis) showed the lowest diversity ( H' = 0.6). It also made a minor contribution to reef building; this community appeared in a shallow lagoon once sea level had stabilized. The arborescent coral community (e.g., A. formosa and A. nobilis) was one of the main reef builders, although yielding an H' value of much less than 1.0. Species diversity is not a prerequisite in terms of Holocene reef growth. Thus, a few species (e.g., A. digitifera, A. hyacinthus, A. formosa, A. nobilis, G. retiformis, and P. ryukyuensis) from two main reef

  10. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    PubMed

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables. PMID:27413626

  11. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    PubMed

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  12. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    PubMed

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  13. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai‘i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors—namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education—appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables. PMID:27413626

  14. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Obana, Kyle K

    2016-01-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai‘i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65–79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45–54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m2 greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  15. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A.; Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  16. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...: Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument'' (74 FR... Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The...

  17. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  18. Drug production, trafficking and trade in Asia and Pacific Island countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Devaney, Madonna L; Baldwin, Simon

    2006-11-01

    We report here on illicit drug production, trafficking and transit routes found in the Asia Pacific region. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and key informant reports. It was found that Myanmar was the main producer of opium, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the Asia-Pacific region. China is now considered a major producer of methamphetamines, but other Asia-Pacific nations are also involved in production. Cannabis production was found throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular Cambodia and the Philippines. Drug trafficking and transit routes of Asia and the Pacific were proliferating and dynamic. The Pacific is mainly known as a trans-shipment point for drugs entering other countries in the region. Drug cultivation and production in Asia is substantial. The expansion of ATS production in the Asia Pacific region is causing much concern. Most drug traffickers change routes and tactics to exploit available vulnerable points along international borders. Responding effectively to the complexity and scale of drug production and trafficking in the Asia-Pacific region will remain a major challenge.

  19. Drug production, trafficking and trade in Asia and Pacific Island countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Devaney, Madonna L; Baldwin, Simon

    2006-11-01

    We report here on illicit drug production, trafficking and transit routes found in the Asia Pacific region. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and key informant reports. It was found that Myanmar was the main producer of opium, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the Asia-Pacific region. China is now considered a major producer of methamphetamines, but other Asia-Pacific nations are also involved in production. Cannabis production was found throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular Cambodia and the Philippines. Drug trafficking and transit routes of Asia and the Pacific were proliferating and dynamic. The Pacific is mainly known as a trans-shipment point for drugs entering other countries in the region. Drug cultivation and production in Asia is substantial. The expansion of ATS production in the Asia Pacific region is causing much concern. Most drug traffickers change routes and tactics to exploit available vulnerable points along international borders. Responding effectively to the complexity and scale of drug production and trafficking in the Asia-Pacific region will remain a major challenge. PMID:17132580

  20. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Catalina Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Descanso Bay. Shoreward of a line connecting the... wide (170 feet west and 130 feet east of the centerline of the Catalina Island Steamship Line...

  1. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Catalina Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Descanso Bay. Shoreward of a line connecting the... wide (170 feet west and 130 feet east of the centerline of the Catalina Island Steamship Line...

  2. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Catalina Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Descanso Bay. Shoreward of a line connecting the... wide (170 feet west and 130 feet east of the centerline of the Catalina Island Steamship Line...

  3. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Catalina Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Descanso Bay. Shoreward of a line connecting the... wide (170 feet west and 130 feet east of the centerline of the Catalina Island Steamship Line...

  4. 33 CFR 110.216 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Catalina Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, Calif. 110.216 Section 110.216 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Catalina Island, Calif. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Descanso Bay. Shoreward of a line connecting the... wide (170 feet west and 130 feet east of the centerline of the Catalina Island Steamship Line...

  5. Glacial to Holocene climate changes in the SE Pacific. The Raraku Lake sedimentary record (Easter Island, 27°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Moreno, Ana; Bao, Roberto; Pueyo, Juan J.; Hernández, Armand; Casas, David

    2009-12-01

    Easter Island (SE Pacific, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate changes in the South Pacific region based on terrestrial archives. Although the general climate evolution of the south Pacific since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is coherent with terrestrial records in southern South America and Polynesia, the details of the dynamics of the shifting Westerlies, the South Pacific Convergence Zone and the South Pacific Anticyclone during the glacial-interglacial transition and the Holocene, and the large scale controls on precipitation in tropical and extratropical regions remain elusive. Here we present a high-resolution reconstruction of lake dynamics, watershed processes and paleohydrology for the last 34 000 cal yrs BP based on a sedimentological and geochemical multiproxy study of 8 cores from the Raraku Lake sediments constrained by 22 AMS radiocarbon dates. This multicore strategy has reconstructed the sedimentary architecture of the lake infilling and provided a stratigraphic framework to integrate and correlate previous core and vegetation studies conducted in the lake. High lake levels and clastic input dominated sedimentation in Raraku Lake between 34 and 28 cal kyr BP. Sedimentological and geochemical evidences support previously reported pollen data showing a relatively open forest and a cold and relatively humid climate during the Glacial period. Between 28 and 17.3 cal kyr BP, including the LGM period, colder conditions contributed to a reduction of the tree coverage in the island. The coherent climate patterns in subtropical and mid latitudes of Chile and Eastern Island for the LGM (more humid conditions) suggest stronger influence of the Antarctic circumpolar current and an enhancement of the Westerlies. The end of Glacial Period occurred at 17.3 cal kyr BP and was characterized by a sharp decrease in lake level conducive to the development of major flood events and erosion of littoral sediments. Deglaciation (Termination

  6. Distribution of trace metals in the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and crabs from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Szefer, P.; Frelek, K.; Geldon, J.

