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Sample records for affiliative social behavior

  1. Affiliative Behavior in Williams Syndrome: Social Perception and Real-Life Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen-Pasley, Anna; Adolphs, Ralph; Yam, Anna; Hill, Kiley J.; Grichanik, Mark; Reilly, Judy; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    A frequently noted but largely anecdotal behavioral observation in Williams syndrome (WS) is an increased tendency to approach strangers, yet the basis for this behavior remains unknown. We examined the relationship between affect identification ability and affiliative behavior in participants with WS relative to a neurotypical comparison group.…

  2. Social affiliation and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Examining the role of behavioral skills and subjective responding.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Jack J; Park, Stephanie G; Catalano, Lauren T; Bennett, Melanie E

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by profound impairment in the motivation for social affiliation. Negative symptoms are associated with such impairment but the contribution of behavioral skill deficits is unclear. In this study we utilized a novel video paradigm to assess performance-based affiliative behavioral skills in individuals with schizophrenia (N=48) and community controls (N=29). Individuals with schizophrenia displayed significant impairment in behavioral affiliative skills compared to controls; however, in response to the affiliative interaction the groups did not differ on self-reported affective responding, appraisal of the interaction partner, or desire to interact with the partner in the future. Importantly, within the patient group more severe negative symptoms (particularly those related to motivation and pleasure) were associated with poorer affiliative social skills and this relationship was independent of instrumental (non-social) skills, depression or positive symptoms. More severe negative symptoms were also associated with less positive affect in response to the interaction and less positive appraisals of the interaction partner. Self-reported social anhedonia was related to patients' diminished willingness to interact with the partner in the future. These results demonstrate that negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to both affiliative skill deficits and less affiliative subjective responses to interaction partners. PMID:26235753

  3. The Challenge of Translation in Social Neuroscience: A Review of Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Affiliative Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Social neuroscience is rapidly exploring the complex territory between perception and action where recognition, value, and meaning are instantiated. This review follows the trail of research on oxytocin and vasopressin as an exemplar of one path for exploring the “dark matter” of social neuroscience. Studies across vertebrate species suggest that these neuropeptides are important for social cognition, with gender and steroid-dependent effects. Comparative research in voles yields a model based on inter-species and intra-species variation of the geography of oxytocin receptors and vasopressin V1a receptors in the forebrain. Highly affiliative species have receptors in brain circuits related to reward or reinforcement. The neuroanatomical distribution of these receptors may be guided by variations in the regulatory regions of their respective genes. This review describes the promises and problems of extrapolating these findings to human social cognition, with specific reference to the social deficits of autism. PMID:20346754

  4. Knowledge of Social Affiliations Biases Economic Decisions.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Joel E; Mack, Michael L; Gelman, Bernard D; Preston, Alison R

    2016-01-01

    An individual's reputation and group membership can produce automatic judgments and behaviors toward that individual. Whether an individual's social reputation impacts interactions with affiliates has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that during initial encounters with others, existing knowledge of their social network guides behavior toward them. Participants learned reputations (cooperate, defect, or equal mix) for virtual players through an iterated economic game (EG). Then, participants learned one novel friend for each player. The critical question was how participants treated the friends in a single-shot EG after the friend-learning phase. Participants tended to cooperate with friends of cooperators and defect on friends of defectors, indicative of a decision making bias based on memory for social affiliations. Interestingly, participants' explicit predictions of the friends' future behavior showed no such bias. Moreover, the bias to defect on friends of defectors was enhanced when affiliations were learned in a social context; participants who learned to associate novel faces with player faces during reinforcement learning did not show reputation-based bias for associates of defectors during single-shot EG. These data indicate that when faced with risky social decisions, memories of social connections influence behavior implicitly. PMID:27441563

  5. Knowledge of Social Affiliations Biases Economic Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Joel E.; Mack, Michael L.; Gelman, Bernard D.; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    An individual’s reputation and group membership can produce automatic judgments and behaviors toward that individual. Whether an individual’s social reputation impacts interactions with affiliates has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that during initial encounters with others, existing knowledge of their social network guides behavior toward them. Participants learned reputations (cooperate, defect, or equal mix) for virtual players through an iterated economic game (EG). Then, participants learned one novel friend for each player. The critical question was how participants treated the friends in a single-shot EG after the friend-learning phase. Participants tended to cooperate with friends of cooperators and defect on friends of defectors, indicative of a decision making bias based on memory for social affiliations. Interestingly, participants’ explicit predictions of the friends’ future behavior showed no such bias. Moreover, the bias to defect on friends of defectors was enhanced when affiliations were learned in a social context; participants who learned to associate novel faces with player faces during reinforcement learning did not show reputation-based bias for associates of defectors during single-shot EG. These data indicate that when faced with risky social decisions, memories of social connections influence behavior implicitly. PMID:27441563

  6. Oxytocin and social affiliation in humans.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2012-03-01

    A conceptual model detailing the process of bio-behavioral synchrony between the online physiological and behavioral responses of attachment partners during social contact is presented as a theoretical and empirical framework for the study of affiliative bonds. Guided by an ethological behavior-based approach, we suggest that micro-level social behaviors in the gaze, vocal, affective, and touch modalities are dynamically integrated with online physiological processes and hormonal response to create dyad-specific affiliations. Studies across multiple attachments throughout life are presented and demonstrate that the extended oxytocin (OT) system provides the neurohormonal substrate for parental, romantic, and filial attachment in humans; that the three prototypes of affiliation are expressed in similar constellations of social behavior; and that OT is stable over time within individuals, is mutually-influencing among partners, and that mechanisms of cross-generation and inter-couple transmission relate to coordinated social behavior. Research showing links between peripheral and genetic markers of OT with concurrent parenting and memories of parental care; between administration of OT to parent and infant's physiological readiness for social engagement; and between neuropeptides and the online synchrony of maternal and paternal brain response in social-cognitive and empathy networks support the hypothesis that human attachment develops within the matrix of biological attunement and close behavioral synchrony. The findings have conceptual implications for the study of inter-subjectivity as well as translational implications for the treatment of social disorders originating in early childhood, such as autism spectrum disorders, or those associated with disruptions to early bonding, such as postpartum depression or child abuse and neglect. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22285934

  7. Social traits modulate attention to affiliative cues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah R.; Fu, Yu; Depue, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i) a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness), and (ii) attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically. PMID:25009524

  8. Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents' adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent behaviors via childhood social behaviors and peer group affiliation. Data at 54 months, Grade 3 (M age = 9.03, SD = .31), Grade 6 (M age = 11.95, SD = .34), and Grade 9 (M age = 15.57, SD = .78) from the NICHD SECCYD longitudinal investigation of 1,364 participants (52% boys) was analyzed. Overall, results yielded evidence that maternal sensitivity and child temperament at 54 months of age predicted prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent outcomes at age 15. Affiliation with peer groups (especially with prosocial peers) and social behaviors in childhood mediated the aforementioned paths for effortful control, but not for maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the implications for understanding the long-term effects of early childhood predictors on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228452

  9. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  10. Antisocial Behavior and Affiliation With Deviant Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Urberg, Kathryn A.; Heinze, Hillary J.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the associations among gender, antisocial behavior, and peer-group affiliation in a high-risk sample of 401 homeless and matched housed adolescents (139 boys and 262 girls). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (Version 2.3, 1991; Costello, Edelbrock, Kalas, Kessler, & Klaric, 1982) yielded 2 measures of adolescent antisocial…

  11. Correlates of optimal behavior among child welfare-involved children: Perceived school peer connectedness, activity participation, social skills, and peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Darcey H; Snyder, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the association between children's behaviors and their perceptions regarding the quality of school friendships is useful for intervention strategies focusing on the interpersonal networks of children involved with the child welfare system. Rarely are measures of the strength of peer relationships assessed as a protective factor for maltreated children in the context of understanding their behaviors. This research investigates the link between these youth's expressed relational experiences and nonproblematic behavior. Analyses were conducted on 1,054 children (ages 11-17) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II) dataset. Utilizing a factored measure of perceived school friend connectedness, children's behaviors were predicted using Generalized Ordered Logistic regression analyses. Results demonstrated stronger school friend connectedness is a protective factor in that, children who perceive strong peer connections at school are more likely to classify below the problem behavior threshold than those with weaker peer connections. Further, children with increased social skills; fewer deviant peer affiliations; and those who take responsibility in part-time jobs and chores are more likely to display normative behaviors. Compared with all other types of maltreatment, physically abused children are significantly less likely to display behaviors below the problem range. Moreover, physical abuse has a negative impact on the protective nature of strong peer connections. Attention should be given to supporting children's perceived positive friendships, developing social skills, and encouraging participation in part-time jobs (e.g., babysitting, paper routes) as protective factors associated with nonproblematic behaviors, rather than problematic behaviors. Implications for service delivery are discussed. PMID:26460707

  12. Correlates of optimal behavior among child welfare-involved children: Perceived school peer connectedness, activity participation, social skills, and peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Darcey H; Snyder, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the association between children's behaviors and their perceptions regarding the quality of school friendships is useful for intervention strategies focusing on the interpersonal networks of children involved with the child welfare system. Rarely are measures of the strength of peer relationships assessed as a protective factor for maltreated children in the context of understanding their behaviors. This research investigates the link between these youth's expressed relational experiences and nonproblematic behavior. Analyses were conducted on 1,054 children (ages 11-17) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II) dataset. Utilizing a factored measure of perceived school friend connectedness, children's behaviors were predicted using Generalized Ordered Logistic regression analyses. Results demonstrated stronger school friend connectedness is a protective factor in that, children who perceive strong peer connections at school are more likely to classify below the problem behavior threshold than those with weaker peer connections. Further, children with increased social skills; fewer deviant peer affiliations; and those who take responsibility in part-time jobs and chores are more likely to display normative behaviors. Compared with all other types of maltreatment, physically abused children are significantly less likely to display behaviors below the problem range. Moreover, physical abuse has a negative impact on the protective nature of strong peer connections. Attention should be given to supporting children's perceived positive friendships, developing social skills, and encouraging participation in part-time jobs (e.g., babysitting, paper routes) as protective factors associated with nonproblematic behaviors, rather than problematic behaviors. Implications for service delivery are discussed.

  13. Antisocial behavior and affiliation with deviant peers.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Hillary J; Toro, Paul A; Urberg, Kathryn A

    2004-06-01

    We examined the associations among gender, antisocial behavior, and peer-group affiliation in a high-risk sample of 401 homeless and matched housed adolescents (139 boys and 262 girls). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (Version 2.3, 1991; Costello, Edelbrock, Kalas, Kessler, & Klaric, 1982) yielded 2 measures of adolescent antisocial behavior: symptoms of conduct disorder and substance abuse or dependence. Various deviant behaviors of friends were assessed based on adolescent self-report. Results indicated that, for both boys and girls, having many deviant peers was associated with more antisocial behavior, regardless of the number of boys in the peer network. Furthermore, findings suggest that the relation between number of deviant peers and antisocial behavior may be stronger for boys and homeless adolescents than for girls and housed adolescents, respectively. The results of prior studies indicating that antisocial behavior is a function of affiliation with male peers may be due to the higher frequencies of maladaptive behaviors evidenced in boys in normative samples.

  14. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    PubMed

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men.

  15. Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Arslan, Ruben C; Hagemeyer, Birk; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2015-10-01

    According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. PMID:26280840

  16. Behavioral Intent of Power and Affiliation: Implications for Functional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Kemp, Suzanne E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes that power/control and affiliation may be valid functions of some behaviors and should be considered in a functional behavior analysis of maladaptive behavior in students. Suggestions are offered for school-based manipulations to determine whether power/control and affiliation are relevant functions in given situations.…

  17. The Roles of Aggressive and Affiliative Behaviors in Resource Control: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2008-01-01

    Extant literature in developmental psychology has documented the co-occurrence of aggressive and affiliative behaviors with various measures of social dominance. While these findings have been taken as evidence for the functional value of aggression, they have not been integrated into a more general theoretical frame accounting for contextual…

  18. Effects of single-use and group-use enrichment on stereotypy and intragroup aggressive and affiliative behaviors of a social group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at the Singapore Zoo.

    PubMed

    Sha, John; Han, Sharleen; Marlena, Diana; Kee, Julienne

    2012-01-01

    Four food-based enrichment devices were used to test the effects of single-use and group-use enrichment devices on stereotypy, intragroup aggression, and affiliation in a compatible group of 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). All enrichment devices were found to reduce overall stereotypic behavior from baseline levels (without enrichment). The occurrence of stereotypic behavior differed between individual squirrel monkeys with an adult female showing the highest level of stereotypic behavior. This individual also showed the highest usage of enrichment devices, and stereotypic behavior was significantly reduced when enrichment was applied. The occurrence of stereotypic behavior did not differ significantly between single-use and group-use enrichment treatments. Higher intragroup aggression and lower affiliation were observed during the provision of enrichment compared with baseline levels. However, aggressive behavior was higher and affiliation lower during single-use enrichment compared with group-use enrichment. The results of this study showed that enrichment had positive effects on alleviating stereotypic behavior in a group of zoo-housed squirrel monkeys and such effects were similar when group-use and single-use enrichment devices were used, but with variations between individuals. The application of enrichment, particularly single-use enrichment devices, elicited higher levels of aggression within the group and lower affiliation. Such effects could curtail the benefits of original enrichment goals as higher intragroup aggression could lead to higher stress levels within the group. When food-based enrichment for social nonhuman primates is implemented, the most appropriate methods to alleviate undesirable behavior without additional negative effects such as increased group aggression should be considered.

  19. Environmental modulation of same-sex affiliative behavior in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).

    PubMed

    Ondrasek, Naomi R; Wade, Adam; Burkhard, Tracy; Hsu, Kacie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Post, Jessica; Zucker, Irving

    2015-03-01

    The effects of temperature and food availability on social bonds and group formation are poorly understood. Because seasonal transitions in female social behavior facilitate the assembly of winter groups in meadow voles, we explored the role of same-sex female associations in winter sociality. To examine the effects of winter typical environmental conditions on same-sex female affiliative behavior, paired female meadow voles were housed in varying combinations of day length, temperature, and food availability for 7weeks and then tested for social preference. In short days (SDs), lower ambient temperature increased huddling with unfamiliar females without interfering with existing social bonds, whereas lower temperature disrupted the retention of bonds in long days (LDs). Mild food restriction with no discernible effects on body mass enhanced affiliative behavior in SDs, but not LDs. A second experiment examined the effects of sex and day length on the propensity to aggregate with unfamiliar same-sex voles. Compared to LD females and SD males, SD females spent more time in group huddles with unfamiliar voles and displayed no social preference. These outcomes indicate that winter-like conditions enhance affiliative behavior between females and that pre-existing social bonds do not preclude integration into new winter social groups. The adaptive value of these behaviors is discussed. PMID:25497080

  20. "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior": Correction to Dufner et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior" by Michael Dufner, Ruben C. Arslan, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt and Jaap J. A. Denissen (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 109[4], 662-676). In this article an erroneous statement was made regarding the high cutoff filter for the EMG raw signal. The high cutoff filter reported in Appendix B in the Technical Details of the EMG Recording Procedure section should be 300 Hz. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37761-001.) According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281355

  1. The protective role of prosocial behaviors on antisocial behaviors: the mediating effects of deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Mestre, Maria Vicenta; McGinley, Meredith M; Tur-Porcar, Ana; Samper, Paula; Opal, Deanna

    2014-06-01

    Prosocial behaviors, actions intended to help others, may serve a protective function against association with deviant peers and subsequent delinquent and antisocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among specific types of prosocial behaviors, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Six hundred and sixty-six adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33, SD = .47) from Valencia, Spain completed questionnaires of prosocial behaviors, affiliation with deviant peers, antisocial behaviors, and aggression. Results showed that antisocial behaviors were negatively related only to specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Further analyses showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relations between compliant prosocial behavior and delinquency and aggression. Although altruism was not directly related to delinquency and aggression, it was indirectly linked to the behaviors via deviant peer affiliation. Discussion focuses on the relevance of specific forms of prosocial behaviors to antisocial behaviors and the risk of deviant peers for prosocial youth.

  2. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  3. Influence of dominance rank and affiliation relationships on selfdirected behavior in female Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Qi-Xin; LI, Jin-Hua; XIA, Dong-Po; ZHU, Yong; WANG, Xi; ZHANG, Dao

    2014-01-01

    Self-directed behavior (SDB) is characterized as an indicator of anxiety, frustration and stress in nonhuman primates. In this study, we collected self-directed behavior data from one group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China (September 2012–May 2013) using a combination of behavioral sampling methods including focal animal sampling, behavioral sampling, continuous sampling and instantaneous sampling. Our results showed that females engaged in significantly higher rates of self-directed behavior when they were in proximity to dominant individuals compared to subordinate ones. Conflict losers significantly increased their SDB rates after agonistic episodes, indicating that SDB might also serve as an index of anxiety in M. thibetana. We further found that females significantly increased their SDB rates when focal individual was proximity to weakly affiliation relationship higher rank members than to strongly affiliation relationship higher rank members. If conflicts were not reconciled, the postconflict SDB rates of losers were higher when they stayed with strongly affiliation opponents; if conflicts were reconciled, victims of strongly affiliation relationships opponents engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation, while victims of moderately affiliation relationships opponents did not engaged in more SDB rates before reconciliation than after reconciliation. We conclude that both of dominance rank and affiliation relationships might both influence the SDB rates of female Tibetan macaques significantly, suggesting that SDB is not only an index of anxiety in Tibetan macaques, but also can provide a new insight into evaluation of social relationships between individuals. PMID:24866492

  4. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.

  5. Reminders of behavioral disinhibition increase public conformity in the Asch paradigm and behavioral affiliation with ingroup members

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Kees; Lind, E. A.; Bommelé, Jeroen; VandeVondele, Sebastian D. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that being in the Asch situation, where there is a felt need to conform to others’ faulty behaviors, poses a social threat to people. Furthermore, participating in a psychology experiment in which you will have to interact with other participants might trigger sense-making processes. The paper proposes that these assumed threats or sense-making processes are likely to activate the behavioral inhibition system, making people respond in more inhibited ways than they normally would be inclined to do. As a result, people’s tendency to affiliate behaviorally with persons who are similar to them can be inhibited. The implication is that lowering behavioral inhibition (by experimentally reminding people about having acted without behavioral inhibitions) should lead to more public conformity in the Asch situation and stronger behavioral affiliation with ingroup members than not being reminded about behavioral disinhibition. Findings of four experiments support this line of reasoning. These findings are discussed in terms of behavioral inhibition and behavioral affiliation. Alternative accounts of the data that focus on social belongingness threats and optimal distinctiveness are also considered. PMID:26175695

  6. Reminders of behavioral disinhibition increase public conformity in the Asch paradigm and behavioral affiliation with ingroup members.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Kees; Lind, E A; Bommelé, Jeroen; VandeVondele, Sebastian D J

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that being in the Asch situation, where there is a felt need to conform to others' faulty behaviors, poses a social threat to people. Furthermore, participating in a psychology experiment in which you will have to interact with other participants might trigger sense-making processes. The paper proposes that these assumed threats or sense-making processes are likely to activate the behavioral inhibition system, making people respond in more inhibited ways than they normally would be inclined to do. As a result, people's tendency to affiliate behaviorally with persons who are similar to them can be inhibited. The implication is that lowering behavioral inhibition (by experimentally reminding people about having acted without behavioral inhibitions) should lead to more public conformity in the Asch situation and stronger behavioral affiliation with ingroup members than not being reminded about behavioral disinhibition. Findings of four experiments support this line of reasoning. These findings are discussed in terms of behavioral inhibition and behavioral affiliation. Alternative accounts of the data that focus on social belongingness threats and optimal distinctiveness are also considered.

  7. Peer victimization and social alienation: predicting deviant peer affiliation in middle school.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Lansford, Jennifer E; Agoston, Anna M; Sugimura, Niwako; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2014-01-01

    Two prospective studies examined a theoretical model wherein exposure to victimization, resulting from early behavioral risk, heightens children's social alienation and subsequent deviant peer affiliation (DPA). Across Study 1 (298 girls, 287 boys; K-7th grade; 5-12 years) and Study 2 (338 girls, 298 boys; 2nd-6th grade; 8-12 years), children, parents, peers, and teachers reported on children's externalizing behavior and internalizing symptoms, peer victimization, social alienation, and DPA. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: Peer victimization predicted social alienation, which then predicted DPA. Early externalizing behavior set this path in motion and made an independent contribution to DPA. This research identifies an important pathway through which externalizing behavior and consequent peer victimization launch children onto a risky social trajectory.

  8. Variation in Prolactin Is Related to Variation in Sexual Behavior and Contact Affiliation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care. PMID:25799436

  9. Variation in prolactin is related to variation in sexual behavior and contact affiliation.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin is associated with both maternal and paternal care and appears important in developing a bond between parent and infant. In contrast with oxytocin, another hormone important in infant care, there is scant information on the role of prolactin in maintaining adult heterosexual relationships. We present here the first results demonstrating a relationship between prolactin levels and sexual and contact affiliation behavior in a pair-bonded species. We studied cotton-top tamarins, a socially-monogamous, cooperatively-breeding primate. We measured chronic urinary prolactin levels over a four week period to include the entire female ovulatory cycle and correlated prolactin levels in males and females with simultaneous measures of contact affiliation and sexual behavior. Current mothers who were no longer nursing displayed lower amounts of sexual behavior and proximity than non-breeding females and also had marginally lower levels of prolactin. The prolactin levels of males and females were similar within pairs, and variation in prolactin levels for both sexes was explained both by the amount of sexual behavior and contact affiliation. The results parallel a previous study that compared oxytocin levels with sociosexual behavior in the same species, and supports the hypothesis that both prolactin and oxytocin are involved in pair-bonding as well as in infant care.

  10. Affiliation with Socially Withdrawn Groups and Children's Social and Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne

    2016-10-01

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the effects of membership in socially withdrawn peer groups on children's social and psychological adjustment in a sample of 979 children (417 boys, 562 girls, M age = 11.84 years). Data on children's social and psychological adjustment and problems were collected from peer nominations and self-reports in the fall and spring of a single academic year. Using the Social Cognitive Map, 162 peer groups were identified. Multilevel analyses showed that affiliation with withdrawn groups negatively predicted social competence and school attitude, and positively predicted victimization and depression. The results suggest that affiliation with socially withdrawn groups is a risk factor for the development of social and psychological problems.

  11. Rejected Youth in Residential Treatment: Social Affiliation and Peer Group Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Kathryn E.; DuPaul, George J.; Handwerk, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined social relationships of 105 middle school children attending a residential facility and identified as rejected. The majority affiliated within a peer cluster and were well integrated within the broader social network. Students who affiliated in peer clusters with rejected students tended to be similar in sociometric status.…

  12. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Liam C; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model's behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize "bad habits," including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors. PMID:27064398

  13. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Liam C.; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model’s behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize “bad habits,” including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors. PMID:27064398

  14. The Functionality of Spontaneous Mimicry and Its Influences on Affiliation: An Implicit Socialization Account.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Liam C; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    There is a broad theoretical and empirical interest in spontaneous mimicry, or the automatic reproduction of a model's behavior. Evidence shows that people mimic models they like, and that mimicry enhances liking for the mimic. Yet, there is no satisfactory account of this phenomenon, especially in terms of its functional significance. While affiliation is often cited as the driver of mimicry, we argue that mimicry is primarily driven by a learning process that helps to produce the appropriate bodily and emotional responses to relevant social situations. Because the learning process and the resulting knowledge is implicit, it cannot easily be rejected, criticized, revised, and employed by the learner in a deliberative or deceptive manner. We argue that these characteristics will lead individuals to preferentially mimic ingroup members, whose implicit information is worth incorporating. Conversely, mimicry of the wrong person is costly because individuals will internalize "bad habits," including emotional reactions and mannerisms indicating wrong group membership. This pattern of mimicry, in turn, means that observed mimicry is an honest signal of group affiliation. We propose that the preferences of models for the mimic stems from this true signal value. Further, just like facial expressions, mimicry communicates a genuine disposition when it is truly spontaneous. Consequently, perceivers are attuned to relevant cues such as appropriate timing, fidelity, and selectivity. Our account, while assuming no previously unknown biological endowments, also explains greater mimicry of powerful people, and why affiliation can be signaled by mimicry of seemingly inconsequential behaviors.

  15. Antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders in the transition from adolescence to young adulthood: Selection versus socialization effects.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana R; Goodman, Rebecca J; Erath, Stephen A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-05-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of socialization (i.e., the effect of antisocial peer affiliation on subsequent externalizing disorders) and selection (i.e., the effect of externalizing disorders on subsequent antisocial peer affiliation) in the prospective relationships between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing disorders from adolescence through young adulthood. Data from a community sample of 2,769 individuals (52% female) with assessments at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29 were used. Analyses with a latent externalizing measure (estimated using clinical symptom counts of nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder, illicit drug use disorder, and adult antisocial behavior) and self-reported antisocial peer affiliation revealed significantly stronger socialization effects from age 17 to 20, followed by significantly stronger selection effects from age 20 to 24 and 24 to 29. To better understand the impact of college experience, moderation by college status was evaluated at each developmental transition. Results were generally consistent for those who were in or were not in college. Results suggest selection effects are more important in later developmental periods than earlier periods, particularly in relation to an overall liability toward externalizing disorders, likely due to more freedom in peer selection postadolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Neural correlates of social motivation: an fMRI study on power versus affiliation.

    PubMed

    Quirin, Markus; Meyer, Frank; Heise, Nils; Kuhl, Julius; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Strüber, Daniel; Cacioppo, John T

    2013-06-01

    Power versus affiliation motivations refer to two different strivings relevant in the context of social relationships. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine neural structures involved in power versus affiliation motivation based on an individual differences approach. Seventeen participants provided self-reports of power and affiliation motives and were presented with love, power-related, and control movie clips. The power motive predicted activity in four clusters within the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), while participants viewed power-related film clips. The affiliation motive predicted activity in the right putamen/pallidum while participants viewed love stories. The present findings extend previous research on social motivations to the level of neural functioning and suggest differential networks for power-related versus affiliation-related social motivations.

  17. Affiliative and aggressive behavior in a group of female Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus).

    PubMed

    Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity. PMID:21541987

  18. Affiliative and aggressive behavior in a group of female Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus).

    PubMed

    Asa, Cheryl S; Marshall, Fiona; Fischer, Martha

    2012-01-01

    We observed a group of three young female Somali wild asses to develop an ethogram of social behavior in the first phase of a longer term study of social, sexual, and maternal/infant behavior. The most unexpected finding was the frequency and extent of aggressive interactions, which included Charge, Drive, Neck Wrestle, Head Butt, and Body Slam, behaviors previously reported only for males of other equid species. The overall frequency of aggressive behavior was higher than that of affiliative behavior (84±16.5 vs. 32±5.5, P=0.03), yet no injuries occurred. The dyadic directionality of aggressive behavior suggested a dominance hierarchy, a feature not previously reported for either wild ass or domestic donkeys. The aggression observed may be an accurate representation of the behavior of this species, or their relatively young ages, or their recent transfer from their natal group through quarantine and into a new enclosure may have heightened agonistic tendencies. Further studies will determine whether with time their aggressive behavior becomes more intense or dissipates with maturity.

  19. Kinship Shapes Affiliative Social Networks but Not Aggression in Ring-Tailed Coatis

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Stanton, Margaret A.; Maldonado, Jesus E.

    2012-01-01

    Animal groups typically contain individuals with varying degrees of genetic relatedness, and this variation in kinship has a major influence on patterns of aggression and affiliative behaviors. This link between kinship and social behavior underlies socioecological models which have been developed to explain how and why different types of animal societies evolve. We tested if kinship and age-sex class homophily in two groups of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua) predicted the network structure of three different social behaviors: 1) association, 2) grooming, and 3) aggression. Each group was studied during two consecutive years, resulting in four group-years available for analysis (total of 65 individuals). Association patterns were heavily influenced by agonistic interactions which typically occurred during feeding competition. Grooming networks were shaped by mother-offspring bonds, female-female social relationships, and a strong social attraction to adult males. Mother-offspring pairs were more likely to associate and groom each other, but relatedness had no effect on patterns of aggressive behavior. Additionally, kinship had little to no effect on coalitionary support during agonistic interactions. Adult females commonly came to the aid of juveniles during fights with other group members, but females often supported juveniles who were not their offspring (57% of coalitionary interactions). These patterns did not conform to predictions from socioecological models. PMID:22624010

  20. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior.

  1. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. PMID:26321240

  2. The effects of stress and affiliation on social decision-making: Investigating the tend-and-befriend pattern.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Engert, Veronika; Linz, Roman; Singer, Tania

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of psychosocial stress in Western societies is constantly on the rise. Its influence on social decision-making, however, remains poorly understood. Whereas, it is known that stress triggers psychological and physiological defense mechanisms, indications of such patterns in social decisions are ambivalent. We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced social decisions. We recruited 145 men, who were individually exposed to either a psychosocial stressor or a control condition, while primed with affiliation by interacting either with members of an in- or an out-group. We found that stressed participants were less trusting and engaged in less costly punishment compared to the non-stressed control group. Interacting with out-group members led to less reciprocity and more spiteful punishment. There was no interaction between stress and the affiliation conditions in any of the used social-decision-making paradigms. Lastly, while stress-reactive cortisol levels had no effect on trust behavior, higher baseline cortisol was correlated with greater trust. Our findings suggest that previous ambiguities in data reported on the influence of stress on social decisions, namely tend-and-befriend behavior may have arisen through critical social confounds in the induction of stress. When controlling for potential social confounds, stress may trigger fight-or-flight behavior as indicated by increased social anxiety. These findings highlight the considerable context-dependence of psychosocial stress and its effects on social behavior. PMID:26311359

  3. The effects of stress and affiliation on social decision-making: Investigating the tend-and-befriend pattern.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Engert, Veronika; Linz, Roman; Singer, Tania

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of psychosocial stress in Western societies is constantly on the rise. Its influence on social decision-making, however, remains poorly understood. Whereas, it is known that stress triggers psychological and physiological defense mechanisms, indications of such patterns in social decisions are ambivalent. We sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of stress-induced social decisions. We recruited 145 men, who were individually exposed to either a psychosocial stressor or a control condition, while primed with affiliation by interacting either with members of an in- or an out-group. We found that stressed participants were less trusting and engaged in less costly punishment compared to the non-stressed control group. Interacting with out-group members led to less reciprocity and more spiteful punishment. There was no interaction between stress and the affiliation conditions in any of the used social-decision-making paradigms. Lastly, while stress-reactive cortisol levels had no effect on trust behavior, higher baseline cortisol was correlated with greater trust. Our findings suggest that previous ambiguities in data reported on the influence of stress on social decisions, namely tend-and-befriend behavior may have arisen through critical social confounds in the induction of stress. When controlling for potential social confounds, stress may trigger fight-or-flight behavior as indicated by increased social anxiety. These findings highlight the considerable context-dependence of psychosocial stress and its effects on social behavior.

  4. Social Ecology of Supervised Communal Facilities for Mentally Disabled Adults: II. Predictors of Affiliation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Berkson, Gershon

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of 304 mentally disabled adults was observed in five settings (one residence, four sheltered workshops) during periods when they were free to affiliate with peers. In total, the findings indicated that the variables most predictive of affiliation in the present community settings were also the ones most amenable to personal or…

  5. Warm thanks: gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lisa A; Bartlett, Monica Y

    2015-02-01

    Recent theorizing on the nature and function of gratitude (the find-remind-and-bind theory; Algoe, 2012) stipulates that expressing gratitude should serve to alert previously unacquainted peers to the potential for a high-quality social bond (i.e., a find function). Although the logic of this premise is supported by extant research, it has not, as yet, been tested empirically. In the current study, participants received a note from a previously unacquainted peer that contained an expression of gratitude (or did not) with regard to prior benefits provided by the participant. After providing ratings of the peer and ostensibly completing the study, participants were given an opportunity to spontaneously give their contact information to the peer, which served as a behavioral measure of affiliation. In line with the proposed find function of gratitude expressions, recipients of expressions of gratitude were more likely to extend the effort to continue the relationship with the novel peer by providing that peer with a means to contact them. This experiment also provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth (e.g., friendliness, thoughtfulness) serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. As such, these findings provide the first empirical evidence regarding 1 of the 3 central premises of the find-remind-and-bind theory of gratitude (Algoe, 2012) in the context of novel relationships.

  6. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António J.; Daniel, João R.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. PMID:26134139

  7. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  8. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a ‘pornographic’ effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  9. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation.

  10. Academic Affiliations of Social Work Journal Article Authors, 2004-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Jan; Cobb, Alicia; Thyer, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The researchers tabulated the academic affiliations of the authors of all articles published between 2004 and 2008 in 6 major social work journals to produce a ranking of the colleges and universities whose faculty made the most substantive contributions to the social work literature. The results of this analysis are compared with findings of 5…

  11. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    Post-weaning social isolation rearing (SI) in rodents elicits various behavioral abnormalities including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors. In order to obtain a better understanding of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities, we herein investigated the effects of SI on social affiliation and conditioned fear memory as well as the neuronal mechanism(s) underlying these effects. Four-week-old male mice were group-housed (GH) or socially isolated for 2-4 weeks before the experiments. The social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning were conducted at the age of 6 and 7 weeks, respectively. SI mice were systemically administered saline or test drugs 30 min before the social affiliation test and fear memory conditioning. Contextual and auditory fear memories were elucidated 1 and 4 days after fear conditioning. Social affiliation and contextual and auditory fear memories were weaker in SI mice than in GH mice. Methylphenidate (MPH), an inhibitor for dopamine transporters, ameliorated the SI-induced social affiliation deficit and the effect was attenuated by SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, but not by sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. On the other hand, tacrine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, had no effect on this deficit. In contrast, tacrine improved SI-induced deficits in fear memories in a manner that was reversed by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, while MPH had no effect on memory deficits. Neurochemical studies revealed that SI down-regulated the expression levels of the phosphorylated forms of neuro-signaling proteins, calmodulin-dependent kinase II (p-CaMKII), and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB), as well as early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) in the hippocampus. The administration of MPH or tacrine before fear conditioning had no effect on the levels of the phosphorylated forms of the neuro-signaling proteins elucidated following completion of the auditory fear memory test; however

  12. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  13. Perceived Parental Behavior and Peer Affiliations among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe. Margaret; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the role of parenting behavior in adolescents' peer group formation using a sample of 238 African American adolescents living in urban public housing projects. The study also assesses the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between parenting behavior and peer affiliations. Girls reported significantly…

  14. The role of synchronized swimming as affiliative and anti-predatory behavior in long-finned pilot whales.

    PubMed

    Senigaglia, Valeria; de Stephanis, Renaud; Verborgh, Phillippe; Lusseau, David

    2012-09-01

    Synchronized swimming in cetaceans has been hypothesized to play a role in affiliative processes as well as anti-predatory responses. We compared observed variation in synchronized swimming at two research sites in relation to disturbance exposure to test these two hypotheses. This study describes and quantifies pair synchronization in long-finned pilot whales at the Strait of Gibraltar, Spain and Cape Breton, Canada. Synchronization differed depending on the behavioral state and the response is different in the two sites leading to the conclusion that environment can shape the occurrence and magnitude of certain behaviors. We also analyzed intra-population variations in synchronization among 4 social units of Pilot whales in the Strait of Gibraltar and the results of this study confirmed the affiliative role of synchronization and highlighted an influence of disturbance on synchronization. We can conclude that synchronization is a common behavior in long-finned pilot whales that allow for close proximity and rapid coordinated response of individuals, with the multiple functions of showing affiliation and reacting to disturbance.

  15. The effects of allostatic load on neural systems subserving motivation, mood regulation, and social affiliation.

    PubMed

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Neuhaus, Emily; Zalewski, Maureen; Crowell, Sheila E; Potapova, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    The term allostasis, which is defined as stability through change, has been invoked repeatedly by developmental psychopathologists to describe long-lasting and in some cases permanent functional alterations in limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responding following recurrent and/or prolonged exposure to stress. Increasingly, allostatic load models have also been invoked to describe psychological sequelae of abuse, neglect, and other forms of maltreatment. In contrast, neural adaptations to stress, including those incurred by monoamine systems implicated in (a) mood and emotion regulation, (b) behavioral approach, and (c) social affiliation and attachment, are usually not included in models of allostasis. Rather, structural and functional alterations in these systems, which are exquisitely sensitive to prolonged stress exposure, are usually explained as stress mediators, neural plasticity, and/or programming effects. Considering these mechanisms as distinct from allostasis is somewhat artificial given overlapping functions and intricate coregulation of monoamines and the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It also fractionates literatures that should be mutually informative. In this article, we describe structural and functional alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, and noradrenergic neural systems following both acute and prolonged exposure to stress. Through increases in behavioral impulsivity, trait anxiety, mood and emotion dysregulation, and asociality, alterations in monoamine functioning have profound effects on personality, attachment relationships, and the emergence of psychopathology. PMID:22018077

  16. Peer Group Affiliation of Children: The Role of Perceived Popularity, Likeability, and Behavioral Similarity in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witvliet, Miranda; Olthof, Tjeert; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Goossens, Frits A.; Smits, Marieke S. I.; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    To understand children's peer group affiliation, this study examined to what extent children in naturally occurring groups resemble each other on bullying, likeability, and perceived popularity. Participants were fourth- to sixth-grade pupils (N = 461). Peer groups were identified using the social cognitive map procedure. Resemblance on bullying,…

  17. Deviant peer affiliation and antisocial behavior: interaction with Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) genotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve S

    2011-04-01

    Although genetic and environmental factors are separately implicated in the development of antisocial behavior (ASB), interactive models have emerged relatively recently, particularly those incorporating molecular genetic data. Using a large sample of male Caucasian adolescents and young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the association of deviant peer affiliation, the 30-base pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in promoter region of the monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) gene, and their interaction, with antisocial behavior (ASB) was investigated. Weighted analyses accounting for over-sampling and clustering within schools as well as controlling for age and wave suggested that deviant peer affiliation and MAOA genotype were each significantly associated with levels of overt ASB across a 6-year period. Only deviant peer affiliation was significantly related to covert ASB, however. Additionally, there was evidence suggestive of a gene-environment interaction (G × E) where the influence of deviant peer affiliation on overt ASB was significantly stronger among individuals with the high-activity MAOA genotype than the low-activity genotype. MAOA was not significantly associated with deviant peer affiliation, thus strengthening the inference of G × E rather than gene-environment correlation (rGE). Different forms of gene-environment interplay and implications for future research on ASB are discussed.

  18. Deviant Peer Affiliation and Problem Behavior: A Test of Genetic and Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Bernadette Marie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Leve, Leslie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a multitrait, multimethod (MTMM) approach to investigate the genetic and environmental etiologies of childhood deviant peer affiliation (DPA) and problem behavior (PROB). The variability of genetic and environmental estimates by agent and method is also examined. A total of 77 monozygotic and 72 dizygotic twin pairs and each twin's…

  19. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

  20. Peer victimization, deviant peer affiliation and impulsivity: Predicting adolescent problem behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju

    2016-08-01

    Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798

  1. Understanding Group/Party Affiliation Using Social Networks and Agent-Based Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Kenyth

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of group affiliation and group dispersion is a concept that is most often studied in order for political candidates to better understand the most efficient way to conduct their campaigns. While political campaigning in the United States is a very hot topic that most politicians analyze and study, the concept of group/party affiliation presents its own area of study that producers very interesting results. One tool for examining party affiliation on a large scale is agent-based modeling (ABM), a paradigm in the modeling and simulation (M&S) field perfectly suited for aggregating individual behaviors to observe large swaths of a population. For this study agent based modeling was used in order to look at a community of agents and determine what factors can affect the group/party affiliation patterns that are present. In the agent-based model that was used for this experiment many factors were present but two main factors were used to determine the results. The results of this study show that it is possible to use agent-based modeling to explore group/party affiliation and construct a model that can mimic real world events. More importantly, the model in the study allows for the results found in a smaller community to be translated into larger experiments to determine if the results will remain present on a much larger scale.

  2. Effects of vinclozolin, an anti-androgen, on affiliative behavior in the Dark-eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis.

    PubMed

    Satre, Danielle; Reichert, Michael; Corbitt, Cynthia

    2009-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) produce changes in physiology and behavior via diverse mechanisms including acting as hormone mimics or antagonists, affecting intracellular signaling pathways, and altering hormone production pathways. The fungicide vinclozolin acts as an anti-androgen and is known to affect affiliative behaviors in rodents, fish and amphibians. To investigate the possible effects of exposure to EDCs on reproductive behavior in a wild population of songbirds, we examined the effects of vinclozolin in wild-caught Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). For this and many other temperate songbird species, testosterone has powerful activational effects on affiliative behaviors in adulthood. We hypothesized that vinclozolin would affect male behaviors associated with female preference. Male juncos received daily oral gavage for 10 weeks with 2mM vinclozolin in vehicle or vehicle alone. Juncos were photostimulated (16L:8D) to induce breeding behavior. Each pair of a treated and non-treated male was presented to an estrogen-primed female to assess female preference. Seven of eight females exhibited a strong preference for a male exposed to vinclozolin over a control male (p=0.01). The only significant difference in measured male behaviors was increased beak wiping in controls (p=0.006) and there was no difference in gonad size or brain weight (p>0.05 for each). Our data suggest that estrogen-primed female juncos prefer to associate with male juncos exposed to this anti-androgen. This finding demonstrates that environmentally occurring anti-androgens can affect the social behavior of this species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that vinclozolin has effects on the social behavior of songbirds. PMID:19261272

  3. Laboratory Assay of Brood Care for Quantitative Analyses of Individual Differences in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Affiliative Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shpigler, Hagai Y.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Care of offspring is a form of affiliative behavior that is fundamental to studies of animal social behavior. Insects do not figure prominently in this topic because Drosophila melanogaster and other traditional models show little if any paternal or maternal care. However, the eusocial honey bee exhibits cooperative brood care with larvae receiving intense and continuous care from their adult sisters, but this behavior has not been well studied because a robust quantitative assay does not exist. We present a new laboratory assay that enables quantification of group or individual honey bee brood “nursing behavior” toward a queen larva. In addition to validating the assay, we used it to examine the influence of the age of the larva and the genetic background of the adult bees on nursing performance. This new assay also can be used in the future for mechanistic analyses of eusociality and comparative analyses of affilative behavior with other animals. PMID:26569402

  4. Social affiliation and contact patterns among white-tailed deer in disparate landscapes: implications for disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Schauber, Eric M.; Nielsen, Clayton K.; Kjær, Lene J.; Anderson, Charles W.; Storm, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In social species, individuals contact members of the same group much more often than those of other groups, particularly for contacts that could directly transmit disease agents. This disparity in contact rates violates the assumptions of simple disease models, hinders disease spread between groups, and could decouple disease transmission from population density. Social behavior of white-tailed deer has important implications for the long-term dynamics and impact of diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic wasting disease (CWD), so expanding our understanding of their social system is important. White-tailed deer form matrilineal groups, which inhabit stable home ranges that overlap somewhat with others—a pattern intermediate between mass-action and strict territoriality. To quantify how group membership affects their contact rates and document the spectrum of social affiliation, we analyzed location data from global positioning system (GPS) collars on female and juvenile white-tailed deer in 2 study areas: near Carbondale in forest-dominated southern Illinois (2002–2006) and near Lake Shelbyville in agriculture-dominated central Illinois (2006–2009). For each deer dyad (i.e., 2 individual deer with sufficient overlapping GPS data), we measured space-use overlap, correlation of movements, direct contact rate (simultaneous GPS locations < 10 m apart), and indirect contact rate (GPS locations < 10 m apart when offset by 1 or 3 days). Direct contact rates were substantially higher for within-group dyads than between-group dyads, but group membership had little apparent effect on indirect contact rates. The group membership effect on direct contact rates was strongest in winter and weakest in summer, with no apparent difference between study areas. Social affiliations were not dichotomous, with some deer dyads showing loose but positive affiliation. Even for obvious within-group dyads, their strength of affiliation fluctuated between years, seasons, and

  5. Keep logging in! Experimental evidence showing the relation of affiliation needs to the idea of online social networking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Chia; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2013-06-01

    As social networking sites (SNS) increasingly provide social connections that meet the need for affiliation, people are developing symbiotic relationships with these sites. Drawing on the notion that people motivated by affiliation may increase their attention to sources that provide social connections, we conducted a lab experiment to explore whether priming affiliation needs would prompt the idea of online social networking. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three between-subjects conditions (affiliation arousal, social exclusion, control) in which we employed the scrambled-sentence paradigm to manipulate affiliation motivations. Each experimental condition was followed by a modified Stroop task (a color naming task) to test reaction times to SNS and non-SNS terms (including general terms and brand names). People who were primed to think about a topic typically showed slowed reaction times for naming the color of related words (i.e., Stroop interference), as those words become more interesting and accessible. Confirming our hypothesis, participants took longer to name the font color of SNS-related words than that of matched general words when affiliation motivation was evoked. Moreover, priming with affiliation motivation created more Stroop interference for SNS brand names rather than for other global brand names. These results suggest that the idea of online social networking seems to have become deeply rooted in human social practices. PMID:23427848

  6. Nonshared environmental mediation of the association between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors over time: results from a cross-lagged monozygotic twin differences design.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-11-01

    It has been argued that peers are the most important agent of adolescent socialization and, more specifically, that this socialization process occurs at the child-specific (or nonshared environmental) level (J. R. Harris, 1998; R. Plomin & Asbury, 2005). The authors sought to empirically evaluate this nonshared environmental peer influence hypothesis by examining the association between externalizing behaviors and deviant peer affiliation in a sample of 454 pairs of monozygotic (genetically identical) twins, assessed at ages 14 and 17, within a cross-lagged twin differences design. Results argued against a causal nonshared environmental influence of peer affiliation on the development of externalizing behaviors and in favor of nonshared environmental "selection." In particular, the twin with more externalizing behaviors at age 14 reported increased deviant peer affiliation relative to his or her co-twin 3 years later, regardless of his or her genetic predispositions toward externalizing behavior. Such findings suggest that adolescents with higher levels of externalizing behaviors select or shape (either intentionally or inadvertently) subsequent environmental experiences to involve increased affiliation with deviant peers. Implications are discussed.

  7. Joining University Affiliated Programs and Schools of Social Work: A Collaborative Model for Disabilities Curriculum Development and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liese, Hank; Clevenger, Richard; Hanley, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 58 university-affiliated programs serving persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) found that 74% were affiliated with a school of social work and identified types of and settings for MR/DD training opportunities. Results suggest that potential exists for creating and expanding such training relationships.…

  8. Wherever I may roam: social viscosity and kin affiliation in a wild population despite natal dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Hinde, Camilla A.; Garroway, Colin J.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal affects the social contexts individuals experience by redistributing individuals in space, and the nature of social interactions can have important fitness consequences. During the vagrancy stage of natal dispersal, after an individual has left its natal site and before it has settled to breed, social affiliations might be predicted by opportunities to associate (e.g., distance in space and time between natal points of origin) or kin preferences. We investigated the social structure of a population of juvenile great tits (Parus major) and asked whether social affiliations during vagrancy were predicted by 1) the distance between natal nest-boxes, 2) synchrony in fledge dates, and 3) accounting for spatial and temporal predictors, whether siblings tended to stay together. We show that association strength was affected predominantly by spatial proximity at fledging and, to a lesser extent, temporal proximity in birth dates. Independently of spatial and temporal effects, sibling pairs associated more often than expected by chance. Our results suggest that the structure of the winter population is shaped primarily by limits to dispersal through incomplete population mixing. In addition, our results reveal kin structure, and hence the scope for fitness-related interactions between particular classes of kin. Both spatial-mediated and socially mediated population structuring can have implications for our understanding of the evolution of sociality. PMID:27418755

  9. Peer rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, delinquency, and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood.

  10. Peer rejection, affiliation with deviant peers, delinquency, and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5-27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986

  11. Motivation and social contexts: a crossnational pilot study of achievement, power, and affiliation motives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yangang; Mellor, David; Duan, Liqiong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between social contexts (e.g., economic growth, engagement in wars) and motives within populations. In particular, high achievement motive is associated with subsequent economic growth, which in turn increases power motive. Increased national achievement and power motives have been argued to precede social changes that lead to decreased affiliation motives, and engagement in wars. The present study aimed to examine differences in achievement, power, and affiliation motives between 266 college students in China (a nation with sustained high economic growth) and 255 college students in the USA (a nation with previously strong but now slowing economic growth, and engaged in war). Analysis of personal strivings suggested that Chinese college students showed significantly higher levels of achievement motive than the American college students, but American college students showed significantly higher levels of affiliation motive than Chinese college students. Overall, males exhibited higher achievement motivation than females. No significant interaction effects were found for gender by location for any of the three motives. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research.

  12. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    PubMed

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  13. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    PubMed

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  14. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population

    PubMed Central

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  15. Neural correlates of adolescents’ viewing of parents’ and peers’ emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths’ socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, twenty-two adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (fMRI) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others (Kreinen, Tu, & Buckner, 2010). Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior ‘mentalizing’ structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral pSTS and right TPJ, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation towards peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents’ real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749

  16. Neural correlates of adolescents' viewing of parents' and peers' emotions: Associations with risk-taking behavior and risky peer affiliations.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships.

  17. Antisocial Peer Affiliation and Externalizing Disorders in the Transition from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Selection versus Socialization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samek, Diana R.; Goodman, Rebecca J.; Erath, Stephen A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated both socialization and selection effects for the relationship between antisocial peer affiliation and externalizing problems in adolescence. Less research has evaluated such effects postadolescence. In this study, a cross-lagged panel analysis was used to evaluate the extent of "socialization" (i.e., the…

  18. Mechanisms underlying sexual and affiliative behaviors of mice: relation to generalized CNS arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Deborah N.; Choleris, Elena; Kavaliers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has grown dramatically in recent years and certain social responses have become amenable to mechanistic investigations. Toward that end, there has been remarkable progress in determining mechanisms for a simple sexual behavior, lordosis behavior. This work has proven that specific hormone-dependent biochemical reactions in specific parts of the mammalian brain regulate a biologically important behavior. On one hand, this sex behavior depends on underlying mechanisms of CNS arousal. On the other hand, it serves as a prototypical social behavior. The same sex hormones and the genes that encode their receptors as are involved in lordosis, also affect social recognition. Here we review evidence for a micronet of genes promoting social recognition in mice and discuss their biological roles. PMID:18985112

  19. Deviant peer affiliation and problem behavior: a test of genetic and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Bernadette Marie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Leve, Leslie D

    2006-02-01

    This study uses a multitrait, multimethod (MTMM) approach to investigate the genetic and environmental etiologies of childhood deviant peer affiliation (DPA) and problem behavior (PROB). The variability of genetic and environmental estimates by agent and method is also examined. A total of 77 monozygotic and 72 dizygotic twin pairs and each twin's close friend were assessed. The informants included parents, teachers, and twins, and the methods involved questionnaire reports and coder ratings of videotaped dyadic interactions between each twin and their close friend. Twin intraclass correlations and univariate models attributed DPA and PROB to genetic, and shared and nonshared environmental effects. Parameter estimates differed by rater and method, however. Results accentuate the imperative to attend to method effects inherent in MTMM behavioral geneticresearch.

  20. Early social experience affects neural activity to affiliative facial gestures in newborn nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwert, Ross E.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain encodes others’ actions and intentions. The discovery of an action-production-perception mechanism underpinning such a capacity advanced our knowledge of how these processes occur; however, no study has examined how the early postnatal environment may shape action-production-perception. Here we examined the effects of social experience on action-production-perception in 3-day-old rhesus macaques that were raised either with or without their biological mothers. We measured neonatal imitation skills and brain electrical activity responses while infants produced and observed facial gestures. We hypothesized that early social experiences may shape brain activity, as assessed via electroencephalogram suppression in the alpha band (5-7 Hz in infants, known as the mu rhythm) during action observation, and lead to more proficient imitation skills. Consistent with this hypothesis, infants reared by their mothers were more likely to imitate lipsmacking—a natural, affiliative gesture—and exhibited greater mu rhythm desynchronization while viewing lipsmacking gestures than nursery-reared infants. These effects were not found in response to tongue protrusion, a meaningless gesture, or a nonsocial control. These data suggest that socially enriched early experiences in the first days after birth increase brain sensitivity to socially relevant actions. PMID:26022835

  1. Measuring social behavior: social dominance.

    PubMed

    Craig, J V

    1986-04-01

    Social dominance develops more slowly when young animals are kept in intact peer groups where they need not compete for resources. Learned generalizations may cause smaller and weaker animals to accept subordinate status readily when confronted with strangers that would be formidable opponents. Sexual hormones and sensitivity to them can influence the onset of aggression and status attained. After dominance orders are established, they tend to be stable in female groups but are less so in male groups. Psychological influences can affect dominance relationships when strangers meet and social alliances within groups may affect relative status of individuals. Whether status associated with agonistic behavior is correlated with control of space and scarce resources needs to be determined for each species and each kind of resource. When such correlations exists, competitive tests and agonistic behavior associated with gaining access to scarce resources can be useful to the observer in learning about dominance relationships rapidly. Examples are given to illustrate how estimates of social dominance can be readily attained and some strengths and weaknesses of the various methods. PMID:3519554

  2. A comparative analysis of behaviors and sexual affiliation networks among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ka Kit; Poon, Chin Man; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-10-01

    In Hong Kong, men who have sex with men (MSM) account for a significant proportion of HIV infections. While perceived as a hidden population, they constitute a distinct social network shaped by their differential use of unique channels for sex partnership. To characterize their pattern of connectivity and association with high-risk sexual behaviors, 311 MSM were recruited via saunas and the internet to participate in a questionnaire survey. Internet recruits were younger, and many (31/43) were solely reliant on the internet to seek sex partners, while visiting a similar number of venues as the sauna recruits (p = 0.98). Internet users generally had a high frequency of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). MSM who had visited only a single venue reported more UAI with their regular partners (adjusted OR 6.86, 1.88-24.96) and sought fewer casual partners than those frequenting multiple venues (adjusted OR 0.33, 0.19-0.60). This study provides evidence for the heterogeneity of the sexual affiliation networks of MSM in Hong Kong. High HIV risk of UAI could be offset by fewer casual partners in certain venues, the implications of which would need to be explored in longitudinal studies. Methodologically, internet sampling was very efficient in identifying sex networking venues, while internet recruits gave a high retention rate for updating profiles. However, sampling at high centrality saunas did not necessarily identify the MSM-affiliating venues in the networks efficiently. The sampling strategy of MSM survey should therefore be objective-driven, which may differ for health message dissemination and social marketing, versus HIV surveillance or risk assessment. PMID:25451510

  3. Social Affiliation and the Demand for Health Services: Caste and Child Health in South India *

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of social affiliation, measured by caste, in shaping investments in child health. The special setting that we have chosen for the analysis – tea estates in the South Indian High Range – allows us to control nonparametrically for differences in income, access to health services, and patterns of morbidity across low caste and high caste households. In this controlled setting, low caste households spend more on their children's health than high caste households, reversing the pattern we would expect to find elsewhere in India. Moreover, health expenditures do not vary by gender within either caste group, in contrast once again with the male preference documented throughout the country. A simple explanation, based on differences in the returns to human capital across castes in the tea estates is proposed to explain these striking results. PMID:18046465

  4. Good soldiers and good actors: prosocial and impression management motives as interactive predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Mayer, David M

    2009-07-01

    Researchers have discovered inconsistent relationships between prosocial motives and citizenship behaviors. We draw on impression management theory to propose that impression management motives strengthen the association between prosocial motives and affiliative citizenship by encouraging employees to express citizenship in ways that both "do good" and "look good." We report 2 studies that examine the interactions of prosocial and impression management motives as predictors of affiliative citizenship using multisource data from 2 different field samples. Across the 2 studies, we find positive interactions between prosocial and impression management motives as predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors directed toward other people (helping and courtesy) and the organization (initiative). Study 2 also shows that only prosocial motives predict voice-a challenging citizenship behavior. Our results suggest that employees who are both good soldiers and good actors are most likely to emerge as good citizens in promoting the status quo.

  5. A longitudinal investigation of the associations among parenting, deviant peer affiliation, and externalizing behaviors: a monozygotic twin differences design.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinqin; Chen, Zhiyan; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Li, Xinying; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jianxin

    2013-06-01

    Non-shared parenting and deviant peer affiliation are linked to differences in externalizing behaviors between twins. However, few studies have examined these two non-shared environments simultaneously. The present study examined the transactional roles of differential parenting (i.e., warmth and hostility) and deviant peer affiliation on monozygotic (MZ) twin differences in externalizing behaviors using a two-wave longitudinal study of twins and their parents. The sample consisted of 520 pairs of MZ twins (46.5% males, 53.5% females), with a mean age of 13.86 years (SD = 2.10) at the T1 assessment, residing in Beijing, China. The association between non-shared hostility in parenting and adolescent externalizing behaviors was mainly explained by a child-driven effect whereby the twin with a higher level of externalizing behaviors than his or her co-twin was more likely to receive more hostility from the parents. Similarly, the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent externalizing behaviors supported the selection effect whereby the twin with a higher level of externalizing behaviors than his or her co-twin was more likely to affiliate with deviant peers. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Trait-agreeableness influences individual reactions to a physician's affiliative behavior in a simulated bad news delivery.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether the personality trait of agreeableness predicts different individual reactions to the level of nonverbal affiliativeness shown by a physician, in the context of a simulated bad news delivery. We predicted that individuals with high levels of agreeableness would react better to a physician adopting a highly affiliative communication style compared to individuals with low levels of agreeableness. We used an experimental design with analogue patients. Eighty participants (40 men/40 women) were randomly assigned to watch a video of a physician who communicated a bad diagnosis either in a highly affiliative or in a less affiliative way. Participants reported their reactions of anger and trust in the physician, and completed the agreeableness scale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). In accordance with our predictions, the higher the agreeableness score of the participants, the less anger and the more trust they reported after viewing the high as compared to the low affiliative physician. These results suggest that people with high levels of agreeableness may be especially sensitive to highly affiliative physician nonverbal behavior when receiving bad news.

  7. What Shapes Adolescents' Future Perceptions? The Effects of Hearing Loss, Social Affiliation, and Career Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of hearing loss, social affiliation, and career self-efficacy to adolescents' future perceptions. Participants were 191 11th and 12th grade students: 60 who were deaf, 36 who were deaf or hard of hearing, and 95 who were hearing. They completed the Future Perceptions Scale, the Career Decision-Making…

  8. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  9. Contribution of Company Affiliation and Social Contacts to Risk Estimates of Between-Farm Transmission of Avian Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Leibler, Jessica H.; Carone, Marco; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Models of between-farm transmission of pathogens have identified service vehicles and social groups as risk factors mediating the spread of infection. Because of high levels of economic organization in much of the poultry industry, we examined the importance of company affiliation, as distinct from social contacts, in a model of the potential spread of avian influenza among broiler poultry farms in a poultry-dense region in the United States. The contribution of company affiliation to risk of between-farm disease transmission has not been previously studied. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained data on the nature and frequency of business and social contacts through a national survey of broiler poultry growers in the United States. Daily rates of contact were estimated using Monte Carlo analysis. Stochastic modeling techniques were used to estimate the exposure risk posed by a single infectious farm to other farms in the region and relative risk of exposure for farms under different scenarios. The mean daily rate of vehicular contact was 0.82 vehicles/day. The magnitude of exposure risk ranged from <1% to 25% under varying parameters. Risk of between-farm transmission was largely driven by company affiliation, with farms in the same company group as the index farm facing as much as a 5-fold increase in risk compared to farms contracted with different companies. Employment of part-time workers contributed to significant increases in risk in most scenarios, notably for farms who hired day-laborers. Social visits were significantly less important in determining risk. Conclusions/Significance Biosecurity interventions should be based on information on industry structure and company affiliation, and include part-time workers as potentially unrecognized sources of viral transmission. Modeling efforts to understand pathogen transmission in the context of industrial food animal production should consider company affiliation in addition to geospatial

  10. The structure of stereotyped calls reflects kinship and social affiliation in resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deecke, Volker B.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Spong, Paul; Ford, John K. B.

    2010-05-01

    A few species of mammals produce group-specific vocalisations that are passed on by learning, but the function of learned vocal variation remains poorly understood. Resident killer whales live in stable matrilineal groups with repertoires of seven to 17 stereotyped call types. Some types are shared among matrilines, but their structure typically shows matriline-specific differences. Our objective was to analyse calls of nine killer whale matrilines in British Columbia to test whether call similarity primarily reflects social or genetic relationships. Recordings were made in 1985-1995 in the presence of focal matrilines that were either alone or with groups with non-overlapping repertoires. We used neural network discrimination performance to measure the similarity of call types produced by different matrilines and determined matriline association rates from 757 encounters with one or more focal matrilines. Relatedness was measured by comparing variation at 11 microsatellite loci for the oldest female in each group. Call similarity was positively correlated with association rates for two of the three call types analysed. Similarity of the N4 call type was also correlated with matriarch relatedness. No relationship between relatedness and association frequency was detected. These results show that call structure reflects relatedness and social affiliation, but not because related groups spend more time together. Instead, call structure appears to play a role in kin recognition and shapes the association behaviour of killer whale groups. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that increasing social complexity plays a role in the evolution of learned vocalisations in some mammalian species.

  11. At the intersection of culture and religion: a cultural analysis of religion's implications for secondary control and social affiliation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Kim, Heejung S

    2011-08-01

    Religion helps people maintain a sense of control, particularly secondary control-acceptance of and adjustment to difficult situations--and contributes to strengthening social relationships in a religious community. However, little is known about how culture may influence these effects. The current research examined the interaction of culture and religion on secondary control and social affiliation, comparing people from individualistic cultures (e.g., European Americans), who tend to be more motivated toward personal agency, and people from collectivistic cultures (e.g., East Asians), who tend to be more motivated to maintain social relationships. In Study 1, an analysis of online church mission statements showed that U.S. websites contained more themes of secondary control than did Korean websites, whereas Korean websites contained more themes of social affiliation than did U.S. websites. Study 2 showed that experimental priming of religion led to acts of secondary control for European Americans but not Asian Americans. Using daily diary methodology, Study 3 showed that religious coping predicted more secondary control for European Americans but not Koreans, and religious coping predicted more social affiliation for Koreans and European Americans. These findings suggest the importance of understanding sociocultural moderators for the effects of religion.

  12. Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: the Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.

  13. Oxytocin Pathway Genes: Evolutionary Ancient System Impacting on Human Affiliation, Sociality, and Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Monakhov, Mikhail; Pratt, Maayan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide signaling molecule originating from an ancestral peptide, appears in different variants across all vertebrate and several invertebrate species. Throughout animal evolution, neuropeptidergic signaling has been adapted by organisms for regulating response to rapidly changing environments. The family of OT-like molecules affects both peripheral tissues implicated in reproduction, homeostasis, and energy balance, as well as neuromodulation of social behavior, stress regulation, and associative learning in species ranging from nematodes to humans. After describing the OT-signaling pathway, we review research on the three genes most extensively studied in humans: the OT receptor (OXTR), the structural gene for OT (OXT/neurophysin-I), and CD38. Consistent with the notion that sociality should be studied from the perspective of social life at the species level, we address human social functions in relation to OT-pathway genes, including parenting, empathy, and using social relationships to manage stress. We then describe associations between OT-pathway genes with psychopathologies involving social dysfunctions such as autism, depression, or schizophrenia. Human research particularly underscored the involvement of two OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576, rs2254298) with fewer studies focusing on other OXTR (rs7632287, rs1042778, rs2268494, rs2268490), OXT (rs2740210, rs4813627, rs4813625), and CD38 (rs3796863, rs6449197) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, studies provide evidence for the involvement of OT-pathway genes in human social functions but also suggest that factors such as gender, culture, and early environment often confound attempts to replicate first findings. We conclude by discussing epigenetics, conceptual implications within an evolutionary perspective, and future directions, especially the need to refine phenotypes, carefully characterize early environments, and integrate observations of social behavior across

  14. Social rank versus affiliation: Which is more closely related to leadership of group movements in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana)?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sun, Lixing; Sheeran, Lori K; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Xin; Zhang, Dao; Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Research on leadership is a critical step for understanding collective decision making. However, only 4 of the 22 extant macaque species have been examined for the impact of social rank and affiliation on the initiation of collective movement. It is far from clear whether such impact exists and, if so, how it works among other macaques. To answer these questions, we investigated free-ranging, Tibetan macaques' (Macaca thibetana) group departures from a provisioning area and tested two alternative hypotheses: personal versus distributed leadership. Personal leadership predicts that a single, highest ranking individual initiates the most group movements, whereas distributed leadership predicts that different members lead the group on different occasions and affiliative individuals have more initiations. We recorded how often and how successfully adults initiated group movements from a provisioning area into the forest, and related these variables to the duration of interindividual proximity and grooming time in the forest. All adults initiated group movements, but did so variably. Social rank was related neither to the number of successful initiations nor to the success ratio of initiations. By contrast, eigenvector centrality based on proximity relations was positively correlated with the number and ratio of successful initiations. Moreover, successful initiations were positively correlated with social grooming. Overall, Tibetan macaques showed a pattern of distributed leadership. Our study demonstrated the relationship between social affiliation and individual leadership in a macaque society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:816-824, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990010

  15. Effects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior among African-American male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Mallie J; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Flewelling, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of different aspects of parenting, father absence, and affiliation with delinquent peers on delinquent behavior in a cohort of African-American male adolescents. One round of survey data was collected from the youths' mothers or mother surrogates (N = 175) and two rounds of survey data were collected from the adolescents themselves. Analyses revealed that mothers' perceived control of sons' behavior was a deterrent of delinquent behavior, while other aspects of parenting (e.g., mother-son communication and relations) were not. The effect of mothers' perceived control was not mediated by adolescents' affiliation with delinquent peers. The effects of mothers' parenting variables and peer affiliation did not vary significantly by family structure, but socioeconomic disadvantage was more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in father-absent families. Though parenting effects were modest, this study suggests that African-American male adolescents are less likely to engage in delinquent behavior if they are closely monitored and supervised by their parents.