    1997-01-01

    Oysters are known to be exceptional accumulators of Zn and Cu, and their tissue concentrations appear to reflect contamination of metals. According to Lauenstein and Dolvin, oysters clearly have a greater affinity for Ag, Cu and Zn than do mussels, while mussels have greater affinity for Cr and Pb. Oysters have been considered to be potential bioindicators for monitoring metallic pollution in marine environments. Extensive investigations of oysters from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, have been performed. The aim of the study was to examine spatial differences in metal concentrations in soft tissues of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and whole bodies (soft tissues with shells) of the crabs Goetice depressa and Leptodius exaratus inhabiting the Japanese coastal region of the Pacific. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  8. The atmospheric lead record preserved in lagoon sediments at a remote equatorial Pacific location: Palmyra Atoll, northern Line Islands.

    PubMed

    Collen, John D; Baker, Joel A; Dunbar, Robert B; Rieser, Uwe; Gardner, Jonathan P; Garton, David W; Christiansen, Kylie J

    2011-02-01

    Anthropogenic lead (Pb) inputs to the atmosphere increased greatly over the past century and now dominate Pb supply to the oceans. However, the Pb content of sediments across the equatorial Pacific region is relatively unknown, and data exist only for deep sea sites where Pb deposition lags surface water inputs by up to a century. Here we present ICP-MS analyses of Pb of a core from a lagoon at Palmyra Atoll, northern Line Islands, that spans approximately the past 160 years. The non-bioturbated sediments of the euxinic lagoon, coupled with rapid rates of deposition, provide a unique fine-scale record of atmospheric Pb supply at a remote Pacific location. These first observations of historic Pb sedimentation in an atoll lagoon reveal a 63-fold increase in Pb flux to sediments during the past century and correlate directly with the North American consumption of leaded gasoline that began in 1926.

  9. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  10. Trace Element Concentrations in Liver of 16 Species of Cetaceans Stranded on Pacific Islands from 1997 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Angela M K; Bryan, Colleen E; West, Kristi; Jensen, Brenda A

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of anthropogenic contaminants on marine ecosystems are a concern worldwide. Anthropogenic activities can enrich trace elements in marine biota to concentrations that may negatively impact organism health. Exposure to elevated concentrations of trace elements is considered a contributing factor in marine mammal population declines. Hawai'i is an increasingly important geographic location for global monitoring, yet trace element concentrations have not been quantified in Hawaiian cetaceans, and there is little trace element data for Pacific cetaceans. This study measured trace elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb) in liver of 16 species of cetaceans that stranded on U.S. Pacific Islands from 1997 to 2013, using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) (n = 31), and direct mercury analysis atomic absorption spectrometry (DMA-AAS) (n = 43). Concentration ranges (μg/g wet mass fraction) for non-essential trace elements, such as Cd (0.0031-58.93) and Hg (0.0062-1571.75) were much greater than essential trace elements, such as Mn (0.590-17.31) and Zn (14.72-245.38). Differences were found among age classes in Cu, Zn, Hg, and Se concentrations. The highest concentrations of Se, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb were found in one adult female false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) at concentrations that are known to affect health in marine mammals. The results of this study establish initial trace element concentration ranges for Pacific cetaceans in the Hawaiian Islands region, provide insights into contaminant exposure of these marine mammals, and contribute to a greater understanding of anthropogenic impacts in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:26283019

  11. Government and the midwest railroads: notes on the demise of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Co. declared bankruptcy in 1975. Reorganization efforts after entering bankruptcy are reported. The company sought federal and private funds and revamped its operating procedures to reduce the capital intensiveness of railroad activities. Railroad labor unions balked at the company's new policy to reduce personnel in order to operate a light-density railroad. Strikes created more cash flow problems, and the federal government directed another railroad company to take over operations of the line. Such federal favoring of unions over railroads poses a bleak future for the future maintenance of individual railroad companies.

  12. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. from the Miyako Islands, Japan: the first record of Neostygarctidae (Heterotardigrada: Arthrotardigrada) from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2013-05-01

    A new species of the previously monospecific marine tardigrade family Neostygarctidae is described. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. was found from a submarine cave in Miyako Islands, Japan. This is the first record of Neostygarctidae from the Pacific. The new species is easily distinguished from the previously known N. acanthophorus by its number of dorsal spines, as N. lovedeluxe has two spines each on the three dorsal body plates in contrast to one in N. acanthophorus. Furthermore the morphology of the two clawed juvenile is reported for the first time in Neostygarctidae, providing new insights into the common sequence in some ontogenic traits.

  13. Building reproductive health research and audit capacity and activity in the pacific islands (BRRACAP) study: methods, rationale and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research and audit in reproductive health is essential to improve reproductive health outcomes and to address the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Research training, mentoring and a supportive participatory research environment have been shown to increase research activity and capacity in low to middle income countries (LMIC). This paper details the methods, rationale and baseline findings of a research program aimed at increasing clinical research activity and audit in the six Pacific Islands of Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands. Method Twenty-eight clinician participants were selected by the five Ministries of Health and the Fiji National University to undergo a research capacity building program which includes a research workshop and mentoring support to perform research and audit as teams in their country. Data on the participants’ characteristics, knowledge and experiences were collected from structured interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, and an online survey. The interviews and the two focus groups were audio-recorded and all replies were analysed in a thematic framework. Results The 28 participants included 9 nurses/midwives, 17 medical doctors of whom 8 were specialists in reproductive health and 2 other health workers. Most (24, 86%) were required to perform research as part of their employment and yet 17 (61%) were not confident in writing a research proposal, 13 (46%) could not use an electronic spreadsheet and the same number had not analysed quantitative data. The limited environmental enablers contributed to poor capacity with only 11 (46%) having access to a library, 10 (42%) receiving management support and 6 (25%) having access to an experienced researcher. Barriers to research that affected more than 70% of the participants were time constraints, poor coordination, no funding and a lack of skills. Conclusion Building a research capacity program appropriate for the diversity of