  16. Corticosterone excretion patterns and affiliative behavior over development in ravens (Corvus corax)

    PubMed Central

    Stöwe, Mareike; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schloegl, Christian; Heinrich, Bernd; Kotrschal, Kurt; Möstl, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Averse effects of social stress may be buffered by the presence of social allies, which mainly has been demonstrated in mammals and recently also in birds. However, effects of socio-positive behavior prior to fledging in relation to corticosterone excretion in altricial birds have not been investigated yet. We here monitored corticosterone excretion patterns in three groups of hand raised juvenile ravens (n=5, 6 and 11) in the nest, post-fledging (May–July) and when ravens would be independent from their parents (September–November). We related these corticosterone excretion patterns to socio-positive behavior. Behavioral data were collected via focal sampling in each developmental period considered. We analyzed amounts of excreted immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) using enzyme immuno assays. We collected fecal samples in each developmental period considered and evaluated the most appropriate assay via an isolation stress experiment. Basal CM was significantly higher during the nestling period than post-fledging or when birds were independent. The time nestlings spent allopreening correlated negatively with mean CM. Post-fledging, individuals with higher CM levels sat close to (distance <50 cm) conspecifics more frequently and tended to preen them longer. When birds were independent and a stable rank hierarchy was established, dominant individuals were preened significantly longer than subordinates. These patterns observed in ravens parallel those described for primates, which could indicate that animal species living in a complex social environment may deal with social problems in a similar way that is not restricted to mammals or primates. PMID:18022623

  17. Social Goals in Urban Physical Education: Relationships with Effort and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…

  18. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships. PMID:27427801

  19. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  20. What Shapes Adolescents' Future Perceptions? The Effects of Hearing Loss, Social Affiliation, and Career Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the contribution of hearing loss, social affiliation, and career self-efficacy to adolescents' future perceptions. Participants were 191 11th and 12th grade students: 60 who were deaf, 36 who were deaf or hard of hearing, and 95 who were hearing. They completed the Future Perceptions Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict Scale. Results indicated that participants who were deaf reported significantly higher levels of future clarity and intensity than the other groups. However, no significant differences were found in career self-efficacy. Hearing status and affiliation and the efficacy to manage future conflict between work and family roles were significant predictors of participants' future clarity. CDMSE was a significant predictor of future planning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26101211

  1. What Shapes Adolescents' Future Perceptions? The Effects of Hearing Loss, Social Affiliation, and Career Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the contribution of hearing loss, social affiliation, and career self-efficacy to adolescents' future perceptions. Participants were 191 11th and 12th grade students: 60 who were deaf, 36 who were deaf or hard of hearing, and 95 who were hearing. They completed the Future Perceptions Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict Scale. Results indicated that participants who were deaf reported significantly higher levels of future clarity and intensity than the other groups. However, no significant differences were found in career self-efficacy. Hearing status and affiliation and the efficacy to manage future conflict between work and family roles were significant predictors of participants' future clarity. CDMSE was a significant predictor of future planning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  2. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. ‘social connectedness’) with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes—females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936

  3. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2014-10-22

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. 'social connectedness') with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes--females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals.

  4. Day length and estradiol affect same-sex affiliative behavior in the female meadow vole

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Loo, Theresa J.; Zucker, Irving

    2008-01-01

    Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals remains poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day lengths (SDs) from weaning. The behavior of intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-treated ovariectomized females from each photoperiod was assessed during 3 hour partner preference tests. Intact SD voles, unlike intact LD voles, spent the majority of the test in proximity to their cage mates. Estradiol treatment of SD voles significantly reduced time spent huddling with the partner. Neither ovariectomy nor estradiol treatment significantly affected the amount of time LD females spent in contact with their partners. Low estradiol availability is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintenance of high levels of huddling. These results establish that ovarian hormones interact with photoperiod to affect same-sex social behavior. PMID:18387611

  5. Day length and estradiol affect same-sex affiliative behavior in the female meadow vole.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Loo, Theresa J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-06-01

    Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals is poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day lengths (SDs) from weaning. The behavior of intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-treated ovariectomized females from each photoperiod was assessed during 3 h partner-preference tests. Intact SD voles, unlike intact LD voles, spent the majority of the test in proximity to their cage-mates. Estradiol treatment of SD voles significantly reduced time spent huddling with the partner. Neither ovariectomy nor estradiol treatment significantly affected the amount of time LD females spent in contact with their partners. Low estradiol availability is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintenance of high levels of huddling. These results establish that ovarian hormones interact with photoperiod to affect same-sex social behavior.

  6. Day length and estradiol affect same-sex affiliative behavior in the female meadow vole.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Loo, Theresa J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-06-01

    Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals is poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day lengths (SDs) from weaning. The behavior of intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-treated ovariectomized females from each photoperiod was assessed during 3 h partner-preference tests. Intact SD voles, unlike intact LD voles, spent the majority of the test in proximity to their cage-mates. Estradiol treatment of SD voles significantly reduced time spent huddling with the partner. Neither ovariectomy nor estradiol treatment significantly affected the amount of time LD females spent in contact with their partners. Low estradiol availability is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintenance of high levels of huddling. These results establish that ovarian hormones interact with photoperiod to affect same-sex social behavior. PMID:18387611

  7. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  8. Manipulating the affiliative interactions of group-housed rhesus macaques using positive reinforcement training techniques.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, S J; Perlman, J E; Boudreau, B A

    2001-11-01

    Social housing, whether continuous, intermittent, or partial contact, typically provides many captive primates with opportunities to express affiliative behaviors, important components of the species-typical behavioral repertoire. Positive reinforcement training techniques have been successfully employed to shape many behaviors important for achieving primate husbandry goals. The present study was conducted to determine whether positive reinforcement training techniques could also be employed to alter levels of affiliative interactions among group-housed rhesus macaques. Twenty-eight female rhesus were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 14) affiliators based on a median split of the amount of time they spent affiliating during the baseline phase of the study. During the subsequent training phase, half of the low affiliators (n = 7) were trained to increase their time spent affiliating, and half of the high affiliators (n = 7) were trained to decrease their time spent affiliating. Trained subjects were observed both during and outside of training sessions. Low affiliators significantly increased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during nontraining sessions. High affiliators on the other hand, significantly decreased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during training sessions. These data suggest that positive reinforcement techniques can be used to alter the affiliative behavior patterns of group-housed, female rhesus monkeys, although the two subgroups of subjects responded differently to the training process. Low affiliators changed their overall behavioral repertoire, while high affiliators responded to the reinforcement contingencies of training, altering their proximity patterns but not their overall behavior patterns. Thus, positive reinforcement training can be used not only as a means to promote species-typical or beneficial behavior patterns, but also as an important experimental manipulation to facilitate systematic

  9. Brain nonapeptide levels are related to social status and affiliative behaviour in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Reddon, Adam R.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.; Balshine, Sigal; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian nonapeptide hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin, are known to be potent regulators of social behaviour. Teleost fishes possess vasopressin and oxytocin homologues known as arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), respectively. The role of these homologous nonapeptides in mediating social behaviour in fishes has received far less attention. The extraordinarily large number of teleost fish species and the impressive diversity of their social systems provide us with a rich test bed for investigating the role of nonapeptides in regulating social behaviour. Existing studies, mostly focused on AVT, have revealed relationships between the nonapeptides, and both social behaviour and dominance status in fishes. To date, much of the work on endogenous nonapeptides in fish brains has measured genomic or neuroanatomical proxies of nonapeptide production rather than the levels of these molecules in the brain. In this study, we measure biologically available AVT and IT levels in the brains of Neolamprologus pulcher, a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish, using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. We found that brain AVT levels were higher in the subordinate than in dominant animals, and levels of IT correlated negatively with the expression of affiliative behaviour. We contrast these results with previous studies, and we discuss the role the nonapeptide hormones may play in the regulation of social behaviour in this highly social animal. PMID:26064593

  10. Brain nonapeptide levels are related to social status and affiliative behaviour in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Reddon, Adam R; O'Connor, Constance M; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E; Balshine, Sigal; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2015-02-01

    The mammalian nonapeptide hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin, are known to be potent regulators of social behaviour. Teleost fishes possess vasopressin and oxytocin homologues known as arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), respectively. The role of these homologous nonapeptides in mediating social behaviour in fishes has received far less attention. The extraordinarily large number of teleost fish species and the impressive diversity of their social systems provide us with a rich test bed for investigating the role of nonapeptides in regulating social behaviour. Existing studies, mostly focused on AVT, have revealed relationships between the nonapeptides, and both social behaviour and dominance status in fishes. To date, much of the work on endogenous nonapeptides in fish brains has measured genomic or neuroanatomical proxies of nonapeptide production rather than the levels of these molecules in the brain. In this study, we measure biologically available AVT and IT levels in the brains of Neolamprologus pulcher, a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish, using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. We found that brain AVT levels were higher in the subordinate than in dominant animals, and levels of IT correlated negatively with the expression of affiliative behaviour. We contrast these results with previous studies, and we discuss the role the nonapeptide hormones may play in the regulation of social behaviour in this highly social animal.

  11. The CRF system and social behavior: a review

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI) test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social behaviors. PMID

  12. Neuroethology of primate social behavior.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steve W C; Brent, Lauren J N; Adams, Geoffrey K; Klein, Jeffrey T; Pearson, John M; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2013-06-18

    A neuroethological approach to human and nonhuman primate behavior and cognition predicts biological specializations for social life. Evidence reviewed here indicates that ancestral mechanisms are often duplicated, repurposed, and differentially regulated to support social behavior. Focusing on recent research from nonhuman primates, we describe how the primate brain might implement social functions by coopting and extending preexisting mechanisms that previously supported nonsocial functions. This approach reveals that highly specialized mechanisms have evolved to decipher the immediate social context, and parallel circuits have evolved to translate social perceptual signals and nonsocial perceptual signals into partially integrated social and nonsocial motivational signals, which together inform general-purpose mechanisms that command behavior. Differences in social behavior between species, as well as between individuals within a species, result in part from neuromodulatory regulation of these neural circuits, which itself appears to be under partial genetic control. Ultimately, intraspecific variation in social behavior has differential fitness consequences, providing fundamental building blocks of natural selection. Our review suggests that the neuroethological approach to primate behavior may provide unique insights into human psychopathology.

  13. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  14. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed.

  15. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  16. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Smoller, Jordan W

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  17. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully utilized for a range of health behaviors including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrate a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and analytically adjust for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas. PMID:26332926

  18. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  19. Affiliative Communication Behaviors: A Comparative Analysis of the Interrelationships among Teacher Nonverbal Immediacy, Responsiveness, and Verbal Receptivity on the Prediction of Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rena Y.

    A study which replicated previous research focused on the perceived affiliative communication behaviors of teachers within the classroom, their relationship to student learning, and the interrelationship among those behaviors. Six hypotheses were formulated based on already published literature. These hypotheses suggest that student perceptions of…

  20. Priming Third-Party Ostracism Increases Affiliative Imitation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are intensely social creatures and, as such, devote significant time and energy to creating and maintaining affiliative bonds with group members. Nevertheless, social relations sometimes collapse and individuals experience exclusion from the group. Fortunately for adults, they are able to use behavioral strategies such as mimicry to…

  1. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  2. Estrous phase alters social behavior in a polygynous but not a monogamous Peromyscus species.

    PubMed

    Karelina, Kate; Walton, James C; Weil, Zachary M; Norman, Greg J; Nelson, Randy J; Devries, A Courtney

    2010-07-01

    The social organization of rodent species determines behavioral patterns for both affiliative and agonistic encounters. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in the mediation of social behavior; however, variability in both neuropeptide expression and social behavior within a single species indicates an additional mediating factor. The purpose of the present comparative study was to investigate social behaviors in naïve mixed-sex pairs of monogamous Peromyscus californicus and polygynous Peromyscus leucopus. We identified substantial inter- and intra-specific variability in the expression of affiliative and agonistic behaviors. Although all P. californicus tested engaged in frequent and prolonged intervals of social contact and rarely engaged in aggressive behaviors, P. leucopus exhibited significant variability in both measures of social behaviors. The naturally occurring differences in social behavior displayed by P. leucopus vary across the estrous cycle, and correspond to hypothalamic oxytocin, as well as circulating oxytocin and glucocorticoid concentrations. These results provide evidence for a rhythm in social behavior across the estrous cycle in polygynous, but not monogamous, Peromyscus species. PMID:20382149

  3. The Religious and Social Significance of Self-Assigned Religious Affiliation in England and Wales: Comparing Christian, Muslim and Religiously-Unaffiliated Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the religious and social significance of self-assigned religious affiliation among young people in England and Wales by investigating religious beliefs and the connection between religion and matters of public concern among a sample of 547 adolescent males between 16 and 18 years of age, distinguishing between three religious…

  4. Enhancing the Effects of Teacher Attunement to Student Peer Group Affiliations on the School Social-Affective Context: Promotive Effects of the SEALS Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attunement to student peer group affiliations as a factor in students' experiences of the school social-affect context. First, the author and her colleagues hypothesize that teacher attunement will be greater in intervention versus control schools following initial SEALS training. Second, they…

  5. Deviant Peer Affiliation and Antisocial Behavior: Interaction with Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.

    2011-01-01

    Although genetic and environmental factors are separately implicated in the development of antisocial behavior (ASB), interactive models have emerged relatively recently, particularly those incorporating molecular genetic data. Using a large sample of male Caucasian adolescents and young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  6. Predicting Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies: Does Fraternity/Sorority Affiliation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam; Madson, Michael; Moorer, Kayla; Christman, Kaila

    2016-01-01

    Little research examines protective behavioral strategies (PBS) use among college high-risk drinking sub-groups. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 National College Health Assessment (n = 18,483 drinkers [13% Greek]) revealed fraternity and sorority members used PBS significantly (p < 0.001) less and reported significantly (p < 0.001)…

  7. Increased aggressive and affiliative display behavior in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) baboons

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Hillary F; Ford, Susan M; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized intrauterine growth restricted offspring (IUGR) demonstrate higher rates of aggression and higher dominance ranks than control (CTR) offspring with normal weight at term; if aggressive behavior is advantageous during resource scarcity, developmental programming may lead to an association between aggression and IUGR. Methods We studied 22 group-housed baboons (ages 3-5 years). CTR (male n=8, female n=5) mothers ate ad libitum. IUGR (male n=4, female n=5) mothers were fed 70% feed eaten by CTR mothers during pregnancy and lactation. Results IUGR showed higher rates of aggressive displays (p<0.01) and friendly displays (p<0.02). Dominance ranks and physical aggression rates did not differ between groups. Conclusions High rates of IUGR aggressive display might reflect developmental programming of behavioral phenotypes enhancing fitness. Friendly displays may reflect reconciliation. Potential mechanisms include neurodevelopment and learning. Exploration of IUGR as a risk factor for behavioral patterns is important for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25891005

  8. Influence of religious affiliation and education on HIV knowledge and HIV-related sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in rural central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; Gomes, Aurelio; Ferreira, Aldina

    2010-10-01

    The interactions between religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this socio-demographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, we used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. Religiously affiliated males were more likely than non-religious males to know when a condom should be used, respond correctly to HIV transmission questions and respond with less stigma to HIV-related scenarios. Increased levels of education among males corresponded significantly to increased knowledge of condom usage and HIV prevention strategies and less likelihood to respond with stigma. Only education levels influenced young female responses. Religious affiliation and education had minimal effects on sexual activity, condom usage, and multiple partnerships. African Independent Church/Zionist males were 1.6 times more likely to be sexually inexperienced than non-religious males but were also significantly less likely to use condoms (0.23, p=0.024). Non-religious youth were most likely to have visited sex workers and did not use condoms. These results suggest that religious affiliation, possibly as the result of educational opportunities afforded by religious-affiliated schools, is contributing to increased HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among youth in rural Central Mozambique but not influencing HIV-related sexual behavior. The need exists to strengthen the capacity of religious congregations to teach about HIV/AIDS and target non-religious youth with HIV transmission and prevention information.

  9. Reunion behavior after social separation is associated with enhanced HPA recovery in young marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jack H; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Hochfelder, Benjamin; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-07-01

    The relationships that offspring develop with caregivers can exert a powerful influence on behavior and physiology, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In many mammalian species, offspring-caregiver relationships are largely limited to interactions with mother. Marmoset monkeys receive care in early life from multiple classes of caregivers in addition to the mother, including fathers and siblings. We evaluated whether affiliative social interactions with family members in marmosets were associated with differences in cortisol reactivity to a short-term social separation stressor, and whether these variations in affiliative interactions upon reunion predicted how well marmosets subsequently regulated HPA axis function after cessation of the stressor. Marmosets were separated from the family for 8h at three developmental time points (6-, 12-, and 18-months of age), and interactions of the separated marmoset with the family group were recorded during reunion. Urinary cortisol was measured prior to social separation, every 2h during the separation, and on the morning after separation. Heightened cortisol reactivity during social separation did not predict affiliative social behavior upon reunion but higher rates of grooming and play behavior predicted enhanced HPA regulation. Marmosets with higher rates of grooming and play with family members upon reunion had post-stress cortisol levels closer to preseparation baseline than marmosets with lower rates of affiliative reunion behavior. Combined with previous research showing the early programming effects of social interactions with caregivers, as well as the buffering effect of a close social partner during stress, the current study highlights the high degree of behavioral and HPA adaptability to social stressors across development in marmoset monkeys. PMID:25900596

  10. Reunion behavior after social separation is associated with enhanced HPA recovery in young marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jack H; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Hochfelder, Benjamin; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-07-01

    The relationships that offspring develop with caregivers can exert a powerful influence on behavior and physiology, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In many mammalian species, offspring-caregiver relationships are largely limited to interactions with mother. Marmoset monkeys receive care in early life from multiple classes of caregivers in addition to the mother, including fathers and siblings. We evaluated whether affiliative social interactions with family members in marmosets were associated with differences in cortisol reactivity to a short-term social separation stressor, and whether these variations in affiliative interactions upon reunion predicted how well marmosets subsequently regulated HPA axis function after cessation of the stressor. Marmosets were separated from the family for 8h at three developmental time points (6-, 12-, and 18-months of age), and interactions of the separated marmoset with the family group were recorded during reunion. Urinary cortisol was measured prior to social separation, every 2h during the separation, and on the morning after separation. Heightened cortisol reactivity during social separation did not predict affiliative social behavior upon reunion but higher rates of grooming and play behavior predicted enhanced HPA regulation. Marmosets with higher rates of grooming and play with family members upon reunion had post-stress cortisol levels closer to preseparation baseline than marmosets with lower rates of affiliative reunion behavior. Combined with previous research showing the early programming effects of social interactions with caregivers, as well as the buffering effect of a close social partner during stress, the current study highlights the high degree of behavioral and HPA adaptability to social stressors across development in marmoset monkeys.

  11. Coalitional affiliation as a missing link between ethnic polarization and well-being: An empirical test from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Firat, Rengin B; Boyer, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Many studies converge in suggesting (a) that ethnic and racial minorities fare worse than host populations in reported well-being and objective measures of health and (b) that ethnic/racial diversity has a negative impact on various measures of social trust and well-being, including in the host or majority population. However, there is much uncertainty about the processes that connect diversity variables with personal outcomes. In this paper, we are particularly interested in different levels of coalitional affiliation, which refers to people's social allegiances that guide their expectations of social support, in-group strength and cohesion. We operationalize coalitional affiliation as the extent to which people rely on a homogeneous social network, and we measure it with indicators of friendships across ethnic boundaries and frequency of contact with friends. Using multi-level models and data from the European Social Survey (Round 1, 2002-2003) for 19 countries, we demonstrate that coalitional affiliation provides an empirically reliable, as well as theoretically coherent, explanation for various effects of ethnic/racial diversity.

  12. The Social Lives of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Self-Contained Classrooms: A Descriptive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panacek, Luanne J.; Dunlap, Glen

    2003-01-01

    Social lives of 14 children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in segregated elementary school classrooms were compared with 14 typical students in general classrooms. Children with E/BD had little opportunity to engage in integrated school activities and their school social networks were dominated by individuals affiliated with…

  13. Perceptions of the social determinants of health by two groups more and less affiliated with public health in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite strong academic recognition of the SDOH both in Canada and internationally, acknowledgement and uptake of the SDOH in health policy and public consciousness have remained weak. This paper aims to discern reasons for limited action on the SDOH by examining the perceptions of the SDOH held by two groups more and less affiliated with public health in Canada. We conducted formal consultation with group members on their interpretation of the SDOH and their thoughts on the nature and basis of differences between those more and less aligned with the SDOH as a basis for action. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate the views of the two groups. Findings Group 1 (community/public health workers) felt overwhelmed when confronted with questions regarding action on the SDOH within the context of their professional lives. They suggested an expanded list of health determinants that included factors such as voluntarism and happiness, transcending traditional notions of “root causes.” Furthermore, they did not articulate value-based reasons why others would oppose the SDOH; rather, in line with their professional roles, they adopted a value-neutral and pragmatic approach to working to improve health. Group 2 (child and youth advocacy organization members) seemed rooted in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion framework, with their recommendations aligned with strategies such as building healthy public policy and reorienting health services. Neither group made reference to issues of social justice or inequity when they made suggestions for improving health. Conclusions We found that two groups with different affiliations to formal public health could discuss the SDOH without acknowledging the inequitable distribution of power and resources that lies at its root. We also found that those working in public health had difficulty moving beyond individual actions that they or their clients could take to improve health. For a group more focused on advocacy

  14. Beyond personality impressions: effects of physical and vocal attractiveness on false consensus, social comparison, affiliation, and assumed and perceived similarity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, K; Zuckerman, M

    1993-09-01

    We examined the effects of target persons' physical and vocal attractiveness on judges' responses to five measures: false consensus (the belief that the target shares one's behavior), choice of targets as comparison others, affiliation with targets, assumed similarity (similarity between self-ratings and ratings assigned to targets), and perceived similarity (direct questions about similarity). Higher physical attractiveness and higher vocal attractiveness were both related to higher scores on all variables. The effect of one type of attractiveness was more pronounced for higher levels of the other type of attractiveness. The joint effect of the two types of attractiveness was best described as synergistic, i.e., only targets high on both types of attractiveness elicited higher scores on the dependent variables. The effect of physical attractiveness on most dependent variables was more pronounced for subjects who were themselves physically attractive. The synergistic effect (the advantage of targets high on both types of attractiveness) was more pronounced for judges high in self-monitoring. The contribution of the study to the literature on attractiveness stereotypes is discussed. PMID:8246108

  15. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. PMID:26828857

  16. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons.

  17. Social Context, Social Behavior, and Socialization: Investigating the Child's Developing Organization of the Behavioral Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Philip R.; Siegel, Alexander W.

    1993-01-01

    Gives an overview of the 10 research articles in this issue. Notes that all studies in this issue examine child behavior from a perspective that views behavior as mediated by social context, challenging the logical positivism of conventional experimentation. (MM)

  18. Testing the Affiliation Hypothesis of Homoerotic Motivation in Humans: The Effects of Progesterone and Priming.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Fessler, Daniel M T; Cholakians, Argine Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    The frequency of homoerotic behavior among individuals who do not identify as having an exclusively homosexual sexual orientation suggests that such behavior potentially has adaptive value. Here, we define homoerotic behavior as intimate erotic contact between members of the same sex and affiliation as the motivation to make and maintain social bonds. Among both male and female nonhuman primates, affiliation is one of the main drivers of homoerotic behavior. Correspondingly, in humans, both across cultures and across historical periods, homoerotic behavior appears to play a role in promoting social bonds. However, to date, the affiliation explanation of human homoerotic behavior has not been adequately tested experimentally. We developed a measure of homoerotic motivation with a sample of 244 men and women. Next, we found that, in women (n = 92), homoerotic motivation was positively associated with progesterone, a hormone that has been shown to promote affiliative bonding. Lastly, we explored the effects of affiliative contexts on homoerotic motivation in men (n = 59), finding that men in an affiliative priming condition were more likely to endorse engaging in homoerotic behavior compared to those primed with neutral or sexual concepts, and this effect was more pronounced in men with high progesterone. These findings constitute the first experimental support for the affiliation account of the evolution of homoerotic motivation in humans. PMID:25420899

  19. Behavior as a social construction.

    PubMed

    Shimp, C P.

    2001-05-01

    Behavior analysis is examined from a social constructionist perspective. Constructionism is first defined and contrasted with a generic positivistic image of science. Behavior analysis, especially the matching law, is then viewed from both perspectives. The actual practice of behavior analysis (as opposed to the philosophy of radical behaviorism) more strongly resembles positivist than constructionist views. This alignment between behavior analysis and positivism emerges more sharply when positivist and constructionist perspectives are compared on the relation between science and music. Charles Rosen has identified how the classical style of musical composition and performance depended on 18th century keyboard technology, and a constructionist view sees the matching law as reflecting mid 20th century technology and culture in much the same way as it sees, say Mozart's 23rd piano concerto, as reflecting late 18th century culture. Behavior analysts, who often behave as though they see the matching law as an objective, impersonal, stable, hard, cold, incontrovertibly true fact, appear more inclined than constructionists to see a fundamental difference between the matching law and Mozart's 23rd piano concerto, to which they would attribute few if any of these characteristics. Possible implications are derived for tolerance in science.

  20. The Impact of Early Amygdala Damage on Juvenile Rhesus Macaque Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments continue a longitudinal study of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. Juvenile animals (approximately 1.5- 2.5 years of age) were tested in four different social contexts—alone, while interacting with one familiar peer, while interacting with one unfamiliar peer, and in their permanent social groups. During infancy, the amygdala-lesioned animals displayed more interest in conspecifics (indexed by increased affiliative signaling) and paradoxically demonstrated more submission or fear (Bauman, Lavenex, Mason, Capitanio, & Amaral, 2004a, this journal). When these animals were assessed as juveniles, differences were less striking. Amygdala-lesioned animals generated fewer aggressive and affiliative signals (e.g., vocalizations, facial displays) and spent less time in social interactions with familiar peers. When animals were observed alone or with an unfamiliar peer, amygdala-lesioned, compared with other subjects, spent more time being inactive and physically explored the environment less. Despite the subtle, lesion-based differences in the frequency and duration of specific social behaviors, there were lesion-based differences in the organization of behavior such that lesion groups could be identified based on the patterning of social behaviors in a discriminant function analysis. The findings indicate that, although overall frequencies of many of the observed behaviors do not differ between groups, the general patterning of social behavior may distinguish the amygdala-lesioned animals. PMID:24047387

  1. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  2. Social relationships in a herd of Sorraia horses Part II. Factors affecting affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Heitor, Filipa; do Mar Oom, Maria; Vicente, Luís

    2006-11-01

    The influence of age, dominance rank, kinship and aggressiveness over affiliative relationships and sexual behaviours were analysed in a herd of Sorraia horses, Equus caballus, kept under extensive management. Subjects were 10 adult mares 5-18 years old that had known each other since birth, and a stallion introduced into the group for breeding for the first time. Kinship coefficient and dominance rank were the most important factors affecting affiliative relationships. Bonds were reciprocal and stronger among mares with higher kinship. Mares spent more time in proximity to close-ranking and lower-ranking females. Mares with stronger affiliative relationships or higher relatedness were not less aggressive towards each other. Affiliative relationships between the stallion and the mares were not reciprocal: lower-ranking mares formed stronger bonds with the stallion but he preferred the less genetically related mares for proximity. However, the stallion was involved in sexual behaviours more frequently with the mares that were more genetically related to him. These results suggest that kinship beyond close relatives may affect affiliative relationships both among familiar and among unfamiliar horses. However, the influence of kinship does not imply that horses possess a kin recognition system and alternative explanations are discussed. PMID:16828984

  3. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings and life domains. This theory-based article explains how social context is conceptualized in the social sciences and how the social science conceptualization differs from and can broaden the analytic approach to health behavior. The authors use qualitative data from the “Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening” study to illustrate our conceptualization of social context. We conclude that the incorporation into health behavior theory of a multidimensional socio-culturally oriented, theoretical approach to social context is critical to understand and redress health disparities in multicultural societies like that in the United States. PMID:19805791

  4. Theorizing social context: rethinking behavioral theory.

    PubMed

    Burke, Nancy J; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J; Barker, Judith C

    2009-10-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings and life domains. This theory-based article explains how social context is conceptualized in the social sciences and how the social science conceptualization differs from and can broaden the analytic approach to health behavior. The authors use qualitative data from the Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening study to illustrate our conceptualization of social context. We conclude that the incorporation into health behavior theory of a multidimensional socioculturally oriented, theoretical approach to social context is critical to understand and redress health disparities in multicultural societies like the United States. PMID:19805791

  5. Social motives and cognitive power-sex associations: predictors of aggressive sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, E L

    2000-03-01

    The present study investigated whether implicit social motives and cognitive power-sex associations would predict self-reports of aggressive sexual behavior. Participants wrote stories in response to Thematic Apperception Test pictures, which were scored for power and affiliation-intimacy motives. They also completed a lexical-decision priming task that provided an index of the strength of the cognitive association between the concepts of "power" and "sexuality." For men, high levels of power motivation and strong power-sex associations predicted more frequent aggression. There was also an interaction: Power motivation was unrelated to aggression for men with the weakest power-sex associations. For women, high levels of affiliation-intimacy motivation were associated with more frequent aggression. Strong power-sex associations were also predictive for women but only when affiliation-intimacy motivation was high.

  6. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  7. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings…

  8. Affiliation, empathy, and the origins of theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2013-06-18

    To understand the evolution of a Theory of Mind, we need to understand the selective factors that might have jumpstarted its initial evolution. We argue that a subconscious, reflexive appreciation of others' intentions, emotions, and perspectives is at the roots of even the most complex forms of Theory of Mind and that these abilities may have evolved because natural selection has favored individuals that are motivated to empathize with others and attend to their social interactions. These skills are adaptive because they are essential to forming strong, enduring social bonds, which in turn enhance reproductive success. We first review evidence from both humans and other animals indicating that reflexive and reflective mental state attributions are inextricably linked and play a crucial role in promoting affiliative social bonds. We next describe results from free-ranging female baboons showing that individuals who show high rates of affiliative behavior form stronger social bonds with other females. These bonds, in turn, are linked to fitness. We then provide data from three different types of social challenges (male immigration, changes in grooming behavior after the death of a close relative, and responses during playback experiments), suggesting that females who manifest high rates of affiliative behavior may also be more motivated to anticipate challenges, react adaptively to setbacks, and respond appropriately to social interactions.

  9. Post-Conflict Affiliation by Chimpanzees with Aggressors: Other-Oriented versus Selfish Political Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Castellanos, Miguel A.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Consolation, i.e., post-conflict affiliation directed from bystanders to recent victims of aggression, has recently acquired an important role in the debate about empathy in great apes. Although similar contacts have been also described for aggressors, i.e., appeasement, they have received far less attention and their function and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An exceptionally large database of spontaneous conflict and post-conflict interactions in two outdoor-housed groups of chimpanzees lends support to the notion that affiliation toward aggressors reduces the latter's aggressive tendencies in that further aggression was less frequent after the occurrence of the affiliation. However, bystander affiliation toward aggressors occurred disproportionally between individuals that were socially close (i.e., affiliation partners) which suggest that it did not function to protect the actor itself against redirected aggression. Contrary to consolation behavior, it was provided most often by adult males and directed toward high ranking males, whereas females engaged less often in this behavior both as actors and recipients, suggesting that affiliation with aggressors is unlikely to be a reaction to the distress of others. We propose that bystander affiliation toward aggressors may function to strengthen bonds between valuable partners, probably as part of political strategies. Our findings also suggest that this post-conflict behavior may act as an alternative to reconciliation, i.e., post-conflict affiliation between opponents, in that it is more common when opponents fail to reconcile. PMID:21799788

  10. Social isolation impairs adult neurogenesis in the limbic system and alters behaviors in female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-09-01

    Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.

  11. [Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae) in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López, Marie Charlotte; Zaida, Tárano

    2008-09-01

    Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar). Caricuao's group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este's and El Pinar's groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual) were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other two groups, while agonistic behaviors were more frequent in El Pinar and Parque del Este. Differences between groups are explained by variation in captivity conditions. We suggest that confinement generates social tension and favors agonism, while affiliative encounters help reduce this tension. On the other hand, differences in agonism between captive and natural groups may result form prolonged association, restrictions to keep optimal spacing or leave the group. All groups had some social structure (e.g., dominance ranks, association and repulsion between individuals) but the social dynamic was partly disrupted. Dominance ranks were not clear throughout the group, the top male was not dominant over the top female, dominant individuals did not interact affiliatively more

  12. Fostering Social Responsibility and Handling Disruptive Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Marvin

    1998-01-01

    Describes The Social Development Program, a way to foster social responsibility and in the process reduce unacceptable classroom behavior simply and easily. The strategy is based on several principles: positivity; empowerment by choice; the importance of self-evaluation and self-correction; assumption of social responsibility; and authority…

  13. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  14. Social and Foraging Behavior in Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus): Incorporating New Analyses and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Carol K.

    Both foraging and social decisions impact animals in important ways. We investigate the effects of age on foraging efficiency and sociality on Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus) at the beach, and use the growing field of social network analysis (SNA) to further examine social behavior in these birds. Specifically, we predict that 1) adults are more efficient foragers than juveniles, 2) juveniles interact with larger numbers of social partners than adults, 3) juveniles and adults prefer to associate with each other rather than within their own age classes, 4) crows are not associating randomly while on the beach (aka they have preferred social partners), and 5) pairs of individuals engaging in more affiliative behaviors with each other are less likely to also behave agonistically to one another, and vice versa. We also explore the uses of a remote radio detection system Encounternet by testing the validity of pilot data collected through this system against live observations conducted simultaneously. There is no effect of age on foraging efficiency; however, juveniles were found to interact with more total partners than adults, and most social associations occur between juveniles and adults. Our results also suggest crows are engaging in preferential social associations, though there is no evidence that affiliative pairs and agonistic pairs are mutually exclusive. Finally, it appears Encounternet can be useful for data collection when paired with live observations, as long as certain limitations are kept in mind. Our pilot study could be beneficial to anyone considering the use of remote detection tools in data collection on animals.

  15. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  16. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  17. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  18. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  19. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive, and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Mary E; Maginnis, Tara L; Wong, Ryan Y; Brock, Chad; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA receptor, tPA, stathmin-2, β-1 adrenergic receptor) or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase). We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males), and a social control (two females). Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance) highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS) vs. other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS) from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance) that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of "preference and receptivity genes"; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females) from low (small males), was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin). We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between "affiliative" and "preference" axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  20. Behavioral genetics: scientific and social acceptance.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, David R

    2003-01-01

    Human behavioral genetics can be broadly defined as the attempt to characterize and define the genetic or hereditary basis for human behavior. Examination of the history of these scientific enterprises reveals episodes of controversy, and an apparent distinction between scientific and social acceptance of the genetic nature of such complex behaviors. This essay will review the history and methodology of behavioral genetics research, including a more detailed look at case histories involving behavioral genetic research for aggressive behavior and alcoholism. It includes a discussion of the scientific versus social qualities of the acceptance of behavioral genetics research, as well as the development of a general model for scientific acceptance involving the researchers, the scientific literature, the scientific peer group, the mainstream media, and the public at large. From this model follows a discussion of the means and complications by which behavioral genetics research may be accepted by society, and an analysis of how future studies might be conducted.

  1. Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

  2. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.

  3. Culture sometimes matters: intra-cultural variation in pro-social behavior among Tsimane Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Zanolini, Arianna; Schniter, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Agent-centered models usually consider only individual-level variables in calculations of economic costs and benefits. There has been little consideration of social or cultural history on shaping payoffs in ways that impact decisions. To examine the role of local expectations on economic behavior, we explore whether village affiliation accounts for the variation in Dictator Game offers among the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon independently of other factors that could confound such an effect. Our analysis shows that significant differences in altruistic giving exist among villages, village patterns are recognized by residents, and offers likely reflect variation in social expectations rather than stable differences in norms of fairness. PMID:19122839

  4. Onset of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and childhood maladjustment: a test of the childhood- and adolescent-onset models.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Pol A C; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Predictors and concurrent correlates of childhood-onset and adolescent-onset antisocial behavior were studied in a sample of 165 boys and 151 girls, followed from age 6 to age 15. An integrated general growth mixture model was used to determine the number and shape of developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior exhibited by boys and girls. Associations of these trajectories with trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADH) problems and deviant peer affiliation were examined. A childhood-onset, an adolescent-onset, and a low antisocial behavior trajectory were identified. A minority of the sample (11%), mostly males, followed the childhood-onset trajectory. This trajectory was predicted by prior membership in the high ADH trajectory in childhood. The adolescent-onset trajectory (46%) was associated with increases in friends' antisocial behavior but not with ADH problems. Most females (60%) followed the low antisocial trajectory. A substantial proportion of females, however, followed the childhood (5%) and adolescent-onset trajectories (35%). The male-female ratios in the childhood and adolescent-onset trajectories were similar. The results largely supported theories that distinguish between childhood and adolescent onsets of antisocial behavior, but they did not suggest that boys and girls differ in the age of onset of antisocial behavior.

  5. Oxytocin and same-sex social behavior in female meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Beery, A K; Zucker, I

    2010-08-25

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a range of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors including parent-offspring bonding and partner preference formation between socially monogamous mates. Its role in mediating non-reproductive social relationships in rodents, however, remains largely unexplored. We examined whether OT facilitates same-sex social preferences between female meadow voles-a species that forms social nesting groups in short, winter-like day lengths. In contrast to results from studies of opposite-sex attachment between prairie vole mates, we found that neither OT nor dopamine neurotransmission was required for baseline levels of social partner preference formation or expression. OT enhanced preference formation beyond baseline levels-an effect that was counteracted by treatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA). Oxytocin receptor (OTR) density correlated with social behavior in brain regions not known to be associated with opposite-sex affiliation, including the lateral septum and central amygdala. In addition, voles housed in short day lengths (SD) exhibited higher levels of OTR binding in the central amygdala, and voles exposed to high concentrations of estradiol exhibited less binding in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased binding in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that same-sex social behavior shares common elements with other mammalian social behaviors affected by OT, but that the specific neural pathways through which OT exerts its influence are likely distinct from those known for sexual attachments. PMID:20580660

  6. Social status modifies estradiol activation of sociosexual behavior in female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Katherine; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen (E2) has activational effects on sexual motivation and mitigating effects on anxiety-like behaviors that can be attenuated with chronic exposure to psychosocial stress. Some studies suggest that this attenuation can be overcome by higher doses of E2, while others show that chronic psychosocial stress may alter the mechanisms of E2 function, thus reducing any positive benefit from higher doses of E2. To determine the interaction between psychosocial stress and E2 dose on behavior, we examined the scope of attenuation across a suite of socioemotional behaviors, including reproduction, affiliation, aggression, submission, and anxiety-like behaviors on 36 ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. Females were exposed to graded psychosocial stress, established by an intrinsic female dominance hierarchy, where subordinate animals receive high amounts of harassment. Our data show that E2 dose-dependently increased sexual motivation and male-affiliation in dominant (e.g. low-stress) females, while subordinate females showed no positive effects of E2, even at higher doses. In addition, contact aggression was attenuated in dominant females, while non-contact aggression was attenuated in both dominant and middle-ranking females. These results suggest that the stress-induced attenuation of E2's activational effects on sexual behavior and affiliation with males may not be overcome with higher doses of E2. Furthermore, the observed behavioral consequences of psychosocial stress and E2 dose may be dependent on the behaviors of all the females in the social-group, and better resolution on these effects depends on isolating treatment to individuals within the group to minimize alterations in social-group interactions. PMID:23046624

  7. Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Contexts of Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    This paper explores and highlights the importance of social, cultural, and behavioral contexts in the effectiveness of mentoring relationships. A first section looks at growing up in American and the varieties of personal and social development that are found. This section argues against viewing adolescents as similar across the boundaries of…

  8. Examining the Self-Reported Health Behaviors and the Importance of Role Modeling among Resident Directors Affiliated with the Association of College and University Housing Officers-International (ACUHO-I) Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Maylen Lizeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported health behaviors (health responsibility, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relations and stress management) of Resident Directors who self-reported being affiliated with ACUHO-I. The second purpose of the study was to examine which areas of health behaviors, do…

  9. Autonomic response to approachability characteristics, approach behavior, and social functioning in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is saliently characterized by a unique social phenotype, most notably associated with a dramatically increased affinity and approachability toward unfamiliar people. Despite a recent proliferation of studies into the social profile of WS, the underpinnings of the pro-social predisposition are poorly understood. To this end, the present study was aimed at elucidating approach behavior of individuals with WS contrasted with typical development (TD) by employing a multidimensional design combining measures of autonomic arousal, social functioning, and two levels of approach evaluations. Given previous evidence suggesting that approach behaviors of individuals with WS are driven by a desire for social closeness, approachability tendencies were probed across two levels of social interaction: talking versus befriending. The main results indicated that while overall level of approachability did not differ between groups, an important qualitative between-group difference emerged across the two social interaction contexts: whereas individuals with WS demonstrated a similar willingness to approach strangers across both experimental conditions, TD individuals were significantly more willing to talk to than to befriend strangers. In WS, high approachability to positive faces across both social interaction levels was further associated with more normal social functioning. A novel finding linked autonomic responses with willingness to befriend negative faces in the WS group: elevated autonomic responsivity was associated with increased affiliation to negative face stimuli, which may represent an autonomic correlate of approach behavior in WS. Implications for underlying organization of the social brain are discussed. PMID:26459097

  10. Autonomic response to approachability characteristics, approach behavior, and social functioning in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-11-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder that is saliently characterized by a unique social phenotype, most notably associated with a dramatically increased affinity and approachability toward unfamiliar people. Despite a recent proliferation of studies into the social profile of WS, the underpinnings of the pro-social predisposition are poorly understood. To this end, the present study was aimed at elucidating approach behavior of individuals with WS contrasted with typical development (TD) by employing a multidimensional design combining measures of autonomic arousal, social functioning, and two levels of approach evaluations. Given previous evidence suggesting that approach behaviors of individuals with WS are driven by a desire for social closeness, approachability tendencies were probed across two levels of social interaction: talking versus befriending. The main results indicated that while overall level of approachability did not differ between groups, an important qualitative between-group difference emerged across the two social interaction contexts: whereas individuals with WS demonstrated a similar willingness to approach strangers across both experimental conditions, TD individuals were significantly more willing to talk to than to befriend strangers. In WS, high approachability to positive faces across both social interaction levels was further associated with more normal social functioning. A novel finding linked autonomic responses with willingness to befriend negative faces in the WS group: elevated autonomic responsivity was associated with increased affiliation to negative face stimuli, which may represent an autonomic correlate of approach behavior in WS. Implications for underlying organization of the social brain are discussed.

  11. APPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOR THEORY TO SOCIAL CASEWORK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STUART, RICHARD B.

    BEHAVIOR THEORY CAN FORTIFY SOCIAL CASEWORK BY PROVIDING PRACTICAL LINKS BETWEEN THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE CLIENT IN DISTRESS, THE DELINEATION OF CLINICAL GOALS, THE FORMULATION OF PLANS OF INTERVENTION, AND THE MEASUREMENT OF OUTCOME. THESE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ARE IMPLICIT IN THE STRUCTURE TREATMENT--(1) ALL SOCIAL…

  12. Learning About Social Behavior. Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favero, Jane; And Others

    Designed for teaching students in regular and special education classes, the guide provides an instructional approach (as opposed to a counseling approach) to teaching social and behavioral skills. This approach, based on the premise that behavioral skills can be developed through instruction, drills, and applied practice, employs concepts from…

  13. Evolution and Development of Boys' Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Hoard, Mary K.; Vigil, Jacob; Numtee, Chattavee

    2003-01-01

    An evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of one-on-one and coalitional male-male competition provides a theoretical frame for conceptualizing the evolved functions and proximate developmental forms of the social behavior of boys, and for appreciating why the behavior of boys differs from that of girls. We propose the accompanying selection…

  14. [Close relationships in childhood and adulthood from the viewpoint of structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) and attachment theory].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Tress, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches to interpersonal experiences and behavior are empirically related to each other: Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) and attachment theory. The focus is on the most important relationships during life-span: relationships with mother and father in childhood, which were measured retrospectively, and romantic relationships in adulthood. 93 outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic took part in the study. Self-report measures were used to assess SASB-dimensions affiliation and autonomy and attachment variables (Intrex short form, Short measure of attachment to parents, Bochum Adult Attachment Questionnaire). Affiliation was strongly related to attachment to mother, father and romantic partner. Subjects classified as secure with respect to attachment to parents reported higher levels of affiliation than subjects classified as anxious or avoidant. Correspondingly, affiliation was negatively correlated with avoidance and anxiety in adult attachment to the romantic partner. On the other hand, autonomy was shown to be unrelated to attachment variables. Results indicate that the SASB-dimension affiliation and attachment security are closely associated.

  15. Academic and social motives and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2009-12-01

    This longitudinal study of 1,447 first-time college students tested separate time-varying covariate models of the relations between academic and social motives/behaviors and alcohol use and related problems from senior year of high school through the end of the second year in college. Structural equation models identified small but significant inverse relations between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all time points, with relations of somewhat larger magnitude between academic motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems across all semesters other than senior year in high school. At all time points, there were much larger positive relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol use across all semesters, with smaller but significant relations between social motives/behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Multi-group models found considerable consistency in the relations between motives/behaviors and alcohol-related outcomes across gender, race/ethnicity, and family history of alcohol problems, although academic motives/behaviors played a stronger protective role for women, and social motives were a more robust risk factor for Caucasian and Latino students and individuals with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Implications for alcohol prevention efforts among college students are discussed.

  16. Social behavioral changes in MPTP-treated monkey model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Elodie; Petit, Odile; Tremblay, Léon; Zimmer, Cédric; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Chassain, Carine; Laurent, Marlène; Pereira, Bruno; Silberberg, Céline; Durif, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Parkinsonian patients experience not only the physical discomfort of motor disorders but also the considerable psychological distress caused by cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. These two factors can result in a disruption of social relationships during the symptomatic and even the presymptomatic motor states of the disease. However, it remains difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate social relationships in presymptomatic patients. The present study focused on the evaluation of social relationships within a group of female long-tailed macaques during presymptomatic and symptomatic motor states induced by Chronic Low-Dose (CLD) and then Chronic High-Dose (CHD) systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Dopaminergic denervation within basal ganglia and cortical areas was evaluated using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans with 18F-DOPA (6-[18F]-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) radiotracer. Interestingly, social behavioral changes could be identified in the presymptomatic motor state before any motor and/or cognitive impairment occurred. Stronger effects were observed in subordinate animals compared to dominant animals. From baseline state to CLD-presymptomatic motor state, the frequency of emitted affiliative and aggressive behaviors increased. From CLD-presymptomatic to CHD-presymptomatic motor states, the frequency of the three categories of social behaviors (aggressive, submissive and affiliative) decreased. At this time, quantitative data analysis in PET scans highlighted a dopaminergic denervation in the insula and the posterior caudate nucleus. Finally, the frequency of the three categories of social behaviors decreased during the stable-symptomatic motor state compared to baseline and presymptomatic motor states; this was also associated with motor and cognitive disorders and a dopaminergic denervation in all the evaluated cortical and subcortical structures. PMID:25767440

  17. Modifying shyness-related social behavior through symptom misattribution.

    PubMed

    Brodt, S E; Zimbardo, P G

    1981-09-01

    An experimental misattribution paradigm proved to be a significant intervention treatment of altering social participation among dispositionally shy women. When specific arousal symptoms previously associated with their social anxiety were misattributed to a nonpsychological source, high-frequency noise, these extremely shy women behaved as if they were not shy. Their verbal fluency and interactional assertiveness resembled that of not-shy comparison women given the same treatment. Moreover, their scores on these measures were significantly elevated from the low levels recorded by shy controls who had been led to expect shyness-irrelevant "side effects" from their exposure to noise. A male partner (a confederate) accurately perceived whether or not the women in the two control groups were shy, but he misjudged as "not shy" the shy women in the misattribution group. The greater enjoyment of the interaction by those in this latter group, despite high-frequency noise bombardment, was also reflected in their stronger preference for further affiliation than that shown by either comparison group. The continuously monitored heart rate data provide grounds for speculation as to the relationship of physiological arousal and behavior. However, a paradoxical placebo finding emerged when it appeared that the non-shy women in this same misattribution condition experienced a higher level of arousal, and this anxiety-like arousal was associated with preferences for nonaffiliation.

  18. Women and autonomy: using structural analysis of social behavior to find autonomy within connections.

    PubMed

    Berlin, S; Johnson, C G

    1989-02-01

    In their work to construct psychological theories about women's development, Carol Gilligan and Jean Baker Miller both highlight the centrality of interpersonal connections in women's lives. As they describe how women's senses of self and morality are organized around relationships, Gilligan and Miller tend to contrast affiliation with autonomy. The message that readers often take from this view is that autonomy has no meaning for women--is somehow beneath them, beyond them, or unnatural to them. Although Miller and Gilligan dichotomize affiliation and autonomy, they also provide numerous examples in which women's feelings of worth, ability, and self-consideration enhance relatedness. We argue that autonomy can be understood as a sense of freedom and personal integrity that encompasses these same characteristics, and we use the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior to clarify how autonomy makes critical contributions to interpersonal connections.

  19. Social behavior in context: Hormonal modulation of behavioral plasticity and social competence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui F

    2009-10-01

    In social species animals should fine-tune the expression of their social behavior to social environments in order to avoid the costs of engaging in costly social interactions. Therefore, social competence, defined as the ability of an animal to optimize the expression of its social behavior as a function of the available social information, should be considered as a performance trait that impacts on the Darwinian fitness of the animal. Social competence is based on behavioral plasticity which, in turn, can be achieved by different neural mechanisms of plasticity, namely by rewiring or by biochemically switching nodes of a putative neural network underlying social behavior. Since steroid hormones respond to social interactions and have receptors extensively expressed in the social behavioral neural network, it is proposed that steroids play a key role in the hormonal modulation of social plasticity. Here, we propose a reciprocal model for the action of androgens on short-term behavioral plasticity and review a set of studies conducted in our laboratory using an African cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) that provide support for it. Androgens are shown to be implicated as physiological mediators in a wide range of social phenomena that promote social competence, namely by adjusting the behavioral response to the nature of the intruder and the presence of third parties (dear enemy and audience effects), by anticipating territorial intrusions (bystander effect and conditioning of the territorial response), and by modifying future behavior according to prior experience of winning (winner effect). The rapid behavioral actions of socially induced short-term transient changes in androgens indicate that these effects are most likely mediated by nongenomic mechanisms. The fact that the modulation of rapid changes in behavior is open to the influence of circulating levels of androgens, and is not exclusively achieved by changes in central neuromodulators, suggests

  20. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  1. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  2. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  3. Development of social behavior in young zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dreosti, Elena; Lopes, Gonçalo; Kampff, Adam R.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish are robustly social animals whereas larva is not. We designed an assay to determine at what stage of development zebrafish begin to interact with and prefer other fish. One week old zebrafish do not show significant social preference whereas most 3 weeks old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain in a compartment where they can view conspecifics. However, for some individuals, the presence of conspecifics drives avoidance instead of attraction. Social preference is dependent on vision and requires viewing fish of a similar age/size. In addition, over the same 1–3 weeks period larval zebrafish increasingly tend to coordinate their movements, a simple form of social interaction. Finally, social preference and coupled interactions are differentially modified by an NMDAR antagonist and acute exposure to ethanol, both of which are known to alter social behavior in adult zebrafish. PMID:26347614

  4. The social behavior of myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Dorado, J; Arias, J M

    1995-12-01

    Myxobacteria are social microorganisms that undergo a spectacular cell cycle. Under starvation conditions, cells aggregate to certain points originating macroscopic fruiting bodies, inside which cells differentiate into myxospores. To accomplish this developmental cycle, cells must communicate. The signals that cells exchange during development as well as the signal transduction systems used by myxobacteria have been intensively studied during the last years. A family of eukaryotic-like protein serine/threonine kinases has been identified in Myxococcus xanthus, indicating that signal transduction systems similar to those used by eukaryotic cells may also function in myxobacteria.

  5. Associations among Children's Social Goals, Responses to Peer Conflict, and Teacher-Reported Behavioral and Academic Adjustment at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Smith-Schrandt, Heather L.; Gesten, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations among children's agentic (social influence, status, power) and communal (relationship, affiliation) goals for peer interaction, cognitive and affective responses to hypothetical peer conflict, and teacher-reported achievement and behavior at school ("N" = 367; "M" age = 9.9 years). Agentic…

  6. Reproductive Neuroendocrine Pathways of Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parhar, Ishwar S.; Ogawa, Satoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are key components of reproduction, because they are essential for successful fertilization. Social behaviors, such as courtship, mating, and aggression, are strongly associated with sex steroids, such as testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. Secretion of sex steroids from the gonads is regulated by the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in vertebrates. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a pivotal hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates gonadotropin release from the pituitary. In recent years, the role of neuropeptides containing the C-terminal Arg–Phe–NH2 (RFamide peptides) has been emphasized in vertebrate reproduction. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), emerged as critical accelerator and suppressor of gonadotropin secretion. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH release by directly acting on GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH inhibits gonadotropin release by inhibiting kisspeptin, GnRH neurons, or pituitary gonadotropes. These neuropeptides can regulate social behavior by regulating the HPG axis. However, distribution of neuronal fibers of GnRH, kisspeptin, and GnIH neurons is not limited within the hypothalamus, and the existence of extrahypothalamic neuronal fibers suggests direct control of social behavior within the brain. It has traditionally been shown that central administration of GnRH can stimulate female sexual behavior in rats. Recently, it was shown that Kiss1, one of the paralogs of kisspeptin peptide family, regulates fear responses in zebrafish and GnIH inhibits sociosexual behavior in birds. Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the role of GnRH, kisspeptin, and GnIH in the regulation of social behaviors in fish, birds, and mammals and discuss their importance in future biological and biomedical research. PMID:27065948

  7. Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Grosenick, Logan; Finkelstein, Joel C; Kauvar, Isaac V; Fenno, Lief E; Adhikari, Avishek; Lammel, Stephan; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Airan, Raag D; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Tye, Kay M; Anikeeva, Polina; Malenka, Robert C; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-06-19

    Social interaction is a complex behavior essential for many species and is impaired in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological studies have implicated certain neurotransmitter systems in social behavior, but circuit-level understanding of endogenous neural activity during social interaction is lacking. We therefore developed and applied a new methodology, termed fiber photometry, to optically record natural neural activity in genetically and connectivity-defined projections to elucidate the real-time role of specified pathways in mammalian behavior. Fiber photometry revealed that activity dynamics of a ventral tegmental area (VTA)-to-nucleus accumbens (NAc) projection could encode and predict key features of social, but not novel object, interaction. Consistent with this observation, optogenetic control of cells specifically contributing to this projection was sufficient to modulate social behavior, which was mediated by type 1 dopamine receptor signaling downstream in the NAc. Direct observation of deep projection-specific activity in this way captures a fundamental and previously inaccessible dimension of mammalian circuit dynamics. PMID:24949967

  8. Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Lisa A.; Grosenick, Logan; Finkelstein, Joel C.; Kauvar, Isaac V.; Fenno, Lief E.; Adhikari, Avishek; Lammel, Stephan; Mirzabekov, Julie J.; Airan, Raag D.; Zalocusky, Kelly A.; Tye, Kay M.; Anikeeva, Polina; Malenka, Robert C.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Social interaction is a complex behavior essential for many species, and is impaired in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological studies have implicated certain neurotransmitter systems in social behavior, but circuit-level understanding of endogenous neural activity during social interaction is lacking. We therefore developed and applied a new methodology, termed fiber photometry, to optically record natural neural activity in genetically- and connectivity-defined projections to elucidate the real-time role of specified pathways in mammalian behavior. Fiber photometry revealed that activity dynamics of a ventral tegmental area (VTA)-to-nucleus accumbens (NAc) projection could encode and predict key features of social but not novel-object interaction. Consistent with this observation, optogenetic control of cells specifically contributing to this projection was sufficient to modulate social behavior, which was mediated by type-1 dopamine receptor signaling downstream in the NAc. Direct observation of projection-specific activity in this way captures a fundamental and previously inaccessible dimension of circuit dynamics. PMID:24949967

  9. Who Is Writing? Author Affiliation across Peer-Reviewed Journals of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, 2000-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Naomi A.; Janney, Donna M.; Rekart, Jerome L.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of practitioner participation in identifying and maintaining use of best educational practice is well established; however, little is known about the ways in which practitioners contribute to the development and dissemination of those practices within the field of emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). This review examines…

  10. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:27225673

  11. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:27225673

  12. Social Connections and Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    You, Sungeun; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Disrupted social connectedness is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). The current study sought to further characterize this relationship by examining several indices of social connectedness—1) living alone, 2) perceived social support, 3) interpersonal conflict, 4) belongingness. Participants (n = 814) were recruited from four residential substance-use treatment programs and completed self-report measures of social connectedness as well as whether they had ever thought about or attempted suicide. Multivariate results indicated that interpersonal conflict and belongingness were significant predictors of a history of suicidal ideation, and belongingness, perceived social support, and living alone were significant predictors of suicide attempt. These results indicate the most consistent support for the relationship between suicidality and thwarted belongingness, and also support the clinical utility of assessing whether individuals live alone. PMID:21142333

  13. Automatic Behavior Pattern Classification for Social Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Abraham; Bellas, Francisco; Caamaño, Pilar; Duro, Richard J.

    In this paper, we focus our attention on providing robots with a system that allows them to automatically detect behavior patterns in other robots, as a first step to introducing social responsive robots. The system is called ANPAC (Automatic Neural-based Pattern Classification). Its main feature is that ANPAC automatically adjusts the optimal processing window size and obtains the appropriate features through a dimensional transformation process that allow for the classification of behavioral patterns of large groups of entities from perception datasets. Here we present the basic elements and operation of ANPAC, and illustrate its applicability through the detection of behavior patterns in the motion of flocks.

  14. Oxytocin facilitates social approach behavior in women

    PubMed Central

    Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M.; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2014-01-01

    In challenging environments including both numerous threats and scarce resources, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to quickly escape from dangers and to seize opportunities to gain rewards. The phylogenetically ancient neurohormonal oxytocin (OXT) system has been shown to influence both approach and avoidance (AA) behavior in men, but evidence for comparable effects in women is still lacking. We thus conducted a series of pharmacological behavioral experiments in a randomized double-blind study involving 76 healthy heterosexual women treated with either OXT (24 IU) or placebo intranasally. In Experiment 1, we tested how OXT influenced the social distance subjects maintained between themselves and either a female or male experimenter. In Experiment 2, we applied a reaction time based AA task. In Experiment 3 we investigated effects on peri-personal space by measuring the lateral attentional bias in a line bisection task. We found that OXT specifically decreased the distance maintained between subjects and the male but not the female experimenter and also accelerated approach toward pleasant social stimuli in the AA task. However, OXT did not influence the size of peri-personal space, suggesting that it does not alter perception of personal space per se, but rather that a social element is necessary for OXT's effects on AA behavior to become evident. Taken together, our results point to an evolutionarily adaptive mechanism by which OXT in women selectively promotes approach behavior in positive social contexts. PMID:24904342

  15. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  16. Cognitive Representations of Peer Relationships: Linkages with Discrete Social Cognition and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Mize, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects of young children's cognitive representations of peer relationships-peer affiliative motivation and feelings and beliefs about the self and peers-were assessed among a sample of 75 children (37 girls), who ranged in age from 32 to 76 months (M = 58.2 months). Measures of three aspects of discrete social cognition, encoding of social…

  17. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  18. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that social networks influence the evolution of cooperation, but to date there have been few experimental studies. Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference. Here, we exploit a seminal set of laboratory experiments that originally showed that voluntary costly punishment can help sustain cooperation. In these experiments, subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of different groups to play a series of single-shot public goods games with strangers; this feature allowed us to draw networks of interactions to explore how cooperative and uncooperative behaviors spread from person to person to person. We show that, in both an ordinary public goods game and in a public goods game with punishment, focal individuals are influenced by fellow group members’ contribution behavior in future interactions with other individuals who were not a party to the initial interaction. Furthermore, this influence persists for multiple periods and spreads up to three degrees of separation (from person to person to person to person). The results suggest that each additional contribution a subject makes to the public good in the first period is tripled over the course of the experiment by other subjects who are directly or indirectly influenced to contribute more as a consequence. These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. PMID:20212120

  19. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  20. Effects of social manipulations and environmental enrichment on behavior and cell-mediated immune responses in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Steven J

    2002-08-01

    This paper reviews a series of studies that have examined the effects of manipulations to the social and the inanimate environments on the behavior and cell-mediated immune responses of rhesus macaques of various ages living in different settings. In general, enrichment of the inanimate environment with toys, structures, foraging devices, and/or videotapes increased the amount of species-typical behavior expressed by the monkeys, but did not affect their immune responses. Housing monkeys socially, on the other hand, not only resulted in increased time spent in species-typical activities, but also resulted in (1) decreases in time spent in abnormal behavior and (2) changes in a number of immune parameters. Additionally, attempts to directly influence the affiliative interactions of socially housed adult rhesus have resulted in systematic changes in affiliative behavior, although anticipated accompanying systematic alterations to cell-mediated immune responses have yet to be realized. The data suggest that aspects of the physical and social environments influence behavioral and immunological parameters in captive macaques in the absence of other experimental manipulations. As such, these influences need to be appropriately managed and/or controlled in order to minimize potential confounds in experimental designs.