  14. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. from the Miyako Islands, Japan: the first record of Neostygarctidae (Heterotardigrada: Arthrotardigrada) from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinta; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2013-05-01

    A new species of the previously monospecific marine tardigrade family Neostygarctidae is described. Neostygarctus lovedeluxe n. sp. was found from a submarine cave in Miyako Islands, Japan. This is the first record of Neostygarctidae from the Pacific. The new species is easily distinguished from the previously known N. acanthophorus by its number of dorsal spines, as N. lovedeluxe has two spines each on the three dorsal body plates in contrast to one in N. acanthophorus. Furthermore the morphology of the two clawed juvenile is reported for the first time in Neostygarctidae, providing new insights into the common sequence in some ontogenic traits. PMID:23646947

  15. A day-to-day comparison study of Seasat scatterometer winds with winds observed from islands in the tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Jerry; Harrison, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    The winds derived from the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) measurements have been the subject of great interest since the 1978 mission, because of the promise of radically improved wind observations over the world ocean. Due to the early end of the mission, only a few of the planned ground truth validation experiments could be made, and the subsequent lack of sufficient high quality independent wind data for comparison has limited the ability to resolve critical issues regarding the scatterometer's performance and the correct interpretation of its signal. Operational weather observations were made of ocean winds independent of Seasat mission plans during the Seasat mission period; the results are reported of a comparison study using such observations. Previous verification with in situ winds has been primarily in middle latitudes (GOASEX, JASIN, and NDBO buoys); winds observed from nine tropical Pacific islands are compared with nearly contemporaneous measurements taken by SASS during overpasses of the islands.

  16. Unprovoked fatal shark attack in Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, South Pacific) by a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    Clua, Eric; Séret, Bernard

    2010-09-01

    The case of a fatal, unprovoked shark attack is reported and analyzed. The incident took place on the 30th of September 2007, in the lagoon of Luengoni Bay, Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia). A young French woman who was snorkeling was severely bitten on the right thigh and died of hemorrhage. An analysis based in particular on the size and color of the shark, the characteristics of the wounds, and the behavior of the shark before and after the bite suggests that the aggressor was a great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. PMID:20606572

  17. Vehicle child restraint usage for Pacific children aged 6 weeks to 4 years: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis

    2010-11-01

    Child restraint systems (CRSs) for vehicles are designed to provide protection and prevent or reduce child mortality and morbidity in road traffic accidents. Overall, 90% of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand currently use CRSs. There is considerable regional variability in CRS usage, but little information exists on its ethnic variations or determinants. "Increasing the level of restraint use" is explicitly stated as one of the 13 priorities within the New Zealand Ministry of Transport's new road safety strategy. As such, understanding CRS prevalence, patterns and associates within different communities is essential in realising this priority. Utilising a large birth cohort of Pacific children (n=1376 mothers), this study aimed to report the prevalence of maternal self-reported car seat usage at the 6 weeks, 1-year, and 2 years postpartum measurement waves; car/booster seat usage at the 4 years postpartum measurement wave; and to identify important associates using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. Car seats were not used by 161 (11.8%) Pacific children at the 6 weeks measurement wave, 71 (5.8%) at 1-year, and 44 (3.8%) at 2 years, while car/booster seats were not used by 139 (13.3%) at the 4 years wave. Multivariable GEE model results revealed that mothers with no formal education, high parity, who smoked tobacco, lower household income, who lacked English language proficiency, and had multiple births were all at higher odds of failing to use car seat/booster seats. Despite differential attrition being noted in mothers over time, a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation methods yielded similar findings. Targeted initiatives and education programs focusing on these higher risk groups, in particular, is needed to increase uptake and use of CRS thereby decreasing Pacific children's exposure to injury risk. As New Zealand has a large and increasing proportion of Pacific, Maori and Asian people, there is a continuing need to understand

  18. Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietlow, Daniel W.; Molnar, Peter H.; Sheehan, Anne F.

    2016-06-01

    A P wave speed tomogram produced from teleseismic travel time measurements made on and offshore the South Island of New Zealand shows a nearly vertical zone with wave speeds that are 4.5% higher than the background average reaching to depths of approximately 450 km under the northwestern region of the island. This structure is consistent with oblique west-southwest subduction of Pacific lithosphere since about 45 Ma, when subduction beneath the region began. The high-speed zone reaches about 200-300 km below the depths of the deepest intermediate-depth earthquakes (subcrustal to ~200 km) and therefore suggests that ~200-300 km of slab below them is required to produce sufficient weight to induce the intermediate-depth seismicity. In the southwestern South Island, high P wave speeds indicate subduction of the Australian plate at the Puysegur Trench to approximately 200 km depth. A band with speeds ~2-3.5% lower than the background average is found along the east coast of the South Island to depths of ~150-200 km and underlies Miocene or younger volcanism; these low speeds are consistent with thinned lithosphere. A core of high speeds under the Southern Alps associated with a convergent margin and mountain building imaged in previous investigations is not well resolved in this study. This could suggest that such high speeds are limited in both width and depth and not resolvable by our data.