  1. Same-sex social behavior in meadow voles: Multiple and rapid formation of attachments.

    PubMed

    Beery, Annaliese K; Routman, David M; Zucker, Irving

    2009-04-20

    Adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are solitary in the spring-summer reproductive season, but during winter months, females and males are socially tolerant and aggregate in groups. This behavioral difference is triggered by day length: female meadow voles housed in short, winter-like day lengths form same-sex partner preferences, whereas those housed in long, summer-like day lengths are less social. The present study demonstrates that same-sex social attachments in short day lengths are not exclusive; females formed concurrent attachments with more than one individual, and with non-kin as well as siblings. Partner preferences between females were established within one day of cohousing and did not intensify with greater durations of cohabitation. Males also formed same-sex social attachments, but unlike female affiliative behavior, male partner preferences were not significantly affected by day length. These data are discussed in the context of field behavior and the physiological mechanisms supporting social behavior in voles. PMID:19419672

  2. Toward a Neural Basis for Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Damian A.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, the shared interests of psychologists and biologists in understanding the neural basis of social behavior led to the inception of social neuroscience. In the past decade, this field has exploded, in large part due to the infusion of studies that use fMRI. At the same time, tensions have arisen about how to prioritize a diverse range of questions and about the authority of neurobiological data in answering them. The field is now poised to tackle some of the most interesting and important questions about human and animal behavior but at the same time faces uncertainty about how to achieve focus in its research and cohesion among the scientists who tackle it. The next 25 years offer the opportunity to alleviate some of these growing pains, as well as the challenge of answering large questions that encompass the nature and bounds of diverse social interactions (in humans, including interactions through the internet); how to characterize, and treat, social dysfunction in psychiatric illness; and how to compare social cognition in humans with that in other animals. PMID:24183030

  3. Septal oxytocin administration impairs peer affiliation via V1a receptors in female meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Allison M J; Christensen, Jennifer D; LaFlamme, Elyssa M; Grunberg, Diana M; Beery, Annaliese K

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in social behaviors, including social bond formation. In different contexts, however, OT is also associated with aggression, social selectivity, and reduced affiliation. Female meadow voles form social preferences for familiar same-sex peers under short, winter-like day lengths in the laboratory, and provide a means of studying affiliation outside the context of reproductive pair bonds. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the actions of OT in the lateral septum (LS) may decrease affiliative behavior, including greater density of OT receptors in the LS of meadow voles that huddle less. We infused OT into the LS of female meadow voles immediately prior to cohabitation with a social partner to determine its effects on partner preference formation. OT prevented the formation of preferences for the partner female. Co-administration of OT with a specific OT receptor antagonist did not reverse the effect, but co-administration of OT with a specific vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist did, indicating that OT in the LS likely acted through V1aRs to decrease partner preference. Receptor autoradiography revealed dense V1aR binding in the LS of female meadow voles. These results suggest that the LS is a brain region that may be responsible for inhibitory effects of OT administration on affiliation, which will be important to consider in therapeutic administrations of OT. PMID:26974500

  4. Effects of methaqualone on social-sexual behavior in monkeys (M. mulatta) II. Simultaneously dosed subjects.

    PubMed

    Claus, G; Kling, A; Bolander, K

    1981-01-01

    In a previous publication, we reported on the effects of 10 mg/kg i.m. injections of methaqualone on behavioral changes in treated animals and untreated members of a well-established colony of 10 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The drug showed a biphasic effect, causing more passive behaviors in the first 80-100 min postinjection, followed by either aggression or increased sexual activity. After approximately 2 h, the social status and behavior of all animals returned to predrug levels. In general, affiliative activities increased under the influence of the drug, phenomena somewhat parallel tho those described among humans taking methaqualone in group settings. We also speculated that the drug may have an aphrodisiac potency. In the present experiments, 3 animals were caged together and injected simultaneously with the dose used earlier: an adult but naive male, who had been caged alone for infancy; an adult and subadult female, the 2 latter having had extensive social experience. After establishing baseline behaviors, five experiments with methaqualone were conducted, each lasting 2 h; and after the 2nd and 4th experiments, saline controls were carried out. There was a continuous increase from experiment to experiment in the affiliative behaviors of the animals; but during the saline trials, their behaviors returned nearly to those exhibited during baseline studies. Under the influence of methaqualone, the naive male attempted to copulate, which he achieved by the 4th drug trial; and at the same time he established his dominance. The conclusion was reached that methaqualone, indeed, has aphrodisiac potency, best measured by the time the male spent with erection under the influence of the drug, as compared with no erection during the baseline studies or the saline trials. The biphasic effect of methaqualone on behavior reported in the previous review [1] was also observed during the present experiments.

  5. Endogenous vasopressin, innate anxiety, and the emission of pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations during social play behavior in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Michael; Wöhr, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Although the involvement of the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) in rodent social interaction is already extensively characterized, little is known about its role in social communication. Rats communicate in the ultrasonic range by means of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). Depending on developmental stage and affective state, rats emit various distinct types of USV, with appetitive 50-kHz USV being induced by positive social interactions, like juvenile social play, probably serving an affiliative communicative function, namely to (re)establish or induce social proximity. In rats and mice selectively bred for low (LAB) and high (HAB) anxiety-related behavior, the emission of isolation-induced distress USV during maternal deprivation as pups correlates with innate high levels of hypothalamic AVP availability. Moreover, male LAB and HAB rats express deficits in social approach towards conspecifics, together with high and/or abnormal forms of aggression when confronted with harmless opponents, possibly due to a lack of social communication skills. The aim of this study was therefore (1) to investigate and characterize social play behavior and concomitant pro-social 50-kHz USV emission in male and female, juvenile LAB and HAB rats and to compare them to non-selected Wistar (NAB) rats; and (2) to link these findings pharmacologically to the central AVP system via applying an AVP 1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist (0.75 μg; Manning compound) or synthetic AVP (1 ng) into the lateral ventricle of male juvenile NAB rats. Our results show that reduced social play behavior in highly anxious male and female, juvenile HAB rats is accompanied by low amounts of pro-social 50-kHz USV, as compared to respective LAB and NAB rats, possibly reflecting a lack of positive affective states in expectation of or following social interactions in these individuals. Secondly, although synthetic AVP did not alter social play behavior and pro-social 50-kHz USV, we demonstrated for the first

  6. Classification of group behaviors in social media via social behavior grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.

  7. Social network based microblog user behavior analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiang; Wu, Lianren; Zheng, Lan

    2013-04-01

    The influence of microblog on information transmission is becoming more and more obvious. By characterizing the behavior of following and being followed as out-degree and in-degree respectively, a microblog social network was built in this paper. It was found to have short diameter of connected graph, short average path length and high average clustering coefficient. The distributions of out-degree, in-degree and total number of microblogs posted present power-law characters. The exponent of total number distribution of microblogs is negatively correlated with the degree of each user. With the increase of degree, the exponent decreases much slower. Based on empirical analysis, we proposed a social network based human dynamics model in this paper, and pointed out that inducing drive and spontaneous drive lead to the behavior of posting microblogs. The simulation results of our model match well with practical situation.

  8. I am too just like you: nonconscious mimicry as an automatic behavioral response to social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Jessica L; Chartrand, Tanya L; Arkin, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    Research across various disciplines has demonstrated that social exclusion has devastating psychological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. Excluded individuals are therefore motivated to affiliate with others, even though they may not have the resources, cognitive or otherwise, to do so. The current research explored whether nonconscious mimicry of other individuals-a low-cost, low-risk, automatic behavior-might help excluded individuals address threatened belongingness needs. Experiment 1 demonstrated that excluded people mimic a subsequent interaction partner more than included people do. Experiment 2 showed that individuals excluded by an in-group selectively (and nonconsciously) mimic a confederate who is an in-group member more than a confederate who is an out-group member. The relationship between exclusion and mimicry suggests that there are automatic behaviors people can use to recover from the experience of being excluded. In addition, this research demonstrates that nonconscious mimicry is selective and sensitive to context. PMID:18816290

  9. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Regrettable Drinking-Related Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Research has shown that alcohol outcome expectancies are predictive of heavy alcohol consumption, which can lead to risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of various low-risk social behaviors while drinking among college students. Such social behaviors may later be regretted (referred to as regrettable social behaviors) and include electronic and in-person communications. Methods College students (N = 236) completed measures of alcohol outcome expectancies and regrettable social behaviors. Results Regrettable social behaviors were reported by 66.1% of participants, suggesting that they may occur at a much higher rate than more serious drinking-related consequences (e.g. drinking and driving, violence, etc.). Expectancies for social facilitation predicted regrettable social behavior. Further, this relationship was mediated by amount of alcohol consumed. Conclusion Given the high incidence, regrettable social behaviors may be effective targets in alcohol prevention programming. PMID:25820611

  10. Group Colocation Behavior in Technological Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chloë; Lathia, Neal; Mascolo, Cecilia; Noulas, Anastasios; Blondel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks. PMID:25148037

  11. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barak, B; Feng, G

    2016-01-01

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here, we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  12. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barak, Boaz; Feng, Guoping

    2016-04-26

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  13. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of...

  14. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430... ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664.430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of...

  15. Decreased Bdnf expression and reduced social behavior in periadolescent rats following prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Berry, Alessandra; Panetta, Pamela; Luoni, Alessia; Bellisario, Veronica; Capoccia, Sara; Riva, Marco Andrea; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) is a risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. This study was aimed at assessing, in a rodent model, changes in gene expression profiles and behavioral output as a result of PNS, during periadolescence, a critical developmental period for the onset of psychopathology. Social behavior was studied in a standardized social interaction paradigm and the expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf), a marker of neuronal plasticity, and of inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms (Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) and K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters ratio, NKCC1/KCC2) was analyzed. Results indicate that PNS reduced Bdnf transcripts while increasing the NKCC1/KCC2 ratio, primarily in the hippocampus. In the prefrontal cortex, changes in Bdnf were found to be gender-dependent. These effects were accompanied by reduced levels of affiliative and investigative social behaviors. Interestingly, interaction with non-stressed subjects was able to improve sociality in PNS rats suggesting that the social environment could be exploited for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25783782

  16. The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Michael P; Weeks, Connor D; Topper, Viktoria Y; Thompson, Lindsay M; Crews, David; Gore, Andrea C

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during critical periods of development may influence neuronal development and the manifestation of sexually dimorphic sociability and social novelty behaviors in adulthood. In this study, we assessed the effects of gestational exposure to PCBs on the social behavior of males and females later in adulthood. A weakly estrogenic PCB mixture, Aroclor 1221 (A1221, 0.5 or 1mg/kg) was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams. Both a positive control (estradiol benzoate; EB, 50μg/kg) and negative control (dimethylsulfoxide; DMSO in sesame oil vehicle) were similarly administered to separate sets of dams. The sexes responded differently in two tasks essential to sociality. Using a three-chamber apparatus that contained a caged, same-sex, gonadectomized stimulus animal and an empty stimulus cage, we found that both sexes showed a strong preference for affiliating with a stimulus animal (vs. an empty cage), an effect that was much more pronounced in the males. In the second task, a novel and a familiar stimulus animal were caged at opposite ends of the same apparatus. Females displayed a higher degree of novelty preference than the males. During both tests, females had significantly higher social approach behaviors while male engaged in significantly more interactive behaviors with the conspecific. Of particular interest, males born of dams that received prenatal A1221 (0.5mg/kg) exhibited an overall decrease in nose-to-nose investigations. These behavioral data suggest that the males are more sensitive to A1221 treatment than are females. In addition to behavioral analysis, serum corticosterone was measured. Females born of dams treated with A1221 (0.5mg/kg) had significantly higher concentrations of corticosterone than the DMSO female group; males were unaffected. Females also had significantly higher corticosterone concentrations than did males. Overall, our results suggest that the effects of gestational exposure to

  17. The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult social behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Michael P.; Weeks, Connor D.; Topper, Viktoria Y.; Thompson, Lindsay M.; Crews, David; Gore, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during critical periods of development may influence neuronal development and the manifestation of sexually dimorphic sociability and social novelty behaviors in adulthood. In this study, we assessed the effects of gestational exposure to PCBs on the social behavior of males and females later in adulthood. A weakly estrogenic PCB mixture, Aroclor 1221 (A1221, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams. Both a positive control (estradiol benzoate; EB, 50 μg/kg) and negative control (dimethylsulfoxide; DMSO in sesame oil vehicle) were similarly administered to separate sets of dams. The sexes responded differently in two tasks essential to sociality. Using a three-chamber apparatus that contained a caged, same-sex, gonadectomized stimulus animal and an empty stimulus cage, we found that both sexes showed a strong preference for affiliating with a stimulus animal (vs. an empty cage), an effect that was much more pronounced in the males. In the second task, a novel and a familiar stimulus animal were caged at opposite ends of the same apparatus. Females displayed a higher degree of novelty preference than the males. During both tests, females had significantly higher social approach behaviors while male engaged in significantly more interactive behaviors with the conspecific. Of particular interest, males born of dams that received prenatal A1221 (0.5 mg/kg) exhibited an overall decrease in nose-to-nose investigations. These behavioral data suggest that the males are more sensitive to A1221 treatment than are females. In addition to behavioral analysis, serum corticosterone was measured. Females born of dams treated with A1221 (0.5 mg/kg) had significantly higher concentrations of corticosterone than the DMSO female group; males were unaffected. Females also had significantly higher corticosterone concentrations than did males. Overall, our results suggest that the effects of gestational exposure

  18. Stress, social behavior, and resilience: Insights from rodents

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates. PMID:25562050

  19. Using the ANGELO Model To Develop the Children's Healthy Living Program Multilevel Intervention To Promote Obesity Preventing Behaviors for Young Children in the US-Affiliated Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Butel, Jean; Hollyer, James R.; Barber, L. Robert; Bersamin, Andrea; Coleman, Patricia; Teo-Martin, Ursula; Vargo, Agnes M.; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Almost 40% of children are overweight or obese by age 8 years in the US-Affiliated Pacific, inclusive of the five jurisdictions of Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. This article describes how the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program used the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Environments/Elements Linked to Obesity) model to design a regional intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake, water consumption, physical activity, and sleep duration and decrease recreational screen time and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children ages 2–8 years. Methods: Using the ANGELO model, CHL (1) engaged community to identify preferred intervention strategies, (2) reviewed scientific literature, (3) merged findings from community and literature, and (4) formulated the regional intervention. Results: More than 900 community members across the Pacific helped identify intervention strategies on importance and feasibility. Nine common intervention strategies emerged. Participants supported the idea of a regional intervention while noting that cultural and resource differences would require flexibility in its implementation in the five jurisdictions. Community findings were merged with the effective obesity-reducing strategies identified in the literature, resulting in a regional intervention with four cross-cutting functions: (1) initiate or strengthen school wellness policies; (2) partner and advocate for environmental change; (3) promote CHL messages; and (4) train trainers to promote CHL behavioral objectives for children ages 2–8 years. These broad functions guided intervention activities and allowed communities to tailor activities to maximize intervention fit. Conclusions: Using the ANGELO model assured that the regional intervention was evidence based while recognizing jurisdiction context, which should increase effectiveness and sustainability. PMID:25369548

  20. Behavioral Confirmation in Social Interaction: From Social Perception to Social Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Swann, William B., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Of what importance are our impressions and perceptions of others? This empirical investigation suggests that social perceptions can and do exert powerful channeling effects on subsequent social interaction such that actual behavioral confirmation of these beliefs is produced. Outlines a theoretical account of the processes believed to underlie…

  1. G.H. Mead's social behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Cook, G A

    1977-10-01

    This paper seeks to clarify those conceptual foundations of G.H. Mead's social behaviorism which are assumed, but not made explicit, in that writer's well-known volume Mind, Self and Society. These foundations are shown to be an outgrowth of Mead's early commitment to the organic conception of conduct underlying the psychological functionalism of the Chicago School. Further light is shed upon Mead's position by pointing out the fundamental differences between his model of conduct and that characteristic of the behaviorist tradition in American psychology. PMID:336677

  2. An evolutionary perspective on the behavioral consequences of exogenous oxytocin application

    PubMed Central

    Ebitz, R. Becket; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is released in response to social signals, particularly positive ones like eye contact, social touch, sexual behavior, and affiliative vocalizations. Conversely, exogenous delivery of OT has diverse behavioral effects, sometimes promoting affiliative and prosocial behaviors, but sometimes suppressing them. Here, we argue that one unifying interpretation of these diverse effects is to view OT as an evolutionarily conserved physiological signal indicating affiliative interactions and predicting their behavioral consequences. In this model, OT regulates the way information about the social environment accesses the neural circuitry responsible for social behavior, thereby shaping it in sometimes counter intuitive but adaptive ways. Notably, prosociality is not always the most adaptive response to an affiliative signal from another individual. In many circumstances, an asocial or even antisocial response may confer greater fitness benefits. We argue that the behavioral effects of exogenous OT delivery not only parallel the behavioral effects of affiliative interactions, but are themselves adaptive responses to affiliative interactions. In support of this idea, we review recent evidence that OT does not unilaterally enhance social attention, as previously thought, but rather can reduce the typical prioritization of social information at the expense of other information or goals. Such diminished social vigilance may be an adaptive response to affiliative social interactions because it frees attentional resources for the pursuit of other goals. Finally, we predict that OT may mediate other behavioral consequences of social interactions, such as reduced predator vigilance, and argue that this is a rich avenue for future behavioral and neurobiological study. PMID:24478646

  3. Social exclusion causes self-defeating behavior.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Catanese, Kathleen R; Baumeister, Roy F

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments tested the idea that social exclusion leads to (unintentionally) self-defeating behavior. Exclusion was manipulated by telling some people that they were likely to end up alone later in life. This randomly assigned feedback caused people to take irrational, self-defeating risks (Experiments 1 and 2), choose unhealthy, rather than healthy, behaviors (Experiment 3), and procrastinate longer with pleasurable activities rather than practicing for an upcoming test (Experiment 4). A control group, who heard that their future would be marred by frequent accidents, did not show these self-defeating patterns. Thus, the effect goes beyond just hearing bad news. Emotional distress did not significantly mediate these effects across 3 different mood measures. PMID:12219857

  4. Social exclusion causes self-defeating behavior.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Catanese, Kathleen R; Baumeister, Roy F

    2002-09-01

    Four experiments tested the idea that social exclusion leads to (unintentionally) self-defeating behavior. Exclusion was manipulated by telling some people that they were likely to end up alone later in life. This randomly assigned feedback caused people to take irrational, self-defeating risks (Experiments 1 and 2), choose unhealthy, rather than healthy, behaviors (Experiment 3), and procrastinate longer with pleasurable activities rather than practicing for an upcoming test (Experiment 4). A control group, who heard that their future would be marred by frequent accidents, did not show these self-defeating patterns. Thus, the effect goes beyond just hearing bad news. Emotional distress did not significantly mediate these effects across 3 different mood measures.

  5. Incorrect author affiliation.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Incorrect Author Affiliation: In the article titled “Effect of Human Papillomavirus on Patterns of Distant Metastatic Failure in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiotherapy,”published online March 5, 2015, and also in this issue of JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery (doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2015 .136), the Author Affiliations were incorrect. That section should have been given as follows: "Author Affiliations: Head and Neck Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Trosman, Lamarre, Scharpf, Khan, Lorenz, Burkey); Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Koyfman,Ward, Greskovich); Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois (Al-Khudari); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology,Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Nwizu, Adelstein)." This article was corrected online and in print.

  6. Control and Affiliation: A Two Dimensional Approach to Relational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolhuizen, James H.

    Interpersonal behavior has been observed in a number of studies, and yet the two relational issues of control and affiliation are commonly reflected in all of them. Relational control includes such behaviors as dominance, assertiveness, retiring, and following, while relational affiliation includes involvement, acceptance, friendliness, and…

  7. Social Isolation Rearing: Species Differences in Behavior of Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Gene P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social and nonsocial behaviors of infant rhesus (macaca mulatta) and pigtail (M. nemestrina) monkeys reared in total social isolation were compared with those of socialized controls. Results question the generality of rhesus total isolate behavior as a model for some human problems. (Author/SB)

  8. Unemployment, Social Support, Individual Resources, and Job Search Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebarska, Katarzyna; Moser, Klaus; Gunnesch-Luca, George

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between the social support received by unemployed individuals (N = 104) and their job search behavior. A moderated mediation model demonstrated that the effect of social support on job search behaviors was mediated by self-esteem but only if adequacy of social support was perceived as low. In addition, the…

  9. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors in both adult and immature stages. Multiple pheromones and neural pathways that underlie adult social behavior have been described in the genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, but there is no...

  10. Zebrafish Social Behavior in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Shelton, Delia S; Shukla, Rohitashva; Roy, Tamal; Bhat, Anuradha; Martins, Emília P

    2016-02-01

    Wild zebrafish exhibit a wide range of behavior. We found abundant wild zebrafish in flowing rivers and still water, in large, tightly-knit groups of hundreds of individuals, as well as in small, loose shoals. In two still-water populations, zebrafish were quite small in body size, common, and in tight groups of up to 22 fish. As in earlier laboratory studies, these zebrafish exhibited very low levels of aggression. In slowly flowing water in central India, zebrafish were relatively rare and gathered in small shoals (4-12 fish), often with other small fish, such as Rasbora daniconius. These stream zebrafish were larger in body size (27 mm TL) and much more aggressive than those in still water. In a second river population with much faster flowing water, zebrafish were abundant and again relatively large (21 mm TL). These zebrafish occurred in very large (up to 300 individuals) and tightly-knit (nearest-neighbor distances up to 21 mm) groups that exhibited collective rheotaxis and almost no aggression. This remarkable variation in social behavior of wild zebrafish offers an opportunity for future studies of behavioral genetics, development, and neuroscience.

  11. Individual behavior, culture, and social change

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency relations result in evolving lineages of recurrences that can become increasingly complex in the number and organization of their elements. In addition to its role in the recurring interlocking behavioral contingencies that constitute cultural organization, operant behavior plays another role in cultures. Although the operants of individuals are functionally independent of one another, the behavior of each person may contribute to a cumulative effect that is relevant to the well-being of many people. Similarly, the outcomes of metacontingencies may also contribute to a cumulative effect. The relation between independently evolving operant lineages, or between independently evolving cultural lineages, and their cumulative effect is identified as a macrocontingency. Macrocontingencies do not involve cultural-level selection per se. Effective cultural engineering requires identifying the macrocontingencies that produce less than desirable effects and altering the relevant operant contingencies or metacontingencies to produce change in the cumulative effects. PMID:22478424

  12. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher…

  13. Social Escape Behaviors in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; DeBernardis, Marie; Reiss, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors…

  14. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  15. Some social contexts of self-destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Edelson, S M; Taubman, M T; Lovaas, O I

    1983-06-01

    This study investigated the social context of self-injurious behavior in autistic, schizophrenic, and mentally retarded children residing in a state hospital. Social interactions between subjects and staff were recorded along with subjects' self-destructive behavior. The results showed a substantial increase in self-destructive behavior following the staff's presentation of demands, denials, and punishments in 19 of the 20 subjects. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior is a social behavior, which is determined by persons in the environment. In addition, the self-destructive behavior of one subject may have been largely self-stimulatory in nature.

  16. Observational themes of social behavioral disturbances in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Barsuglia, Joseph P; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R; Shapira, Jill S; Velasco, Christina; Jimenez, Elvira E; Mather, Michelle J; Mendez, Mario F

    2014-05-20

    ABSTRACT Background: Caregivers report early disturbances in social behavior among patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD); however, there are few direct observational studies of these social behavioral disturbances. This study aimed to identify social behavioral themes in bvFTD by direct observation in naturalistic interactions. The identification of these themes can help caregivers and clinicians manage the social behavioral disturbances of this disease. Methods: Researchers observed 13 bvFTD patients in their homes and community-based settings and recorded field notes on their interpersonal interactions. A qualitative analysis of their social behavior was then conducted using ATLAS.ti application and a constant comparison method. Results: Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) diminished relational interest and initiation, indicating failure to seek social interactions; (2) lack of social synchrony/intersubjectivity, indicating an inability to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships; and (3) poor awareness and adherence to social boundaries and norms. These themes corresponded with changes from caregiver reports and behavioral scales. Conclusion: This analysis indicates that real-world observation validates the diagnostic criteria for bvFTD and increases understanding of social behavioral disturbances in this disorder. The results of this and future observational studies can highlight key areas for clinical assessment, caregiver education, and targeted interventions that enhance the management of social behavioral disturbances in bvFTD.

  17. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  18. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  19. Human behavior in online social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.

    2009-06-01

    We present and study data concerning human behavior in four online social systems: (i) an Internet community of friends of over 107 people, (ii) a music community website with over 106 users, (iii) a gamers’ community server with over 5 × 106 users and (iv) a booklovers’ website with over 2.5 × 105 users. The purpose of those systems is different; however, their properties are very similar. We have found that the distribution of human activity (e.g., the sum of books read or songs played) has the form of a power law. Moreover, the relationship between human activity and time has a power-law form, too. We present a simple interest-driven model of the evolution of such systems which explains the emergence of two scaling regimes.

  20. Double Dissociation of the Roles of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 and Oxytocin Receptor in Discrete Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mesic, Ivana; Guzman, Yomayra F; Guedea, Anita L; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Corcoran, Kevin A; Leaderbrand, Katherine; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Contractor, Anis; Radulovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions in vertebrates are complex phenomena based on affective and cognitive processes. Multiple brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are involved in the expression of social behaviors, but their individual roles in specific aspects of social interactions are not well understood. Here we investigated how Gq-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) affect social affiliation and social memory. We used conditional genetic approaches in which the genes coding for these receptors were knocked out in the lateral septum by infusion of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors containing Cre recombinase (AAV-Cre). Social behavior was assessed 2 weeks later using a three-chamber paradigm for sociability and preference for social novelty. Septal deletion of mGluR5 abolished sociability while leaving preference for social novelty intact. In contrast, deletion of Oxtr did not affect sociability but significantly impaired preference for social novelty. Nonsocial behaviors or memories, including novel object recognition or fear conditioning, were not affected by these genetic manipulations. Immunohistochemical analyses of the distribution of mGluR5 and Oxtr revealed non-overlapping localization of these receptors within the lateral septum, suggesting that not only different neurotransmitters but also different neuronal types contribute to sociability versus preference for social novelty. Our findings identify highly specialized roles of lateral septal mGluR5 and Oxtr in the the regulation of discrete social behaviors, and suggest that deficits in social interactions, which accompany many mental illnesses, would benefit from comprehensive treatments targeting different components of social functioning. PMID:25824423

  1. Gene-environment interplay in the link of friends' and nonfriends' behaviors with children's social reticence in a competitive situation.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-03-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and nonfriends' behaviors and (b) children's social reticence were examined. The sample comprised 466 twin children (i.e., the target children), each of whom was assessed in kindergarten together with a same-sex friend and two nonfriend classmates of either sex. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that children with a genetic disposition for social reticence showed more reticent behavior in the competitive situation and were more likely to affiliate with reticent friends (i.e., rGE). Moreover, a higher level of children's reticent behavior was predicted by their friends' higher social reticence (particularly for girls) and their friends' higher social dominance, independently of children's genetic disposition. Children's social reticence was also predicted by their nonfriends' behaviors. Specifically, children were less reticent when male nonfriends showed high levels of social reticence in the competitive situation, and this was particularly true for children with a genetic disposition for social reticence (i.e., GxE). Moreover, children genetically vulnerable for social reticence seemed to foster dominant behavior in their female nonfriend peers (i.e., rGE). In turn, male nonfriends seemed to be more dominant as soon as the target children were reticent, even if the target children did not have a stable genetic disposition for this behavior.

  2. Appropriate Social Behavior: Teaching Expectations to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Pool, Juli Lull

    2012-01-01

    Young children's challenging behavior can impact all aspects of the classroom environment, including relationships (peer-peer, student-teacher), learning, and safety. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a program that focuses on supporting pro-social behaviors and preventing challenging behavior. PBIS begins with building a…

  3. The effects of individual cubicle research on the social interactions and individual behavior of brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Ruby, Suzanne; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M

    2015-10-01

    Primates are increasingly being tested individually in purpose-built research centers within zoos. The voluntary nature of research testing indicates that participation is enriching for the primate subjects, but previous studies have generally focused only on stress-related behavior, indicating that the research does not have a negative effect. Few data are available on the effects that individual research may have on social behavior, yet given primates' complex social lives and their responses to how conspecifics are treated, it is important to determine whether individual testing impacts upon their social interactions. The current study compared the social and individual behavior of 11 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) between three conditions: (1) directly after undergoing individual testing, (2) a control, and (3) upon returning to the group having voluntarily left. The results indicate that individual and stress-related behaviors were affected very little by individual research testing and that social behaviors increased. However, although affiliative interactions were enhanced, aggressive interactions were also seen to increase in the condition following individual testing compared with the return to group condition. Suggestions for minimizing the negative interactions are given. Provided that these suggestions are taken into account by researchers, our results provide support for developing research centers within zoos given the important findings emerging on our closest living relatives, combined with the potentially positive effects the research has on their welfare. PMID:26173706

  4. Social skills and sex-role functioning in borderline personality disorder: relationship to self-mutilating behavior.

    PubMed

    McKay, Dean; Gavigan, Carie A; Kulchycky, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the social skills functioning and sex role affiliation of female inpatients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder who engaged in self-mutilating behavior (n = 30) with female patients with borderline personality disorder who did not engage in such behavior (n = 18). Patients with borderline personality disorder who engaged in self-mutilating behavior were found to have relatively poorer skills in communicating non-verbal emotional information to others and in receiving and interpreting such information from others. In terms of sex role orientation, patients who engaged in self-mutilating behavior were significantly more likely than non-mutilators to be typed as undifferentiated using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. These participants were less likely to identify with either masculine or feminine sex roles. Patients who did not self-mutilate were found to be significantly more likely than those who did self-mutilate to identify with the masculine sex role.

  5. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time. PMID:24939004

  6. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.

  7. Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sara J.; Sargent, Roger G.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the impact of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors on fourth graders' dietary practices, using a social cognitive theory framework. Survey results highlighted social cognitive variables that significantly influenced dietary behaviors: gender, race, socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable availability at home, nutrition…

  8. Children's Behavioral Characteristics and Their Ability to Detect Social Contingency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normandeau, Sylvie; Cantin, Stephane

    Studies have suggested that the presence of individual differences in children's ability to detect social contingencies may be related to their behavioral characteristics, as a result of cumulative transactions with their physical and social environments. This study sought to identify behavioral characteristics associated with children's ability…

  9. Algebraic Systems: Applications in the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld, Stephen F.; Bart, William M.

    A variety of uses of algebra in the behavioral and social sciences is provided along with descriptions of several algebraic systems. This volume is intended to be a sourcebook for theoretical conceptualizations for professionals in the behavioral and social sciences. This publication with its emphasis on description, application, and utility…

  10. Transgenerational effects of social stress on social behavior, corticosterone, oxytocin, and prolactin in rats.

    PubMed

    Babb, Jessica A; Carini, Lindsay M; Spears, Stella L; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2014-04-01

    Social stressors such as depressed maternal care and family conflict are robust challenges which can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. The current study investigates the transgenerational effects of an ethologically relevant chronic social stress on the behavior and endocrinology of juvenile and adult rats. Exposure to chronic social stress during lactation impairs maternal care in F0 lactating dams and the maternal care of the F1 offspring of those stressed F0 dams. The overall hypothesis was that the male and female F2 offspring of stressed F1 dams would display decreased social behavior as both juveniles and adults and that these behavioral effects would be accompanied by changes in plasma corticosterone, prolactin, and oxytocin. Both the female and male F2 offspring of dams exposed to chronic social stress displayed decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults, and these behavioral effects were accompanied by decreases in basal concentrations of corticosterone in both sexes, as well as elevated juvenile oxytocin and decreased adult prolactin in the female offspring. The data support the conclusion that social stress has transgenerational effects on the social behavior of the female and male offspring which are mediated by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Social stress models are valuable resources in the study of the transgenerational effects of stress on the behavioral endocrinology of disorders such as depression, anxiety, autism, and other disorders involving disrupted social behavior.

  11. Organizational affiliation and effectiveness: the case of rape crisis centers.

    PubMed

    Byington, D B; Martin, P Y; DiNitto, D M; Maxwell, M S

    1991-01-01

    Many rape crisis centers (RCCs) that were founded as autonomous organizations have affiliated with other organizations. The relationship of affiliation type and effectiveness is examined in a sample of 25 RCCs in Florida. Effectiveness is defined in terms of range of services for rape victims and involvement in rape prevention (social change) activities. The data show that 23 RCCs are affiliated with six types of organizations and two are free-standing. Each affiliation type has advantages and disadvantages but, overall, free-standing RCCs appear to be most effective and RCCs affiliated with community mental health centers, least effective. Of the seven types, free-standing agencies are most involved in rape prevention activities aimed at social change. PMID:10114294

  12. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

  13. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  14. Social Behavior in Swine and Its Impact on Welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are social animals. From an evolutionary perspective, being social conveys a number of benefits, but potentially some disadvantages, especially for certain individuals within the group. The emphasis of this manuscript will be on those social behaviors that relate to formation and maintenance of...

  15. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569

  16. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs.

  17. Using Social Stories to Improve the Social Behavior of Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansosti, Frank J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2006-01-01

    To date, the empirical support for the use of social story interventions for children with Asperger syndrome (AS) is small. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of individualized social story interventions on the social behavior of three children with AS. Using a multiple-baseline-across-participants design, social stories were…

  18. Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health. Social Influence and Social Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses social influence and social cognition's effect on health and social well-being, and examines the efficacy of public health campaigns, the effects of negative stereotyping, and why some teenagers resist drug use and others do not as part of the social problems addressed by behavioral science research. Future directions for research on…

  19. Social Support, Network Structure, and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph P.; Wilson, Diane Grimard

    The Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) appears to be a satisfactory measure of social support with good reliability and some evidence of validity. To investigate the dimensionality of the ISSB through factor analytic procedures and to predict social support from social network variables, 179 college students (97 male, 82 female)…

  20. Left brain cortical activity modulates stress effects on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunee; Hong, Jiso; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Yong; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-01-01

    When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic social defeats showed depressed neural activity in the left mPFC. Photoactivation of these neurons reversed social avoidance and restored social activity. Despite social defeats, resilient mice with normal sociability showed normal firing rates in the left mPFC; however, photoinhibition of these neurons induced social avoidance. The same photomodulation administered to the right mPFC caused no significant effects. These results explain how stressed individuals develop maladaptive behaviors through left cortical depression, as reported in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26302668

  1. Concurrent and predictive associations between early adolescent perceptions of peer affiliates and mood states collected in real time via ecological momentary assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M

    2013-03-01

    This study uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to simultaneously capture youths' perceptions of peer affiliates and social contexts to determine their association with youths' current and future mood states. A sample of 82 seventh grade students (36 at risk for developing or escalating rule breaking and substance use and 46 randomly selected) from 4 schools participated. Using EMA methodology, we had students report their peer affiliations, perceptions of peer affiliates, moods, activities, location, and behaviors during their free time. Data from 3 assessment waves were collected; each wave consisted of 27 randomly prompted assessments during a week. Youths spent a large portion of their free time watching television, on the computer, or playing video games. Being "out and about" increased over the school year, whereas adult supervision decreased, showing an increase in potentially risky situations. Happiness was associated with affiliating with peers who were perceived to be popular. Negative moods were associated with affiliating with peers by whom they were teased or treated meanly. Multilevel models found that both levels and lability of negative moods (i.e., sadness, anxiety) were predicted by risk status and affiliation with peers who tease them. Compared with boys, girls who affiliated more with peers who teased them and were classified as at risk had more extreme negative moods and negative mood lability. EMA methodology has demonstrated the ways in which salient intrapersonal and peer processes are associated over time, which can inform efforts to prevent the development and escalation of behavior problems, substance use, and mood disorders in adolescence.

  2. Differences in electrosensory anatomy and social behavior in an area of sympatry between two species of mormyrid electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Sensory systems play a key role in social behavior by mediating the detection and analysis of communication signals. In mormyrid fishes, electric signals are processed within a dedicated sensory pathway, providing a unique opportunity to relate sensory biology to social behavior. Evolutionary changes within this pathway led to new perceptual abilities that have been linked to increased rates of signal evolution and species diversification in a lineage called 'clade A'. Previous field observations suggest that clade-A species tend to be solitary and territorial, whereas non-clade-A species tend to be clustered in high densities suggestive of schooling or shoaling. To explore behavioral differences between species in these lineages in greater detail, I studied population densities, social interactions, and electric signaling in two mormyrid species, Gnathonemus victoriae (clade A) and Petrocephalus degeni (non-clade A), from Lwamunda Swamp, Uganda. Petrocephalus degeni was found at higher population densities, but intraspecific diversity in electric signal waveform was greater in G. victoriae. In the laboratory, G. victoriae exhibited strong shelter-seeking behavior and competition for shelter, whereas P. degeni were more likely to abandon shelter in the presence of conspecifics as well as electric mimics of signaling conspecifics. In other words, P. degeni exhibited social affiliation whereas G. victoriae exhibited social competition. Further, P. degeni showed correlated electric signaling behavior whereas G. victoriae showed anti-correlated signaling behavior. These findings extend previous reports of social spacing, territoriality, and habitat preference among mormyrid species, suggesting that evolutionary divergence in electrosensory processing relates to differences in social behavior.

  3. Social behavior in the "Age of Empathy"?-A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences.

    PubMed

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the "social brain" that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what "social" means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what "social" means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the "social." The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond.

  4. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female "attractiveness" was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  5. Moderation of Harsh Parenting on Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Deviant Peer Affiliation: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is associated with biologically influenced personal attributes, and is itself a major contributor to growth in antisocial behavior over childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown that variance in child and adolescent deviant peer affiliation includes genetic and non-genetic influences, but none have examined longitudinal genetic and environmental stability or change within the context of harsh parenting. To address this gap, we tested the moderating role of harsh parenting on genetic and environmental stability or change of deviant peer affiliation in a longitudinal (spanning one and a half years) study of Chinese child and adolescent twin pairs (N = 993, 52.0% female). Using multiple informants (child- and parent-reports) and measurement methods to minimize rater bias, we found that individual differences in deviant peer affiliation at each assessment were similarly explained by moderate genetic and nonshared environmental variance. The longitudinal stability and change of deviant peer affiliation were explained by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results also revealed that the genetic variance for deviant peer affiliation is higher in the families with harsher parenting. This amplified genetic risk underscores the role of harsh parenting in the selection and socialization process of deviant peer relationships.

  6. Brain Evolution: The Origins of Social and Cognitive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Argues that common anatomical and functional characteristics exist among the brains of reptiles, mammals, and man--the most significant commonality for educators being social behavior. Illustrates inherited behavior, including behavior observed in classroom and believed to be learned by placing it in context of a model "triune" (reptilian,…

  7. Body Language and the Social Order; Communication as Behavioral Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheflen, Albert E.

    Human communication, verbal and especially nonverbal, is based upon lower and earlier primate development as well as on extensive culturally learned behavior. Kinesthetic study can discover behaviors which maintain and disrupt social orders of all types--governmental, economic, familial, and personal. Communicational behavior exerts controls and…

  8. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    PubMed

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  9. The role of the striatum in social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Mendoza, Raymundo; Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Where and how does the brain code reward during social behavior? Almost all elements of the brain's reward circuit are modulated during social behavior. The striatum in particular is activated by rewards in social situations. However, its role in social behavior is still poorly understood. Here, we attempt to review its participation in social behaviors of different species ranging from voles to humans. Human fMRI experiments show that the striatum is reliably active in relation to others' rewards, to reward inequity and also while learning about social agents. Social contact and rearing conditions have long-lasting effects on behavior, striatal anatomy and physiology in rodents and primates. The striatum also plays a critical role in pair-bond formation and maintenance in monogamous voles. We review recent findings from single neuron recordings showing that the striatum contains cells that link own reward to self or others' actions. These signals might be used to solve the agency-credit assignment problem: the question of whose action was responsible for the reward. Activity in the striatum has been hypothesized to integrate actions with rewards. The picture that emerges from this review is that the striatum is a general-purpose subcortical region capable of integrating social information into coding of social action and reward. PMID:24339801

  10. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes’ behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes’ connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  11. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  12. Ethical, Legal, Social, and Policy Implications of Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has engendered a host of moral and social concerns virtually since its inception. The policy implications of a genetic basis for behaviors are widespread and extend beyond the clinic to the socially important realms of education, criminal justice, childbearing, and child rearing. The development of new techniques and analytic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, and optogenetics, has clearly changed the study of behavioral genetics. However, the social context of biomedical research has also changed profoundly over the past few decades, and in ways that are especially relevant to behavioral genetics. The ever-widening scope of behavioral genetics raises ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the potential new applications to criminal justice, education, the military, and reproduction. These issues are especially critical to address because of their potentially disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations such as children, the unborn, and the incarcerated. PMID:23452225

  13. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms. PMID:27318174

  14. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  15. Social Relationships and Health Behavior Across Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Crosnoe, Robert; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Sociological theory and research point to the importance of social relationships in affecting health behavior. This work tends to focus on specific stages of the life course, with a division between research on childhood/adolescent and adult populations. Yet recent advances demonstrate that early life course experiences shape health outcomes well into adulthood. We synthesize disparate bodies of research on social ties and health behavior throughout the life course, with attention to explaining how various social ties influence health behaviors at different life stages and how these processes accumulate and reverberate throughout the life course. PMID:21921974

  16. Task-related social behavior in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kasari, C; Freeman, S F

    2001-05-01

    The specificity and stability of task-related social behaviors in children ages 5 to 12 was examined. Social behaviors during solvable and unsolvable puzzles were compared among children with Down syndrome, children with mental retardation, and typically developing children matched on mental age (MA). Compared to children without Down syndrome, those with the disorder looked to an adult and requested help more frequently. They also took longer to complete the tasks. These findings suggest that the overuse of social behaviors observed in young children with Down syndrome remains stable over the early school years and are specific to children with Down syndrome. PMID:11389666

  17. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity. PMID:26213711

  18. Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and the Motivational Forces that Drive Social Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Heather K; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-01-01

    The motivation to engage in social behaviors is influenced by past experience and internal state, but also depends on the behavior of other animals. Across species, the oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) systems have consistently been linked to the modulation of motivated social behaviors. However, how they interact with other systems, such as the mesolimbic dopamine system, remains understudied. Further, while the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate prosocial/cooperative behaviors have been extensively examined, far less is understood about competitive behaviors, particularly in females. In this chapter, we highlight the specific contributions of Oxt and Avp to several cooperative and competitive behaviors and discuss their relevance to the concept of social motivation across species, including humans. Further, we discuss the implications for neuropsychiatric diseases and suggest future areas of investigation. PMID:26472550

  19. Characterization of Social Behaviors in caspase-3 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Sheng, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder that shows a strong male preponderance in prevalence. Studies have identified neural circuits, neuromodulators and genetic factors involved in social behaviors, but mechanistic understanding of gender-specific social deficits is lacking. We report that deletion of the caspase-3 gene, encoding a protease with functions in apoptosis and neural plasticity, alters specific social behaviors in male mice, while leaving females unaffected. Casp3−/− mice showed normal behavioral responses to olfactory cues from food, neutral chemical and biological sources. Both Casp3−/− males and females displayed robust social exploration, sociability, recognition and preference for an enclosed novel mouse in the three-chamber test. However, Casp3−/− males showed significantly reduced social interaction behaviors when exposed to a freely moving novel mouse, including decreased interaction time and diminished mounting. Thus caspase-3 is essential for a subset of social behaviors, but despite similar hyper-locomotion in both sexes, only male Casp3−/− mice exhibited social interaction deficits, which is interesting given the male bias of autism. PMID:26783106

  20. Integrative approaches utilizing oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to autistic social dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Hidenori; Yee, Jason R; Hurlemann, René; Rilling, James K; Chen, Frances S; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Tost, Heike

    2012-10-10

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is as high as 1 in 100 individuals and is a heavy burden to society. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. Here, we briefly review the topics covered in our 2012 Society for Neuroscience Mini-Symposium entitled "Integrative Approaches Using Oxytocin to Enhance Prosocial Behavior: From Animal and Human Social Behavior to ASD's Social Dysfunction." This work is not meant to be a comprehensive review of oxytocin and prosocial behavior. Instead, we wish to share the newest findings on the effects of oxytocin on social behavior, the brain, and the social dysfunction of ASD at the molecular, genetic, systemic, and behavior levels, in varied subjects ranging from animal models to humans suffering from autism for the purpose of promoting further study for developing the clinical use of oxytocin in treating ASD.

  1. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual’s behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone–behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated

  2. Self-Perceived Social Acceptance and Peer Social Standing in Children with Aggressive-Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…

  3. Modification by Social Reinforcement of Deficient Social Behavior of Disadvantaged Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Sally A.; And Others

    Positive social reinforcement (teacher attention) was used to modify the deficient social behavior of two disadvantaged Negro kindergarten children. Subjects were a girl who showed a very high amount of isolate behavior, and a boy who usually played alone, or with girls to the exclusion of boys. Data were collected for one month during half hour…

  4. The Relationships among Social Cognition, Peer Acceptance, and Social Behavior in Israeli Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Ben-Eliyahu, Adar

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships among Israeli kindergarten children's social cognitive capacities, their popularity, and their social behavior. We found that children's understanding of others' behavioral motives was positively related to their popularity, that children's false-belief understanding was positively related to peers'…

  5. Links between Empathy, Social Behavior, and Social Understanding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Girardi, Alberta; Coplan, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine both social behaviors (i.e., aggression, shyness-withdrawal, and prosocial tendencies) and social understanding (i.e., attitudes and responses to such behaviors in hypothetical peers) of empathic and low empathic children. Participants were 136 children in kindergarten and grade one. Parents…

  6. The molecular basis of social behavior: models, methods and advances.

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, Adria C; Benton, Richard; Keller, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Elucidating the molecular and neural basis of complex social behaviors such as communal living, division of labor and warfare requires model organisms that exhibit these multi-faceted behavioral phenotypes. Social insects, such as ants, bees, wasps and termites, are attractive models to address this problem, with rich ecological and ethological foundations. However, their atypical systems of reproduction have hindered application of classical genetic approaches. In this review, we discuss how recent advances in social insect genomics, transcriptomics, and functional manipulations have enhanced our ability to observe and perturb gene expression, physiology and behavior in these species. Such developments begin to provide an integrated view of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of complex social behavior. PMID:22995551

  7. Intervention with School Social Systems: A Behavioral-Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    The Behavioral-Systems Approach (BSA), a broad-based approach to intervention with a range of school social systems, is presented and some outcome evidence of the utility of the approach for practicing school psychologists reported. (Author/BW)

  8. Perceived TV Reality as a Predictor of Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with 721 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders were not supportive of the assumed role of children's perceived reality of television in determining the impact of exposure to television on children's social behavior. (GT)

  9. Problem Behaviors of Homeless Youth: A Social Capital Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bantchevska, Denitza; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Glebova, Tatiana; Slesnick, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    Homeless youth are one of the most marginalized groups in our society. Many researchers identify much higher levels of various problem behaviors among these youth compared to their non-homeless peers. The current study examined the utility of social capital in predicting problem behaviors among homeless youth. Overall, the theoretically derived social capital variable significantly predicted substance use frequency, sexual risk behavior, depression, delinquent behavior as well as number of days homeless. Thus, social capital was useful in understanding and predicting the current life situation among these youth and may be worthy of further study. Findings suggest that meaningful change should utilize interventions that go beyond the individual and are geared towards modifying the social context of individuals’ lives. PMID:18787647

  10. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: Are the Social Role and Evolutionary Explanations Compatible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    1996-01-01

    Examines competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology. Findings associated with social role theory are weighed against evolutionary explanations. It is suggested that evolutionary theory better accounts for the overall pattern of sex differences and for their origins.…

  11. Using "I Will" Cards and Social Coaches to Improve Social Behaviors of Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have examined ways to improve social functioning of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some common strategies include: (1) social stories strategy; (2) social scripts strategy; (3) power card strategy; (4) cognitive behavioral modification; and (5) the "I Will" card strategy. The "I Will" card strategy utilizes components…

  12. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  13. Global social skill ratings: measures of social behavior or physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hope, D A; Mindell, J A

    1994-05-01

    Calvert reviewed the literature on social skills and physical attractiveness and concluded that many ratings of social skill may be confounded by the physical attractiveness of the target individual, possibly due to a general perception that physical attractiveness and social competence are positively correlated. In order to examine the influence of physical attractiveness on social skill ratings, Ss made global ratings of social skill and attractiveness for a confederate whose appearance and behavior had been altered to appear attractive or unattractive and socially skilled or unskilled in an assertiveness and heterosocial vignette. The results indicated that the same skilled behavior was viewed as more competent when performed by an attractive person compared to an unattractive person. Attractiveness had no influence on ratings of generally incompetent behavior. Thus, it appears that physical attractiveness does not compensate for poor interpersonal skills, but a skilled, attractive individual may be judged to have particularly good skills. Implications for the assessment of social skills are discussed.

  14. Social goals: relationship to adolescent adjustment and to social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Lochman, J E; Wayland, K K; White, K J

    1993-04-01

    Examined the relations between adolescent boys' social goals of dominance, revenge, avoidance, and affiliation and (1) self-reported negative adolescent outcomes; (2) subjective sense of self-esteem; and (3) externalizing, internalizing, and prosocial behaviors, as rated by peers and teachers. Results indicated that social goal values were related to diverse aspects of self-, teacher-, and peer-reported social and behavioral functioning, with a consistent association found between a range of delinquent, substance-using, and behavioral difficulties, and endorsement of high goal values for dominance and revenge and low goal values for affiliation. Results also indicated that teacher-identified aggressive boys differed from nonaggressive boys in the value they placed on social goals, with aggressive boys placing a higher value on goals of dominance and revenge, and lower value on goals for affiliation. Finally social goal choice had a clear relation to the social problem-solving differences of aggressive and nonaggressive boys.

  15. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-20

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species' reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets' behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets' social behavior and cognition are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are among only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this Primer, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and signaling. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-20

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species' reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets' behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets' social behavior and cognition are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are among only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this Primer, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and signaling. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27100195

  17. Teachers' Attunement to Students' Peer Group Affiliations as a Source of Improved Student Experiences of the School Social-Affective Context following the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Dadisman, Kimberly; Gravelle, Maggie; Murray, Allen R.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized control trial examined the impact of a professional development program on rural teachers' attunement to student social dynamics, and the influence of teacher attunement on students' school experiences. In intervention schools serving Latino and White rural early adolescents, teachers (N = 14) received training on social dynamics and…

  18. Brain games: toward a neuroecology of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Gariépy, Jean-François; Chang, Steve W C; Platt, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    In the target article, Schilbach et al. defend a "second-person neuroscience" perspective that focuses on the neural basis of social cognition during live, ongoing interactions between individuals. We argue that a second-person neuroscience would benefit from formal approaches borrowed from economics and behavioral ecology and that it should be extended to social interactions in nonhuman animals.

  19. Actualization of Social Cognitions into Aggressive Behavior toward Disliked Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The basic premise that social cognitions guide behavior (aggression) was evaluated within relationships marked by dislike. At Time 1, a disliked target was identified for each participant (195 fifth-grade children; 109 boys; 11-12 years old at Time 1) who then responded to questions about different aggression-supporting social cognitions with…

  20. Temperament and Peer Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…

  1. The Social Context of Undermining Behavior at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michelle K.; Ganster, Daniel C.; Shaw, Jason D.; Johnson, Jonathan L.; Pagon, Milan

    2006-01-01

    We developed a fairness theory perspective to explain the experience of being "singled out" for social undermining from supervisors and coworkers, and tested our predictions across four distinct social contexts. We argued and predicted that attitudinal and behavioral reactions to undermining (from supervisors and coworkers) would be strongest when…

  2. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  3. Social Motives Underlying Antisocial Behavior across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Ho, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether social motives (social mimicry, mutual attraction, and unreciprocated attraction) predict changes in antisocial behavior across middle school grades. The 2,003 initial participants (55% girls) were drawn from a larger longitudinal study of urban public school students: 44% Latino, 26% African-American,…

  4. Effects of two types and two genre of music on social behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Howell, Sue; Murphy, James

    2007-01-01

    Is music just noise, and thus potentially harmful to laboratory animals, or can it have a beneficial effect? Research addressing this question has generated mixed results, perhaps because of the different types and styles of music used across various studies. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 2 different types (vocal versus instrumental) and 2 genres (classical vocal versus 'easy-listening' vocal) of music on social behavior in 31 female and 26 male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Results indicated that instrumental music was more effective at increasing affiliative behavior in both male and female chimpanzees, whereas vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior. A comparison of 2 genre of vocal music indicated that easy-listening (slower tempo) vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior in male chimpanzees than classical (faster tempo) vocal music. Agonistic behavior in females remained low (<0.5%) throughout the study and was unaffected by music. These results indicate that, like humans, captive chimpanzees react differently to various types and genres of music. The reactions varied depending on both the sex of the subject and the type of social behavior examined. Management programs should consider both type and genre when implementing a musical enrichment program for nonhuman primates.

  5. Aggression, dominance, and affiliation: Their relationships with androgen levels and intelligence in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; García, Ainhoa; Braza, Paloma; Muñoz, José M; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2006-06-01

    This study explores the potential relationship between social behavior (aggression, dominance, and affiliation) and testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA measurements in 5-year-old children while also analyzing the moderating effect of IQ on the hormone-behavior relationship. 129 healthy normal Iberian children (60 boys and 69 girls) were videotaped in free play interactions in the school playground. Their behavior was then evaluated with particular emphasis on aggression, government, and affiliation. Testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEA levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay technique in saliva samples. A test (K-BIT) which provides an IQ measurement for children was also administered to subjects. The correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between the behavioral factor of Provocation and androstenedione in boys, and a regression analysis indicated that this relationship was moderated in a positive direction by the subject's intelligence. In girls, we observed a positive relationship between testosterone and Affectivity, with this relationship being moderated in a negative direction by intelligence.

  6. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations.

  7. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ‘three degrees of influence’ property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  8. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  9. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  10. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  11. Social Control of Healthy Behavior between Intimate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The author examined whether the type of intimacy (ie, emotional, intellectual, sexual, social, recreational) featured in college students' romantic relationships affects the extent to which a partner's health-related behavior may be influenced by a variety of behavior change appeals. Participants: One hundred and thirteen female and 94…

  12. Social Phobia: A Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Atenolol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…

  13. Social and Behavioral Correlates of Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between specific subtypes of speech language impairment (SLI) and concomitant social competence and behavioral adjustment was investigated. Teachers and parents completed behavior ratings of SLI preschoolers enrolled in a language-based intervention program and preschoolers without language impairment, including the Parent-Child…

  14. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  15. Copulatory and agonistic behavior in Syrian hamsters following social defeat.

    PubMed

    Jeffress, Elizabeth C; Huhman, Kim L

    2013-01-01

    Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive animals that reliably defend their home territory. After social defeat, however, hamsters no longer defend their home cage but instead display submissive and defensive behavior toward an intruder, a response that we have termed conditioned defeat. Plasma testosterone is significantly reduced in Syrian hamsters following repeated defeat suggesting that social defeat might also impair copulatory behavior. The present study aimed to determine whether copulatory behavior in male Syrian hamsters is suppressed following repeated social defeats and additionally whether exposure to a hormone-primed stimulus female after social defeat reduces the behavioral response to defeat. Hamsters were paired with an aggressive opponent for one or nine defeats using a resident-intruder model, while controls were placed into the empty cage of a resident aggressor. On the day after the last treatment, half of the hamsters were paired with a receptive female for 10 min. There were no significant differences in the copulatory behavior of defeated versus non-defeated hamsters, and the opportunity to copulate had no effect on subsequent conditioned defeat testing, as defeated animals displayed significantly more submissive behavior than did non-defeated animals. The current data suggest that conditioned defeat is not necessarily a maladaptive response to social stress, at least in terms of reproductive behavior, but may instead represent a viable behavioral strategy adopted by losing animals following social defeat. Further, these data indicate that conditioned defeat is relatively persistent and stable, as the opportunity to copulate does not reduce the subsequent display of submissive behavior.

  16. Fertility decline and social service access: reconciling behavioral and medical models.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, J

    1978-01-01

    In this summary of fertility literature the author attempts to differentiate between the effects of behavioral and medical models of family planning programs on the fertility rate. This is done by determining the effects of access to social welfare services by assessment of: the function of children within the family life survey conducted in the Cameroons are also used. It was found that 7 interdependent elements of social service are involved: 1) general health care; 2) social security for sick and aged; 3) employment training and opportunities for adults; 4) literacy and education; 5) communication and transportation systems; 6) housing and infrastructure; 7) child care and welfare. The presence of these elements is shown to accompany low fertility while their absence is expressed in high rates of child bearing. These elements are major variables in both the nomological and public policy senses. 2 additional components are knowledge of and favorable attitudes towards effective means of fertility control plus effective mechanical, chemical, or natural means of limiting fertility. The concept of fertility norm and its impact on the fertility rate is explained as being the result of the collective force which social affiliations exert on people to reproduce in a certain way. The "stopping rule" is that which will fulfill the fertility norm. An example of this is a culture which continues child bearing until a son has been born and then controls reproduction after this has happened. Such factors must be considered for family planning programs to succeed in these cultures. Therefore fertility levels are found to be the product of prevailing norms and technical ability to achieve these norms. Improvement in levels of access to social services can bring about the lowering of these norms.

  17. Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, B B; Mounts, N; Lamborn, S D; Steinberg, L

    1993-04-01

    Social scientists have often assumed that parental influence is sharply curtailed at adolescence because of the rising counterinfluence of peer groups, over which parents have little control. The present study tested a conceptual model that challenged this view by arguing that parents retain a notable but indirect influence over their teenage child's peer associates. Data from a sample of 3,781 high school students (ages 15-19) indicated that specific parenting practices (monitoring, encouragement of achievement, joint decision making) were significantly associated with specific adolescent behaviors (academic achievement, drug use, self-reliance), which in turn were significantly related to membership in common adolescent crowds (jocks, druggies, etc). Findings encourage investigators to assess more carefully parents' role in adolescents' peer group affiliations.

  18. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  19. Cross-Cultural Sex Differences in Post-Conflict Affiliation following Sports Matches.

    PubMed

    Benenson, Joyce F; Wrangham, Richard W

    2016-08-22

    The nature of ancestral human social structure and the circumstances in which men or women tend to be more cooperative are subjects of intense debate. The male warrior hypothesis proposes that success in intergroup contests has been vital in human evolution and that men therefore must engage in maximally effective intragroup cooperation [1-3]. Post-conflict affiliation between opponents is further proposed to facilitate future cooperation [4], which has been demonstrated in non-human primates [5] and humans [6]. The sex that invests more in post-conflict affiliation, therefore, should cooperate more. Supportive evidence comes from chimpanzees, a close genetic relative to humans that also engages in male intergroup aggression [7]. Here we apply this principle to humans by testing the hypothesis that among members of a large community, following a conflict, males are predisposed to be more ready than females to repair their relationship via friendly contact. We took high-level sports matches as a proxy for intragroup conflict, because they occur within a large organization and constitute semi-naturalistic, standardized, aggressive, and intense confrontations. Duration or frequency of peaceful physical contacts served as the measure of post-conflict affiliation because they are strongly associated with pro-social intentions [8, 9]. Across tennis, table tennis, badminton, and boxing, with participants from 44 countries, duration of post-conflict affiliation was longer for males than females. Our results indicate that unrelated human males are more predisposed than females to invest in a behavior, post-conflict affiliation, that is expected to facilitate future intragroup cooperation. PMID:27498561

  20. Cross-Cultural Sex Differences in Post-Conflict Affiliation following Sports Matches.

    PubMed

    Benenson, Joyce F; Wrangham, Richard W

    2016-08-22

    The nature of ancestral human social structure and the circumstances in which men or women tend to be more cooperative are subjects of intense debate. The male warrior hypothesis proposes that success in intergroup contests has been vital in human evolution and that men therefore must engage in maximally effective intragroup cooperation [1-3]. Post-conflict affiliation between opponents is further proposed to facilitate future cooperation [4], which has been demonstrated in non-human primates [5] and humans [6]. The sex that invests more in post-conflict affiliation, therefore, should cooperate more. Supportive evidence comes from chimpanzees, a close genetic relative to humans that also engages in male intergroup aggression [7]. Here we apply this principle to humans by testing the hypothesis that among members of a large community, following a conflict, males are predisposed to be more ready than females to repair their relationship via friendly contact. We took high-level sports matches as a proxy for intragroup conflict, because they occur within a large organization and constitute semi-naturalistic, standardized, aggressive, and intense confrontations. Duration or frequency of peaceful physical contacts served as the measure of post-conflict affiliation because they are strongly associated with pro-social intentions [8, 9]. Across tennis, table tennis, badminton, and boxing, with participants from 44 countries, duration of post-conflict affiliation was longer for males than females. Our results indicate that unrelated human males are more predisposed than females to invest in a behavior, post-conflict affiliation, that is expected to facilitate future intragroup cooperation.

  1. Explaining exercise behavior and satisfaction with social exchange theory.

    PubMed

    Unger, J; Johnson, C A

    1995-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the variables specified by social exchange theory (perceived rewards of exercising, perceived costs of exercising, social and tangible investments, and available alternative activities) are associated with exercise behavior and satisfaction. 190 health club members completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes toward exercise, exercise behavior, and demographic information. Exercise frequency and satisfaction were regressed on the social exchange theory variables and demographic covariates. Exercise satisfaction, the number of investments in exercise, and the number of available alternative activities were significantly related to exercise frequency, and the number of perceived rewards of exercise and the number of investments were significantly related to exercise satisfaction. These results suggest that social exchange theory is useful for explaining exercise behavior. PMID:8570365

  2. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  3. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  4. A Social Neuroscientific Model of Vocational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Sullivan, Brandon A.; Luciana, Monica

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the separate literatures of a neurobiologically based approach system and vocational interests are reviewed and integrated into a social neuroscientific model of the processes underlying interests, based upon the idea of selective approach motivation. The authors propose that vocational interests describe the types of stimuli that…

  5. Autotelic Behavior in Socialization. Report Number 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inbar, Michael; Stoll, Clarice S.

    A selective review of the literature on the socialization effect of games uncovers a varied and increasing number of hypotheses, but only little and scattered evidence. Direct studies of play and game functions are primarily in uncontrolled clinical reports. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted as a preliminary attempt to establish correlational…

  6. Deficits in social behavior and reversal learning are more prevalent in male offspring of VIP deficient female mice

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Conor M.; Lim, Maria A.; Cuasay, Katrina; Stone, Madeleine M.; Seibert, Kimberly. M.; Spivak-Pohis, Irit; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Waschek, James A.; Hill, Joanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Blockage of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors during early embryogenesis in the mouse has been shown to result in developmental delays in neonates, and social behavior deficits selectively in adult male offspring. Offspring of VIP deficient mothers (VIP +/−) also exhibited developmental delays, and reductions in maternal affiliation and play behavior. In the current study, comparisons among the offspring of VIP deficient mothers (VIP +/−) mated to VIP +/− males with the offspring of wild type (WT) mothers mated to VIP +/− males allowed assessment of the contributions of both maternal and offspring VIP genotype to general health measures, social behavior, fear conditioning, and spatial learning and memory in the water maze. These comparisons revealed few differences in general health among offspring of WT and VIP deficient mothers, and all offspring exhibited normal responses in fear conditioning and in the acquisition phase of spatial discrimination in the water maze. WT mothers produced offspring that were normal in all tests; the reduced VIP in their VIP +/− offspring apparently did not contribute to any defects in the measures under study. However, regardless of their own VIP genotype, all male offspring of VIP deficient mothers exhibited severe deficits in social approach behavior and reversal learning. The deficits in these behaviors in the female offspring of VIP deficient mothers were less severe than in their male littermates, and the extent of their impairment was related to their own VIP genotype. This study has shown that intrauterine conditions had a greater influence on behavioral outcome than did genetic inheritance. In addition, the greater prevalence of deficits in social behavior and the resistance to change seen in reversal learning in the male offspring of VIP deficient mothers indicate a potential usefulness of the VIP knockout mouse in furthering the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID

  7. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain. PMID:27253877

  8. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain. PMID:27253877

  9. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.

  10. A meta-analytic review of gender variations in adults' language use: talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Ayres, Melanie M

    2007-11-01

    Three separate sets of meta-analyses were conducted of studies testing for gender differences in adults' talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech. Across independent samples, statistically significant but negligible average effects sizes were obtained with all three language constructs: Contrary to the prediction, men were more talkative (d = -.14) than were women. As expected, men used more assertive speech (d = .09), whereas women used more affiliative speech (d = .12). In addition, 17 moderator variables were tested that included aspects of the interactive context (e.g., familiarity, gender composition, activity), measurement qualities (e.g., operational definition, observation length), and publication characteristics (e.g., author gender, publication source). Depending on particular moderators, more meaningful effect sizes (d > .2) occurred for each language construct. In addition, the direction of some gender differences was significantly reversed under particular conditions. The results are interpreted in relation to social-constructionist, socialization, and biological interpretations of gender-related variations in social behavior. PMID:18453467

  11. Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.; Berry, Gordon L., Ed.

    Straightforward and engaging in style, this book presents 10 essays that provide concrete, step-by-step examples of how to conduct studies of the impact of television on behavior from quantitative perspectives, qualitative perspectives, and an integrated approach, making the volume useful for both undergraduate and graduate students. Its…

  12. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  13. 24 CFR 242.66 - Affiliate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 242.66 Affiliate transactions. Transactions with affiliates that are arms-length are permitted as specified in the Regulatory Agreement. Transactions with affiliates that are not arms-length are...

  14. 24 CFR 242.66 - Affiliate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 242.66 Affiliate transactions. Transactions with affiliates that are arms-length are permitted as specified in the Regulatory Agreement. Transactions with affiliates that are not arms-length are...

  15. 24 CFR 242.66 - Affiliate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 242.66 Affiliate transactions. Transactions with affiliates that are arms-length are permitted as specified in the Regulatory Agreement. Transactions with affiliates that are not arms-length are...

  16. 24 CFR 242.66 - Affiliate transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 242.66 Affiliate transactions. Transactions with affiliates that are arms-length are permitted as specified in the Regulatory Agreement. Transactions with affiliates that are not arms-length are...