  19. It Can Be Done: With Advocacy, Libraries Can Thrive on Pacific Islands. Selected Papers from PIALA 2007, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (17th, Tinian and Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, November 12-17, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2007 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Pre-Conference Workshop…

  20. Processing and Analysis of Near-Seafloor Magnetic Anomalies around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Fouquet, Y.; Choi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2010, cruise Futuna of R/V L'Atalante collected near-seafloor magnetic data with AUV Aster-X (70 m asf) and Deep-Sea Submersible (DSS) Nautile (2-20 m asf) on several volcanic systems around Futuna Island, SW Pacific Ocean. Here we present the data, the method of analysis, and a first geological interpretation. Unlike a ship, a submersible (or an AUV) cannot tow a magnetometer due to the close proximity of the seafloor. Instead, the magnetometer is rigidly fixed on the submersible, which magnetization affects the magnetic measurements. A vector magnetometer (i.e. three orthogonal fluxgate sensors) measures the field three components in a referential linked to the submarine, a requirement to determine and correct the magnetization of the submersible, The remanent magnetization vector (3 components) and the magnetic susceptibility tensor (9 coefficients) of the submersible are estimated by inverting magnetic data collected on calibration loops, far from both the ship and the seafloor, during the descent (ascent) of the submersible at the beginning (end) of the dives. For this estimation, the ambient field is assumed to be the IGRF, the departures from this assumption reflecting the magnetization of the submersible. The twelve coefficients are inverted from the loop data by a least square method, regularized by a dumping factor to account for the limited pitch and roll values sampled by the submersible. Once determined, these coefficients are used to reduce the magnetic data acquired during the whole dive for the magnetic effect of the submersible, the resulting three component anomalies being rotated to the geographic reference frame as well. The resulting anomalies acquired by the AUV on regularly-spaced tracks are gridded and reduced to the pole such as the resulting anomalies are located on the top of their causative sources. They are further inverted to equivalent magnetization using the high-resolution topography acquired by the AUV. The anomalies

  1. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  2. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  3. Noncommunicable diseases and risk factors in adult populations of several Pacific Islands: results from the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide an overview of the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors in several Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs), in accordance with global NCD targets. Methods: For six risk factors, data for adults (aged 25–64 years) from published reports of the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to NCD surveillance, or methodologically similar surveys, were collated, age standardised and compared across fifteen PICTs. Results: In the majority of PICT populations, more than half of male current drinkers drank heavily and more than 40% of men and 20% of women were current smokers. In 10 populations, about 50% or more of women were insufficiently physically active. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes exceeded 20% and 25%, respectively, in several populations. Near or more than half of men and women in all populations were overweight; in most, more than one‐third of both sexes were obese. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and risk factors varies widely between PICTs and by sex. The evidence shows the high and alarming present and future burden of NCDs in the region. Implications: Strengthened political commitment and increased investment are urgently required to tackle the NCD crisis, successfully achieve targets and ensure continuing sustainable development in the Pacific islands. PMID:26095921

  4. UV Responses in Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders and Asians Residing in Hawai'i and in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Colmenares, Leticia U.; Coelho, Sergio; Miller, Sharon A.; Boomer, KB; Beer, Janusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background UV exposure causes a wide range of skin damage including cutaneous melanoma. The mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage as well as erythemal and pigmentation responses to UV exposure have largely been studied in the White population. Methods This study systematically investigates responses to UV exposure in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) and Asian populations living in Hawai'i (A/HI) as well as in Asians living in Maryland (A/MD). Results Our analyses indicate that the NHPI population is less sensitive to UV exposure than the A/HI population. Comparisons between the two Asian groups suggest that, despite slightly but not statistically different baseline constitutive pigmentation (pre-UV exposure), the A/HI and A/MD had similar UV sensitivity, measured as minimal erythemal dose (MED). However, the A/MD population had higher levels of oxy-hemoglobin at doses of 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 MED. Unexpectedly the A/MD subjects retained higher levels of pigmentation 2 weeks post UV exposure. Conclusion This study provides insight into UV responses of the inhabitants of Hawai'i and shows that such responses are statistically significant for relatively small samples of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders, and for Asians living in Hawai'i and Asians living in Maryland. PMID:23651272

  5. Multiple Distant Origins for Green Sea Turtles Aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian Eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Amorocho, Diego F.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Dutton, Peter H.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:22319635

  6. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. PIALA '95. Preservation of Culture through Archives and Libraries. Papers from the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (5th, Colonia, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, November 6-10, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    The annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives addressed various topics of interest to librarians, archivists, and educators in the Pacific Islands. The proceedings include welcoming remarks by 2 Yap state government officials and PIALA President Herbert Del Rosario; a keynote address by Dr. Marcia J.…

  8. Substance use and dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian ethnic groups in the United States: contrasting multiple-race and single-race prevalence rates from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Joseph T; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians on a national level. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors compared multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug use and dependence. For multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of alcohol dependence were observed compared with both single-race Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and Asian subgroups and single-race Caucasians; for some multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of drug dependence were also observed.

  9. Investigating Rainfall Variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone using the Geochemistry of Stalagmites from the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhon, N.; Quinn, T. M.; Partin, J. W.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), which extends southeastward from New Guinea to Tahiti, is the largest perennial rainfall feature in the Southern Hemisphere. The position of the SPCZ and its associated rainfall varies significantly on multidecadal timescales, as documented by instrumental and climate proxy data. For example, stalagmite δ18O records (rainfall proxy) from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (Partin et al., 2013) and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (Maupin et al., 2014), document large (~1‰), abrupt changes in stalagmite δ18O on multidecadal timescales over the past 600 years that arise from internal variability in the climate system. The proxy data agree with the type of rainfall changes observed in the instrumental record, such as the change across 1976/77, but the older changes are larger in relative magnitude. We expand on these earlier studies of rainfall variability in the SPCZ system using stable isotope variations in stalagmites from two other locations in the Solomon Islands (Munda, New Georgia, 8.3°S, 157.3°E; Suku, Nggela Pile (9.8° S, 160.2° E). These stalagmites range in age from about 400 CE to 1850 CE, based on U-Th dating, and have relatively fast growth rates (60 to 300 µm/yr). Stalagmite δ18O time series were generated from sub-samples milled every 500 µm, or approximately 1 to 8 years per data point. Initial results from these two new Solomon Island stalagmites not only confirm the presence of multidecadal variability in stalagmite δ18O identified in previous studies, but suggest that the same amplitude of variability has occurred over several windows of time during the past 1600 years. When complete, these new proxy rainfall records from Munda and Suku will further constrain the pattern and mechanism of SPCZ rainfall variability in western tropical Pacific region.

  10. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light... beginning at China Point Light; extending in a direction of 181 degrees true, 2.0 nautical miles; thence...

  11. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  12. PIALA '94. Pacific Information Liberation: The Wave of the Future. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (4th, Tamuning, Guam, November 4-9, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    Over 100 participants from Micronesia, Australia, Japan, Hawaii, and other United States convened to hear presenters speaking on various topics of interest to librarians, archivists, and educators in the Pacific islands. The proceedings include a welcoming speech, remarks acknowledging conference exhibitors, and a keynote address by Dr. John…

  13. 76 FR 59113 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Logbook Family of Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Islands Logbook Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... other for-profit organizations; individuals, or households. Estimated Number of Respondents: 345... the agency's estimate of the burden (including hours and cost) of the proposed collection...

  14. PIALA '97. Wasahn Kamarain: Place of Enlightenment. Papers from the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (7th, Palikir, Pohnpei, November 3-5, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.

    This PIALA 1997 Proceedings follows the tradition of publishing papers from each annual conference of the Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives (PIALA). After welcoming remarks from Sue Moses, Kapily Capelle, and Isabel Rungrad, the following papers are included: "Places of Enlightenment, Places of Dreams" (Maradel Gale);…

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  16. HIV Testing Trends and Correlates among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two U.S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Hudes, Esther S.; Proctor, Kristopher; Han, Chung-Sook; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of recent HIV testing (within the past year) among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) in two U.S. cities. We conducted serial, cross-sectional, interviewer-administered surveys of 908 API MSM aged 15-25 years, sampled from randomly selected…

  17. HIV Testing Patterns and Unrecognized HIV Infection among Young Asian and Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex with Men in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do, Tri D.; Chen, Sanny; McFarland, Willi; Secura, Gina M.; Behel, Stephanie K.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Valleroy, Linda A.; Cho, Kyung-Hee

    2005-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is rising in Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM), who are often first diagnosed with HIV at a late stage of disease. We investigated the HIV testing patterns, correlates of prior testing, and awareness of HIV infection of 495 API MSM aged 18-29 years recruited from venues in San Francisco, using…

  18. Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (3rd, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, October 13-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives, Guam.

    Participants from Washington, Hawaii, Majuro, Palau, Guam and other points in the Northern Mariana Islands came together to share information relating to the functions of libraries and archives as information banks and as preservers of the cultural heritage of Micronesia. Papers presented were: (1) "Reading Motivation in the Pacific" (Marilyn…

  19. Fracturation Pattern in the Limestone Loyaute Islands and its Relation to the Neighbouring Vanuatu Subduction Zone (SW PAcific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, I.; Genthon, P.; Thovert, J.; Adler, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Loyauté Islands are a series of limestone karstified islands that are currently uplifted and deformed on the elastic bulge of the Australian plate before its subduction at the Vanuatu Trench (SW Pacific). As part of the SAGE program of the New Caledonian Province des Iles, they have been extensively surveyed for geology and hydrogeology. As part of this project, a map of fracturation deduced from aerial photos, and from SPOT4 and ENVISAT satellite data has been produced and a field trip allowed to verify that the main fracture orientations were also present on the most recent terranes bordering the islands. Since their formation during the Miocene, these islands are in a tectonically stable area. Thus, they provide a unique opportunity to study their fracture distribution in relation with their recent tectonic context. We will present the results of a statistical analysis of fracture distribution both in number and in fracture length and an attempt to model the fracture orientations as resulting from the elastic deformation of the Australian lithosphere before its subduction. Three main fracture families have been determined for the three island, with very few differences if fracture number of fracture length statistic is considered. These families are N62.5, N107.5, and N152.5 for Lifou, which is the largest and central island, which are further termed as F1, F2, F3. F2 is at least 5 times more important than F1 and F3, which are 45° apart on both sides of F2. The orientation of families F1-F3 are N 65, N110, and N155 in Maré, which located less than 100 km apart from the subduction zone, and N60, N105, and N150 in Ouvéa , which is the most distant island from the subduction and is only uplifted in its NorthEastern part. The main family F2 does not correspond either to the subduction zone orientation (N150) nor to that of the Loyauté ridge (N135) on which the three islands are located. Thus, the fracture pattern of the three island cannot be explained by

  20. Quaternary calcarenite stratigraphy on Lord Howe Island, southwestern Pacific Ocean and the record of coastal carbonate deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Brendan P.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.; Heijnis, Hendrik; Jones, Brian G.

    2003-04-01

    Lord Howe Island is a small, mid-ocean volcanic and carbonate island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Skeletal carbonate eolianite and beach calcarenite on the island are divisible into two formations based on lithostratigraphy. The Searles Point Formation comprises eolianite units bounded by clay-rich paleosols. Pore-filling sparite and microsparite are the dominant cements in these eolianite units, and recrystallised grains are common. Outcrops exhibit karst features such as dolines, caves and subaerially exposed relict speleothems. The Neds Beach Formation overlies the Searles Point Formation and consists of dune and beach units bounded by weakly developed fossil soil horizons. These younger deposits are characterised by grain-contact and meniscus cements, with patchy pore-filling micrite and mirosparite. The calcarenite comprises several disparate successions that contain a record of up to 7 discrete phases of deposition. A chronology is constructed based on U/Th ages of speleothems and corals, TL ages of dune and paleosols, AMS 14C and amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of land snails and AAR whole-rock dating of eolianite. These data indicate dune units and paleosols of the Searles Point Formation were emplaced during oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 7 and earlier in the Middle Pleistocene. Beach units of the Neds Beach Formation were deposited during OIS 5e while dune units were deposited during two major phases, the first coeval with or shortly after the beach units, the second later during OIS 5 (e.g. OIS 5a) when the older dune and beach units were buried. Large-scale exposures and morphostratigraphical features indicate much of the carbonate was emplaced as transverse and climbing dunes, with the sediment source located seaward of and several metres below the present shoreline. The lateral extent and thickness of the eolianite deposits contrast markedly with the relatively small modern dunes. These features indicate that a slight fall (2-10 m) in sea level

  1. Coastal tectonics on the eastern margin of the Pacific Rim: late Quaternary sea-level history and uplift rates, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall; Groves, Lindsey T.; DeVogel, Stephen B.; Minor, Scott A.; Laurel, DeAnna

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific Rim is a region where tectonic processes play a significant role in coastal landscape evolution. Coastal California, on the eastern margin of the Pacific Rim, is very active tectonically and geomorphic expressions of this include uplifted marine terraces. There have been, however, conflicting estimates of the rate of late Quaternary uplift of marine terraces in coastal California, particularly for the northern Channel Islands. In the present study, the terraces on San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island were mapped and new age estimates were generated using uranium-series dating of fossil corals and amino acid geochronology of fossil mollusks. Results indicate that the 2nd terrace on both islands is ˜120 ka and the 1st terrace on Santa Rosa Island is ˜80 ka. These ages correspond to two global high-sea stands of the Last Interglacial complex, marine isotope stages (MIS) 5.5 and 5.1, respectively. The age estimates indicate that San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island have been tectonically uplifted at rates of 0.12-0.20 m/ka in the late Quaternary, similar to uplift rates inferred from previous studies on neighboring Santa Cruz Island. The newly estimated uplift rates for the northern Channel Islands are, however, an order of magnitude lower than a recent study that generated uplift rates from an offshore terrace dating to the Last Glacial period. The differences between the estimated uplift rates in the present study and the offshore study are explained by the magnitude of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects that were not known at the time of the earlier study. Set in the larger context of northeastern Pacific Rim tectonics, Channel Islands uplift rates are higher than those coastal localities on the margin of the East Pacific Rise spreading center, but slightly lower than those of most localities adjacent to the Cascadia subduction zone. The uplift rates reported here for the northern Channel Islands are similar to those reported for most

  2. Coastal tectonics on the eastern margin of the Pacific Rim: Late Quaternary sea-level history and uplift rates, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall; Groves, Lindsey T.; DeVogel, Stephen B.; Minor, Scott A.; Laurel, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Rim is a region where tectonic processes play a significant role in coastal landscape evolution. Coastal California, on the eastern margin of the Pacific Rm, is very active tectonically and geomorphic expressions of this include uplifted marine terraces. There have been, however, conflicting estimates of the rate of late Quaternary uplift of marine terraces in coastal California, particularly for the orthern Channel Islands. In the present study, the terraces on San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island were mapped and new age estimates were generated using uranium-series dating of fossil corals and amino acid geochronology of fossil mollusks. Results indicate that the 2nd terrace on both islands is ~120 ka and the 1st terrace on Santa Rosa Island is ~80 ka. These ages correspond to two global high-sea stands of the Last Interglacial complex, marine isotope stages (MIS) 5.5 and 51, respectively. The age estimates indicate that San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island have been tectonically uplifted at rates of 0.12e0.20 m/ka in the late Quaternary, similar to uplift rates inferred from previous studies on neighboring San Cruz Island. The newly estimated uplift rates for the northern Channel Islands are, however, an order of magnitude lower than a recent study that generated uplift rates from an offshore terrace dating to the Last Glacial period. The differences between the estimated uplift rates in the present study and the offshore study are explained by the magnitude of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects that were not known at the time of the earlier study. Set in the larger context of northeastern Pacific Rim tectonics, Channel Islands uplift rates are higher than those coastal localities on the margin of the East Pacific Rise spreading center, but slightly lower than those of most localities adjacent to the Cascadia subduction zone. The uplift rates reported here for the northern Channel Islands are similar to those reported for most other

  3. "Know Hepatitis B:" A Multilingual Communications Campaign Promoting Testing for Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Cynthia; Chen, Sherry; Carnes, C Amanda; Block, Joan; Chen, Daniel; Caballero, Jeffrey; Moraras, Kate; Cohen, Chari

    2016-01-01

    The "Know Hepatitis B" campaign was the first national, multilingual communications campaign to promote testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). This population comprises fewer than 5% of the total U.S. population but accounts for more than half of the up to 1.4 million Americans living with chronic HBV infection. To address this health disparity with a national campaign, CDC partnered with Hep B United, a national coalition of community-based partners working to educate AAPIs about hepatitis B and the need for testing. Guided by formative research, the "Know Hepatitis B" campaign was implemented in 2013 with a two-pronged communications strategy. CDC used available Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese media outlets on a national level and relied on Hep B United to incorporate campaign materials into educational efforts at the local level. This partnership helped facilitate HBV testing among the priority population.

  4. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  5. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities. PMID:26829254

  6. HIV risk and prevention among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men: listen to our stories.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don; Soma, Toho; Bao, Daniel; Vajrabukka, Alberto; Crisostomo, Vincent

    2003-02-01

    Despite increasing need for HIV prevention research and intervention programs, the voices and stories of Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) have remained absent from HIV prevention literature. Five focus groups with API MSM (N = 38) were conducted to identify psychological, social, and cultural factors related to HIV risk and protection. Six themes were identified based on focus group discussion: (a) dual-identity status, (b) coming out and disclosure issues, (c) relationships and dating, (d) substance use, (e) sexual risk reduction strategies, and (f) health and social services. Narrative data indicate that multilevel HIV prevention intervention strategies are necessary for addressing the unique psychosocial and behavioral HIV risk factors among API MSM, such as dual stigma stemming from homophobia and racism, discomfort with sexuality, power dynamics and stereotypes in relationships with White men, substance use, and low utilization of health and social services.

  7. A qualitative exploration of the relationship between racism and unsafe sex among Asian Pacific Islander gay men.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong-suk

    2008-10-01

    Although reported cases of HIV/AIDS among gay Asian Pacific Islander (API) American men and API men who have sex with men (MSM) are still relatively low, current research findings indicate that incidences of unsafe sexual activity may be higher for this group than for any other group. Among the explanations offered to explain the levels of increasing unsafe sex among gay API men have been sexual norms found in Asian cultures, the lack of culturally relevant and/or linguistically appropriate intervention material, lack of integration into the mainstream gay community, and internalized homophobia. What are often ignored in these analyses are the contextual norms in which sexual behavior for gay API men occur. In this article, I develop the argument that racism within the gay community leads to socially and contextually prescribed sexual roles for gay API men that may also contribute to the practice of unsafe sex among this group.

  8. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  9. Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

  10. Assessing Collectivism in Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sauceda, John A; Paul, Jay P; Gregorich, Steven E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2016-02-01

    The study of collectivism has implications for HIV prevention research, especially in studies that use a social networking or community mobilization approach. However, research on collectivism in race/ethnicity and sexual minority groups is limited. We psychometrically evaluated a brief version of the Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) in a chain-referral sample of 400 Latino, 393 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 403 African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were collected via a one-time survey on demographics, the ICIAI, acculturation, and ethnicity identity. We conducted a multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis to assess for measurement invariance across the three groups of MSM, as well as tested its reliability and validity. The ICIAI evidenced good psychometric properties and was invariant across all groups. We highlight implications for how this measure of collectivism can be applied toward the study of HIV prevention and in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.

  11. New species of Balantidium and Paracichlidotherus (Ciliophora) inhabiting the intestines of four surgeonfish species from the Tuvalu Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Grim, J Norman; Clements, Kendall D; Byfield, Tamsen

    2002-01-01

    Four species of adult herbivorous surgeonfishes (Family Acanthuridae) were collected from the remote South-Pacific island system of Tuvalu. Their intestinal contents were examined, and of four populations of ciliated protists, two new species were discovered and are described. Ciliates were examined after protargol staining and, in some cases, scanning electron microscopy. Members of each population were examined and 10 characters measured for the balantidia, and 13 for the paracichlidotherids. A new Balantidium is described which has an unusually large dextr-oral field of cilia. A new species of Paracichlidotherus was discovered which has a macronucleus significantly smaller and well anteriad the cytoplasmic portion of the oral polykinetids relative to the type species.

  12. "Know Hepatitis B:" A Multilingual Communications Campaign Promoting Testing for Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Cynthia; Chen, Sherry; Carnes, C Amanda; Block, Joan; Chen, Daniel; Caballero, Jeffrey; Moraras, Kate; Cohen, Chari

    2016-01-01

    The "Know Hepatitis B" campaign was the first national, multilingual communications campaign to promote testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). This population comprises fewer than 5% of the total U.S. population but accounts for more than half of the up to 1.4 million Americans living with chronic HBV infection. To address this health disparity with a national campaign, CDC partnered with Hep B United, a national coalition of community-based partners working to educate AAPIs about hepatitis B and the need for testing. Guided by formative research, the "Know Hepatitis B" campaign was implemented in 2013 with a two-pronged communications strategy. CDC used available Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese media outlets on a national level and relied on Hep B United to incorporate campaign materials into educational efforts at the local level. This partnership helped facilitate HBV testing among the priority population. PMID:27168659

  13. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT33 Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010... INFORMATION: The NWHI commercial lobster fishery is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for...

  14. One Size Doesn't Fit All: Teacher Education in Developing Pacific Island Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serow, Penelope; Taylor, Neil; Burnett, Greg; Sullivan, Terence; Smardon, Dianne; Tarrant, Jodana; Angell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In global terms, the world is facing chronic teacher shortages "that will persist beyond 2015 for future decades to come if current trends continue" (UNESCO, 2013). UNESCO reports that the East Asia and Pacific Region need to fill an additional 57,000 teaching positions to achieve universal primary education standards. The closing of the…

  15. Acculturative Heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a five class solution: Class 1: “Separated” (12.91%), Class 2: “Partial Bilingual/Bicultural” (30.06%), Class 3: “English Dominant/Asian Oriented” (12.29%), Class 4:”Full Bilingual/Bicultural” (19.42%) and Class 5: “Assimilated” (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the two classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the “Assimilated” class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. PMID:26167805

  16. Acculturative heterogeneity among Asian/Pacific Islanders in the United States: Associations with DSM mental and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Lee, Sharon; Vaughn, Michael G; Jang, Yuri; Sanglang, Cindy C

    2015-07-01

    Extant studies on the links between acculturation and mental and substance use disorders among Asian/Pacific Islanders have been based on the assumption that acculturation is a homogeneous construct. However, emerging evidence suggests that the various components of acculturation do not manifest independently, but rather cluster in ways that reflect distinct profiles. We employ data on Asian/Pacific Islanders from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 968). Latent profile analysis is used to identify acculturation subgroups on the basis of indicator variables related to cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement. Subsequently, the distribution of outcome variables in the domains of DSM disorders (lifetime history of clinical, personality, and substance use disorders) is examined across latent subgroups. We identified a 5-class solution: Class 1: Separated (12.91%), Class 2: Partial Bilingual/Bicultural (30.06%), Class 3: English Dominant/Asian Oriented (12.29%), Class 4: Full Bilingual/Bicultural (19.42%) and Class 5: Assimilated (25.31%). The highest rates of clinical disorders were observed among members of the 2 classes characterized by a strong preference for the use of the English language (Classes 3 and 5). The highest prevalence of nicotine (12%) and illicit drug use (15%) disorders was observed among members of the Assimilated class. Consistent with prior research, findings suggest that risk of morbidity is greater among more acculturated individuals; however, findings also suggest that an important level of nuance can be observed with respect to acculturative subtypes identified on the basis of cultural identification, language ability and preference, and social engagement.

  17. The Permian Dongfanghong island-arc gabbro of the Wandashan Orogen, NE China: Implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wilde, Simon A.; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The Dongfanghong hornblende gabbro is located in the western part of the Wandashan Orogen and to the east of the Jiamusi Block in NE China. It was emplaced into Early Paleozoic oceanic crust (i.e. Dongfanghong ophiolite) at ~ 275 Ma and both later collided with the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block. The Dongfanghong gabbro is sub-alkaline with high Na2O contents and is characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithosphile elements (LILE), Sr, Eu, and Ba, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The enriched isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = ~ 0.7065, εNd(t) = ~- 0.5, 208Pb/204Pbi = ~ 38.05, 207Pb/204Pbi = ~ 15.56, 206Pb/204Pbi = ~ 18.20 and zircon εHf(t) = ~+ 5.8) indicate an enriched mantle (EM2) source, with some addition of continental material. It has arc geochemical affinities similar to Permian arc igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block, the Yakuno Ophiolite in SW Japan, arc rocks along the western margin of the North America Craton, and also the Gympie Group in eastern Australia. All these features, together with information from tectonic discrimination diagrams, suggest that the Dongfanghong gabbro formed in an immature island arc. The spatial configuration of ~ 290 Ma immature continental arc rocks in the eastern part of the Jiamusi Block and the ~ 275 Ma immature island arc Dongfanghong gabbro in the Wandashan Orogen to the east is best explained by eastward arc retreat and slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This model is also supported by the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphic transition in the Jiamusi Block from oceanic carbonate rocks to coal-bearing terrestrial clastic rocks and andesites. We thus suggest that both Paleo-Pacific subduction and roll-back occurred in the Early Permian along the eastern margin of Asia.

  18. Stratigraphy and chronology of late pleistocene reefs in the Southern Cook Islands, south Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.; Short, Stephen A.; Stoddart, David R.; Spencer, Tom; Harmon, Russell S.

    1991-03-01

    The Makatea Islands in the southern Cook Islands consist of a degraded volcanic core surrounded by emergent "makatea" limestones. While much of this reefal limestone is of Tertiary age, the seawardmost reefs are late Pleistocene. Last-interglacial reefs (oxygen isotope substage 5e) identified by U-series dating reach 12.2 m on Atiu (mean age of three samples 126,000 ± 5000 yr B.P.), 9.8 m on Mitiaro (mean age of five samples 119,000 ± 3000 yr B.P.), 10.0-12.7 m on Mauke (mean age of four samples 128,000 + 5000, -4,000 yr B.P.), and 14.5-20.0 m on Mangaia (mean age of four samples 115,000 ± 7000 yr B.P.). On Atiu, Mauke, and Mitiaro a lower reef unit has been identified, and is separated from the overlying substage 5e reef by a sharp discontinuity, often with a crust of coralline algae. U-series dating from Atiu and Mauke indicates that this is a stage 7 reef formed in the penultimate interglaciation. The Makatea Islands have emerged as a result of flexure of the lithosphere in response to loading by the Pleistocene volcanic island of Rarotonga. Isolated outcrops of makatea limestone on Rarotonga reach 3.5 m and are probably of substage 5e age. Elastic and viscoelastic models of lithospheric flexure predict that much of the compensatory movement should occur shortly after the emplacement of the load. However, the age and elevation of late Quaternary reefs on the southern Cook Islands, where a Pleistocene volcanic island has loaded relatively old ocean floor (>80 myr), indicate that differential uplift has been continuing over the last 250,000 yr.

  19. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions. PMID:26580638

  20. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.