  17. Social behavior shapes the chimpanzee pan-microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Andrew H; Foerster, Steffen; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Animal sociality facilitates the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms among hosts, but the extent to which sociality enables animals' beneficial microbial associations is poorly understood. The question is critical because microbial communities, particularly those in the gut, are key regulators of host health. We show evidence that chimpanzee social interactions propagate microbial diversity in the gut microbiome both within and between host generations. Frequent social interaction promotes species richness within individual microbiomes as well as homogeneity among the gut community memberships of different chimpanzees. Sampling successive generations across multiple chimpanzee families suggests that infants inherited gut microorganisms primarily through social transmission. These results indicate that social behavior generates a pan-microbiome, preserving microbial diversity across evolutionary time scales and contributing to the evolution of host species-specific gut microbial communities.

  18. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    PubMed

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed.

  19. The EMO-Model: An Agent-Based Model of Primate Social Behavior Regulated by Two Emotional Dimensions, Anxiety-FEAR and Satisfaction-LIKE

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based models provide a promising tool to investigate the relationship between individuals’ behavior and emerging group-level patterns. An individual’s behavior may be regulated by its emotional state and its interaction history with specific individuals. Emotional bookkeeping is a candidate mechanism to keep track of received benefits from specific individuals without requiring high cognitive abilities. However, how this mechanism may work is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. To explore this theoretically, we introduce an agent-based model, dubbed EMO-model, in which we implemented emotional bookkeeping. In this model the social behaviors of primate-like individuals are regulated by emotional processes along two dimensions. An individual’s emotional state is described by an aversive and a pleasant dimension (anxiety and satisfaction) and by its activating quality (arousal). Social behaviors affect the individuals’ emotional state. To implement emotional bookkeeping, the receiver of grooming assigns an accumulated affiliative attitude (LIKE) to the groomer. Fixed partner-specific agonistic attitudes (FEAR) reflect the stable dominance relations between group members. While the emotional state affects an individual’s general probability of executing certain behaviors, LIKE and FEAR affect the individual’s partner-specific behavioral probabilities. In this way, emotional processes regulate both spontaneous behaviors and appropriate responses to received behaviors, while emotional bookkeeping via LIKE attitudes regulates the development and maintenance of affiliative relations. Using an array of empirical data, the model processes were substantiated and the emerging model patterns were partially validated. The EMO-model offers a framework to investigate the emotional bookkeeping hypothesis theoretically and pinpoints gaps that need to be investigated empirically. PMID:24504194

  20. The EMO-model: an agent-based model of primate social behavior regulated by two emotional dimensions, anxiety-FEAR and satisfaction-LIKE.

    PubMed

    Evers, Ellen; de Vries, Han; Spruijt, Berry M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based models provide a promising tool to investigate the relationship between individuals' behavior and emerging group-level patterns. An individual's behavior may be regulated by its emotional state and its interaction history with specific individuals. Emotional bookkeeping is a candidate mechanism to keep track of received benefits from specific individuals without requiring high cognitive abilities. However, how this mechanism may work is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. To explore this theoretically, we introduce an agent-based model, dubbed EMO-model, in which we implemented emotional bookkeeping. In this model the social behaviors of primate-like individuals are regulated by emotional processes along two dimensions. An individual's emotional state is described by an aversive and a pleasant dimension (anxiety and satisfaction) and by its activating quality (arousal). Social behaviors affect the individuals' emotional state. To implement emotional bookkeeping, the receiver of grooming assigns an accumulated affiliative attitude (LIKE) to the groomer. Fixed partner-specific agonistic attitudes (FEAR) reflect the stable dominance relations between group members. While the emotional state affects an individual's general probability of executing certain behaviors, LIKE and FEAR affect the individual's partner-specific behavioral probabilities. In this way, emotional processes regulate both spontaneous behaviors and appropriate responses to received behaviors, while emotional bookkeeping via LIKE attitudes regulates the development and maintenance of affiliative relations. Using an array of empirical data, the model processes were substantiated and the emerging model patterns were partially validated. The EMO-model offers a framework to investigate the emotional bookkeeping hypothesis theoretically and pinpoints gaps that need to be investigated empirically.

  1. Social Networking Web Sites: Teaching Appropriate Social Competence to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…

  2. Social Robots as Embedded Reinforcers of Social Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Elizabeth S.; Berkovits, Lauren D.; Bernier, Emily P.; Leyzberg, Dan; Shic, Frederick; Paul, Rhea; Scassellati, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur…

  3. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  4. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  5. Social Skills Training for Behavior Disordered Students: A Meta-Behavioral Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry; Bechard, Joseph

    The paper proposes a model which combines traditional metacognitive explanations for the acquisition of social skills in behaviorally disordered adolescents with situationally specific environment variables. Research is reported suggesting that newly learned social skills may not generalize to a wider variety of real life situations because social…

  6. Child Temperament, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Julie; Schreck, Meghan; Rettew, David C.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ayer, Lynsay; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Hudziak, James J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4 to 18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted. PMID:26085784

  7. Perception of Global Climate Change as a Mediator of the Effects of Major and Religious Affiliation on College Students' Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusco, Emily; Snider, Anthony; Luo, Shanhong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a reliable association between environmental education and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Research has also shown that aspects of religion were associated with ERB. However, the mechanisms of associations are unclear. This study builds on previous research addressing the relationship between student major,…

  8. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  9. Using Social Stories and Visual Schedules to Improve Socially Appropriate Behaviors in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Naomi; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Social Stories written according to Gray's specifications on on-task behavior in inclusive classroom settings in three children with autism. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, modest improvements in on-task behavior were associated with implementation of an auditory-visual Social…

  10. Social Acceptability of Five Screening Instruments for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) screening occurs in only two percent of our schools. This is unfortunate because universal screening is linked to prevention and early intervention with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in children and youth, a population who continues to experience a plethora of poor outcomes. The social…

  11. The behavioral ecology of variation in social insects.

    PubMed

    Jandt, J M; Gordon, D M

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the ecological relevance of variation within and between colonies has been an important and recurring theme in social insect research. Recent research addresses the genomic and physiological factors and fitness effects associated with behavioral variation, within and among colonies, in regulation of activity, cognitive abilities, and aggression. Behavioral variation among colonies has consequences for survival and reproductive success that are the basis for evolutionary change. PMID:27436730

  12. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129

  13. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    PubMed Central

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  14. Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: power versus affiliation.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Julius; Kazén, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined to what extent information related to different social needs (i.e., power vs. affiliation) is associated with hemispheric laterality. Response latencies to a lateralized dot-probe task following lateralized pictures or verbal labels that were associated with positive or negative episodes related to power, affiliation, or achievement revealed clear-cut laterality effects. These effects were a function of need content rather than of valence: Power-related stimuli were associated with right visual field (left hemisphere) superiority, whereas affiliation-related stimuli were associated with left visual field (right hemisphere) superiority. Additional results demonstrated that in contrast to power, affiliation primes were associated with better discrimination between coherent word triads (e.g., goat, pass, and green, all related to mountain) and noncoherent triads, a remote associate task known to activate areas of the right hemisphere. PMID:18665713

  15. Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: power versus affiliation.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Julius; Kazén, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined to what extent information related to different social needs (i.e., power vs. affiliation) is associated with hemispheric laterality. Response latencies to a lateralized dot-probe task following lateralized pictures or verbal labels that were associated with positive or negative episodes related to power, affiliation, or achievement revealed clear-cut laterality effects. These effects were a function of need content rather than of valence: Power-related stimuli were associated with right visual field (left hemisphere) superiority, whereas affiliation-related stimuli were associated with left visual field (right hemisphere) superiority. Additional results demonstrated that in contrast to power, affiliation primes were associated with better discrimination between coherent word triads (e.g., goat, pass, and green, all related to mountain) and noncoherent triads, a remote associate task known to activate areas of the right hemisphere.

  16. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  17. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended.

  18. Impact of social punishment on cooperative behavior in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems. PMID:24162105

  19. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-10-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems.

  20. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems. PMID:24162105

  1. Aversive disinhibition of behavior and striatal signaling in social avoidance.

    PubMed

    Ly, Verena; Cools, Roshan; Roelofs, Karin

    2014-10-01

    Social avoidance is a major factor contributing to the development and maintenance of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Converging evidence suggests that social avoidance is associated with abnormal aversive processing and hyperactive amygdala signaling. However, what are the consequences of such abnormal aversive processing for action and for the neural mechanisms implementing action is unclear. Existing literature is conflicting, pointing at either enhanced or reduced action inhibition. We investigated the interaction between aversion and action in social avoidance by comparing the effects of aversive vs appetitive faces on a go/no-go task and associated striatal signals in 42 high and low socially avoidant individuals. We combined fMRI with a novel probabilistic learning task, in which emotional valence (angry and happy faces) and optimal response (go- and no-go-responses) were manipulated independently. High compared with low socially avoidant individuals showed reduced behavioral inhibition (proportion no-go-responses) for angry relative to happy faces. This behavioral disinhibition correlated with greater striatal signal during no-go-responses for angry relative to happy faces. The results suggest that social avoidant coping style is accompanied by disinhibition of action and striatal signal in the context of social threat. The findings concur with recent theorizing about aversive disinhibition and affective disorders.

  2. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  3. Behavioral Intervention Planning: Increasing Appropriate Behavior of a Socially Withdrawn Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Lynnette; Young, K. Richard; Marchant, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an assessment-based intervention plan on the appropriate classroom behavior of a socially withdrawn, Hispanic, learning disabled, third grade student. The study focused on (1) the effects of peer mediation as part of a behavioral intervention package of empirically validated components, (2) the effects of…

  4. Differentiating Tier 2 Social Behavioral Interventions According to Function of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Clare, Ann; Latimore, Tracey; Herman, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Schools implementing tiered supports for social behavior need to be systematic and thoughtful about moving to the next tier. However, schools often apply resources they have in a blanket fashion for children who demonstrate behavior problems. This practice is problematic, and there is a need for increased efforts to plan and be more careful about…

  5. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  6. Contextual social cognition and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-04-24

    The significance of social situations is commonly context-embedded. Although the role of context has been extensively studied in basic sensory processing or simple stimulus-response settings, its relevance for social cognition is unknown. We propose the social context network model (SCNM), a fronto-insular-temporal network responsible for processing social contextual effects. The SCNM may 1) update the context and use it to make predictions, 2) coordinate internal and external milieus, and 3) consolidate context-target associative learning. We suggest the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) as a specific disorder in which the reported deficits in social cognition (e.g., facial recognition, empathy, decision-making, figurative language, theory of mind) can be described as context impairments due to deficits in the SCNM. Disruption of orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit, as well as the frontal, temporal, and insular atrophy in bVFTD, suggests a relationship between context-sensitive social cognition and SCNM. In considering context as an intrinsic part of social cognition, we highlight the need for a situated cognition approach in social cognition research as opposed to an abstract, universal, and decontextualized approach. The assessment of context-dependent social cognition paradigms, the SCNM, and their possible application to neuropsychiatric disorders may provide new insight into bvFTD and other related frontal disorders.

  7. What the laboratory rat has taught us about social play behavior: role in behavioral development and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Social play behavior is the most vigorous and characteristic form of social interaction displayed by developing mammals. The laboratory rat is an ideal species to study this behavior, since it shows ample social play that can be easily recognized and quantified. In this chapter, we will first briefly describe the structure of social play behavior in rats. Next, we will discuss studies that used social isolation rearing during the period in life when social play is most abundant to investigate the developmental functions of social play behavior in rats, focusing on the consequences of play deprivation on social, cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor development. Last, we will discuss the neural substrates of social play behavior in rats, with emphasis on the limbic corticostriatal circuits that underlie emotions and their influence on behavior. PMID:24338663

  8. Social cognitive determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes.

    PubMed

    Doerksen, Shawna E; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  9. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employes

    PubMed Central

    Doerksen, Shawna E.; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change. PMID:24765620

  10. The influence of social networking photos on social norms and sexual health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Jordan, Alexander H

    2013-04-01

    Two studies tested whether online social networking technologies influence health behavioral social norms, and in turn, personal health behavioral intentions. In Study 1, experimental participants browsed peers' Facebook photos on a college network with a low prevalence of sexually suggestive content. Participants estimated the percentage of their peers who have sex without condoms, and rated their own future intentions to use condoms. Experimental participants, compared to controls who did not view photos, estimated that a larger percentage of their peers use condoms, and indicated a greater intention to use condoms themselves in the future. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to view sexually suggestive or nonsexually suggestive Facebook photos, and responded to sexual risk behavioral questions. Compared to participants viewing nonsuggestive photos, those who viewed sexually suggestive Facebook photos estimated that a larger percentage of their peers have unprotected sexual intercourse and sex with strangers and were more likely to report that they themselves would engage in these behaviors. Thus, online social networks can influence perceptions of the peer prevalence of sexual risk behaviors, and can influence users' own intentions with regard to such behaviors. These studies suggest the potential power of social networks to affect health behaviors by altering perceptions of peer norms.

  11. Affect-Congruent Social-Cognitive Evaluations and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the affect children feel toward peers would influence children's social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors. The sample consisted of 209 fifth-grade children (11- to 12-year-olds; 119 boys and 90 girls). For each child, 3 target peers (liked, disliked, and neutral) were identified via a sociometric nomination procedure.…

  12. Connections between Early Literacy and Social Behavior. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Contemporaneous and Longitudinal Associations between Social Behavior and Literacy Achievement in a Sample of Low Income Elementary School Children" (S. B. Miles and D. Stipek). In two groups of…

  13. MDMA as a Probe and Treatment for Social Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Heifets, Boris D; Malenka, Robert C

    2016-07-14

    MDMA, better known as the recreational drug "ecstasy," is well known for stimulating a feeling of closeness and empathy in its users. We advocate that exploring its mechanism of action could lead to new treatments for psychiatric conditions characterized by impairments in social behavior. PMID:27419864

  14. Aspects of Television Content and Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, W. Andrew; And Others

    Three studies examine the impact of different types of television content on the social behavior of children at various ages. The studies represent research into the interrelated problem of the processes involved in media effects and age-related differences. In the first study an action-adventure program, in which a character's reputation and…

  15. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  16. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  17. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  18. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  19. Fitting Organizational Behavior and Socialization into the Rehabilitation Counseling Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitus, Jamie S.; Hart, Zachary P.

    2008-01-01

    High unemployment persists among individuals with disabilities in part due to problems with job retention (Gibbs, 1990; Kirsch, 2000; Louis Harris and Associates, 2000). A contributor to the problem may be the lack of academic training offered by rehabilitation counseling programs on organizational behavior and socialization concepts relevant to…

  20. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  1. Behavioral flexibility and the evolution of primate social states.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B; Lee, Phyllis C; Ives, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the evolution of primate social behavior have typically involved two distinct lines of inquiry. One has focused on phylogenetic analyses that treat social traits as static, species-specific characteristics; the other has focused on understanding the behavioral flexibility of particular populations or species in response to local ecological or demographic variables. Here, we combine these approaches by distinguishing between constraining traits such as dispersal regimes (male, female, or bi-sexual), which are relatively invariant, and responding traits such as grouping patterns (stable, fission-fusion, sometimes fission-fusion), which can reflect rapid adjustments to current conditions. Using long-term and cross-sectional data from 29 studies of 22 species of wild primates, we confirm that dispersal regime exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal in our sample. We then show that primate species with high variation in group size and adult sex ratios exhibit variability in grouping pattern (i.e., sometimes fission-fusion) with dispersal regime constraining the grouping response. When assessing demographic variation, we found a strong positive relationship between the variability in group size over time and the number of observation years, which further illustrates the importance of long-term demographic data to interpretations of social behavior. Our approach complements other comparative efforts to understand the role of behavioral flexibility by distinguishing between constraining and responding traits, and incorporating these distinctions into analyses of social states over evolutionary and ecological time. PMID:25470593

  2. Behavioral Flexibility and the Evolution of Primate Social States

    PubMed Central

    Strier, Karen B.; Lee, Phyllis C.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the evolution of primate social behavior have typically involved two distinct lines of inquiry. One has focused on phylogenetic analyses that treat social traits as static, species-specific characteristics; the other has focused on understanding the behavioral flexibility of particular populations or species in response to local ecological or demographic variables. Here, we combine these approaches by distinguishing between constraining traits such as dispersal regimes (male, female, or bi-sexual), which are relatively invariant, and responding traits such as grouping patterns (stable, fission-fusion, sometimes fission-fusion), which can reflect rapid adjustments to current conditions. Using long-term and cross-sectional data from 29 studies of 22 species of wild primates, we confirm that dispersal regime exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal in our sample. We then show that primate species with high variation in group size and adult sex ratios exhibit variability in grouping pattern (i.e., sometimes fission-fusion) with dispersal regime constraining the grouping response. When assessing demographic variation, we found a strong positive relationship between the variability in group size over time and the number of observation years, which further illustrates the importance of long-term demographic data to interpretations of social behavior. Our approach complements other comparative efforts to understand the role of behavioral flexibility by distinguishing between constraining and responding traits, and incorporating these distinctions into analyses of social states over evolutionary and ecological time. PMID:25470593

  3. The Social Studies Teacher: An Exploration of Ethical Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna S.

    The ethics and conduct of social studies teachers are discussed and the values that should guide their classroom behavior are articulated. Two sources of values are integrated to derive the value base for ethical conduct. The first source utilizes the three criteria for education presented by the educational philosopher, R. S. Peters--character…

  4. Students' Individual and Social Behaviors with Physical Education Teachers' Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Sourki, Mehdi Sadeghian; Bonjar, Seyedeh Elaham Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective for this survey is to assess the relationship between physical education teachers' personality and students' individual with social behaviors. The statistical population of the study was all the teachers of physical education working at high schools in the academic year 2012-2013. The sample consisted of sixty teachers that were…

  5. The Effects of Noise Reduction on Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Duncan, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    The study found no relationship between improved social behavior in a group of juveniles residing at a county shelter care facility and decreased frequency and duration of disruptions above 85 decibels. Subjects did reduce noise levels when stereo listening was made contingent on reduced noise. (Author/DB)

  6. Children's Type A Behavior and Teacher Ratings of Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Langer, Beth A.

    Research has indicated that some Type A individuals lack social support networks; this study was designed to determine whether an alienating aspect of Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is evident in grade school children. As part of the study, two commonly used TABP scales for children, the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) Scale and the Hunter…

  7. Social Influences on Neurobiology and Behavior: Epigenetic Effects During Development

    PubMed Central

    Curley, JP; Jensen, CL; Mashoodh, R; Champagne, FA

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the social environment can have profound influences on the development and activity of neural systems with implications for numerous behavioral and physiological responses, including the expression of emotionality. Though social experiences occurring early in development may be particularly influential on the developing brain, there is continued plasticity within these neural circuits amongst juveniles and into early adulthood. In this review, we explore the evidence derived from studies in rodents which illustrates the social modulation during development of neural systems, with a particular emphasis on those systems in which a long-term effect is observed. One possible explanation for the persistence of dynamic changes in these systems in response to the environment is the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, and here we discuss recent studies which support the role of these mechanisms in mediating the link between social experiences, gene expression, neurobiological changes, and behavioral variation. This literature raises critical questions about the interaction between neural systems, the concordance between neural and behavioral changes, sexual dimorphism in effects, the importance of considering individual differences in response to the social environment, and the potential of an epigenetic perspective in advancing our understanding of the pathways leading to variations in mental health. PMID:20650569

  8. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  9. Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynass, Lori; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Richman, Taylor D.; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings.…

  10. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration.

  11. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world. PMID:26659028

  12. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    PubMed Central

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as “social sensors.” Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world. PMID:26659028

  13. Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman; Farajian, Fathemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines development of social competence, and behavior problems in kindergarten children during a specific period of childhood. Method A sample of 499 kindergarten children (244 girls and 255 boys) with the age range of 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months was selected using the random stratified sampling method. To collect data, California Preschool Social Competence Scale and Social Skills Rating System were completed by kindergarten teachers. Results The trend analysis shows that both the linear and quadratic trends for verbal facility were statistically significant. Similarly, both the linear and cubic trends were significant for considerateness, and the linear trend tendency was significant for subscales of extraversion, response to unfamiliar and task orientation. Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded a low-to-moderate and negative correlation patterns between social component and problem behaviors. Conclusion The study findings indicate a significant linear trend between the progression in social competence and increasing age, consequently leading to a decrease in social problems for children whose age was from 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months. PMID:23139694

  14. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world.

  15. The behavioral neuroscience of anuran social signal processing.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Ryan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Acoustic communication is the major component of social behavior in anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) and has served as a neuroethological model for the nervous system's processing of social signals related to mate choice decisions. The male's advertisement or mating call is its most conspicuous social signal, and the nervous system's analysis of the call is a progressive process. As processing proceeds through neural systems, response properties become more specific to the signal and, in addition, neural activity gradually shifts from representing sensory (auditory periphery and brainstem) to sensorimotor (diencephalon) to motor (forebrain) components of a behavioral response. A comparative analysis of many anuran species shows that the first stage in biasing responses toward conspecific signals over heterospecific signals, and toward particular features of conspecific signals, lies in the tuning of the peripheral auditory system. Biases in processing signals are apparent through the brainstem auditory system, where additional feature detection neurons are added by the time processing reaches the level of the midbrain. Recent work using immediate early gene expression as a marker of neural activity suggests that by the level of the midbrain and forebrain, the differential neural representation of conspecific and heterospecific signals involves both changes in mean activity levels across multiple subnuclei, and in the functional correlations among acoustically active areas. Our data show that in frogs the auditory midbrain appears to play an important role in controlling behavioral responses to acoustic social signals by acting as a regulatory gateway between the stimulus analysis of the brainstem and the behavioral and physiological control centers of the forebrain. We predict that this will hold true for other vertebrate groups such as birds and fish that produce acoustic social signals, and perhaps also in fish where electroreception or vibratory sensing

  16. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    PubMed

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population.

  17. Social, behavioral, and genetic linkages from adolescence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon; Whitsel, Eric A; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Tabor, Joyce; Elder, Glen; Hewitt, John; Shanahan, Michael; Williams, Redford; Siegler, Ilene; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. PMID:23927505

  18. The Role of Social Supports, Spirituality, Religiousness, Life Meaning and Affiliation with 12-Step Fellowships in Quality of Life Satisfaction Among Individuals in Recovery from Alcohol and Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.; Morgen, Keith; White, William L.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Many recovering substance users report quitting drugs because they wanted a better life. The road of recovery is the path to a better life but a challenging and stressful path for most. There has been little research among recovering persons in spite of the numbers involved, and most research has focused on substance use outcomes. This study examines stress and quality of life as a function of time in recovery, and uses structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that social supports, spirituality, religiousness, life meaning, and 12-step affiliation buffer stress toward enhanced life satisfaction. Recovering persons (N = 353) recruited in New York City were mostly inner-city ethnic minority members whose primary substance had been crack or heroin. Longer recovery time was significantly associated with lower stress and with higher quality of life. Findings supported the study hypothesis; the ‘buffer’ constructs accounted for 22% of the variance in life satisfaction. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:16892161

  19. Evolutionary Significance of the Role of Family Units in a Broader Social System

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Bradford R.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-01-01

    Indirect benefits to individual fitness in social species can be influenced by a variety of behavioral factors. Behaviors which support the fitness of kin provide indirect benefits in the form of evolutionary success of relatives. Further, individuals may obtain additional indirect benefits via participation in a well-organized social environment. Building on previous models of selfishly-motivated self-organizing societies, we explore the evolutionary trade-off between inclusion and maintenance of family groups and the ability of a population to sustain a well-organized social structure. Our results demonstrate that the interactions between Hamiltonian and organizationally-based indirect benefits to individual fitness interact to favor certain types of social affiliation traits. Conversely, we show how particular types of social affiliation dynamics may provide selective pressures to limit the size of behaviorally-defined familial groups. We present the first studies of the evolution of social complexity differentiating affiliation behavior between kin and non-kin. PMID:24402205

  20. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  1. Amphetamine as a social drug: Effects of d-amphetamine on social processing and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Garner, Matthew J.; Munafò, Marcus R.; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Drug users often report using drugs to enhance social situations, and empirical studies support the idea that drugs increase both social behavior and the value of social interactions. One way drugs may affect social behavior is by altering social processing, for example by decreasing perceptions of negative emotion in others. Objectives We examined effects of d-amphetamine on processing of emotional facial expressions, and on the social behavior of talking. We predicted amphetamine would enhance attention, identification and responsivity to positive expressions, and that this in turn would predict increased talkativeness. Methods Over three sessions, 36 healthy normal adults received placebo, 10mg, and 20mg d-amphetamine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions. At each session we measured processing of happy, fearful, sad and angry expressions using an attentional visual probe task, a dynamic emotion identification task, and measures of facial muscle activity. We also measured talking. Results Amphetamine decreased the threshold for identifying all emotions, increased negative facial responses to sad expressions, and increased talkativeness. Contrary to our hypotheses, amphetamine did not alter attention to, identification of or facial responses to positive emotions specifically. Interestingly, the drug decreased the threshold to identify all emotions, and this effect was uniquely related to increased talkativeness, even after controlling for overall sensitivity to amphetamine. Conclusions The results suggest that amphetamine may encourage sociability by increasing sensitivity to subtle emotional expressions. These findings suggest novel social mechanisms that may contribute to the rewarding effects of amphetamine. PMID:22526538

  2. Social robots as embedded reinforcers of social behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Elizabeth S; Berkovits, Lauren D; Bernier, Emily P; Leyzberg, Dan; Shic, Frederick; Paul, Rhea; Scassellati, Brian

    2013-05-01

    In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur robot. Children spoke more in general, and directed more speech to the adult confederate, when the interaction partner was a robot, as compared to a human or computer game interaction partner. Children spoke as much to the robot as to the adult interaction partner. This study provides the largest demonstration of social human-robot interaction in children with autism to date. Our findings suggest that social robots may be developed into useful tools for social skills and communication therapies, specifically by embedding social interaction into intrinsic reinforcers and motivators.

  3. The Role of Interpersonal Traits in Social Decision Making: Exploring Sources of Behavioral Heterogeneity in Economic Games.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-08-01

    Economic games are well-established experimental paradigms for modeling social decision making. A large body of literature has pointed to the heterogeneity of behavior within many of these games, which might be partly explained by broad interpersonal trait dispositions. Using the Big Five and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience) personality frameworks, we review the role of personality in two main classes of economic games: social dilemmas and bargaining games. This reveals an emerging role for Big Five agreeableness in promoting cooperative, egalitarian, and altruistic behaviors across several games, consistent with its core characteristic of maintaining harmonious interpersonal relations. The role for extraversion is less clear, which may reflect the divergent effects of its underlying agentic and affiliative motivational components. In addition, HEXACO honesty-humility and agreeableness may capture distinct aspects of prosocial behavior outside the bounds of the Five-Factor Model. Important considerations and directions for future studies are discussed within the emerging personality-economics interface. PMID:25552474

  4. The Role of Interpersonal Traits in Social Decision Making: Exploring Sources of Behavioral Heterogeneity in Economic Games.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Smillie, Luke D

    2015-08-01

    Economic games are well-established experimental paradigms for modeling social decision making. A large body of literature has pointed to the heterogeneity of behavior within many of these games, which might be partly explained by broad interpersonal trait dispositions. Using the Big Five and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience) personality frameworks, we review the role of personality in two main classes of economic games: social dilemmas and bargaining games. This reveals an emerging role for Big Five agreeableness in promoting cooperative, egalitarian, and altruistic behaviors across several games, consistent with its core characteristic of maintaining harmonious interpersonal relations. The role for extraversion is less clear, which may reflect the divergent effects of its underlying agentic and affiliative motivational components. In addition, HEXACO honesty-humility and agreeableness may capture distinct aspects of prosocial behavior outside the bounds of the Five-Factor Model. Important considerations and directions for future studies are discussed within the emerging personality-economics interface.

  5. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  6. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  7. Extracting Human Behavioral Patterns by Mining Geo-Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, M.; Karimipour, F.

    2014-10-01

    Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one's travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users' network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  8. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.

  9. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  10. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  11. Wild chimpanzees can perform social grooming and social play behaviors simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    Reliable evidence was obtained of the simultaneous performance of social grooming and social play behaviors by individuals among wild chimpanzees of the M group in Mahale Mountains National Park. I observed three cases of this performance: in an old female, a young female, and an adult male. While the agent was grooming the back of an adult bimanually, an infant or a juvenile approached the agent. The agent then started playing with the infant/juvenile using only the right hand, while simultaneously grooming the back of the adult with the left hand. In one case, an old female continued the simultaneous performance for about 1 min. Such performances probably occur at low frequency because they are not often required. The similarity in the neurobiological bases and the functions of social grooming and social play behaviors, both of which include repetitive contact with the body of another individual, may facilitate their simultaneous performance.

  12. Early social fear predicts kindergarteners' socially anxious behaviors: Direct associations, moderation by inhibitory control, and differences from nonsocial fear.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-10-01

    Although social and nonsocial fear are discernable as early as preschool, little is known about their distinct associations with developmental outcomes. For example, fear has been identified as a predictor of social anxiety problems, but no work has examined whether social and nonsocial fear make independent contributions to risk. We investigated the extent to which early social and nonsocial fear were associated with socially anxious behaviors during kindergarten. To do this, we identified distinct trajectories of social and nonsocial fear across toddlerhood and preschool. Only social fear was associated with socially anxious behaviors at ages 2 and 5. Because the ability to regulate fear contributes to the degree to which fearful children are at risk for anxiety problems, we also tested whether an early developing aspect of self-regulation modulated associations between early fear and kindergarten socially anxious behaviors. Specifically, we tested whether inhibitory control differentially modulated associations between early levels of social and nonsocial fear and socially anxious behaviors during kindergarten. Associations between trajectories of early social fear and age 5 socially anxious behaviors were moderated by individual differences in inhibitory control. Consistent with previous research showing associations between overcontrol and anxiety symptoms, more negative outcomes were observed when stable, high levels of social fear across childhood were coupled with high levels of inhibitory control. Results suggest that the combination of social fear and overcontrol reflect a profile of early risk for the development of social inhibition and social anxiety problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. The neuroanatomical delineation of agentic and affiliative extraversion.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Erica N; White, Tara L

    2015-06-01

    Extraversion is a fascinating personality dimension that consists of two major components, agentic extraversion and affiliative extraversion. Agentic extraversion involves incentive motivation and is expressed as a tendency toward assertiveness, persistence, and achievement. Affiliative extraversion involves the positive emotion of social warmth and is expressed as a tendency toward amicability, gregariousness, and affection. Here we investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the personality traits of agentic and affiliative extraversion using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief Form, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 83 healthy adult volunteers. We found that trait agentic extraversion and trait affiliative extraversion were each positively associated with the volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally (t's ≥ 2.03, r's ≥ .23, p's < .05). Agentic extraversion was specifically and positively related to the volume of the left parahippocampal gyrus (t = 4.08, r = .21, p < .05), left cingulate gyrus (t = 4.75, r = .28, p < .05), left caudate (t = 4.29, r = .24, p < .05), and left precentral gyrus (t = 4.00, r = .18, p < .05) in males and females, and the volume of the right nucleus accumbens in males (t = 2.92, r = .20, p < .05). Trait affiliative extraversion was not found to be associated with additional regions beyond the medial orbitofrontal cortex. The findings provide the first evidence of a neuroanatomical dissociation between the personality traits of agentic and affiliative extraversion in healthy adults. PMID:25712871

  14. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  15. Risk Behaviors Among Suburban Women who Use Methamphetamine: Social Harms and Social Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lamonica, Aukje; Boeri, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    We propose that female methamphetamine users who live in suburbia experience risks for disease transmission stemming from their social environment that remain under the radar of public health surveillance networks. The data analyzed in this paper were collected from 2007 to 2011 and were drawn from two sequential studies on methamphetamine use. The studies were conducted in the suburbs of a southeastern United States metropolis. We analyzed a total of 65 qualitative interviews with former and active methamphetamine-using women. Data from focus groups also were included in the analysis. The participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 51 years. We identified three major themes with regards to risk behaviors and transmission of infectious diseases: (1) setting risk behaviors, such as sharing syringes and homelessness, lack of transportation and unemployment; (2) sexual risk behaviors such as condom use and having multiple partners; and (3) service- related risks, such as risk awareness and prevention behaviors as well as utilization of social services and healthcare. Our findings point to the pervasive nature of social influences on the risk for infectious disease transmission. We suggest that harm reduction programs be implemented in suburban communities to increase access to these services. Secondly, our data support the concept of social recovery for drug users to better their health and social lives holistically. PMID:26279738

  16. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging.

  17. Concurrent and Predictive Associations between Early Adolescent Perceptions of Peer Affiliates and Mood States Collected in Real Time via Ecological Momentary Assessment Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Rusby, Julie C.; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to simultaneously capture youths’ perceptions of peer affiliates and social contexts to determine their association with youths’ current and future mood states. A sample of 82 seventh grade students (36 at risk for developing or escalating rule-breaking and substance use, and 46 randomly selected) from four schools participated. Utilizing EMA methodology students reported on their peer affiliations, perceptions of peer affiliates, moods, activities, location, and behaviors during their free time. Data from three assessment waves were collected; each wave consisted of 27 randomly prompted assessments during a week. Youth spent a large portion of their free time watching T.V., on the computer, or playing video games. Being “out and about” increased over the school year, whereas adult supervision decreased, showing an increase in potentially risky situations. Happiness was associated with affiliating with peers who were perceived as popular. Negative moods were associated with affiliating with peers by whom they are teased or treated meanly. Multilevel models found that both levels and lability of negative moods (i.e., sadness, anxiety) were predicted by risk status and affiliating with peers who tease them. Compared to boys, girls who affiliated more with peers who teased them and were classified as at-risk had more extreme negative moods and negative mood lability. EMA methodology has demonstrated the ways in which salient intrapersonal and peer processes are associated over time, which can inform efforts to prevent the development and escalation of behavior problems, substance use, and mood disorders in youth. PMID:23088201

  18. Emotion Socialization by Mothers and Fathers: Coherence among Behaviors and Associations with Parent Attitudes and Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined inter-relations among different types of parental emotion socialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of eight-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotion socialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children's social functioning. An…

  19. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  20. Social behavior and patterns of testosterone and glucocorticoid levels differ between male chacma and Guinea baboons.

    PubMed

    Kalbitzer, Urs; Heistermann, Michael; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Fischer, Julia

    2015-09-01

    In multi-male, multi-female groups of mammals, males usually compete aggressively over access to females. However, species vary in the intensity of male contest competition, which has been linked to differences in testosterone and glucocorticoid profiles. Chacma (Papio ursinus) and Guinea (P. papio) baboons constitute an intriguing model to examine variation in male competition and male endocrine correlates, because of the differences in their social systems. Chacma baboons live in stable female-bonded groups with linear male dominance hierarchies and a high male mating skew, whereas Guinea baboons live in male-bonded, multi-level societies. We recorded male behavior and assayed testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) levels from fecal samples in one population of each species. Male chacma baboons were more frequently involved in agonistic interactions, and dominance relationships were more consistent than in Guinea baboons, where we could not detect linear hierarchies. Notably, male chacma baboons were also more aggressive towards females, indicating an overall higher aggressiveness in this species. In contrast, male Guinea baboons showed higher levels of affiliative interactions and spatial tolerance. High-ranking and consorting male chacma baboons showed elevated fGC levels and also tended to show elevated fT levels, but there was no effect of consortship in Guinea baboons. Agonism was not related to hormone levels in either species. Thus, predictors of fT and fGC levels in Guinea baboons seem to differ from chacma baboons. Our results support the view that different social systems create differential selection pressures for male aggression, reflected by different hormone profiles.

  1. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  2. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E; Brent, Lauren J N

    2014-02-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus.

  3. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path.

  4. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path. PMID:22478401

  5. Perceived parental behavior and the social desirability response set.

    PubMed

    Gooden, W E; Struble, K D

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of the social desirability response set as a confounding variable in research involving self-report measures of perceived parental behavior. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS) were correlated with each of the three factors on the Bronfenbrenner Parental Behavior Scale (BPB): (1) Loving, (2) Punishing, and (3) Demanding. Fifty-eight young adults participated in the study; the sample included roughly equal numbers of black and white subjects, male and female subjects, and college students and other community residents. Scores were analyzed by sex of subject and sex of parent as well as in combined groups. Significant correlations (p<.05, p<.01) were obtained from female subjects on BPB factors 2 and 3. Implications for the BPB's validity and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Behavioral and neural properties of social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Libby, Victoria; Glover, Gary; Voss, Henning U; Ballon, Douglas J; Casey, B J

    2011-09-14

    Social learning is critical for engaging in complex interactions with other individuals. Learning from positive social exchanges, such as acceptance from peers, may be similar to basic reinforcement learning. We formally test this hypothesis by developing a novel paradigm that is based on work in nonhuman primates and human imaging studies of reinforcement learning. The probability of receiving positive social reinforcement from three distinct peers was parametrically manipulated while brain activity was recorded in healthy adults using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Over the course of the experiment, participants responded more quickly to faces of peers who provided more frequent positive social reinforcement, and rated them as more likeable. Modeling trial-by-trial learning showed ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex activity correlated positively with forming expectations about receiving social reinforcement. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity tracked positively with modulations of expected value of the cues (peers). Together, the findings across three levels of analysis--social preferences, response latencies, and modeling neural responses--are consistent with reinforcement learning theory and nonhuman primate electrophysiological studies of reward. This work highlights the fundamental influence of acceptance by one's peers in altering subsequent behavior.

  7. Behavioral and neural properties of social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Libby, Victoria; Glover, Gary; Voss, Henning U; Ballon, Douglas J; Casey, B J

    2011-09-14

    Social learning is critical for engaging in complex interactions with other individuals. Learning from positive social exchanges, such as acceptance from peers, may be similar to basic reinforcement learning. We formally test this hypothesis by developing a novel paradigm that is based on work in nonhuman primates and human imaging studies of reinforcement learning. The probability of receiving positive social reinforcement from three distinct peers was parametrically manipulated while brain activity was recorded in healthy adults using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Over the course of the experiment, participants responded more quickly to faces of peers who provided more frequent positive social reinforcement, and rated them as more likeable. Modeling trial-by-trial learning showed ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex activity correlated positively with forming expectations about receiving social reinforcement. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity tracked positively with modulations of expected value of the cues (peers). Together, the findings across three levels of analysis--social preferences, response latencies, and modeling neural responses--are consistent with reinforcement learning theory and nonhuman primate electrophysiological studies of reward. This work highlights the fundamental influence of acceptance by one's peers in altering subsequent behavior. PMID:21917787

  8. Behavioral and neural properties of social reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Libby, Victoria; Glover, Gary; Voss, Henning U.; Ballon, Douglas J.; Casey, BJ

    2011-01-01

    Social learning is critical for engaging in complex interactions with other individuals. Learning from positive social exchanges, such as acceptance from peers, may be similar to basic reinforcement learning. We formally test this hypothesis by developing a novel paradigm that is based upon work in non-human primates and human imaging studies of reinforcement learning. The probability of receiving positive social reinforcement from three distinct peers was parametrically manipulated while brain activity was recorded in healthy adults using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Over the course of the experiment, participants responded more quickly to faces of peers who provided more frequent positive social reinforcement, and rated them as more likeable. Modeling trial-by-trial learning showed ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex activity correlated positively with forming expectations about receiving social reinforcement. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity tracked positively with modulations of expected value of the cues (peers). Together, the findings across three levels of analysis - social preferences, response latencies and modeling neural responses – are consistent with reinforcement learning theory and non-human primate electrophysiological studies of reward. This work highlights the fundamental influence of acceptance by one’s peers in altering subsequent behavior. PMID:21917787

  9. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  10. Hormone therapy effects on social behavior and activity levels of surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Willard, Stephanie L; Lees, Cynthia J; Chen, Haiying; Sitruk-Ware, Regine L; Tsong, Yun-Yen; Cline, J Mark

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments reported here was to investigate central nervous system effects of commonly prescribed postmenopausal hormone therapies in a primate model, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The results of two experiments are reported. In the first, ovariectomized adult cynomolgus monkeys were treated for eight weeks each with oral micronized 17beta-estradiol (E2) (n=23), E2+medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (n=23), E2+progesterone (P4) (n=23), and placebo (n=23) using a crossover design. In the second, ovariectomized adult cynomolgus monkeys were treated for eight weeks with oral micronized E2+oral micronized P4 (n=10), or E2+intravaginal micronized P4 delivered via a Silastic ring (n=8), or oral placebo and intravaginal placebo (n=5), using a parallel arm design. Behavior was recorded during weeks two through four. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were sampled, and 24h heart rate recorded by telemetry during weeks five through seven. Monoaminergic metabolites were assayed in CSF, and cortisol was assayed in serum. There were no significant effects of treatment on CSF monoaminergic metabolites or heart rate. E2+MPA increased cortisol concentrations. While there were some differences in effects between experiments, both progestogens and both routes of administration increased time spent resting, particularly resting in body contact, resulting in increased passive affiliative interaction. Thus, synthetic progestogens appear to be as sedating as progesterone, and the ring delivery system does not appear to protect the central nervous system from effects of progestogens. Further research is needed to explore social context as an important feature of behavioral response to steroid hormone regimens and to verify and extend knowledge of systemic effects of vaginal ring-delivered progestogens.

  11. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    PubMed

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  12. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  13. Reading interventions with behavioral and social skill outcomes: a synthesis of research.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Garrett J; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes.

  14. Reading Interventions With Behavioral and Social Skill Outcomes: A Synthesis of Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392

  15. Confidentiality and Professional Affiliation Effects on Subject Ratings of Interviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, David W.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of different statements regarding confidentiality (absolute; limited; nondirective) on subject impressions of interviewers. In addition, the professional affiliation of the interviewer was manipulated (psychologist, minister/pastoral counselor, social worker) to assess potential influence of…

  16. Educational Franchising (Once More about the Status of the Affiliate)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalenko, A.

    2006-01-01

    Issues relating to the organization of the process of education via the network system is being discussed vigorously among specialists in the field of social economic theory and economic sociology. An example of network education is seen in the network of affiliates and branch offices of institutions of higher learning. This journal has already…

  17. The Roots of Social Dominance: Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jiyoung; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of dominant students in Grades 3-5 in a midwestern school system in the United States. Previous research has indicated 2 ways a student may gain dominance--through bullying and prosocial behaviors. A cluster analysis for dominant children was conducted using social interdependence attitude scores, children's…

  18. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  19. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  20. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  1. Automated monitoring and analysis of social behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dankert, Heiko; Wang, Liming; Hoopfer, Eric D; Anderson, David J; Perona, Pietro

    2009-04-01

    We introduce a method based on machine vision for automatically measuring aggression and courtship in Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic and neural circuit bases of these innate social behaviors are poorly understood. High-throughput behavioral screening in this genetically tractable model organism is a potentially powerful approach, but it is currently very laborious. Our system monitors interacting pairs of flies and computes their location, orientation and wing posture. These features are used for detecting behaviors exhibited during aggression and courtship. Among these, wing threat, lunging and tussling are specific to aggression; circling, wing extension (courtship 'song') and copulation are specific to courtship; locomotion and chasing are common to both. Ethograms may be constructed automatically from these measurements, saving considerable time and effort. This technology should enable large-scale screens for genes and neural circuits controlling courtship and aggression. PMID:19270697

  2. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... funding of basic behavioral and social sciences research (b-BSSR). OppNet prioritizes activities and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)...

  3. 75 FR 25886 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  4. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  5. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National...

  6. 75 FR 50783 - Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... ADVISORY Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences ( 1171). Date/Time... pertaining to Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate programs and activities. Agenda:...

  7. Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    PubMed Central

    Agardh, Anette; Emmelin, Maria; Muriisa, Robert; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Background Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy). The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%). It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8), and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9). Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9). However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified the effect so that

  8. Modifying Socially Withdrawn Behavior: A Playground Intervention for Students with Internalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Michelle R.; Solano, Brock R.; Fisher, Adam K.; Caldarella, Paul; Young, K. Richard; Renshaw, Tyler L.

    2007-01-01

    There is little research regarding interventions for children with internalizing behaviors in schools, both within classrooms and in nonclassroom environments. In response to this need, a nonclassroom treatment package, consisting of (a) social skills instruction, (b) mediated self-management, and (c) a reinforcement system, was implemented to…

  9. Language Competence and Social Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to explore a model of communicative competence (Abbeduto & Nuccio, 1989) and identify whether its components could (a) predict pragmatic language difficulties for children with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and (b) describe the semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language ability as well as the social skills of…

  10. Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book is another in a series prepared in connection with the Survey of the Behavioral Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The task here is to provide several illustrative lines of research in sufficient depth to convey the flavor of scientific work on psychiatric problems to a wide range of readers. The report is primarily…

  11. The Effect of Naturalistic Behavior Strategies on the Quality of Social Interactions for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    Autism is primarily a social disorder and deficits in social-orienting may be responsible for the failure of children with autism to initiate critical social behaviors. The purpose of this research was to improve the quality of social interactions of children with autism by implementing naturalistic behavior strategies intervention utilizing a…

  12. [Emotional and motivational influences in an affiliation conflict situation].

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of induced mood (happy vs. sad) and the affiliation motive (hope of affiliation vs. fear of rejection) on cognitions and physiological reactions during the presentation of a social scenario. This scenario depicted the temporal approach to and finally the unexpected termination of a social interaction. Happy and sad moods were induced successfully, as indicated by self-report measures and physiological variables. Participants high in fear of rejection were more anxious and tensed immediately before the desired social interaction. In addition, they showed a higher level of physiological arousal. The unexpected termination of the social interaction at the end of the scenario had a strong negative effect on participants high in fear of rejection if they were in a happy mood. Thus, in this case an incongruence between the dominant motive and the actual emotional state led to emotional impairment. The results are discussed on the basis of motivational conflict theory and of learned helplessness.

  13. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  14. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  15. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated children's shyness, social withdrawal, prosociality, opposition, and aggression. Children who received nonparental child-care services were less shy, less socially withdrawn, more oppositional, and more aggressive at school entry (age 6 years). However, these differences disappeared during elementary school as children who received exclusive parental care caught up with those who received nonparental care services. This "catch-up" effect from the perspective of children's adaptation to the social group is discussed.

  16. Electro-acupuncture improves the social interaction behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Li, Han-Xia; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Xu, Xin-Jie; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two closely related neuropeptides and implicated in the regulation of mammalian social behaviors. A prior clinical study in our laboratory suggested that electro-acupuncture (EA) alleviated social impairment in autistic children accompanied by changes of peripheral levels of OXT and AVP. However, it remains unclear whether EA stimulation had an impact on central OXT and AVP levels. In the present study, rats were subjected to a single session of EA (sEA) or repeated sessions of EA (rEA). Following the stimulation, mRNA levels and peptide levels of OXT/AVP systems were determined. The results showed that sEA led to region-specific up-regulation of OXT and AVP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus where the peptides were produced, without affecting the content of OXT and AVP in the hypothalamus and peripheral blood. The rEA of 5 sessions in 9 days was given to the low socially interacting (LSI) rats. LSI rats that underwent rEA showed significant improvement of social behavior characterized by spending more time investigating the strange rats in the three-chamber sociability test. The improved sociability was accompanied by an up-regulation of mRNA and the peptide levels of OXT or AVP in SON of the hypothalamus as well as a significant increase of the serum level of AVP. It is concluded that activation of OXT/AVP systems may be associated with the pro-social effect caused by EA stimulation.

  17. Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?

    PubMed

    Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample.

  18. Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?

    PubMed

    Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample. PMID:26849856

  19. Affiliative Motivation, School Attachment, and Aggression in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura Griner; Werner, Nicole E.

    2006-01-01

    School attachment is a robust predictor of adjustment in children and youth. Previous research has demonstrated effects of school context on student attachment, but individual-level contributions have not been explored. Our study examined the role of affiliative orientation in school attachment and aggressive behavior in children and youth from…

  20. Developing Behavioral Theory with the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory.…

  1. Evolution of the brain and social behavior in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-06-01

    The comparison of humans and chimpanzees is a unique way to highlight the evolutionary origins of human nature. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the study of chimpanzee brains, cognition, and behavior. It covers the topics such as eye-tracking study, helping behavior, prefrontal WM volume increase during infancy, and fetal brain development. Based on the facts, the paper proposed the "social brain hypothesis". Chimpanzees are good at capturing images as a whole, while humans are better at understanding the meaning of what they see. Chimpanzees apparently focus on the salient objects, neglecting the social context. In contrast, humans always recognize things within the social context, paying preferential attention to people, as agents. This is consistent with the fact that humans are highly altruistic and collaborative from a very young age. Thus, humans have evolved towards increased collaboration and mutual support. This kind of evolutionary pressure may have provided the basis for the development of the human brain with its unique functions. PMID:23414685

  2. Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Doan, Ryan N; Bae, Byoung-Il; Cubelos, Beatriz; Chang, Cindy; Hossain, Amer A; Al-Saad, Samira; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Oner, Ozgur; Al-Saffar, Muna; Balkhy, Soher; Gascon, Generoso G; Nieto, Marta; Walsh, Christopher A

    2016-10-01

    Comparative analyses have identified genomic regions potentially involved in human evolution but do not directly assess function. Human accelerated regions (HARs) represent conserved genomic loci with elevated divergence in humans. If some HARs regulate human-specific social and behavioral traits, then mutations would likely impact cognitive and social disorders. Strikingly, rare biallelic point mutations-identified by whole-genome and targeted "HAR-ome" sequencing-showed a significant excess in individuals with ASD whose parents share common ancestry compared to familial controls, suggesting a contribution in 5% of consanguineous ASD cases. Using chromatin interaction sequencing, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), and transgenic mice, we identified disease-linked, biallelic HAR mutations in active enhancers for CUX1, PTBP2, GPC4, CDKL5, and other genes implicated in neural function, ASD, or both. Our data provide genetic evidence that specific HARs are essential for normal development, consistent with suggestions that their evolutionary changes may have altered social and/or cognitive behavior. PAPERCLIP.

  3. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  4. 34 CFR 85.905 - Affiliate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affiliate. 85.905 Section 85.905 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.905 Affiliate. Persons are affiliates of each other if, directly or indirectly, either...

  5. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... authority, the conditions provided in this section, including the restriction on affiliate sales of electric... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy...

  6. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... authority, the conditions provided in this section, including the restriction on affiliate sales of electric... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy...

  7. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... authority, the conditions provided in this section, including the restriction on affiliate sales of electric... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy...

  8. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  9. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  10. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  11. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  12. Sex differences in morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and social behaviors in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Bo; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Chao-Bao

    2015-03-18

    Gender and genetic strain are two prominent variants that influence drug abuse. Although certain sex-related behavioral responses have been previously characterized in ICR mice, little is known about the effects of sex on morphine-induced behavioral responses in this outbred strain. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the sex differences of morphine-induced locomotion, anxiety-like and social behaviors in ICR mice. After morphine or saline exposure for four consecutive days (twice daily), increased locomotion, more time spent in the central area, as well as attenuated rearing and self-grooming behaviors were found in morphine-treated females in an open field; no differences were found in locomotion and the time spent in the central area between male and female controls. When interacting with the same-sex individuals, female controls were engaged in more social investigation, following, body contacting and self-grooming behaviors than controls; morphine exposure reduced contacting and self-grooming behaviors in females; in contrast, these effects were not found in males. These results indicate that female ICR mice are more prosocial and are more susceptible to morphine exposure than males.

  13. Sex differences in morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and social behaviors in ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHAN, Bo; MA, Hong-Yuan; WANG, Jian-Li; LIU, Chao-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Gender and genetic strain are two prominent variants that influence drug abuse. Although certain sex-related behavioral responses have been previously characterized in ICR mice, little is known about the effects of sex on morphine-induced behavioral responses in this outbred strain. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the sex differences of morphine-induced locomotion, anxiety-like and social behaviors in ICR mice. After morphine or saline exposure for four consecutive days (twice daily), increased locomotion, more time spent in the central area, as well as attenuated rearing and self-grooming behaviors were found in morphine-treated females in an open field; no differences were found in locomotion and the time spent in the central area between male and female controls. When interacting with the same-sex individuals, female controls were engaged in more social investigation, following, body contacting and self-grooming behaviors than controls; morphine exposure reduced contacting and self-grooming behaviors in females; in contrast, these effects were not found in males. These results indicate that female ICR mice are more prosocial and are more susceptible to morphine exposure than males. PMID:25855229

  14. Family stress, social support, violence, and sons' behavior.

    PubMed

    Murata, J E

    1994-04-01

    Although the low income, female-headed, inner-city family has been repeatedly linked to child behavior problems, the family processes related to child misbehavior in this high risk group have not been identified. In a group of predominantly African American inner-city low-income mothers who lived alone with their children, the relationships between family stress, social support, mothers' conflict resolution tactics, and sons' behavior were examined using the family stress adaptation model, and potential nursing interventions were identified. The sample of low-income, inner-city mother-alone families reported more family stress and less social support than normative White Anglo-Saxon Protestant families. Family violence rates did not differ between the sample and nationally representative normative groups. Thirty-nine percent of sons, referred to the study because of school difficulties, were reported to have behavior problems requiring additional assessment. Analysis confirmed the fit of sample data to the model and identified family stress as the best site for nursing intervention for these high-risk families. PMID:8203136

  15. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Flávio L; Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2016-03-25

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N-person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  16. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  17. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  18. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  19. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  20. PDE11A regulates social behaviors and is a key mechanism by which social experience sculpts the brain.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shweta; Ji, Hao; Oliver, David; Patel, Neema S; Poupore, Nicolas; Shtutman, Michael; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-10-29

    Despite the fact that appropriate social behaviors are vital to thriving in one's environment, little is understood of the molecular mechanisms controlling social behaviors or how social experience sculpts these signaling pathways. Here, we determine if Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), an enzyme that is enriched in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) and that breaks down cAMP and cGMP, regulates social behaviors. PDE11 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice were tested in various social approach assays and gene expression differences were measured by RNA sequencing. The effect of social isolation on PDE11A4 compartmentalization and subsequent social interactions and social memory was also assessed. Deletion of PDE11A triggered age- and sex-dependent deficits in social approach in specific social contexts but not others. Mice appear to detect altered social behaviors of PDE11A KO mice, because C57BL/6J mice prefer to spend time with a sex-matched PDE11A WT vs. its KO littermate; whereas, a PDE11A KO prefers to spend time with a novel PDE11A KO vs. its WT littermate. Not only is PDE11A required for intact social interactions, we found that 1month of social isolation vs. group housing decreased PDE11A4 protein expression specifically within the membrane fraction of VHIPP. This isolation-induced decrease in PDE11A4 expression appears functional because social isolation impairs subsequent social approach behavior and social memory in a PDE11A genotype-dependent manner. Pathway analyses following RNA sequencing suggests PDE11A is a key regulator of the oxytocin pathway and membrane signaling, consistent with its pivotal role in regulating social behavior. PMID:27544407

  1. PDE11A regulates social behaviors and is a key mechanism by which social experience sculpts the brain.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shweta; Ji, Hao; Oliver, David; Patel, Neema S; Poupore, Nicolas; Shtutman, Michael; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-10-29

    Despite the fact that appropriate social behaviors are vital to thriving in one's environment, little is understood of the molecular mechanisms controlling social behaviors or how social experience sculpts these signaling pathways. Here, we determine if Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), an enzyme that is enriched in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) and that breaks down cAMP and cGMP, regulates social behaviors. PDE11 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice were tested in various social approach assays and gene expression differences were measured by RNA sequencing. The effect of social isolation on PDE11A4 compartmentalization and subsequent social interactions and social memory was also assessed. Deletion of PDE11A triggered age- and sex-dependent deficits in social approach in specific social contexts but not others. Mice appear to detect altered social behaviors of PDE11A KO mice, because C57BL/6J mice prefer to spend time with a sex-matched PDE11A WT vs. its KO littermate; whereas, a PDE11A KO prefers to spend time with a novel PDE11A KO vs. its WT littermate. Not only is PDE11A required for intact social interactions, we found that 1month of social isolation vs. group housing decreased PDE11A4 protein expression specifically within the membrane fraction of VHIPP. This isolation-induced decrease in PDE11A4 expression appears functional because social isolation impairs subsequent social approach behavior and social memory in a PDE11A genotype-dependent manner. Pathway analyses following RNA sequencing suggests PDE11A is a key regulator of the oxytocin pathway and membrane signaling, consistent with its pivotal role in regulating social behavior.

  2. Rational Behavior Training: A Seven Lesson Sequence for Teaching Rational Behavior Skills to Students with Social and Emotional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia Lucey

    This seven lesson curriculum sequence is designed to help teachers teach principles of Rational Behavior Training (RBT) which targets thinking behaviors, feeling behaviors, and behavioral responses to the environment. The program is appropriate for students with social and emotional disabilities and also develops reading, writing, spelling,…

  3. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  4. Host social behavior and parasitic infection: A multifactorial approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    I examined associations between several components of host social organization, including group size and gregariousness, group stability, territoriality and social class, and gastrointestinal parasite load in African bovids. At an intraspecific level, group size was positively correlated with parasite prevalence, but only when the parasite was relatively host specific and only among host species living in stable groups. Social class was also an important predictor of infection rates. Among gazelles, territorial males had higher parasite intensities than did either bachelor males or females and juveniles, suggesting that highly territorial individuals may be either more exposed or more susceptible to parasites. Associations among territoriality, grouping, and parasitism were also found across taxa. Territorial host genera were more likely to be infected with strongyle nematodes than were nonterritorial hosts, and gregarious hosts were more infected than were solitary hosts. Analyses also revealed that gregariousness and territoriality had an interactive effect on individual parasite richness, whereby hosts with both traits harbored significantly more parasite groups than did hosts with only one or neither trait. Overall, study results indicate that multiple features of host social behavior influence infection risk and suggest that synergism between traits also has important effects on host parasite load.

  5. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  6. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  7. Depression-Like Behavioral Phenotypes by Social and Social Plus Visual Isolation in the Adult Female Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qinmin; Wang, Tao; Shively, Carol; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Fang, Liang; Zhan, Qunlin; Melgiri, N. D.; Xie, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that affects millions of individuals globally. Our understanding of the biological basis of MDD is poor, and current treatments are ineffective in a significant proportion of cases. This current situation may relate to the dominant rodent animal models of depression, which possess translational limitations due to limited homologies with humans. Therefore, a more homologous primate model of depression is needed to advance investigation into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and to conduct pre-clinical therapeutic trials. Here, we report two convenient methods – social isolation and social plus visual isolation – which can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in the adult female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Both social and social plus visual isolation were shown to be effective in inducing depression-like behavior by significantly reducing socially dominant aggressive conflict behavior, communicative behavior, sexual behavior, and parental behavior. The addition of visual isolation produced more profound behavioral changes than social isolation alone by further reducing parental behavior and sexual behavior. Thus, the degree of behavioral pathology may be manipulated by the degree of isolation. These methods can be applied to construct a non-human primate model of depression in order to assess physiological, behavioral, and social phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. PMID:24023857

  8. Workplace Social and Organizational Environments and Healthy-Weight Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Methods Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. Results There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the ‘company values my health’ was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). Conclusions This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers’ health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and

  9. An experiment on the social facilitation of gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Rockloff, Matthew Justus; Dyer, Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Research and theory regarding the social facilitation effect generates the expectation that the presence of other gamblers (or co-actors) in a gaming venue is likely to intensify individual gambling behavior and magnify losses. Fifty male and 66 female participants (116 total) played a computer-simulated electronic gaming machine with a fixed winning sequence, followed by an indefinite losing sequence. Measures of the intensity of gambling behavior included the final payout (a direct measure of losses), average bet-size, number of trials played, and the speed of play. Some participants received false feedback from the computer designed to suggest that other gamers in adjacent rooms were playing and sometimes winning at the same game. Persons who received both sight and sound information, including winning bells and instant messages regarding the wins of other (fake) players, placed more bets and lost more money compared to the other conditions with less information.

  10. Cannibalism: a social behavior in sporulating Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2011-05-01

    A social behavior named cannibalism has been described during the early stages of sporulation of the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. This phenomenon is based on the heterogeneity of sporulating populations, constituted by at least two cell types: (1) sporulating cells, in which the master regulator of sporulation Spo0A is active, and (2) nonsporulating cells, in which Spo0A is inactive. Sporulating cells produce two toxins that act cooperatively to kill the nonsporulating sister cells. The nutrients released by the dead cells into the starved medium are used for growth by the sporulating cells that are not yet fully committed to sporulate, and as a result, sporulation is arrested. This review outlines the molecular mechanisms of the killing and immunity to the toxins, the regulation of their production and other examples of killing of siblings in microorganisms. The biological significance of this behavior is discussed. PMID:20955377

  11. Young children's social information processing: family antecedents and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Runions, Kevin C; Keating, Daniel P

    2007-07-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from the U.S. National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care (N=1,364). A subgroup of low-risk children reported only benign attributions in preschool and had few externalizing problems in 1st grade according to both teacher and mother reports. After controlling for gender and cognitive functioning, the authors found that maternal education and authoritarian attitudes were key predictors of this "Pollyanna preschooler" status and of SIP in 1st grade. However, small effect sizes for SIP variables underscore the need for new approaches to measurement and for further research on moderators of the link between SIP and children's behavior.

  12. Social norms, social networks, and HIV risk behavior among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Latkin, C A; Kuramoto, S J; Davey-Rothwell, M A; Tobin, K E

    2010-10-01

    Social network structure and norms are linked to HIV risk behavior. However little is known about the gradient of norm of HIV risk that exists among social networks. We examined the association between injection risk network structure and HIV risk norms among 818 injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs were categorized into four distinct groups based on their risk behaviors with their drug networks: no network members with whom they shared cookers or needles, only cooker-sharing member, one needle-sharing member, and multiple needle-sharing members. The riskiest group, networks of multiple needle sharers, was more likely to endorse both risky needle-sharing and sex norms. Networks of only cooker sharers were less likely to endorse high-risk norms, as compared to the networks with no sharing. There were also differences based on gender. Future HIV prevention interventions for IDUs should target both injection and sex risk norms, particularly among IDUs in the multiple needle-sharing networks.

  13. Socially-Central Zebrafish Influence Group Behavior More than Those on the Social Periphery

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Cuauhcihuatl; Martins, Emília P.

    2013-01-01

    Certain individuals are more effective than others at using individual experience to impact group behavior. Here, we tested whether pre-training of zebrafish that are at the focal central of social group dynamics (“Key” fish) has a stronger positive impact on group performance than does pre-training of less central (“Non-Key”) fish. We used very short observation periods and social network statistics to identify Key and Non-Key individuals, trained these fish to respond to an aversive stimulus, and then measured group performance after returning these now-experienced fish to a social setting. Although Key and Non-Key fish evaded the stimulus equally quickly as individuals, groups with experienced Key fish escaped the aversive stimulus more quickly than did groups with experienced Non-Key fish. The impact depended on genetic background: PN zebrafish on the social extremes (more often males) influenced the group's baseline response to the aversive stimulus, whereas experienced Scientific Hatcheries' zebrafish (both males and females) influenced the change in response over repeated trials. These results suggest that social roles are an important feature of information transfer across a group, and set the stage for future research into the genetic and evolutionary basis of social learning. PMID:23383208

  14. Developing a Change-Sensitive Brief Behavior Rating Scale as a Progress Monitoring Tool for Social Behavior: An Example Using the Social Skills Rating System--Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Rasetshwane, Kutlo; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Research has been unsuccessful at revealing an analogue to curriculum-based measurement in the area of progress monitoring for social behavior. As a result, there is a need to develop change-sensitive, technically adequate, feasible progress monitoring tools for social behavior that represent general outcome measures of performance. The purpose of…

  15. Behavior-Specific Social Support for Healthy Behaviors among African American Church Members: Applying Optimal Matching Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Oates, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from 850 African Americans to test optimal matching theory (OMT). OMT predicts that (1) the most important dimensions of social support depend on the controllability of the behavior and (2) different network members often provide support across health behaviors. Data were gathered on social support source for physical…

  16. Imagecube: an astropy affiliated package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lianou, S.; Barmby, P.; Taylor, J.

    2013-09-01

    Astropy is a community python library for astronomy. Imagecube has been developed as an astropy affiliated package for processing multiwavelength (spectro)-imaging. This module automates tedious steps of image processing and analysis and delivers a science-ready image datacube. The included steps involve converting to common flux units, image registration to a common WCS, and convolution to a common resolution. Individual steps can be performed separately. We test the module using the dwarf galaxy NGC1569 by producing its observed spectral energy distribution on a pixel-by-pixel basis.

  17. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem

  18. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  19. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  20. Reappraising Social Insect Behavior through Aversive Responsiveness and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. Methodology To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. Principal Findings Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. Conclusions Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive