Estimation of affine motion from projection data using a mass conservation model.
Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Amini, Amir A
2011-01-01
An approximate model for the effect of respiration is that the cross section of the thoracic area under interrogation experience time-varying magnification and displacement along two perpendicular axes - we propose to model this motion as parametric affine motion. A theoretical framework for determination of parameters of affine motion modeling the global respiratory motion based on the sinogram data in the projection domain is described. It is assumed that the spatial image considered is a density image where conservation of mass holds.
An improved observation model for super-resolution under affine motion.
Rochefort, Gilles; Champagnat, Frédéric; Le Besnerais, Guy; Giovannelli, Jean-François
2006-11-01
Super-resolution (SR) techniques make use of subpixel shifts between frames in an image sequence to yield higher resolution images. We propose an original observation model devoted to the case of nonisometric inter-frame motion as required, for instance, in the context of airborne imaging sensors. First, we describe how the main observation models used in the SR literature deal with motion, and we explain why they are not suited for nonisometric motion. Then, we propose an extension of the observation model by Elad and Feuer adapted to affine motion. This model is based on a decomposition of affine transforms into successive shear transforms, each one efficiently implemented by row-by-row or column-by-column one-dimensional affine transforms. We demonstrate on synthetic and real sequences that our observation model incorporated in a SR reconstruction technique leads to better results in the case of variable scale motions and it provides equivalent results in the case of isometric motions.
Stabilization of the Motion of Affine Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babenko, E. A.; Martynyuk, A. A.
2016-07-01
Sufficient conditions for the stability of a nonlinear affine system subject to interval initial conditions are established. These conditions are based on new estimates of the norms of the solutions of the systems of perturbed equations of motion. This stabilization method is used to analyze an electromechanical system with permanent magnet
Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography imaging by affine-motion image registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Caneiro, David; Read, Scott A.; Collins, Michael J.
2011-11-01
Signal-degrading speckle is one factor that can reduce the quality of optical coherence tomography images. We demonstrate the use of a hierarchical model-based motion estimation processing scheme based on an affine-motion model to reduce speckle in optical coherence tomography imaging, by image registration and the averaging of multiple B-scans. The proposed technique is evaluated against other methods available in the literature. The results from a set of retinal images show the benefit of the proposed technique, which provides an improvement in signal-to-noise ratio of the square root of the number of averaged images, leading to clearer visual information in the averaged image. The benefits of the proposed technique are also explored in the case of ocular anterior segment imaging.
Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bhattacharjee, Shayak
2012-01-01
The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…
Lamare, F; Cresson, T; Savean, J; Cheze Le Rest, C; Reader, A J; Visvikis, D
2007-01-07
Respiratory motion is a source of artefacts and reduced image quality in PET. Proposed methodology for correction of respiratory effects involves the use of gated frames, which are however of low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore a method accounting for respiratory motion effects without affecting the statistical quality of the reconstructed images is necessary. We have implemented an affine transformation of list mode data for the correction of respiratory motion over the thorax. The study was performed using datasets of the NCAT phantom at different points throughout the respiratory cycle. List mode data based PET simulated frames were produced by combining the NCAT datasets with a Monte Carlo simulation. Transformation parameters accounting for respiratory motion were estimated according to an affine registration and were subsequently applied on the original list mode data. The corrected and uncorrected list mode datasets were subsequently reconstructed using the one-pass list mode EM (OPL-EM) algorithm. Comparison of corrected and uncorrected respiratory motion average frames suggests that an affine transformation in the list mode data prior to reconstruction can produce significant improvements in accounting for respiratory motion artefacts in the lungs and heart. However, the application of a common set of transformation parameters across the imaging field of view does not significantly correct the respiratory effects on organs such as the stomach, liver or spleen.
Human motion analysis and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prussing, Keith; Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian
2011-06-01
Georgia Tech has investigated methods for the detection and tracking of personnel in a variety of acquisition environments. This research effort focused on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. As a fundamental part of this research effort, Georgia Tech collected motion capture data on an individual for a variety of walking speeds, carrying loads, and load distributions. These data formed the basis for deriving fundamental properties of the individual's motion and supported the development of a physiologically-based human motion model. Subsequently this model aided the derivation and analysis of motion-based observables, particularly changes in the motion of various body components resulting from load variations. This paper will describe the data acquisition process, development of the human motion model, and use of the model in the observable analysis. Video sequences illustrating the motion data and modeling results will also be presented.
Thelen, Brian J; Valenzuela, John R; LeBlanc, Joel W
2016-04-01
This paper deals with super-resolution (SR) processing and associated theoretical performance assessment for under-sampled video data collected from a moving imaging platform with unknown motion and assuming a relatively flat scene. This general scenario requires joint estimation of the high-resolution image and the parameters that determine a projective transform that relates the collected frames to one another. A quantitative assessment of the variance in the random error as achieved through a joint-estimation approach (e.g., SR image reconstruction and motion estimation) is carried out via the general framework of M-estimators and asymptotic statistics. This approach provides a performance measure on estimating the fine-resolution scene when there is a lack of perspective information and represents a significant advancement over previous work that considered only the more specific scenario of mis-registration. A succinct overview of the theoretical framework is presented along with some specific results on the approximate random error for the case of unknown translation and affine motions. A comparison is given between the approximated random error and that actually achieved by an M-estimator approach to the joint-estimation problem. These results provide insight on the reduction in SR reconstruction accuracy when jointly estimating unknown inter-frame affine motion.
Recursive estimation of 3D motion and surface structure from local affine flow parameters.
Calway, Andrew
2005-04-01
A recursive structure from motion algorithm based on optical flow measurements taken from an image sequence is described. It provides estimates of surface normals in addition to 3D motion and depth. The measurements are affine motion parameters which approximate the local flow fields associated with near-planar surface patches in the scene. These are integrated over time to give estimates of the 3D parameters using an extended Kalman filter. This also estimates the camera focal length and, so, the 3D estimates are metric. The use of parametric measurements means that the algorithm is computationally less demanding than previous optical flow approaches and the recursive filter builds in a degree of noise robustness. Results of experiments on synthetic and real image sequences demonstrate that the algorithm performs well.
Global Existence and Asymptotic Behavior of Affine Motion of 3D Ideal Fluids Surrounded by Vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sideris, Thomas C.
2017-03-01
The 3D compressible and incompressible Euler equations with a physical vacuum free boundary condition and affine initial conditions reduce to a globally solvable Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations for the deformation gradient in {GL^+(3, R)} . The evolution of the fluid domain is described by a family of ellipsoids whose diameter grows at a rate proportional to time. Upon rescaling to a fixed diameter, the asymptotic limit of the fluid ellipsoid is determined by a positive semi-definite quadratic form of rank r = 1, 2, or 3, corresponding to the asymptotic degeneration of the ellipsoid along 3-r of its principal axes. In the compressible case, the asymptotic limit has rank r = 3, and asymptotic completeness holds, when the adiabatic index {γ} satisfies {4/3 < γ < 2} . The number of possible degeneracies, 3-r, increases with the value of the adiabatic index {γ} . In the incompressible case, affine motion reduces to geodesic flow in {SL(3, R)} with the Euclidean metric. For incompressible affine swirling flow, there is a structural instability. Generically, when the vorticity is nonzero, the domains degenerate along only one axis, but the physical vacuum boundary condition fails over a finite time interval. The rescaled fluid domains of irrotational motion can collapse along two axes.
Stratified Structure-from-Motion for Planar Scenes and Affine Cameras.
Collins, Toby; Bartoli, Adrien
2016-06-08
Structure-from-Motion with planar scenes and affine cameras is considerably less understood than with non-planar scenes, and a general, accurate and closed-form solution has been missing. The problem arises when imaging planar structures that are small and/or far from the camera, and has key differences to Structure-from-Motion with non-planar scenes. Specifically, the types of affine cameras one can use are more restricted and it is inherently more ambiguous and non-linear. We give the first closed-form solution with orthographic cameras that can handle general configurations (three or more views with three or more points) and all discrete ambiguities. Our method involves optimising a system of non-convex upgrade constraints in closed-form to give the plane's metric structure, which is solved by the roots of a univariate degree-seven polynomial. The camera poses are then solved with an optimal plane-based pose estimation process. Extensive empirical evaluation shows that the solutions tend to be very accurate and there is no clear benefit in refining them with bundle adjustment. We also present a range of new theoretical results that deepen our understanding of the problem. The main result is the necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for the problem to be well-posed with orthographic cameras. We also show there can exist up to two structure solutions with four or more different views (previously it was assumed to be unique), and we give the necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for disambiguation. Other theoretical results include conditions where our solution guarantees to find the global optimum with respect to reprojection error and additional prior knowledge needed to solve with non-orthographic affine cameras.
Rusydi, Muhammad Ilhamdi; Sasaki, Minoru; Ito, Satoshi
2014-06-10
Biosignals will play an important role in building communication between machines and humans. One of the types of biosignals that is widely used in neuroscience are electrooculography (EOG) signals. An EOG has a linear relationship with eye movement displacement. Experiments were performed to construct a gaze motion tracking method indicated by robot manipulator movements. Three operators looked at 24 target points displayed on a monitor that was 40 cm in front of them. Two channels (Ch1 and Ch2) produced EOG signals for every single eye movement. These signals were converted to pixel units by using the linear relationship between EOG signals and gaze motion distances. The conversion outcomes were actual pixel locations. An affine transform method is proposed to determine the shift of actual pixels to target pixels. This method consisted of sequences of five geometry processes, which are translation-1, rotation, translation-2, shear and dilatation. The accuracy was approximately 0.86° ± 0.67° in the horizontal direction and 0.54° ± 0.34° in the vertical. This system successfully tracked the gaze motions not only in direction, but also in distance. Using this system, three operators could operate a robot manipulator to point at some targets. This result shows that the method is reliable in building communication between humans and machines using EOGs.
Autoadaptive motion modelling for MR-based respiratory motion estimation.
Baumgartner, Christian F; Kolbitsch, Christoph; McClelland, Jamie R; Rueckert, Daniel; King, Andrew P
2017-01-01
Respiratory motion poses significant challenges in image-guided interventions. In emerging treatments such as MR-guided HIFU or MR-guided radiotherapy, it may cause significant misalignments between interventional road maps obtained pre-procedure and the anatomy during the treatment, and may affect intra-procedural imaging such as MR-thermometry. Patient specific respiratory motion models provide a solution to this problem. They establish a correspondence between the patient motion and simpler surrogate data which can be acquired easily during the treatment. Patient motion can then be estimated during the treatment by acquiring only the simpler surrogate data. In the majority of classical motion modelling approaches once the correspondence between the surrogate data and the patient motion is established it cannot be changed unless the model is recalibrated. However, breathing patterns are known to significantly change in the time frame of MR-guided interventions. Thus, the classical motion modelling approach may yield inaccurate motion estimations when the relation between the motion and the surrogate data changes over the duration of the treatment and frequent recalibration may not be feasible. We propose a novel methodology for motion modelling which has the ability to automatically adapt to new breathing patterns. This is achieved by choosing the surrogate data in such a way that it can be used to estimate the current motion in 3D as well as to update the motion model. In particular, in this work, we use 2D MR slices from different slice positions to build as well as to apply the motion model. We implemented such an autoadaptive motion model by extending our previous work on manifold alignment. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle of the proposed technique on cardiac gated data of the thorax and evaluate its adaptive behaviour on realistic synthetic data containing two breathing types generated from 6 volunteers, and real data from 4 volunteers. On synthetic data
Affinity based information diffusion model in social networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongli; Xie, Yun; Hu, Haibo; Chen, Zhigao
2014-12-01
There is a widespread intuitive sense that people prefer participating in spreading the information in which they are interested. The affinity of people with information disseminated can affect the information propagation in social networks. In this paper, we propose an information diffusion model incorporating the mechanism of affinity of people with information which considers the fitness of affinity values of people with affinity threshold of the information. We find that the final size of information diffusion is affected by affinity threshold of the information, average degree of the network and the probability of people's losing their interest in the information. We also explore the effects of other factors on information spreading by numerical simulations and find that the probabilities of people's questioning and confirming the information can affect the propagation speed, but not the final scope.
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo; Soo, Chopin
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Model updating based on an affine scaling interior optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y. X.; Jia, C. X.; Li, Jian; Spencer, B. F.
2013-11-01
Finite element model updating is usually considered as an optimization process. Affine scaling interior algorithms are powerful optimization algorithms that have been developed over the past few years. A new finite element model updating method based on an affine scaling interior algorithm and a minimization of modal residuals is proposed in this article, and a general finite element model updating program is developed based on the proposed method. The performance of the proposed method is studied through numerical simulation and experimental investigation using the developed program. The results of the numerical simulation verified the validity of the method. Subsequently, the natural frequencies obtained experimentally from a three-dimensional truss model were used to update a finite element model using the developed program. After updating, the natural frequencies of the truss and finite element model matched well.
Animal models in motion sickness research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daunton, Nancy G.
1990-01-01
Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.
Haworth, Joshua L.; Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Fisher, Wayne; Stergiou, Nicholas
2015-01-01
Recognition of biological motion is pervasive in early child development. Further, viewing the movement behavior of others is a primary component of a child’s acquisition of complex, robust movement repertoires, through imitation and real-time coordinated action. We theorize that inherent to biological movements are particular qualities of mathematical chaos and complexity. We further posit that this character affords the rich and complex inter-dynamics throughout early motor development. Specifically, we explored whether children’s preference for biological motion may be related to an affinity for mathematical chaos. Cross recurrence quantification analysis (cRQA) was used to investigate the coordination of gaze and posture with various temporal structures (periodic, chaotic, and aperiodic) of the motion of an oscillating visual stimulus. Children appear to competently perceive and respond to chaotic motion, both in rate (cRQA-percent determinism) and duration (cRQA-maxline) of coordination. We interpret this to indicate that children not only recognize chaotic motion structures, but also have a preference for coordination with them. Further, stratification of our sample (by age) uncovers the suggestion that this preference may become refined with age. PMID:25852600
Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.
Bowins, Brad
2010-01-15
Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.
Affine Covariant Features for Fisheye Distortion Local Modelling.
Furnari, Antonino; Farinella, Giovanni; Bruna, Arcangelo; Battiato, Sebastiano
2016-11-10
Perspective cameras are the most popular imaging sensors used in Computer Vision. However, many application fields including automotive, surveillance and robotics, require the use of wide angle cameras (e.g., fisheye), which allow to acquire a larger portion of the scene using a single device at the cost of the introduction of noticeable radial distortion in the images. Affine covariant feature detectors have proven successful in a variety of Computer Vision applications including object recognition, image registration and visual search. Moreover, their robustness to a series of variabilities related to both the scene and the image acquisition process has been thoroughly studied in the literature. In this paper, we investigate their effectiveness on fisheye images providing both theoretical and experimental analyses. As theoretical outcome, we show that the inherently non-linear radial distortion can be locally approximated by linear functions with a reasonably small error. The experimental analysis builds on Mikolajczyk's benchmark to assess the robustness of three popular affine region detectors (i.e., Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER), Harris and Hessian affine region detectors), with respect to different variabilities as well as to radial distortion. To support the evaluations, we rely on the Oxford dataset and introduce a novel benchmark dataset comprising 50 images depicting different scene categories. Experiments are carried out on rectilinear images to which radial distortion is artificially added, and on real-world images acquired using fisheye lenses. Our analysis points out that affine region detectors can be effectively employed directly on fisheye images and that the radial distortion is locally modelled as an additional affine variability.
Motion models in attitude estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.
1994-01-01
Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.
Robust Spectral Clustering Using Statistical Sub-Graph Affinity Model
Eichel, Justin A.; Wong, Alexander; Fieguth, Paul; Clausi, David A.
2013-01-01
Spectral clustering methods have been shown to be effective for image segmentation. Unfortunately, the presence of image noise as well as textural characteristics can have a significant negative effect on the segmentation performance. To accommodate for image noise and textural characteristics, this study introduces the concept of sub-graph affinity, where each node in the primary graph is modeled as a sub-graph characterizing the neighborhood surrounding the node. The statistical sub-graph affinity matrix is then constructed based on the statistical relationships between sub-graphs of connected nodes in the primary graph, thus counteracting the uncertainty associated with the image noise and textural characteristics by utilizing more information than traditional spectral clustering methods. Experiments using both synthetic and natural images under various levels of noise contamination demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve improved segmentation performance when compared to existing spectral clustering methods. PMID:24386111
Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.
Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G
2010-01-01
Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.
Ground Motion Modeling in the Eastern Caucasus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitarka, Arben; Gok, Rengin; Yetirmishli, Gurban; Ismayilova, Saida; Mellors, Robert
2016-08-01
In this study, we analyzed the performance of a preliminary three-dimensional (3D) velocity model of the Eastern Caucasus covering most of the Azerbaijan. The model was developed in support to long-period ground motion simulations and seismic hazard assessment from regional earthquakes in Azerbaijan. The model's performance was investigated by simulating ground motion from the damaging Mw 5.9, 2012 Zaqatala earthquake, which was well recorded throughout the region by broadband seismic instruments. In our simulations, we use a parallelized finite-difference method of fourth-order accuracy. The comparison between the simulated and recorded ground motion velocity in the modeled period range of 3-20 s shows that in general, the 3D velocity model performs well. Areas in which the model needs improvements are located mainly in the central part of the Kura basin and in the Caspian Sea coastal areas. Comparisons of simulated ground motion using our 3D velocity model and corresponding 1D regional velocity model were used to locate areas with strong 3D wave propagation effects. In areas with complex underground structure, the 1D model fails to produce the observed ground motion amplitude and duration, and spatial extend of ground motion amplification caused by wave propagation effects.
Religion in Motion: Continuities and Symbolic Affinities in Religion and Sport.
Fernández, Oscar; Cachán-Cruz, Roberto
2016-07-27
One of the major transformations in religion in contemporary societies has been the decline of church institutions and their reconstruction within a diverse network of associations, therapies, markets and other unconventional spiritual services. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork on religious behaviours and dynamics in sports contexts, and taking the similarities between sport and religion as the point of departure, this paper analyses, reflects on and theorises about the symbolic affinities of these two contemporary social institutions. The results show that symbolism converges in the religious element, tending to improve aspects related to sports ethics and establishing affective experiences among participants, with positive results for their physical and mental wellbeing. The findings indicate that a symbolic analysis of the various facets of sport is a useful approach for gaining a better understanding of this phenomenon, since besides being biological, diseases are also cultural and social, and thus, disease, religion and ritual are emotionally related.
Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2012-06-01
We introduce a low-dimensional description for a high-dimensional system, which is a piecewise affine model whose state space is divided by permutations. We show that the proposed model tends to predict wind speeds and photovoltaic outputs for the time scales from seconds to 100 s better than by global affine models. In addition, computations using the piecewise affine model are much faster than those of usual nonlinear models such as radial basis function models.
Modeling the polar motion of Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coyette, Alexis; Van Hoolst, Tim; Baland, Rose-Marie; Tokano, Tetsuya
2016-02-01
The angular momentum of the atmosphere and of the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan have a large equatorial component that can excite polar motion, a variable orientation of the rotation axis of Titan with respect to its surface. We here use the angular momentum obtained from a General Circulation Model of the atmosphere of Titan and from an Ocean Circulation Model for Titan's polar lakes to model the polar motion of Titan as a function of the interior structure. Besides the gravitational torque exerted by Saturn on Titan's aspherical mass distribution, the rotational model also includes torques arising due to the presence of an ocean under a thin ice shell as well as the influence of the elasticity of the different layers. The Chandler wobble period of a solid and rigid Titan without its atmosphere is about 279 years. The period of the Chandler wobble is mainly influenced by the atmosphere of Titan (-166 years) and the presence of an internal global ocean (+135 to 295 years depending on the internal model) and to a lesser extent by the elastic deformations (+3.7 years). The forced polar motion of a solid and rigid Titan is elliptical with an amplitude of about 50 m and a main period equal to the orbital period of Saturn. It is mainly forced by the atmosphere of Titan while the lakes of Titan are at the origin of a displacement of the mean polar motion, or polar offset. The subsurface ocean can largely increase the polar motion amplitude due to resonant amplification with a wobble free mode of Titan. The amplitudes as well as the main periods of the polar motion depend on whether and which forcing period is close to the period of a free mode. For a thick ice shell, the polar motion mainly has an annual period and an amplitude of about 1 km. For thinner ice shells, the polar motion amplitude can reach several tens of km and shorter periods become dominant. We demonstrate that for thick ice shells, the ice shell rigidity weakly influences the amplitude of the polar motion
Effective Motion Tracking Using Known and Learned Actuation Models
2008-06-06
Tactic-Based Motion Model (TBMM), Play-Based Motion Model (PBMM) and Communication-Based Motion Model ( CBMM ). TBMM is the basic object motion model when...plays. CBMM is an extension of PBMM when robots communicate their actions on the object. • We incorporate a single robot and a team actuation models
Rucci, Michael; Hardie, Russell C; Barnard, Kenneth J
2014-05-01
In this paper, we present a computationally efficient video restoration algorithm to address both blur and noise for a Nyquist sampled imaging system. The proposed method utilizes a temporal Kalman filter followed by a correlation-model based spatial adaptive Wiener filter (AWF). The Kalman filter employs an affine background motion model and novel process-noise variance estimate. We also propose and demonstrate a new multidelay temporal Kalman filter designed to more robustly treat local motion. The AWF is a spatial operation that performs deconvolution and adapts to the spatially varying residual noise left in the Kalman filter stage. In image areas where the temporal Kalman filter is able to provide significant noise reduction, the AWF can be aggressive in its deconvolution. In other areas, where less noise reduction is achieved with the Kalman filter, the AWF balances the deconvolution with spatial noise reduction. In this way, the Kalman filter and AWF work together effectively, but without the computational burden of full joint spatiotemporal processing. We also propose a novel hybrid system that combines a temporal Kalman filter and BM3D processing. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we test the algorithms on both simulated imagery and video collected with a visible camera.
Tending to Change: Toward a Situated Model of Affinity Spaces
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bommarito, Dan
2014-01-01
The concept of affinity spaces, a theoretical construct used to analyze literate activity from a spatial perspective, has gained popularity among scholars of literacy studies and, particularly, video-game studies. This article seeks to expand current notions of affinity spaces by identifying key assumptions that have limited researchers'…
Locust Collective Motion and Its Modeling
Ariel, Gil; Ayali, Amir
2015-01-01
Over the past decade, technological advances in experimental and animal tracking techniques have motivated a renewed theoretical interest in animal collective motion and, in particular, locust swarming. This review offers a comprehensive biological background followed by comparative analysis of recent models of locust collective motion, in particular locust marching, their settings, and underlying assumptions. We describe a wide range of recent modeling and simulation approaches, from discrete agent-based models of self-propelled particles to continuous models of integro-differential equations, aimed at describing and analyzing the fascinating phenomenon of locust collective motion. These modeling efforts have a dual role: The first views locusts as a quintessential example of animal collective motion. As such, they aim at abstraction and coarse-graining, often utilizing the tools of statistical physics. The second, which originates from a more biological perspective, views locust swarming as a scientific problem of its own exceptional merit. The main goal should, thus, be the analysis and prediction of natural swarm dynamics. We discuss the properties of swarm dynamics using the tools of statistical physics, as well as the implications for laboratory experiments and natural swarms. Finally, we stress the importance of a combined-interdisciplinary, biological-theoretical effort in successfully confronting the challenges that locusts pose at both the theoretical and practical levels. PMID:26656851
Mathematical modelling of submarine landslide motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burminskij, A.
2012-04-01
Mathematical modelling of submarine landslide motion The paper presents a mathematical model to calculate dynamic parameters of a submarine landslide. The problem of estimation possible submarine landslides dynamic parameters and run-out distances as well as their effect on submarine structures becomes more and more actual because they can have significant impacts on infrastructure such as the rupture of submarine cables and pipelines, damage to offshore drilling platforms, cause a tsunami. In this paper a landslide is considered as a viscoplastic flow and is described by continuum mechanics equations, averaged over the flow depth. The model takes into account friction at the bottom and at the landslide-water boundary, as well as the involvement of bottom material in motion. A software was created and series of test calculations were performed. Calculations permitted to estimate the contribution of various model coefficients and initial conditions. Motion down inclined bottom was studied both for constant and variable slope angle. Examples of typical distributions of the flow velocity, thickness and density along the landslide body at different stages of motion are given.
PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II
The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...
PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS
A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....
Stochastic models for cell motion and taxis.
Ionides, Edward L; Fang, Kathy S; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Oster, George F
2004-01-01
Certain biological experiments investigating cell motion result in time lapse video microscopy data which may be modeled using stochastic differential equations. These models suggest statistics for quantifying experimental results and testing relevant hypotheses, and carry implications for the qualitative behavior of cells and for underlying biophysical mechanisms. Directional cell motion in response to a stimulus, termed taxis, has previously been modeled at a phenomenological level using the Keller-Segel diffusion equation. The Keller-Segel model cannot distinguish certain modes of taxis, and this motivates the introduction of a richer class of models which is nevertheless still amenable to statistical analysis. A state space model formulation is used to link models proposed for cell velocity to observed data. Sequential Monte Carlo methods enable parameter estimation via maximum likelihood for a range of applicable models. One particular experimental situation, involving the effect of an electric field on cell behavior, is considered in detail. In this case, an Ornstein- Uhlenbeck model for cell velocity is found to compare favorably with a nonlinear diffusion model.
Mathematical modelling of animate and intentional motion.
Rittscher, Jens; Blake, Andrew; Hoogs, Anthony; Stein, Gees
2003-01-01
Our aim is to enable a machine to observe and interpret the behaviour of others. Mathematical models are employed to describe certain biological motions. The main challenge is to design models that are both tractable and meaningful. In the first part we will describe how computer vision techniques, in particular visual tracking, can be applied to recognize a small vocabulary of human actions in a constrained scenario. Mainly the problems of viewpoint and scale invariance need to be overcome to formalize a general framework. Hence the second part of the article is devoted to the question whether a particular human action should be captured in a single complex model or whether it is more promising to make extensive use of semantic knowledge and a collection of low-level models that encode certain motion primitives. Scene context plays a crucial role if we intend to give a higher-level interpretation rather than a low-level physical description of the observed motion. A semantic knowledge base is used to establish the scene context. This approach consists of three main components: visual analysis, the mapping from vision to language and the search of the semantic database. A small number of robust visual detectors is used to generate a higher-level description of the scene. The approach together with a number of results is presented in the third part of this article. PMID:12689374
Modelling motions within the organ of Corti
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Guangjian; Baumgart, Johannes; Elliott, Stephen
2015-12-01
Most cochlear models used to describe the basilar membrane vibration along the cochlea are concerned with macromechanics, and often assume that the organ of Corti moves as a single unit, ignoring the individual motion of different components. New experimental technologies provide the opportunity to measure the dynamic behaviour of different components within the organ of Corti, but only for certain types of excitation. It is thus still difficult to directly measure every aspect of cochlear dynamics, particularly for acoustic excitation of the fully active cochlea. The present work studies the dynamic response of a model of the cross-section of the cochlea, at the microscopic level, using the finite element method. The elastic components are modelled with plate elements and the perilymph and endolymph are modelled with inviscid fluid elements. The individual motion of each component within the organ of Corti is calculated with dynamic pressure loading on the basilar membrane and the motions of the experimentally accessible parts are compared with measurements. The reticular lamina moves as a stiff plate, without much bending, and is pivoting around a point close to the region of the inner hair cells, as observed experimentally. The basilar membrane shows a slightly asymmetric mode shape, with maximum displacement occurring between the second-row and the third-row of the outer hair cells. The dynamics responses is also calculated, and compared with experiments, when driven by the outer hair cells. The receptance of the basilar membrane motion and of the deflection of the hair bundles of the outer hair cells is thus obtained, when driven either acoustically or electrically. In this way, the fully active linear response of the basilar membrane to acoustic excitation can be predicted by using a linear superposition of the calculated receptances and a defined gain function for the outer hair cell feedback.
Mathematical modeling of the low and high affinity arabinose transport systems in Escherichia coli.
Yildirim, Necmettin
2012-04-01
A mathematical model was developed for the low and high affinity arabinose transport systems in E. coli. The model is a system of three ordinary differential equations and takes the dynamics of mRNAs for the araE and araFGH proteins and the internal arabinose into account. Special attention was paid to estimate the model parameters from the literature. Our analysis and simulations suggest that the high affinity transport system helps the low affinity transport system to respond to high concentration of extracellular arabinose faster, whereas the high affinity transport system responds to a small amount of extracellular arabinose. Steady state analysis of the model also predicts that there is a regime for the extracellular concentration of arabinose where the arabinose system can show bistable behavior.
Joint PET-MR respiratory motion models for clinical PET motion correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Wan, Simon; McClelland, Jamie; Barnes, Anna; Arridge, Simon; Ourselin, Sébastien; Atkinson, David
2016-09-01
Patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring in positron emission tomography (PET) images, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in PET-MR scanners provides complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. In this paper we build on previous work to form a methodology for respiratory motion correction of PET data, and show it can improve PET image quality whilst having minimal impact on clinical PET-MR protocols. We introduce a joint PET-MR motion model, using only 1 min per PET bed position of simultaneously acquired PET and MR data to provide a respiratory motion correspondence model that captures inter-cycle and intra-cycle breathing variations. In the model setup, 2D multi-slice MR provides the dynamic imaging component, and PET data, via low spatial resolution framing and principal component analysis, provides the model surrogate. We evaluate different motion models (1D and 2D linear, and 1D and 2D polynomial) by computing model-fit and model-prediction errors on dynamic MR images on a data set of 45 patients. Finally we apply the motion model methodology to 5 clinical PET-MR oncology patient datasets. Qualitative PET reconstruction improvements and artefact reduction are assessed with visual analysis, and quantitative improvements are calculated using standardised uptake value (SUVpeak and SUVmax) changes in avid lesions. We demonstrate the capability of a joint PET-MR motion model to predict respiratory motion by showing significantly improved image quality of PET data acquired before the motion model data. The method can be used to incorporate motion into the reconstruction of any length of PET acquisition, with only 1 min of extra scan time, and with no external hardware required.
A statistical shape and motion model for the prediction of respiratory lung motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz
2010-03-01
We propose a method to compute a 4D statistical model of respiratory lung motion which consists of a 3D shape atlas, a 4D mean motion model and a 4D motion variability model. Symmetric diffeomorphic image registration is used to estimate subject-specific motion models, to generate an average shape and intensity atlas of the lung as anatomical reference frame and to establish inter-subject correspondence. The Log-Euclidean framework allows to perform statistics on diffeomorphic transformations via vectorial statistics on their logarithms. We apply this framework to compute the mean motion and motion variations by performing a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on diffeomorphisms. Furthermore, we present methods to adapt the generated statistical 4D motion model to a patient-specific lung geometry and the individual organ motion. The prediction performance is evaluated with respect to motion field differences and with respect to landmark- based target registration errors. The quantitative analysis results in a mean target registration error of 3,2 +/- 1,8 mm. The results show that the new method is able to provide valuable knowledge in many fields of application.
An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kagan, David
2011-01-01
As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…
Modeling Human Control of Self-Motion Direction With Optic Flow and Vestibular Motion.
Zaal, Peter M T; Nieuwenhuizen, Frank M; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Max
2013-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the effects of visual and motion stimuli on the manual control of one's direction of self-motion. In a flight simulator, subjects conducted an active target-following disturbance-rejection task, using a compensatory display. Simulating a vehicular control task, the direction of vehicular motion was shown on the outside visual display in two ways: an explicit presentation using a symbol and an implicit presentation, namely, through the focus of radial outflow that emerges from optic flow. In addition, the effects of the relative strength of congruent vestibular motion cues were investigated. The dynamic properties of human visual and vestibular motion perception paths were modeled using a control-theoretical approach. As expected, improved tracking performance was found for the configurations that explicitly showed the direction of self-motion. The human visual time delay increased with approximately 150 ms for the optic flow conditions, relative to explicit presentations. Vestibular motion, providing higher order information on the direction of self-motion, allowed subjects to partially compensate for this visual perception delay, improving performance. Parameter estimates of the operator control model show that, with vestibular motion, the visual feedback becomes stronger, indicating that operators are more confident to act on optic flow information when congruent vestibular motion cues are present.
Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics
Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K
2007-07-26
We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.
Extension of the selection of protein chromatography and the rate model to affinity chromatography.
Sandoval, G; Shene, C; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A
2010-01-01
The rational selection of optimal protein purification sequences, as well as mathematical models that simulate and allow optimization of chromatographic protein purification processes have been developed for purification procedures such as ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography. This paper investigates the extension of such analysis to affinity chromatography both in the selection of chromatographic processes and in the use of the rate model for mathematical modelling and simulation. Two affinity systems were used: Blue Sepharose and Protein A. The extension of the theory developed previously for ion-exchange and HIC chromatography to affinity separations is analyzed in this paper. For the selection of operations two algorithms are used. In the first, the value of η, which corresponds to the efficiency (resolution) of the actual chromatography and, Σ, which determines the amount of a particular contaminant eliminated after each separation step, which determines the purity, have to be determined. It was found that the value of both these parameters is not generic for affinity separations but will depend on the type of affinity system used and will have to be determined on a case by case basis. With Blue Sepharose a salt gradient was used and with Protein A, a pH gradient. Parameters were determined with individual proteins and simulations of the protein mixtures were done. This approach allows investigation of chromatographic protein purification in a holistic manner that includes ion-exchange, HIC, gel filtration and affinity separations for the first time.
Head Motion Modeling for Human Behavior Analysis in Dyadic Interaction
Xiao, Bo; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Baucom, Brian; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a computational study of head motion in human interaction, notably of its role in conveying interlocutors’ behavioral characteristics. Head motion is physically complex and carries rich information; current modeling approaches based on visual signals, however, are still limited in their ability to adequately capture these important properties. Guided by the methodology of kinesics, we propose a data driven approach to identify typical head motion patterns. The approach follows the steps of first segmenting motion events, then parametrically representing the motion by linear predictive features, and finally generalizing the motion types using Gaussian mixture models. The proposed approach is experimentally validated using video recordings of communication sessions from real couples involved in a couples therapy study. In particular we use the head motion model to classify binarized expert judgments of the interactants’ specific behavioral characteristics where entrainment in head motion is hypothesized to play a role: Acceptance, Blame, Positive, and Negative behavior. We achieve accuracies in the range of 60% to 70% for the various experimental settings and conditions. In addition, we describe a measure of motion similarity between the interaction partners based on the proposed model. We show that the relative change of head motion similarity during the interaction significantly correlates with the expert judgments of the interactants’ behavioral characteristics. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed head motion model, and underscore the promise of analyzing human behavioral characteristics through signal processing methods. PMID:26557047
Optimal displacement in apparent motion and quadrature models of motion sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.
1990-01-01
A grating appears to move if it is displaced by some amount between two brief presentations, or between multiple successive presentations. A number of recent experiments have examined the influence of displacement size upon either the sensitivity to motion, or upon the induced motion aftereffect. Several recent motion models are based upon quadrature filters that respond in opposite quadrants in the spatiotemporal frequency plane. Predictions of the quadrature model are derived for both two-frame and multiframe displays. Quadrature models generally predict an optimal displacement of 1/4 cycle for two-frame displays, but in the multiframe case the prediction depends entirely on the frame rate.
Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.
Bles, W
1998-11-15
Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.
Modeling of ship maneuvering motion using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Weilin; Zhang, Zhicheng
2016-12-01
In this paper, Neural Networks (NNs) are used in the modeling of ship maneuvering motion. A nonlinear response model and a linear hydrodynamic model of ship maneuvering motion are also investigated. The maneuverability indices and linear non-dimensional hydrodynamic derivatives in the models are identified by using two-layer feed forward NNs. The stability of parametric estimation is confirmed. Then, the ship maneuvering motion is predicted based on the obtained models. A comparison between the predicted results and the model test results demonstrates the validity of the proposed modeling method.
A Multi-rhythmic Oscillator Model that Can Integrate Motion Stabilization with Motion Exploration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owaki, Dai; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Satoshi; Tero, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Akio
Central pattern generators (CPGs) have been increasingly attracting roboticists in the hope that they enable robots to realize truly supple and agile locomotion under real world constraints. Thus far, various CPG models have been proposed, particularly in terms of motion stabilization against external perturbations, i.e., limit cycle behavior. On the other hand, biological CPGs have another crucial aspect that cannot be neglected, i.e., motion exploration. Here, note that motion stabilization and motion exploration should be performed in different time-scales. Now the following questions arise: how can different time-scales be embedded into a single CPG effectively?; and what is a good mathematical tool for describing the coexistence of different time-scales? To overcome these problems, this paper introduces a novel oscillator model in which the two functions of motion stabilization and motion exploration can be seamlessly integrated by exploiting the concept of multi-rhythmicity, without relying on any hierarchical structure, which in turn enables that learning is an integral part of the motor control system. We applied this model to the learning of hopping motion as a practical example. Simulation results indicate that the robot can successfully perform online learning without the need for a separation between learning and performance phases.
Inter-fraction variations in respiratory motion models.
McClelland, J R; Hughes, S; Modat, M; Qureshi, A; Ahmad, S; Landau, D B; Ourselin, S; Hawkes, D J
2011-01-07
Respiratory motion can vary dramatically between the planning stage and the different fractions of radiotherapy treatment. Motion predictions used when constructing the radiotherapy plan may be unsuitable for later fractions of treatment. This paper presents a methodology for constructing patient-specific respiratory motion models and uses these models to evaluate and analyse the inter-fraction variations in the respiratory motion. The internal respiratory motion is determined from the deformable registration of Cine CT data and related to a respiratory surrogate signal derived from 3D skin surface data. Three different models for relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal have been investigated in this work. Data were acquired from six lung cancer patients. Two full datasets were acquired for each patient, one before the course of radiotherapy treatment and one at the end (approximately 6 weeks later). Separate models were built for each dataset. All models could accurately predict the respiratory motion in the same dataset, but had large errors when predicting the motion in the other dataset. Analysis of the inter-fraction variations revealed that most variations were spatially varying base-line shifts, but changes to the anatomy and the motion trajectories were also observed.
Image-guided tumor motion modeling and tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Wu, Y.; Liu, W.; Christensen, J.; Tai, A.; Li, A. X.
2009-02-01
Radiation therapy (RT) is an important procedure in the treatment of cancer in the thorax and abdomen. However, its efficacy can be severely limited by breathing induced tumor motion. Tumor motion causes uncertainty in the tumor's location and consequently limits the radiation dosage (for fear of damaging normal tissue). This paper describes a novel signal model for tumor motion tracking/prediction that can potentially improve RT results. Using CT and breathing sensor data, it provides a more accurate characterization of the breathing and tumor motion than previous work and is non-invasive. The efficacy of our model is demonstrated on patient data.
Anand, Jessica P.; Purington, Lauren C.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Traynor, John R.; Mosberg, Henry I.
2012-01-01
Mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists are widely used for the treatment of pain; however chronic use results in the development of tolerance and dependence. It has been demonstrated that co-administration of a MOR agonist with a delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist maintains the analgesia associated with MOR agonists, but with reduced negative side effects. Using our newly refined opioid receptor models for structure-based ligand design, we have synthesized several pentapeptides with tailored affinity and efficacy profiles. In particular, we have obtained pentapeptides 8, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]NH2, and 12, Tyr-c(S-S)[DCys-1Nal-Nle-Cys]OH, which demonstrates high affinity and full agonist behavior at MOR, high affinity but very low efficacy for DOR, and minimal affinity for the kappa opioid receptor (KOR). Functional properties of these peptides as MOR agonists/DOR antagonists lacking undesired KOR activity make them promising candidates for future in vivo studies of MOR/DOR interactions. Subtle structural variation of 12, by substituting D-Cys5 for L-Cys5, generated analog 13 which maintains low nanomolar MOR and DOR affinity, but which displays no efficacy at either receptor. These results demonstrate the power and utility of accurate receptor models for structure-based ligand design, as well as the profound sensitivity of ligand function on its structure. PMID:22882801
Building Mathematical Models of Simple Harmonic and Damped Motion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Thomas
1995-01-01
By developing a sequence of mathematical models of harmonic motion, shows that mathematical models are not right or wrong, but instead are better or poorer representations of the problem situation. (MKR)
A test of alternative Caribbean plate relative motion models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, Seth; Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Brodholt, John; Argus, Don
1988-01-01
The new NUVEL-1 data set for global relative plate motions is used here to discriminate between the two prevailing models for Caribbean plate motion. One model, by Jordan (1975), assumes that North America-Caribbean motion is reflected by the spreading rate inferred from magnetic anomalies at the Cayman Spreading Center and the azimuths of nearby transforms. The other model, by Sykes et al. (1982), uses rates and azimuths inferred from the geometry of the Lesser Antilles Wadati-Benioff zone. Overall, it is found that the data fit the Jordan geometry better, that the data used in global plate motion models are more suitable than rates and azimuths inferred from the geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone for determining relative motions, and that incorporation of all relevant plate boundaries is essential.
Unified Field Theoretical Models from Generalized Affine Geometries II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio
2011-06-01
The space-time structure of the new Unified Field Theory presented in previous reference (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 49:1288-1301, 2010) is analyzed from its SL(2C) underlying structure in order to make precise the notion of minimal coupling. To this end, the framework is the language of tensors and particularly differential forms and the condition a priory of the existence of a potential for the torsion is relaxed. We shown trough exact cosmological solutions from this model, where the geometry is Euclidean R⊗ O 3˜ R⊗ SU(2), the relation between the space-time geometry and the structure of the gauge group. Precisely this relation is directly connected with the relation of the spin and torsion fields. The solution of this model is explicitly compared with our previous ones and we find that: (i) the torsion is not identified directly with the Yang Mills type strength field, (ii) there exists a compatibility condition connected with the identification of the gauge group with the geometric structure of the space-time: this fact lead the identification between derivatives of the scale factor a( τ) with the components of the torsion in order to allows the Hosoya-Ogura ansatz (namely, the alignment of the isospin with the frame geometry of the space-time), (iii) this compatibility condition precisely mark the fact that local gauge covariance, coordinate independence and arbitrary space time geometries are harmonious concepts and (iv) of two possible structures of the torsion the "tratorial" form (the only one studied here) forbids wormhole configurations, leading only, cosmological instanton space-time in eternal expansion.
A Stick Motion Compensation System with a Dynamic Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Atsushi; Kakino, Yoshiaki; Tsutsui, Kazuhiko
This paper deals with a stick motion compensation system. Stick motion is trajectory error that happens just after a quadrant change in circular motion on NC machine tools. Recently cylindrical machining with an end mill is often executed instead of boring machining with a bore tool. That is why the accuracy with end mill machining is becoming important. Stick motion extremely damages the accuracy and the quality of the circular parts or free form surfaces on workpieces. In the conventional compensation system, tuning parameters for each combination of radius and feed rate is needed. This research proposes a new stick motion compensation system. The new system has a dynamic model that simulates the friction. The simulated friction consists of two components. One is spring resistance in proportion to a reverse distance from a quadrant change. The other is viscous damping friction in proportion to velocity. The system can compensate stick motions suitably for wide range conditions of radii and feed rate.
(Non-)geodesic motion in chameleon Brans Dicke model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saaidi, K.
2013-06-01
Based on Das and Banerjee (Phys. Rev D 78:043512, 2008), we assume there is a non-minimal coupling between scalar field and matter in the Brans-Dicke model. We analyzes the motion of different matter such as, massless scalar field, photon, massless perfect fluid (dust), massive perfect fluid and point particle matter in this study. We show that the motion of massless scalar field and photon can satisfy null geodesic motion only in high frequency limit. Also we find that the motion of the dust and massive perfect fluid is geodesic for L m =- P and it is non-geodesic for L m = ρ. Finally, we study the motion of point particle and show that the motion of this kind of matter is like massive perfect fluid.
A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra
Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John
1988-01-01
A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Ashley, H.; Breakwell, J. V.
1977-01-01
A study is presented on the unsteady aerodynamic loads due to arbitrary motions of a thin wing and their adaptation for the calculation of response and true stability of aeroelastic modes. In an Appendix, the use of Laplace transform techniques and the generalized Theodorsen function for two-dimensional incompressible flow is reviewed. New applications of the same approach are shown also to yield airloads valid for quite general small motions. Numerical results are given for the two-dimensional supersonic case. Previously proposed approximate methods, starting from simple harmonic unsteady theory, are evaluated by comparison with exact results obtained by the present approach. The Laplace inversion integral is employed to separate the loads into 'rational' and 'nonrational' parts, of which only the former are involved in aeroelastic stability of the wing. Among other suggestions for further work, it is explained how existing aerodynamic computer programs may be adapted in a fairly straightforward fashion to deal with arbitrary transients.
Ground motion data for International Collider models
Volk, J.T.; LeBrun, P.; Shiltsev, V.; Singatulin, S.; /Fermilab
2007-11-01
The proposed location for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in the Americas region is Fermilab in Batavia Illinois. If built at this location the tunnels would be located in the Galena Platteville shale at a depth of 100 or more meters below the surface. Studies using hydro static water levels and seismometers have been conducted in the MINOS hall and the LaFrange Mine in North Aurora Illinois to determine the level of ground motion. Both these locations are in the Galena Platteville shale and indicate the typical ground motion to be expected for the ILC. The data contains both natural and cultural noise. Coefficients for the ALT law are determined. Seismic measurements at the surface and 100 meters below the surface are presented.
An Architectural Model of Visual Motion Understanding
1989-08-01
responsible for at least some long-range apparent motion phenomena (Watson and Ahumada , 19851. The logical conclusion to this line of argument would be to...x direction. This idea is the basis of the work by Heeger mentioned in the previous section. Watson and Ahumada [1985] propose computing the sum of...oscillates at a frequency related to local velocity. Watson and Ahumada provide a detailed description of how the filters are constructed and how
Meschini, Giorgia; Seregni, Matteo; Pella, Andrea; Ciocca, Mario; Fossati, Piero; Valvo, Francesca; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido
2017-02-01
At the Italian National Centre for Oncologic Hadrontherapy (CNAO) patients with upper-abdominal tumours are being treated with carbon ion therapy, adopting the respiratory gating technique in combination with layered rescanning and abdominal compression to mitigate organ motion. Since online imaging of the irradiated volume is not feasible, this study proposes a modelling approach for the estimation of residual motion of the target within the gating window. The model extracts a priori respiratory motion information from the planning 4DCT using deformable image registration (DIR), then combines such information with the external surrogate signal recorded during dose delivery. This provides estimation of a CT volume corresponding to any given respiratory phase measured during treatment. The method was applied for the retrospective estimation of tumour residual motion during irradiation, considering 16 patients treated at CNAO with the respiratory gating protocol. The estimated tumour displacement, calculated with respect to the reference end-exhale position, was always limited (average displacement is 0.32±0.65mm over all patients) and below the maximum motion defined in the treatment plan. This supports the hypothesis of target position reproducibility, which is the crucial assumption in the gating approach. We also demonstrated the use of the model as a simulation tool to establish a patient-specific relationship between residual motion and the width of the gating window. In conclusion, the implemented method yields an estimation of the repeatability of the internal anatomy configuration during gated treatments, which can be used for further studies concerning the dosimetric impact of the estimated residual organ motion.
On a PCA-based lung motion model
Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Liu, Weifeng; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B
2014-01-01
Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772–81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921–9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within
On a PCA-based lung motion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Liu, Weifeng; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A.; Jiang, Steve B.
2011-09-01
Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1
A true polar wander model for Neoproterozoic plate motions
Ripperdan, R.L. )
1992-01-01
Recent paleogeographic reconstructions for the interval 750--500 Ma (Neoproterozoic to Late Cambrian) require rapid rates of plate motion and/or rotation around an equatorial Euler pole to accommodate reconstructions for the Early Paleozoic. Motions of this magnitude appear to be very uncommon during the Phanerozoic. A model for plate motions based on the hypothesis that discrete intervals of rapid true polar wander (RTPW) occurred during the Neoproterozoic can account for the paleogeographic changes with minimum amounts of plate motion. The model uses the paleogeographic reconstructions of Hoffman (1991). The following constraints were applied during derivation of the model: (1) relative motions between major continental units were restricted to be combinations of great circle or small circle translations with Euler poles of rotation = spin axis; (2) maximum rates of relative translational plate motion were 0.2 m/yr. Based on these constraints, two separate sets of synthetic plate motion trajectories were determined. The sequence of events in both can be summarized as: (1) A rapid true polar wander event of ca 90[degree] rafting a supercontinent to the spin axis; (2) breakup of the polar supercontinent into two fragments, one with the Congo, West Africa, Amazonia, and Baltica cratons, the other with the Laurentia, East Gondwana, and Kalahari cratons; (3) great circle motion of the blocks towards the equator; (4) small circle motion leading to amalgamation of Gondwana and separation of Laurentia and Baltica. In alternative 1, rifting initiates between East Antarctica and Laurentia and one episode of RTPW is required. Alternative 2 requires two episodes of RTPW; and that rifting occurred first along the eastern margin and later along the western margin of Laurentia. Synthetic plate motion trajectories are compared to existing paleomagnetic and geological data, and implications of the model for paleoclimatic changes during the Neoproterozoic are discussed.
An SF1 affinity model to identify branch point sequences in human introns
Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Blanchette, Marco; Rio, Donald C.; Brenner, Steven E.; Frankel, Alan D.
2011-01-01
Splicing factor 1 (SF1) binds to the branch point sequence (BPS) of mammalian introns and is believed to be important for the splicing of some, but not all, introns. To help identify BPSs, particularly those that depend on SF1, we generated a BPS profile model in which SF1 binding affinity data, validated by branch point mapping, were iteratively incorporated into computational models. We searched a data set of 117 499 human introns for best matches to the SF1 Affinity Model above a threshold, and counted the number of matches at each intronic position. After subtracting a background value, we found that 87.9% of remaining high-scoring matches identified were located in a region upstream of 3′-splice sites where BPSs are typically found. Since U2AF65 recognizes the polypyrimidine tract (PPT) and forms a cooperative RNA complex with SF1, we combined the SF1 model with a PPT model computed from high affinity binding sequences for U2AF65. The combined model, together with binding site location constraints, accurately identified introns bound by SF1 that are candidates for SF1-dependent splicing. PMID:21071404
Estimating joint kinematics from skin motion observation: modelling and validation.
Wolf, Alon; Senesh, Merav
2011-11-01
Modelling of soft tissue motion is required in many areas, such as computer animation, surgical simulation, 3D motion analysis and gait analysis. In this paper, we will focus on the use of modelling of skin deformation during 3D motion analysis. The most frequently used method in 3D human motion analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analysed segment which is composed of the rigid bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Skin and soft tissue deformations introduce a significant artefact which strongly influences the resulting bone position, orientation and joint kinematics. For this study, we used a statistical solid dynamics approach which is a combination of several previously reported tools: the point cluster technique (PCT) and a Kalman filter which was added to the PCT. The methods were tested and evaluated on controlled human-arm motions, using an optical motion capture system (Vicon(TM)). The addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT for rigid body motion estimation results in a smoother signal that better represents the joint motion. Calculations indicate less signal distortion than when using a digital low-pass filter. Furthermore, adding a Kalman filter to the PCT substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal instantaneous frequencies. For controlled human movements, the result indicated that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT produced a more accurate signal. However, it could not be concluded that the proposed Kalman filter is better than a low-pass filter for estimation of the motion. We suggest that implementation of a Kalman filter with a better biomechanical motion model will be more likely to improve the results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand, Judith, Ed.
2002-01-01
This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.
This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…
Modeling of earthquake ground motion in the frequency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thrainsson, Hjortur
In recent years, the utilization of time histories of earthquake ground motion has grown considerably in the design and analysis of civil structures. It is very unlikely, however, that recordings of earthquake ground motion will be available for all sites and conditions of interest. Hence, there is a need for efficient methods for the simulation and spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In addition to providing estimates of the ground motion at a site using data from adjacent recording stations, spatially interpolated ground motions can also be used in design and analysis of long-span structures, such as bridges and pipelines, where differential movement is important. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for rapid generation of horizontal earthquake ground motion at any site for a given region, based on readily available source, path and site characteristics, or (sparse) recordings. The research includes two main topics: (i) the simulation of earthquake ground motion at a given site, and (ii) the spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In topic (i), models are developed to simulate acceleration time histories using the inverse discrete Fourier transform. The Fourier phase differences, defined as the difference in phase angle between adjacent frequency components, are simulated conditional on the Fourier amplitude. Uniformly processed recordings from recent California earthquakes are used to validate the simulation models, as well as to develop prediction formulas for the model parameters. The models developed in this research provide rapid simulation of earthquake ground motion over a wide range of magnitudes and distances, but they are not intended to replace more robust geophysical models. In topic (ii), a model is developed in which Fourier amplitudes and Fourier phase angles are interpolated separately. A simple dispersion relationship is included in the phase angle interpolation. The accuracy of the interpolation
Self-affine and ARX-models zonation of well logging data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiri, Yousef; Tokhmechi, Behzad; Zarei, Zeinab; Koneshloo, Mohammad
2012-11-01
Zonation of time series into models which their parameters are piecewise constant are important and well-studied problems. Geophysical well logging data often show a complex pattern due to their multifractal nature. In a multifractal system, any pieces of it are established by a distinct exponent that can characterize them. This feature has the capability to cluster them. Self-affine zonation by Auto Regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is a new approach which places well logging segments in the clusters which are more self-affine against the other clusters. This approach was performed and compared with a conventional ARX zonation in the well logging data of three different oilfields in southern parts of Iran. The results showed a good accuracy for detecting homogeneous lithological segments and led to a precise interpretation process to update the reservoir architecture.
New Models of Mechanisms for the Motion Transformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrović, Tomislav; Ivanov, Ivan
In this paper two new mechanisms for the motion transformations are presented: screw mechanism for the transformation of one-way circular into two-way linear motion with impulse control and worm-planetary gear train with extremely height gear ratio. Both mechanisms represent new models of construction solutions for which patent protection has been achieved. These mechanisms are based on the application of the differential gearbox with two degrees of freedom. They are characterized by series of kinematic impacts at motion transformation and the possibility of temporary or permanent changes in the structure by subtracting the redundant degree of freedom. Thus the desired characteristic of the motion transformation is achieved. For each mechanism separately the principles of motion and transformation are described and the basic equations that describe the interdependence of geometric and kinematic and kinetic parameters of the system dynamics are given. The basic principles of controlling new mechanisms for motion transformation have been pointed to and the basic constructional performances which may find practical application have been given. The physical models of new systems of motion transformation have been designed and their operation has been presented. Performed experimental researches confirmed the theoretical results and very favorable kinematic characteristics of the mechanisms.
Spherical shell model description of rotational motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuker, A. P.; Retamosa, J.; Poves, A.; Caurier, E.
1995-10-01
Exact diagonalizations with a realistic interaction show that configurations with four neutrons in a major shell and four protons in another-or the same-major shell, behave systematically as backbending rotors. The dominance of the q.q component of the interaction is related to an approximate ``quasi-SU3'' symmetry. It is suggested that the onset of rotational motion in the rare earth nuclei is due to the promotion of the eight particle blocks to the major shells above the ones currently filling. Assuming a ``pseudo-SU3'' coupling for the particles in the lower orbits, it is possible to account remarkably well for the observed B(E2) rates at the beginning of the region.
Maximum-Entropy Models of Sequenced Immune Repertoires Predict Antigen-Antibody Affinity
Marcatili, Paolo; Pagnani, Andrea
2016-01-01
The immune system has developed a number of distinct complex mechanisms to shape and control the antibody repertoire. One of these mechanisms, the affinity maturation process, works in an evolutionary-like fashion: after binding to a foreign molecule, the antibody-producing B-cells exhibit a high-frequency mutation rate in the genome region that codes for the antibody active site. Eventually, cells that produce antibodies with higher affinity for their cognate antigen are selected and clonally expanded. Here, we propose a new statistical approach based on maximum entropy modeling in which a scoring function related to the binding affinity of antibodies against a specific antigen is inferred from a sample of sequences of the immune repertoire of an individual. We use our inference strategy to infer a statistical model on a data set obtained by sequencing a fairly large portion of the immune repertoire of an HIV-1 infected patient. The Pearson correlation coefficient between our scoring function and the IC50 neutralization titer measured on 30 different antibodies of known sequence is as high as 0.77 (p-value 10−6), outperforming other sequence- and structure-based models. PMID:27074145
Model-based motion correction of reduced field of view diffusion MRI data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hering, Jan; Wolf, Ivo; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.
2014-03-01
In clinical settings, application of the most recent modelling techniques is usually unfeasible due to the limited acquisition time. Localised acquisitions enclosing only the object of interest by reducing the field-of-view (FOV) counteract the time limitation but pose new challenges to the subsequent processing steps like motion correction. We use datasets from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to simulate head motion distorted reduced FOV acquisitions and present an evaluation of head motion correction approaches: the commonly used affine regis- tration onto an unweighted reference image guided by the mutual information (MI) metric and a model-based approach, which uses reference images computed from approximated tensor data to improve the performance of the MI metric. While the standard approach using the MI metric yields up to 15% outliers (error>5 mm) and a mean spatial error above 1.5 mm, the model-based approach reduces the number of outliers (1%) and the spatial error significantly (p<0.01). The behavior is also reflected by the visual analysis of the MI metric. The evaluation shows that the MI metric is of very limited use for reduced FOV data post-processing. The model-based approach has proven more suitable in this context.
Motion in Brane World Models: The Bazanski Approach
Kahil, M.E.
2007-11-20
Recently, path equations have been obtained for charged and spinning objects in brane world models, using a modified Bazanski Lagrangian. In this study, path deviation equations of extended objects are derived. The significance of moving extended objects in brane world models is examined. Motion in non-symmetric brane world models is also considered.
The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lattery, Mark Joseph
2008-01-01
This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…
Sparse Modeling of Human Actions from Motion Imagery
2011-09-02
classification [23, 24], hyperspectral imag- ing [5, 6], among numerous other applications. It has also been applied recently for motion imagery analysis... CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 26 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT...Actions from Motion Imagery Alexey Castrodad and Guillermo Sapiro ∗ September 2, 2011 Abstract An efficient sparse modeling pipeline for the classification
Gupta, Shikha; Basant, Nikita; Rai, Premanjali; Singh, Kunwar P
2015-11-01
Binding affinity of chemical to carbon is an important characteristic as it finds vast industrial applications. Experimental determination of the adsorption capacity of diverse chemicals onto carbon is both time and resource intensive, and development of computational approaches has widely been advocated. In this study, artificial intelligence (AI)-based ten different qualitative and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (MLPN, RBFN, PNN/GRNN, CCN, SVM, GEP, GMDH, SDT, DTF, DTB) were established for the prediction of the adsorption capacity of structurally diverse chemicals to activated carbon following the OECD guidelines. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinear dependence in the data were evaluated using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. The generalization and prediction abilities of the constructed models were established through rigorous internal and external validation procedures performed employing a wide series of statistical checks. In complete dataset, the qualitative models rendered classification accuracies between 97.04 and 99.93%, while the quantitative models yielded correlation (R(2)) values of 0.877-0.977 between the measured and the predicted endpoint values. The quantitative prediction accuracies for the higher molecular weight (MW) compounds (class 4) were relatively better than those for the low MW compounds. Both in the qualitative and quantitative models, the Polarizability was the most influential descriptor. Structural alerts responsible for the extreme adsorption behavior of the compounds were identified. Higher number of carbon and presence of higher halogens in a molecule rendered higher binding affinity. Proposed QSPR models performed well and outperformed the previous reports. A relatively better performance of the ensemble learning models (DTF, DTB) may be attributed to the strengths of the bagging and boosting algorithms which enhance the predictive accuracies. The
High-frequency affine mechanics and nonaffine relaxation in a model cytoskeleton.
Head, David A; Ikebe, Emi; Nakamasu, Akiko; Zhang, Peijuan; Villaruz, Lara Gay; Kinoshita, Suguru; Ando, Shoji; Mizuno, Daisuke
2014-04-01
The cytoskeleton is a network of crosslinked, semiflexible filaments, and it has been suggested that it has properties of a glassy state. Here we employ optical-trap-based microrheology to apply forces to a model cytoskeleton and measure the high-bandwidth response at an anterior point. Simulating the highly nonlinear and anisotropic stress-strain propagation assuming affinity, we found that theoretical predictions for the quasistatic response of semiflexible polymers are only realized at high frequencies inaccessible to conventional rheometers. We give a theoretical basis for determining the frequency when both affinity and quasistaticity are valid, and we discuss with experimental evidence that the relaxations at lower frequencies can be characterized by the experimentally obtained nonaffinity parameter.
Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity
Mehdizadeh, H.; Dickson, J.M. )
1993-03-01
Modeling of reverse osmosis in the presence of strong solute-membrane affinity has always been a challenge due to the complexity of the solute-solvent-membrane interactions and the resultant effect on membrane performance. Most transport models, including all models treating membranes as nonporous and those based on irreversible thermodynamics, are unable to describe or to predict all of the phenomena associated with this case. Recently, the modified surface force-pore flow model has been derived and used to describe the performance of reverse osmosis membranes for solutes which are rejected from the membrane. In the present work, this model is extended to a more general form which can describe the solute-membrane affinity case. For illustration, the extended model, with five adjustable parameters, is used to describe the performance for cellulose acetate membranes and dilute aqueous solutions of toluene, cumene, and p-chlorophenol (data from literature). The model is reasonably consistent with the data. Simulation results of the extended model are also shown.
A model describing vestibular detection of body sway motion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nashner, L. M.
1971-01-01
An experimental technique was developed which facilitated the formulation of a quantitative model describing vestibular detection of body sway motion in a postural response mode. All cues, except vestibular ones, which gave a subject an indication that he was beginning to sway, were eliminated using a specially designed two-degree-of-freedom platform; body sway was then induced and resulting compensatory responses at the ankle joints measured. Hybrid simulation compared the experimental results with models of the semicircular canals and utricular otolith receptors. Dynamic characteristics of the resulting canal model compared closely with characteristics of models which describe eye movement and subjective responses to body rotational motions. The average threshold level, in the postural response mode, however, was considerably lower. Analysis indicated that the otoliths probably play no role in the initial detection of body sway motion.
Chemical binding affinity estimation using MSB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.
2011-03-01
Binding affinity can be estimated in several ways in the laboratory but there is no viable way to estimate binding affinity in vivo without assumptions on the number of binding sites. Magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion, MSB, measures the rotational Brownian motion. The MSB signal is affected by nanoparticle binding affinity so it provides a mechanism to measure the chemical binding affinity. We present a possible mechanism to quantify the binding affinity and test that mechanism using viscous solutions.
Microarrays as Model Biosensor Platforms to Investigate the Structure and Affinity of Aptamers
Martin, Jennifer A.; Chushak, Yaroslav; Chávez, Jorge L.; Hagen, Joshua A.; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy
2016-01-01
Immobilization of nucleic acid aptamer recognition elements selected free in solution onto the surface of biosensor platforms has proven challenging. This study investigated the binding of multiple aptamer/target pairs immobilized on a commercially available microarray as a model system mimicking biosensor applications. The results indicate a minimum distance (linker length) from the surface and thymine nucleobase linker provides reproducible binding across varying conditions. An indirect labeling method, where the target was labeled with a biotin followed by a brief Cy3-streptavidin incubation, provided a higher signal-to-noise ratio and over two orders of magnitude improvement in limit of detection, compared to direct Cy3-protein labeling. We also showed that the affinities of the aptamer/target interaction can change between direct and indirect labeling and conditions to optimize for the highest fluorescence intensity will increase the sensitivity of the assay but will not change the overall affinity. Additionally, some sequences which did not initially bind demonstrated binding when conditions were optimized. These results, in combination with studies demonstrating enhanced binding in nonselection buffers, provided insights into the structure and affinity of aptamers critical for biosensor applications and allowed for generalizations in starting conditions for researchers wishing to investigate aptamers on a microarray surface. PMID:27042344
Pence, Thomas J; Monroe, Ryan J; Wright, Neil T
2008-08-01
Some recent analyses modeled the response of collagenous tissues, such as epicardium, using a hypothetical network consisting of interconnected springlike fibers. The fibers in the network were organized such that internal nodes served as the connection point between three such collagen springs. The results for assumed affine and nonaffine deformations are contrasted after a homogeneous deformation at the boundary. Affine deformation provides a stiffer mechanical response than nonaffine deformation. In contrast to nonaffine deformation, affine deformation determines the displacement of internal nodes without imposing detailed force balance, thereby complicating the simplest intuitive notion of stress, one based on free body cuts, at the single node scale. The standard notion of stress may then be recovered via average field theory computations based on large micromesh realizations. An alternative and by all indications complementary viewpoint for the determination of stress in these collagen fiber networks is discussed here, one in which stress is defined using elastic energy storage, a notion which is intuitive at the single node scale. It replaces the average field theory computations by an averaging technique over randomly oriented isolated simple elements. The analytical operations do not require large micromesh realizations, but the tedious nature of the mathematical manipulation is clearly aided by symbolic algebra calculation. For the example case of linear elastic deformation, this results in material stiffnesses that relate the infinitesimal strain and stress. The result that the affine case is stiffer than the nonaffine case is recovered, as would be expected. The energy framework also lends itself to the natural inclusion of changes in mechanical response due to the chemical, electrical, or thermal environment.
Elements of an improved model of debris‐flow motion
Iverson, Richard M.
2009-01-01
A new depth‐averaged model of debris‐flow motion describes simultaneous evolution of flow velocity and depth, solid and fluid volume fractions, and pore‐fluid pressure. Non‐hydrostatic pore‐fluid pressure is produced by dilatancy, a state‐dependent property that links the depth‐averaged shear rate and volumetric strain rate of the granular phase. Pore‐pressure changes caused by shearing allow the model to exhibit rate‐dependent flow resistance, despite the fact that the basal shear traction involves only rate‐independent Coulomb friction. An analytical solution of simplified model equations shows that the onset of downslope motion can be accelerated or retarded by pore‐pressure change, contingent on whether dilatancy is positive or negative. A different analytical solution shows that such effects will likely be muted if downslope motion continues long enough, because dilatancy then evolves toward zero, and volume fractions and pore pressure concurrently evolve toward steady states.
Turbulent motion of mass flows. Mathematical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eglit, Margarita; Yakubenko, Alexander; Yakubenko, Tatiana
2016-04-01
New mathematical models for unsteady turbulent mass flows, e.g., dense snow avalanches and landslides, are presented. Such models are important since most of large scale flows are turbulent. In addition to turbulence, the two other important points are taken into account: the entrainment of the underlying material by the flow and the nonlinear rheology of moving material. The majority of existing models are based on the depth-averaged equations and the turbulent character of the flow is accounted by inclusion of drag proportional to the velocity squared. In this paper full (not depth-averaged) equations are used. It is assumed that basal entrainment takes place if the bed friction equals the shear strength of the underlying layer (Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011). The turbulent characteristics of the flow are calculated using a three-parameter differential model (Lushchik et al., 1978). The rheological properties of moving material are modeled by one of the three types of equations: 1) Newtonian fluid with high viscosity, 2) power-law fluid and 3) Bingham fluid. Unsteady turbulent flows down long homogeneous slope are considered. The flow dynamical parameters and entrainment rate behavior in time as well as their dependence on properties of moving and underlying materials are studied numerically. REFERENCES M.E. Eglit and A.E. Yakubenko, 2014. Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 108, 139-148 Margarita E. Eglit and Alexander E. Yakubenko, 2016. The effect of bed material entrainment and non-Newtonian rheology on dynamics of turbulent slope flows. Fluid Dynamics, 51(3) Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), 143-147 Lushchik, V.G., Paveliev, A.A. , and Yakubenko, A.E., 1978. Three-parameter model of shear turbulence. Fluid Dynamics, 13, (3), 350-362
Current plate motions. [continental groupings and global modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.; Stein, S.
1990-01-01
A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used. Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed. It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; e.g., between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates. Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates.
Designing the optimal convolution kernel for modeling the motion blur
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jelinek, Jan
2011-06-01
Motion blur acts on an image like a two dimensional low pass filter, whose spatial frequency characteristic depends both on the trajectory of the relative motion between the scene and the camera and on the velocity vector variation along it. When motion during exposure is permitted, the conventional, static notions of both the image exposure and the scene-toimage mapping become unsuitable and must be revised to accommodate the image formation dynamics. This paper develops an exact image formation model for arbitrary object-camera relative motion with arbitrary velocity profiles. Moreover, for any motion the camera may operate in either continuous or flutter shutter exposure mode. Its result is a convolution kernel, which is optimally designed for both the given motion and sensor array geometry, and hence permits the most accurate computational undoing of the blurring effects for the given camera required in forensic and high security applications. The theory has been implemented and a few examples are shown in the paper.
Physiological model of motion analysis for machine vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Richard A.; Lesperance, Ronald M.
1993-09-01
We studied the spatio-temporal shape of `receptive fields' of simple cells in the monkey visual cortex. Receptive fields are maps of the regions in space and time that affect a cell's electrical responses. Fields with no change in shape over time responded to all directions of motion; fields with changing shape over time responded to only some directions of motion. A Gaussian Derivative (GD) model fit these fields well, in a transformed variable space that aligned the centers and principal axes of the field and model in space-time. The model accounts for fields that vary in orientation, location, spatial scale, motion properties, and number of lobes. The model requires only ten parameters (the minimum possible) to describe fields in two dimensions of space and one of time. A difference-of-offset-Gaussians (DOOG) provides a plausible physiological means to form GD model fields. Because of its simplicity, the GD model improves the efficiency of machine vision systems for analyzing motion. An implementation produced robust local estimates of the direction and speed of moving objects in real scenes.
Domain-wall motion in random potential and hysteresis modeling
Pasquale, M.; Basso, V.; Bertotti, G.; Jiles, D.C.; Bi, Y.
1998-06-01
Two different approaches to hysteresis modeling are compared using a common ground based on energy relations, defined in terms of dissipated and stored energy. Using the Preisach model and assuming that magnetization is mainly due to domain-wall motion, one can derive the expression of magnetization along a major loop typical of the Jiles{endash}Atherton model and then extend its validity to cases where mean-field effects and reversible contributions are present. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Roche, David; van der Graaf, Piet H; Giraldo, Jesús
2016-11-01
The operational model of agonism offers a general equation to account for steep or flat functional curves by including a slope parameter different from 1. However, because this equation is not a Hill equation, those steep or flat experimental curves that follow the Hill model are excluded from the operational framework. This conceptual omission could have significant consequences in the estimation of affinity and efficacy - the operational model tends to overestimate agonist-receptor dissociation constants and operational efficacy parameters to accommodate the shape of theoretical curves to steep or flat experimental Hill curves. To avoid misled parameter estimates for an ample space of pharmacological data a new version of the operational model has been developed.
Oceanic Excitations On Polar Motion: A Cross Comparison Among Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Y.; Chen, J.; Liao, X.; Wilson, C. R.
2004-12-01
Recent studies based on various oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs) demonstrated that the oceans are a major contributor to polar motion excitations. In this paper, we analyze and compare observed non-atmospheric polar motion excitations with oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations determined from four OGCMs, which include the parallel ocean climate model (POCM), a barotropic ocean model (BOM), the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) non-data-assimilating model (ECCO-NDA), and the ECCO data-assimilating model (ECCO-DA). The data to be analyzed span a 5-year¡_s overlapped period from 1993 to 1997. At annual time scale, these four OAM estimates do not agree well with each other, while POCM shows relatively larger discrepancies than other three models. At intraseasonal time scales, ECCO-DA yields the best agreement with observations, and reduces the variance of non-atmospheric excitations by about 60%, 10-20% more than those explained by other three models. However, at the very short periods of 4-20 days, the BOM estimates could explain about half of the observed variance, twice as much as that by ECCO-NDA, and also shows considerably better correlation with observations. Due to different modeling schemes and methods, significant discrepancies could arise with respect to the quantity of modeling large-scale oceanic mass redistribution and current variation. A clear understanding of global oceanic contributions to polar motion excitation still remains a challenge.
Simulation Studies of the NLC with Improved Ground Motion Models
Seryi, Andrei
2000-08-31
The performance of various systems of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) have been studied in terms of ground motion using recently developed models. In particular, the performance of the beam delivery system is discussed. Plans to evaluate the operation of the main linac beam-based alignment and feedback systems are also outlined.
Kinematic Model of River Ice Motion During Dynamic Breakup
1993-09-01
Texas: Gulf Publish- nal of Computational Physics, 101: 130-139. ing Co. Shen, H.T. and Y.C. Chen (1992) Lagrangian discrete Calkins , DJ. (1978...OTIC9 ~jjELECTE0 lV 919 3 AD-A273 141 * Kinematic Model of River Ice Motion During Dynamic Breakup Michael G . Ferrick, Patricia B. Weyrick and David...Bottom) Looking across the river during brash ice motion at about 1 m /s. (Photos by M . Ferrick.) For conversion of SI metric units to U.S./British
Oceanic excitations on polar motion: a cross comparison among models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Y. H.; Chen, J. L.; Liao, X. H.; Wilson, C. R.
2005-08-01
Recent studies based on various ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) demonstrate that the oceans are a major contributor to polar motion excitations. In this paper, we analyse and compare observed non-atmospheric polar motion excitations with oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations determined from four OGCMs, which include the parallel ocean climate model (POCM), a barotropic ocean model (BOM), the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) non-data-assimilating model (ECCO-NDA) and the ECCO data-assimilating model (ECCO-DA). The data to be analysed span a 5-yr overlapped period from 1993 to 1997. At annual timescale, considerable discrepancies exist between POCM and the other three models, which result mainly from differences in annual components of the forcing wind fields. At semi-annual timescale, however, POCM shows better phase agreement with observed non-atmospheric polar motion excitation than the other three ocean models. At intraseasonal timescales, ECCO-DA yields better agreement with observations, and reduces the variance of non-atmospheric excitations by ~60 per cent, 10-20 per cent more than those explained by the other three models. However, at the very short periods of 4-20 days, the BOM estimates could explain about half of the observed variance, twice as much as that by ECCO-NDA, and also shows considerably better correlation with observations. Due to different modelling schemes and methods, significant discrepancies could arise with respect to the quality of modelling large-scale oceanic mass redistribution and current variation. A complete understanding of global oceanic contributions to polar motion excitation still remains a challenge.
Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido
2015-02-01
The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.
Collective motion of cells: from experiments to models.
Méhes, Előd; Vicsek, Tamás
2014-09-01
Swarming or collective motion of living entities is one of the most common and spectacular manifestations of living systems that have been extensively studied in recent years. A number of general principles have been established. The interactions at the level of cells are quite different from those among individual animals, therefore the study of collective motion of cells is likely to reveal some specific important features which we plan to overview in this paper. In addition to presenting the most appealing results from the quickly growing related literature we also deliver a critical discussion of the emerging picture and summarize our present understanding of collective motion at the cellular level. Collective motion of cells plays an essential role in a number of experimental and real-life situations. In most cases the coordinated motion is a helpful aspect of the given phenomenon and results in making a related process more efficient (e.g., embryogenesis or wound healing), while in the case of tumor cell invasion it appears to speed up the progression of the disease. In these mechanisms cells both have to be motile and adhere to one another, the adherence feature being the most specific to this sort of collective behavior. One of the central aims of this review is to present the related experimental observations and treat them in light of a few basic computational models so as to make an interpretation of the phenomena at a quantitative level as well.
A personalized biomechanical model for respiratory motion prediction.
Fuerst, B; Mansi, T; Zhang, Jianwen; Khurd, P; Declerck, J; Boettger, T; Navab, Nassir; Bayouth, J; Comaniciu, Dorin; Kamen, A
2012-01-01
Time-resolved imaging of the thorax or abdominal area is affected by respiratory motion. Nowadays, one-dimensional respiratory surrogates are used to estimate the current state of the lung during its cycle, but with rather poor results. This paper presents a framework to predict the 3D lung motion based on a patient-specific finite element model of respiratory mechanics estimated from two CT images at end of inspiration (EI) and end of expiration (EE). We first segment the lung, thorax and sub-diaphragm organs automatically using a machine-learning algorithm. Then, a biomechanical model of the lung, thorax and sub-diaphragm is employed to compute the 3D respiratory motion. Our model is driven by thoracic pressures, estimated automatically from the EE and EI images using a trust-region approach. Finally, lung motion is predicted by modulating the thoracic pressures. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated by predicting lung deformation during exhale on five DIR-Lab datasets. Several personalization strategies are tested, showing that an average error of 3.88 +/- 1.54 mm in predicted landmark positions can be achieved. Since our approach is generative, it may constitute a 3D surrogate information for more accurate medical image reconstruction and patient respiratory analysis.
Reshetova, Polina; van Schaik, Barbera D. C.; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; Doorenspleet, Marieke E.; Esveldt, Rebecca E. E.; Tak, Paul-Peter; Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; de Vries, Niek; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.
2017-01-01
Immunoglobulin repertoire sequencing has successfully been applied to identify expanded antigen-activated B-cell clones that play a role in the pathogenesis of immune disorders. One challenge is the selection of the Ag-specific B cells from the measured repertoire for downstream analyses. A general feature of an immune response is the expansion of specific clones resulting in a set of subclones with common ancestry varying in abundance and in the number of acquired somatic mutations. The expanded subclones are expected to have BCR affinities for the Ag higher than the affinities of the naive B cells in the background population. For these reasons, several groups successfully proceeded or suggested selecting highly abundant subclones from the repertoire to obtain the Ag-specific B cells. Given the nature of affinity maturation one would expect that abundant subclones are of high affinity but since repertoire sequencing only provides information about abundancies, this can only be verified with additional experiments, which are very labor intensive. Moreover, this would also require knowledge of the Ag, which is often not available for clinical samples. Consequently, in general we do not know if the selected highly abundant subclone(s) are also the high(est) affinity subclones. Such knowledge would likely improve the selection of relevant subclones for further characterization and Ag screening. Therefore, to gain insight in the relation between subclone abundancy and affinity, we developed a computational model that simulates affinity maturation in a single GC while tracking individual subclones in terms of abundancy and affinity. We show that the model correctly captures the overall GC dynamics, and that the amount of expansion is qualitatively comparable to expansion observed from B cells isolated from human lymph nodes. Analysis of the fraction of high- and low-affinity subclones among the unexpanded and expanded subclones reveals a limited correlation between
Moving vehicles segmentation based on Gaussian motion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Fang, Xiang Z.; Lin, Wei Y.
2005-07-01
Moving objects segmentation is a challenge in computer vision. This paper focuses on the segmentation of moving vehicles in dynamic scene. We analyses the psychology of human vision and present a framework for segmenting moving vehicles in the highway. The proposed framework consists of two parts. Firstly, we propose an adaptive background update method in which the background is updated according to the change of illumination conditions and thus can adapt to the change of illumination sensitively. Secondly, we construct a Gaussian motion model to segment moving vehicles, in which the motion vectors of the moving pixels are modeled as a Gaussian model and an on-line EM algorithm is used to update the model. The Gaussian distribution of the adaptive model is elevated to determine which moving vectors result from moving vehicles and which from other moving objects such as waving trees. Finally, the pixels with motion vector result from the moving vehicles are segmented. Experimental results of several typical scenes show that the proposed model can detect the moving vehicles correctly and is immune from influence of the moving objects caused by the waving trees and the vibration of camera.
Two vortex-blob regularization models for vortex sheet motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Sung-Ik
2014-04-01
Evolving vortex sheets generally form singularities in finite time. The vortex blob model is an approach to regularize the vortex sheet motion and evolve past singularity formation. In this paper, we thoroughly compare two such regularizations: the Krasny-type model and the Beale-Majda model. It is found from a linear stability analysis that both models have exponentially decaying growth rates for high wavenumbers, but the Beale-Majda model has a faster decaying rate than the Krasny model. The Beale-Majda model thus gives a stronger regularization to the solution. We apply the blob models to the two example problems: a periodic vortex sheet and an elliptically loaded wing. The numerical results show that the solutions of the two models are similar in large and small scales, but are fairly different in intermediate scales. The sheet of the Beale-Majda model has more spiral turns than the Krasny-type model for the same value of the regularization parameter δ. We give numerical evidences that the solutions of the two models agree for an increasing amount of spiral turns and tend to converge to the same limit as δ is decreased. The inner spiral turns of the blob models behave differently with the outer turns and satisfy a self-similar form. We also examine irregular motions of the sheet at late times and find that the irregular motions shrink as δ is decreased. This fact suggests a convergence of the blob solution to the weak solution of infinite regular spiral turns.
Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.
2012-12-01
Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database
Computational model for amoeboid motion: Coupling membrane and cytosol dynamics.
Moure, Adrian; Gomez, Hector
2016-10-01
A distinguishing feature of amoeboid motion is that the migrating cell undergoes large deformations, caused by the emergence and retraction of actin-rich protrusions, called pseudopods. Here, we propose a cell motility model that represents pseudopod dynamics, as well as its interaction with membrane signaling molecules. The model accounts for internal and external forces, such as protrusion, contraction, adhesion, surface tension, or those arising from cell-obstacle contacts. By coupling the membrane and cytosol interactions we are able to reproduce a realistic picture of amoeboid motion. The model results are in quantitative agreement with experiments and show how cells may take advantage of the geometry of their microenvironment to migrate more efficiently.
Computational model for amoeboid motion: Coupling membrane and cytosol dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moure, Adrian; Gomez, Hector
2016-10-01
A distinguishing feature of amoeboid motion is that the migrating cell undergoes large deformations, caused by the emergence and retraction of actin-rich protrusions, called pseudopods. Here, we propose a cell motility model that represents pseudopod dynamics, as well as its interaction with membrane signaling molecules. The model accounts for internal and external forces, such as protrusion, contraction, adhesion, surface tension, or those arising from cell-obstacle contacts. By coupling the membrane and cytosol interactions we are able to reproduce a realistic picture of amoeboid motion. The model results are in quantitative agreement with experiments and show how cells may take advantage of the geometry of their microenvironment to migrate more efficiently.
Innovative modeling of Tuned Liquid Column Damper motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Matteo, A.; Lo Iacono, F.; Navarra, G.; Pirrotta, A.
2015-06-01
In this paper a new model for the liquid motion within a Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) device is developed, based on the mathematical tool of fractional calculus. Although the increasing use of these devices for structural vibration control, it is shown that existing model does not always lead to accurate prediction of the liquid motion. A better model is then needed for accurate simulation of the behavior of TLCD systems. As regards, it has been demonstrated how correctly including the first linear liquid sloshing mode, through the equivalent mechanical analogy well established in literature, produces numerical results that highly match the corresponding experimental ones. Since the apparent effect of sloshing is the deviation of the natural frequency from the theoretical one, the authors propose a fractional differential equation of motion. The latter choice is supported by the fact that the introduction a fractional derivative of order α alters simultaneously both the resonant frequency and the degree of damping of the system. It will be shown, through an extensive experimental analysis, how the proposed model accurately describes liquid surface displacements.
A New Absolute Plate Motion Model for Africa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maher, S. M.; Wessel, P.; Müller, D.; Harada, Y.
2013-12-01
The India-Eurasia collision, a change in relative plate motion between Australia and Antarctica, and the coeval ages of the Hawaiian Emperor Bend (HEB) and Louisville Bend of ~Chron 22-21 all provide convincing evidence of a global tectonic plate reorganization at ~50 Ma. Yet if it were a truly global event, then there should be a contemporaneous change in Africa absolute plate motion (APM) reflected by physical evidence somewhere on the Africa plate. This evidence might be visible in the Reunion-Mascarene bend, which exhibits many HEB-like features such as a large angular change close to ~50 Ma. Recently, the Reunion hotpot trail has been interpreted as a continental feature with incidental hotspot volcanism. Here we propose the alternative hypothesis that the northern portion of the chain between Saya de Malha and the Seychelles (Mascarene Plateau) formed as the Reunion hotspot was situated on the Carlsberg Ridge, contemporaneously forming the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge on the India plate. We have created a 4-stage model that explores how a simple APM model fitting the Mascarene Plateau can also satisfy the age progressions and geometry of other hotspot trails on the Africa plate. This type of model could explain the apparent bifurcation of the Tristan hotspot chain, the age reversals seen along the Walvis Ridge and the diffuse nature of the St. Helena chain. To test this hypothesis we have made a new African APM model that goes back to ~80 Ma using a modified version of the Hybrid Polygonal Finite Rotation Method. This method uses seamount chains and their associated hotspots as geometric constraints for the model, and seamount age dates to determine its motion through time. The positions of the hotspots can be moved to get the best fit for the model and to explore the possibility that the ~50 Ma bend in the Reunion-Mascarene chain reflects Africa plate motion. We will examine how well this model can predict the key features reflecting Africa plate motion and
Quantum Brownian motion model for the stock market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Guo, Hong
2016-06-01
It is believed by the majority today that the efficient market hypothesis is imperfect because of market irrationality. Using the physical concepts and mathematical structures of quantum mechanics, we construct an econophysical framework for the stock market, based on which we analogously map massive numbers of single stocks into a reservoir consisting of many quantum harmonic oscillators and their stock index into a typical quantum open system-a quantum Brownian particle. In particular, the irrationality of stock transactions is quantitatively considered as the Planck constant within Heisenberg's uncertainty relationship of quantum mechanics in an analogous manner. We analyze real stock data of Shanghai Stock Exchange of China and investigate fat-tail phenomena and non-Markovian behaviors of the stock index with the assistance of the quantum Brownian motion model, thereby interpreting and studying the limitations of the classical Brownian motion model for the efficient market hypothesis from a new perspective of quantum open system dynamics.
Meshless Modeling of Deformable Shapes and their Motion
Adams, Bart; Ovsjanikov, Maks; Wand, Michael; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Guibas, Leonidas J.
2010-01-01
We present a new framework for interactive shape deformation modeling and key frame interpolation based on a meshless finite element formulation. Starting from a coarse nodal sampling of an object’s volume, we formulate rigidity and volume preservation constraints that are enforced to yield realistic shape deformations at interactive frame rates. Additionally, by specifying key frame poses of the deforming shape and optimizing the nodal displacements while targeting smooth interpolated motion, our algorithm extends to a motion planning framework for deformable objects. This allows reconstructing smooth and plausible deformable shape trajectories in the presence of possibly moving obstacles. The presented results illustrate that our framework can handle complex shapes at interactive rates and hence is a valuable tool for animators to realistically and efficiently model and interpolate deforming 3D shapes. PMID:24839614
1987-06-01
A common example of this problem occurs when motion picture films are shown on a conventional NTSC television system. The motion picture industry...second, or 30 frames per second. In order to show a motion picture film on an NTSC television system, temporal interpolation is necessary. The technique...Application to Restoration and Interpolation of Motion Pictures ", Dennis Michael Martinez Technical Report No. 530 June 1987 DTIO aELECTE SEp 2 3N DWM I
Elements of an improved model of debris-flow motion
Iverson, R.M.
2009-01-01
A new depth-averaged model of debris-flow motion describes simultaneous evolution of flow velocity and depth, solid and fluid volume fractions, and pore-fluid pressure. Non-hydrostatic pore-fluid pressure is produced by dilatancy, a state-dependent property that links the depth-averaged shear rate and volumetric strain rate of the granular phase. Pore-pressure changes caused by shearing allow the model to exhibit rate-dependent flow resistance, despite the fact that the basal shear traction involves only rate-independent Coulomb friction. An analytical solution of simplified model equations shows that the onset of downslope motion can be accelerated or retarded by pore-pressure change, contingent on whether dilatancy is positive or negative. A different analytical solution shows that such effects will likely be muted if downslope motion continues long enough, because dilatancy then evolves toward zero, and volume fractions and pore pressure concurrently evolve toward steady states. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.
Affinity comparison of different THCA synthase to CBGA using modeling computational approaches
Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz El; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Semlali, Oussama; Tarhda, Zineb; Marouane, Melloul; Najwa, Alaoui; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Fahime, Elmostafa El
2014-01-01
The Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) is the primary psychoactive compound of Cannabis Sativa. It is produced by Δ1- Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCA) which catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) the precursor of the THCA. In this study, we were interested by the three dimensional structure of THCA synthase protein. Generation of models were done by MODELLER v9.11 and homology modeling with Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase X ray structure (PDB code 3VTE) on the basis of sequences retrieved from GenBank. Procheck, Errat, and Verify 3D tools were used to verify the reliability of the six 3D models obtained, the overall quality factor and the Prosa Z-score were also used to check the quality of the six modeled proteins. The RMSDs for C-alpha atoms, main-chain atoms, side-chain atoms and all atoms between the modeled structures and the corresponding template ranged between 0.290 Å-1.252 Å, reflecting the good quality of the obtained models. Our study of the CBGA-THCA synthase docking demonstrated that the active site pocket was successfully recognized using computational approach. The interaction energy of CBGA computed in ‘fiber types’ proteins ranged between -4.1 95 kcal/mol and -5.95 kcal/mol whereas in the ‘drug type’ was about -7.02 kcal/mol to -7.16 kcal/mol, which maybe indicate the important role played by the interaction energy of CBGA in the determination of the THCA level in Cannabis Sativa L. varieties. Finally, we have proposed an experimental design in order to explore the binding energy source of ligand-enzyme in Cannabis Sativa and the production level of the THCA in the absence of any information regarding the correlation between the enzyme affinity and THCA level production. This report opens the doors to more studies predicting the binding site pocket with accuracy from the perspective of the protein affinity and THCA level produced in Cannabis Sativa. PMID:24516324
Affinity comparison of different THCA synthase to CBGA using modeling computational approaches.
Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz El; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Semlali, Oussama; Tarhda, Zineb; Marouane, Melloul; Najwa, Alaoui; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Fahime, Elmostafa El
2014-01-01
The Δ(9-)Tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) is the primary psychoactive compound of Cannabis Sativa. It is produced by Δ(1-) Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCA) which catalyzes the oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) the precursor of the THCA. In this study, we were interested by the three dimensional structure of THCA synthase protein. Generation of models were done by MODELLER v9.11 and homology modeling with Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase X ray structure (PDB code 3VTE) on the basis of sequences retrieved from GenBank. Procheck, Errat, and Verify 3D tools were used to verify the reliability of the six 3D models obtained, the overall quality factor and the Prosa Z-score were also used to check the quality of the six modeled proteins. The RMSDs for C-alpha atoms, main-chain atoms, side-chain atoms and all atoms between the modeled structures and the corresponding template ranged between 0.290 Å-1.252 Å, reflecting the good quality of the obtained models. Our study of the CBGA-THCA synthase docking demonstrated that the active site pocket was successfully recognized using computational approach. The interaction energy of CBGA computed in 'fiber types' proteins ranged between -4.1 95 kcal/mol and -5.95 kcal/mol whereas in the 'drug type' was about -7.02 kcal/mol to -7.16 kcal/mol, which maybe indicate the important role played by the interaction energy of CBGA in the determination of the THCA level in Cannabis Sativa L. varieties. Finally, we have proposed an experimental design in order to explore the binding energy source of ligand-enzyme in Cannabis Sativa and the production level of the THCA in the absence of any information regarding the correlation between the enzyme affinity and THCA level production. This report opens the doors to more studies predicting the binding site pocket with accuracy from the perspective of the protein affinity and THCA level produced in Cannabis Sativa.
Casipit, C. L.; Tal, R.; Wittman, V.; Chavaillaz, P. A.; Arbuthnott, K.; Weidanz, J. A.; Jiao, J. A.; Wong, H. C.
1998-01-01
Activated Factor X releases F1.2, a 271-amino acid peptide, from the amino terminus of prothrombin during blood coagulation. A nine-amino acid peptide, C9 (DSDRAIEGR), corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of F1.2 was synthesized and used to produce a monoclonal antibody, TA1 (K(D)) 1.22 x 10(-6) M). To model the TA1 antibody, we entered the sequence information of the cloned TA1 Fv into the antibody modeling program, ABM, which combines homology methods, conformational search procedures, and energy screening and has proved to be a reliable and reproducible antibody modeling method. Using a novel protein fusion procedure, we expressed the C9 peptide fused to the carboxyl terminus of the PENI repressor protein from Bacillus licheniformis in Escherichia coli. We constructed fusion proteins containing alanine substitutions for each amino acid in the C9 epitope. Binding studies, using the C9 alanine mutants and TA1, and spatial constraints predicted by the modeled TA1 binding cleft enabled us to establish a plausible conformation for C9 complexed with TA1. Furthermore, based on binding results of conservative amino acid substitutions in C9 and mutations in the antibody, we were able to refine the complex model and identify antibody mutations that would improve binding affinity. PMID:10082364
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gültekin, Kemal
2016-03-01
In this study, we give a thorough analysis of a general affine gravity with torsion. After a brief exposition of the affine gravities considered by Eddington and Schrödinger, we construct and analyze different affine gravities based on the determinants of the Ricci tensor, the torsion tensor, the Riemann tensor, and their combinations. In each case we reduce equations of motion to their simplest forms and give a detailed analysis of their solutions. Our analyses lead to the construction of the affine connection in terms of the curvature and torsion tensors. Our solutions of the dynamical equations show that the curvature tensors at different points are correlated via non-local, exponential rescaling factors determined by the torsion tensor.
Polar Motion Constraints on Models of the Fortnightly Tide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Estimates of the near-fortnightly Mf ocean tide from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimetry and from numerical solutions to the shallow water equations agree reasonably well, at least in their basin-scale features. For example, both show that the Pacific Ocean tide lags the Atlantic tide by roughly 30 degrees. There are hints of finer scale agreements in the elevation fields, but noise levels are high. In contrast, estimates of Mf currents are only weakly constrained by the TP data, because high-wavenumber Rossby waves (with intense currents) are associated with relatively small perturbations in surface elevation. As a result, a wide range of Mf current fields are consistent with both the TP data and the hydrodynamic equations within a priori plausible misfit bounds. We find that a useful constraint on the Mf currents is provided by independent estimates of the Earth's polar motion. At the Mf period polar motion shows a weak signal (both prograde and retrograde) which must be almost entirely caused by the ocean tide. We have estimated this signal from the SPACE2000 time series, after applying a broad-band correction for atmospheric angular momentum. Although the polar motion estimates have relatively large uncertainties, they are sufficiently precise to fix optimum data weights in a global ocean inverse model of Mf. These weights control the tradeoff between fitting a prior hydrodynamic model of Mf and fitting the relatively noisy T/P measurements of Mf. The predicted polar motion from the final inverse model agrees remarkably well with the Mf polar motion observations. The preferred model is also consistent with noise levels suggested by island gauges, and it is marginally consistent with differences observed by subsetting the altimetry (to the small extent that this is possible). In turn, this new model of the Mf ocean tide allows the ocean component to be removed from Mf estimates of length of day, thus yielding estimates of complex Love numbers less contaminated by
One-degree-of-freedom motion induced by modeled vortex shedding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, L. A.; Unal, A.; Szady, M.; Chapman, G. T.
1989-01-01
The motion of an elastically supported cylinder forced by a nonlinear, quasi-static, aerodynamic model with the unusual feature of a motion-dependent forcing frequency was studied. Numerical solutions for the motion and the Lyapunov exponents are presented for three forcing amplitudes and two frequencies (1.0 and 1.1 times the Strouhal frequency). Initially, positive Lyapunov exponents occur and the motion can appear chaotic. After thousands of characteristic times, the motion changes to a motion (verified analytically) that is periodic and damped. This periodic, damped motion was not observed experimentally, thus raising questions concerning the modeling.
Kruis, Matthijs F.; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Belderbos, José S.A.; Herk, Marcel van
2013-10-01
Purpose: Four-dimensional positron emission tomography (4D PET) imaging of the thorax produces sharper images with reduced motion artifacts. Current radiation therapy planning systems, however, do not facilitate 4D plan optimization. When images are acquired in a 2-minute time slot, the signal-to-noise ratio of each 4D frame is low, compromising image quality. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the construction of mid-position 3D PET scans, with motion compensated using a 4D computed tomography (CT)-derived motion model. Methods and Materials: All voxels of 4D PET were registered to the time-averaged position by using a motion model derived from the 4D CT frames. After the registration the scans were summed, resulting in a motion-compensated 3D mid-position PET scan. The method was tested with a phantom dataset as well as data from 27 lung cancer patients. Results: PET motion compensation using a CT-based motion model improved image quality of both phantoms and patients in terms of increased maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) values and decreased apparent volumes. In homogenous phantom data, a strong relationship was found between the amplitude-to-diameter ratio and the effects of the method. In heterogeneous patient data, the effect correlated better with the motion amplitude. In case of large amplitudes, motion compensation may increase SUV{sub max} up to 25% and reduce the diameter of the 50% SUV{sub max} volume by 10%. Conclusions: 4D CT-based motion-compensated mid-position PET scans provide improved quantitative data in terms of uptake values and volumes at the time-averaged position, thereby facilitating more accurate radiation therapy treatment planning of pulmonary lesions.
Fractional-order variational optical flow model for motion estimation.
Chen, Dali; Sheng, Hu; Chen, YangQuan; Xue, Dingyü
2013-05-13
A new class of fractional-order variational optical flow models, which generalizes the differential of optical flow from integer order to fractional order, is proposed for motion estimation in this paper. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are derived by solving a typical fractional variational problem, and the numerical implementation based on the Grünwald-Letnikov fractional derivative definition is proposed to solve these complicated fractional partial differential equations. Theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed fractional-order variational optical flow model is the generalization of the typical Horn and Schunck (first-order) variational optical flow model and the second-order variational optical flow model, which provides a new idea for us to study the optical flow model and has an important theoretical implication in optical flow model research. The experiments demonstrate the validity of the generalization of differential order.
Modelling atmospheric turbulence for a motion-based simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, I. D.; Joshi, D.
1975-01-01
The background information in establishing several proposed atmospheric turbulence models for use on motion based aircraft simulators was documented. A specific model was proposed which, in addition to varying turbulence intensity (rms velocity), varies the atmospheric turbulence scale length to achieve compatibility with real atmospheric turbulence. With a suitable combination of scale length and intensity distribution, the model will simulate various atmospheric conditions characterized by altitude, stability, and terrain. The model is mechanized to be included in a flight simulator experiment in order to determine to what extent the pilots are sensitive to changes in atmospheric conditions and the realism of the model. The following topics were covered: literature survey, presently used techniques, proposed model, and simulation details.
Near-wall aerodynamics of idealized model foot motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubota, Yoshi; Hall, Joseph; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Sheth, Ritesh; Glauser, Mark; Khalifa, Ezzat
2006-11-01
The air quality is affected by amounts and types of contaminant particles suspended in the air. The particulate matter reaches the respiratory system in an indoor environment by fist becoming detached, resupended and then entrained in the human micro-environment. The resuspension phenomena from the floor occur through either a ballistic mechanism, where kinetic energy is transferred to dust particles through direct contact, or an aerodynamic mechanism, where dust particles are resuspended by the flow generated by the body. In this study we focus on the aerodynamic resuspension of particles caused by walking. The foot motion is idealized and is either towards or away from a floor. A circular disk and an elongated plate having the equivalent area to that of a human foot are used. The foot motion is driven vertically by a linear servo motor that controls the velocity, acceleration, stroke and deceleration. The model velocity is based on the real foot motion. In addition to flow visualization, flowfield measurements were conducted with PIV. In the downstroke, results show a vortex impacting the wall creating the strong wall jet. In upstroke, the vortex generated behind the idealized foot exhibits the large magnitude of velocity. Experiment is continuing with a model more closely to simulating shoe geometry as well as incorporating the real foot kinetics. The results will be compared with the numerical simulation and analytical results.
Motion of the heliospheric termination shock - A gas dynamic model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, Aaron
1993-01-01
A simple quantitative model is presented for the heliospheric termination shock's anticipated movement in response to upstream solar wind condition variations, under the assumption that the termination shock is initially a strong gasdynamic shock that is at rest relative to the sun, and that there is a discontinuous increase or decrease in the dynamical pressure upstream of the shock. The model suggests that the termination shock is constantly in motion, and that the mean position of the shock lies near the mean equilibrium position which corresponds to the balance between the mean solar wind dynamical pressure and the mean interstellar pressure.
Fractional Levy stable motion for modeling speckle image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xutao; Jin, Lianwen; Peng, Fuyuan; Zhu, Aiping
2008-03-01
Recently, stable processes have turned out to be good models for many impulsive signals and noises. The speckle noise in underwater, SAR and the cosmic background images has been proved to have heavy tails distributions and Long Rang Dependent (LRD) structures. In this paper, the Fractional Levy Stable Motion (FLSM) is introduced to model such speckle phenomenon. The synthesis approaches employing Random Midpoint Displacement (RMD) and FFT technology are presented to generate such speckle image respectively. Then, we introduce Wavelet Analysis (WA) method to estimate the LRD exponent H and propose two new technologies in estimation H parameter by Fractional Low Order Moment (FLOM) and Fractional Spectrum (FS) respectively.
2d Affine XY-Spin Model/4d Gauge Theory Duality and Deconfinement
Anber, Mohamed M.; Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /San Francisco State U.
2012-08-16
We introduce a duality between two-dimensional XY-spin models with symmetry-breaking perturbations and certain four-dimensional SU(2) and SU(2) = Z{sub 2} gauge theories, compactified on a small spatial circle R{sup 1,2} x S{sup 1}, and considered at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. In a Euclidean set up, the theory is defined on R{sup 2} x T{sup 2}. Similarly, thermal gauge theories of higher rank are dual to new families of 'affine' XY-spin models with perturbations. For rank two, these are related to models used to describe the melting of a 2d crystal with a triangular lattice. The connection is made through a multi-component electric-magnetic Coulomb gas representation for both systems. Perturbations in the spin system map to topological defects in the gauge theory, such as monopole-instantons or magnetic bions, and the vortices in the spin system map to the electrically charged W-bosons in field theory (or vice versa, depending on the duality frame). The duality permits one to use the two-dimensional technology of spin systems to study the thermal deconfinement and discrete chiral transitions in four-dimensional SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with n{sub f} {ge} 1 adjoint Weyl fermions.
Diffusion in different models of active Brownian motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, B.; Nicola, E. M.
2008-04-01
Active Brownian particles (ABP) have served as phenomenological models of self-propelled motion in biology. We study the effective diffusion coefficient of two one-dimensional ABP models (simplified depot model and Rayleigh-Helmholtz model) differing in their nonlinear friction functions. Depending on the choice of the friction function the diffusion coefficient does or does not attain a minimum as a function of noise intensity. We furthermore discuss the case of an additional bias breaking the left-right symmetry of the system. We show that this bias induces a drift and that it generally reduces the diffusion coefficient. For a finite range of values of the bias, both models can exhibit a maximum in the diffusion coefficient vs. noise intensity.
Modeling the Nonlinear Motion of the Rat Central Airways.
Ibrahim, G; Rona, A; Hainsworth, S V
2016-01-01
Advances in volumetric medical imaging techniques allowed the subject-specific modeling of the bronchial flow through the first few generations of the central airways using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a reliable CFD prediction of the bronchial flow requires modeling of the inhomogeneous deformation of the central airways during breathing. This paper addresses this issue by introducing two models of the central airways motion. The first model utilizes a node-to-node mapping between the discretized geometries of the central airways generated from a number of successive computed tomography (CT) images acquired dynamically (without breath hold) over the breathing cycle of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The second model uses a node-to-node mapping between only two discretized airway geometries generated from the CT images acquired at end-exhale and at end-inhale along with the ventilator measurement of the lung volume change. The advantage of this second model is that it uses just one pair of CT images, which more readily complies with the radiation dosage restrictions for humans. Three-dimensional computer aided design geometries of the central airways generated from the dynamic-CT images were used as benchmarks to validate the output from the two models at sampled time-points over the breathing cycle. The central airway geometries deformed by the first model showed good agreement to the benchmark geometries within a tolerance of 4%. The central airway geometry deformed by the second model better approximated the benchmark geometries than previous approaches that used a linear or harmonic motion model.
Age Dependent Absolute Plate and Plume Motion Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heaton, D. E.; Koppers, A. A. P.
2015-12-01
Current absolute plate motion (APM) models from 80 - 0 Ma are constrained by the location of mantle plume related hotspot seamounts, in particular those of the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville seamount trails. Originally the 'fixed' hotspot hypothesis was developed to explain past plate motion based on linear age progressive intra-plate volcanism. However, now that 'moving' hotspots are accepted, it is becoming clear that APM models need to be corrected for individual plume motion vectors. For older seamount trails that were active between roughly 50 and 80 Ma the APM models that use 'fixed' hotspots overestimate the measured age progression in those trails, while APM models corrected for 'moving' hotspots underestimate those age progressions. These mismatches are due to both a lack of reliable ages in the older portions of both the Hawaii and Louisville seamount trails and insufficient APM modeling constraints from other seamount trails in the Pacific Basin. Seamounts are difficult to sample and analyze because many are hydrothermally altered and have low potassium concentrations. New 40Ar/39Ar Age results from International Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Expedition 330 Sites U1372 (n=18), U1375 (n=3), U1376 (n=15) and U1377 (n=7) aid in constraining the oldest end of the Louisville Seamount trail. A significant observation in this study is that the age range recovered in the drill cores match the range of ages that were acquired on dredging cruises at the same seamounts (e.g. Koppers et al., 2011). This is important for determining the inception age of a seamount. The sections recovered from IODP EXP 330 are in-situ volcanoclastic breccia and lava flows. Comparing the seismic interpretations of Louisville guyots (Contreras-Reyes et al., 2010), Holes U1372, U1373 and U1374 penetrated the extrusive and volcanoclastic sections of the seamount. The ages obtained are consistent over stratigraphic intervals >100-450 m thick, providing evidence that these seamounts
A Pelvic Phantom for Modeling Internal Organ Motions
Kovacs, Peter; Sebestyen, Zsolt; Farkas, Robert; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Szigeti, Andras; Liposits, Gabor; Hideghety, Katalin; Derczy, Katalin; Mangel, Laszlo
2011-10-01
A pelvic phantom was developed for use in testing image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and adaptive applications in radiation therapy (ART) with simulating the anterior-posterior internal organ motions during prostate radiotherapy. Measurements could be done with an ionization chamber (IC) in the simulated prostate. The rectum was simulated by air-equivalent material (AEM). The volume superior to the IC placement was considered as the bladder. The extension of AEM volume could be varied. The vertical position of the IC placement could be shifted by {+-}1 cm to simulate the prostate motion parallel to the changes in bladder volume. The reality of the simulation was inspected. Three-millimeter-slice-increment computed tomography (CT) scans were taken for irradiation planning. The structure set was adapted to the phantom from a treated patient. Planning target volume was delineated according to the RTOG 0126 study. IMRT and 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) plans were made. Prostate motion and rectum volume changes were simulated in the phantom. IC displacement was corrected by phantom shifting. The delivered dose was measured with IC in 7 cases using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3D-CRT fractions, and single square-shaped beams: anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), and lateral (LAT). Variations from the calculated doses were slightly below 1% at IMRT and around 1% at 3D-CRT; below 4.5% at square AP beam; up to 9% at square PA beam; and around 0.5% at square LAT beam. Other authors have already shown that by using planning systems and ultrasonic and cone beam CT guidance, correction of organ motions in a real patient during prostate cancer IGRT does not have a significant dosimetric effect. The inspection of our phantom-as described here-ended with similar results. Our team suggested that our model is sufficiently realistic and can be used for IGRT and ART testing.
Models of subjective response to in-flight motion data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudrapatna, A. N.; Jacobson, I. D.
1973-01-01
Mathematical relationships between subjective comfort and environmental variables in an air transportation system are investigated. As a first step in model building, only the motion variables are incorporated and sensitivities are obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The data for these models have been collected from commercial passenger flights. Two models are considered. In the first, subjective comfort is assumed to depend on rms values of the six-degrees-of-freedom accelerations. The second assumes a Rustenburg type human response function in obtaining frequency weighted rms accelerations, which are used in a linear model. The form of the human response function is examined and the results yield a human response weighting function for different degrees of freedom.
Model and parametric uncertainty in source-based kinematic models of earthquake ground motion
Hartzell, Stephen; Frankel, Arthur; Liu, Pengcheng; Zeng, Yuehua; Rahman, Shariftur
2011-01-01
Four independent ground-motion simulation codes are used to model the strong ground motion for three earthquakes: 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta, and 1999 Mw 7.5 Izmit. These 12 sets of synthetics are used to make estimates of the variability in ground-motion predictions. In addition, ground-motion predictions over a grid of sites are used to estimate parametric uncertainty for changes in rupture velocity. We find that the combined model uncertainty and random variability of the simulations is in the same range as the variability of regional empirical ground-motion data sets. The majority of the standard deviations lie between 0.5 and 0.7 natural-log units for response spectra and 0.5 and 0.8 for Fourier spectra. The estimate of model epistemic uncertainty, based on the different model predictions, lies between 0.2 and 0.4, which is about one-half of the estimates for the standard deviation of the combined model uncertainty and random variability. Parametric uncertainty, based on variation of just the average rupture velocity, is shown to be consistent in amplitude with previous estimates, showing percentage changes in ground motion from 50% to 300% when rupture velocity changes from 2.5 to 2.9 km/s. In addition, there is some evidence that mean biases can be reduced by averaging ground-motion estimates from different methods.
2010-01-01
various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly...Uy and Uz are called roll , pitch and yaw, respectively. In the model reference frame the x-axis is the ship heading direction (from the stern to the...unsteady ship motions ( roll , pitch and heave) are compared and cross-examined. Reported here are selected cases, which are the extreme scenarios of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Teqi; Jivkov, Andrey P.; Li, Weiping; Liang, Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Hui; Han, Xiaoyuan
2017-04-01
Understanding the alteration of nuclear waste glass in geological repository conditions is critical element of the analysis of repository retention function. Experimental observations of glass alterations provide a general agreement on the following regimes: inter-diffusion, hydrolysis process, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular conditions, resumption of alteration. Of these, the mechanisms controlling the rate drop and the residual rate remain a subject of dispute. This paper offers a critical review of the two most competitive models related to these regimes: affinity-limited dissolution and diffusion barrier. The limitations of these models are highlighted by comparison of their predictions with available experimental evidence. Based on the comprehensive discussion of the existing models, a new mechanistic model is proposed as a combination of the chemical affinity and diffusion barrier concepts. It is demonstrated how the model can explain experimental phenomena and data, for which the existing models are shown to be not fully adequate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bora, Sanjay; Scherbaum, Frank; Kuehn, Nicolas; Stafford, Peter; Edwards, Benjamin
2016-04-01
The current practice of deriving empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) involves using ground motions recorded at multiple sites. However, in applications like site-specific (e.g., critical facility) hazard ground motions obtained from the GMPEs are need to be adjusted/corrected to a particular site/site-condition under investigation. This study presents a complete framework for developing a response spectral GMPE, within which the issue of adjustment of ground motions is addressed in a manner consistent with the linear system framework. The present approach is a two-step process in which the first step consists of deriving two separate empirical models, one for Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) and the other for a random vibration theory (RVT) optimized duration (Drvto) of ground motion. In the second step the two models are combined within the RVT framework to obtain full response spectral amplitudes. Additionally, the framework also involves a stochastic model based extrapolation of individual Fourier spectra to extend the useable frequency limit of the empirically derived FAS model. The stochastic model parameters were determined by inverting the Fourier spectral data using an approach similar to the one as described in Edwards and Faeh (2013). Comparison of median predicted response spectra from present approach with those from other regional GMPEs indicates that the present approach can also be used as a stand-alone model. The dataset used for the presented analysis is a subset of the recently compiled database RESORCE-2012 across Europe, the Middle East and the Mediterranean region.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Ray-Quing; Kuang, Weijia
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe the details of our numerical model for simulating ship solidbody motion in a given environment. In this model, the fully nonlinear dynamical equations governing the time-varying solid-body ship motion under the forces arising from ship wave interactions are solved with given initial conditions. The net force and moment (torque) on the ship body are directly calculated via integration of the hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted surface and the buoyancy effect from the underwater volume of the actual ship hull with a hybrid finite-difference/finite-element method. Neither empirical nor free parametrization is introduced in this model, i.e. no a priori experimental data are needed for modelling. This model is benchmarked with many experiments of various ship hulls for heave, roll and pitch motion. In addition to the benchmark cases, numerical experiments are also carried out for strongly nonlinear ship motion with a fixed heading. These new cases demonstrate clearly the importance of nonlinearities in ship motion modelling.
Energetics of ligand-receptor binding affinity on endothelial cells: An in vitro model.
Fotticchia, Iolanda; Guarnieri, Daniela; Fotticchia, Teresa; Falanga, Andrea Patrizia; Vecchione, Raffaele; Giancola, Concetta; Netti, Paolo Antonio
2016-08-01
Targeted therapies represent a challenge in modern medicine. In this contest, we propose a rapid and reliable methodology based on Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) coupled with confluent cell layers cultured around biocompatible templating microparticles to quantify the number of overexpressing receptors on cell membrane and study the energetics of receptor-ligand binding in near-physiological conditions. In the in vitro model here proposed we used the bEnd3 cell line as brain endothelial cells to mimic the blood brain barrier (BBB) cultured on dextran microbeads ranging from 67μm to 80μm in size (Cytodex) and the primary human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) for comparison. The revealed affinity between transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) in both systems is very high, Kd values are in the order of nM. Conversely, the value of TfRs/cell reveals a 100-fold increase in the number of TfRs per bEnd3 cells compared to HUVEC cells. The presented methodology can represent a novel and helpful strategy to identify targets, to address drug design and selectively deliver therapeutics that can cross biological barriers such as the blood brain barrier.
Paulke, Alexander; Proschak, Ewgenij; Sommer, Kai; Achenbach, Janosch; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W
2016-03-14
The number of new synthetic psychoactive compounds increase steadily. Among the group of these psychoactive compounds, the synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are most popular and serve as a substitute of herbal cannabis. More than 600 of these substances already exist. For some SCBs the in vitro cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) affinity is known, but for the majority it is unknown. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed, which allows the determination of the SCBs affinity to CB1 (expressed as binding constant (Ki)) without reference substances. The chemically advance template search descriptor was used for vector representation of the compound structures. The similarity between two molecules was calculated using the Feature-Pair Distribution Similarity. The Ki values were calculated using the Inverse Distance Weighting method. The prediction model was validated using a cross validation procedure. The predicted Ki values of some new SCBs were in a range between 20 (considerably higher affinity to CB1 than THC) to 468 (considerably lower affinity to CB1 than THC). The present QSAR model can serve as a simple, fast and cheap tool to get a first hint of the biological activity of new synthetic cannabinoids or of other new psychoactive compounds.
Validating a Dynamic Earthquake Model to Produce Realistic Ground Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, D. J.; Ma, S.
2015-12-01
A dynamic earthquake model is validated by finding good agreement with an empirical ground motion prediction equation. The model replaces detailed deterministic processes on the fault with a stochastic emergent law. Initial stress on a fault plane is heterogeneous with a power-law spectrum that is self-similar. Rupture stops naturally. Rupture extent and moment are determined primarily by the specified lowest Fourier mode of initial stress. Higher modes are random with a self-similar spectrum that is tied to the amplitude of the lowest mode. Ten random realizations are calculated with a velocity structure for a hard rock site. The calculated mean response spectrum for M7 at a distance of 10 km agrees the with the GMPE of Boore et al (2013) within 0.25 of one standard deviation at periods from 0.3 seconds to 10 seconds. The agreement could be improved by using a more refined relation of the spatial stress spectrum to the amplitude of the lowest mode. The standard deviation of the calculated ground motion is somewhat smaller than the GMPE, but it depends on other rupture parameters and needs more investigation.
Modelling fast forms of visual neural plasticity using a modified second-order motion energy model.
Pavan, Andrea; Contillo, Adriano; Mather, George
2014-12-01
The Adelson-Bergen motion energy sensor is well established as the leading model of low-level visual motion sensing in human vision. However, the standard model cannot predict adaptation effects in motion perception. A previous paper Pavan et al.(Journal of Vision 10:1-17, 2013) presented an extension to the model which uses a first-order RC gain-control circuit (leaky integrator) to implement adaptation effects which can span many seconds, and showed that the extended model's output is consistent with psychophysical data on the classic motion after-effect. Recent psychophysical research has reported adaptation over much shorter time periods, spanning just a few hundred milliseconds. The present paper further extends the sensor model to implement rapid adaptation, by adding a second-order RC circuit which causes the sensor to require a finite amount of time to react to a sudden change in stimulation. The output of the new sensor accounts accurately for psychophysical data on rapid forms of facilitation (rapid visual motion priming, rVMP) and suppression (rapid motion after-effect, rMAE). Changes in natural scene content occur over multiple time scales, and multi-stage leaky integrators of the kind proposed here offer a computational scheme for modelling adaptation over multiple time scales.
[Bionic model for coordinated head-eye motion control].
Mao, Xiaobo; Chen, Tiejun
2011-10-01
The relationships between eye movements and head movements of the primate during gaze shifts are analyzed in detail in the present paper. Applying the mechanisms of neurophysiology to engineering domain, we have improved the robot eye-head coordination. A bionic control strategy of coordinated head-eye motion was proposed. The processes of gaze shifts are composed of an initial fast phase followed by a slow phase. In the fast phase saccade eye movements and slow head movements were combined, which cooperate to bring gaze from an initial resting position toward the new target rapidly, while in the slow phase the gaze stability and target fixation were ensured by the action of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) where the eyes and head rotate by equal amplitudes in opposite directions. A bionic gaze control model was given. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the model by comparing with the results of neurophysiology experiments.
Free-breathing intra- and intersubject respiratory motion capturing, modeling, and prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian; Ostermann, Jörn
2009-02-01
Respiration-induced organ motion can limit the accuracy required for many clinical applications working on the thorax or upper abdomen. One approach to reduce the uncertainty of organ location caused by respiration is to use prior knowledge of breathing motion. In this work, we deal with the extraction and modeling of lung motion fields based on free-breathing 4D-CT data sets of 36 patients. Since data was acquired for radiotherapy planning, images of the same patient were available over different weeks of treatment. Motion field extraction is performed using an iterative shape-constrained deformable model approach. From the extracted motion fields, intra- and inter-subject motion models are built and adapted in a leave-one-out test. The created models capture the motion of corresponding landmarks over the breathing cycle. Model adaptation is then performed by examplarily assuming the diaphragm motion to be known. Although, respiratory motion shows a repetitive character, it is known that patients' variability in breathing pattern impedes motion estimation. However, with the created motion models, we obtained a mean error between the phases of maximal distance of 3.4 mm for the intra-patient and 4.2 mm for the inter-patient study when assuming the diaphragm motion to be known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimi, Reza; Varaminian, Farshad; Izadpanah, Amir A.
2014-12-01
In this article, we examine ethane hydrate formation kinetics with and without the presence of various surfactants. Firstly, the influences of stirring rate and initial pressure without the presence of surfactants are studied. The effects of four surfactants containing Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitanmonopalmitate (Tween® 40), and TritonX-100 (TX-100) on ethane hydrate formation kinetics were experimentally investigated. Then the chemical affinity model is applied to model the ethane hydrate formation kinetics with and without surfactants. The kinetic parameters of the chemical affinity model were computed for the ethane hydrate formation with and without surfactants. We will see that the results of the modeling are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Myronakis, M; Cai, W; Dhou, S; Cifter, F; Lewis, J
2015-06-15
Purpose: To determine if 4DCT-based motion modeling and external surrogate motion measured during treatment simulation can enhance prediction of residual tumor motion and duty cycle during treatment delivery. Methods: This experiment was conducted using simultaneously recorded tumor and external surrogate motion acquired over multiple fractions of lung cancer radiotherapy. These breathing traces were combined with the XCAT phantom to simulate CT images. Data from the first day was used to estimate the residual tumor motion and duty cycle both directly from the 4DCT (the current clinical standard), and from external-surrogate based motion modeling. The accuracy of these estimated residual tumor motions and duty cycles are evaluated by comparing to the measured internal/external motions from other treatment days. Results: All calculations were done for 25% and 50% duty cycles. The results indicated that duty cycle derived from 4DCT information alone is not enough to accurately predict duty cycles during treatment. Residual tumor motion was determined from the recorded data and compared with the estimated residual tumor motion from 4DCT. Relative differences in residual tumor motion varied from −30% to 55%, suggesting that more information is required to properly predict residual tumor motion. Compared to estimations made from 4DCT, in three out of four patients examined, the 30 seconds of motion modeling data was able to predict the duty cycle with better accuracy than 4DCT. No improvement was observed in prediction of residual tumor motion for this dataset. Conclusion: Motion modeling during simulation has the potential to enhance 4DCT and provide more information about target motion, duty cycles, and delivered dose. Based on these four patients, 30 seconds of motion modeling data produced improve duty cycle estimations but showed no measurable improvement in residual tumor motion prediction. More patient data is needed to verify this Result. I would like to
A model for the pilot's use of motion cues in roll-axis tracking tasks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.
1977-01-01
Simulated target-following and disturbance-regulation tasks were explored with subjects using visual-only and combined visual and motion cues. The effects of motion cues on task performance and pilot response behavior were appreciably different for the two task configurations and were consistent with data reported in earlier studies for similar task configurations. The optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems provided a task-independent framework for accounting for the pilot's use of motion cues. Specifically, the availability of motion cues was modeled by augmenting the set of perceptual variables to include position, rate, acceleration, and accleration-rate of the motion simulator, and results were consistent with the hypothesis of attention-sharing between visual and motion variables. This straightforward informational model allowed accurate model predictions of the effects of motion cues on a variety of response measures for both the target-following and disturbance-regulation tasks.
Early breakup of Gondwana: constraints from global plate motion models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seton, Maria; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon; Whittaker, Joanne; Gibbons, Ana; Muller, Dietmar; Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian
2015-04-01
Supercontinent break-up and amalgamation is a fundamental Earth cycle, contributing to long-term sea-level fluctuations, species diversity and extinction events, long-term greenhouse-icehouse cycles and changes in the long-wavelength density structure of the mantle. The most recent and best-constrained example involves the fragmentation of Gondwana, starting with rifting between Africa/Madagascar and Antarctica in the Early Jurassic and ending with the separation of the Lord Howe microcontinental blocks east of Australia in the Late Cretaceous. Although the first order configuration of Gondwana within modern reconstructions appears similar to that first proposed by Wegener a century ago, recent studies utilising a wealth of new geophysical and geological data provide a much more detailed picture of relative plate motions both during rifting and subsequent seafloor spreading. We present our latest global plate motion model that includes extensive, new regional analyses. These include: South Atlantic rifting, which started at 150 Ma and propagated into cratonic Africa by 145 Ma (Heine et al., 2013); rifting and early seafloor spreading between Australia, India and Antarctica, which reconciles the fit between Broken Ridge-Kergulean Plateau and the eastern Tasman region (Whittaker et al., 2013); rifting of continental material from northeastern Gondwana and its accretion onto Eurasia and SE Asia including a new model of microcontinent formation and early seafloor spreading in the eastern Indian Ocean (Gibbons et al., 2012; 2013; in review; Williams et al., 2013; Zahirovic et al., 2014); and a new model for the isolation of Zealandia east of Australia, with rifting initiating at 100 Ma until the start of seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea at ~85 Ma (Williams et al., in prep). Using these reconstructions within the open-source GPlates software, accompanied by a set of evolving plates and plate boundaries, we can explore the factors that govern the behavior of plate
Digital resolver for helicopter model blade motion analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniels, T. S.; Berry, J. D.; Park, S.
1992-01-01
The paper reports the development and initial testing of a digital resolver to replace existing analog signal processing instrumentation. Radiometers, mounted directly on one of the fully articulated blades, are electrically connected through a slip ring to analog signal processing circuitry. The measured signals are periodic with azimuth angle and are resolved into harmonic components, with 0 deg over the tail. The periodic nature of the helicopter blade motion restricts the frequency content of each flapping and yaw signal to the fundamental and harmonics of the rotor rotational frequency. A minicomputer is employed to collect these data and then plot them graphically in real time. With this and other information generated by the instrumentation, a helicopter test pilot can then adjust the helicopter model's controls to achieve the desired aerodynamic test conditions.
A novel CT acquisition and analysis technique for breathing motion modeling
Low, Daniel A.; White, Benjamin M.; Lee, Percy P.; Thomas, David H.; Gaudio, Sergio; Jani, Shyam S.; Wu, Xiao; Lamb, James M.
2013-01-01
Purpose To report on a novel technique for providing artifact-free quantitative 4DCT image datasets for breathing motion modeling. Methods Commercial clinical four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) methods have trouble managing irregular breathing. The resulting images contain motion-induced artifacts that can distort structures and inaccurately characterize breathing motion. We have developed a novel scanning and analysis method for motion-correlated CT that utilizes standard repeated fast helical acquisitions, a simultaneous breathing surrogate measurement, deformable image registration, and a published breathing motion model. Results The motion model differs from the CT-measured motion by an average of 0.72 mm, indicating the precision of the motion model. The integral of the divergence of one of the motion model parameters is predicted to be a constant 1.11 and is found in this case to be 1.09, indicating the accuracy of the motion model. Conclusions The proposed technique shows promise for providing motion-artifact free images at user-selected breathing phases, accurate Hounsfield units, and noise characteristics similar to non-4D CT techniques, at a patient dose similar to or less than current 4DCT techniques. PMID:23640212
2013-01-01
Background Models that are capable of reliably predicting binding affinities for protein-ligand complexes play an important role the field of structure-guided drug design. Methods Here, we begin by applying the computational geometry technique of Delaunay tessellation to each set of atomic coordinates for over 1400 diverse macromolecular structures, for the purpose of deriving a four-body statistical potential that serves as a topological scoring function. Next, we identify a second, independent set of three hundred protein-ligand complexes, having both high-resolution structures and known dissociation constants. Two-thirds of these complexes are randomly selected to train a predictive model of binding affinity as follows: two tessellations are generated in each case, one for the entire complex and another strictly for the isolated protein without its bound ligand, and a topological score is computed for each tessellation with the four-body potential. Predicted protein-ligand binding affinity is then based on an empirically derived linear function of the difference between both topological scores, one that appropriately scales the value of this difference. Results A comparison between experimental and calculated binding affinity values over the two hundred complexes reveals a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.79 with a standard error of SE = 1.98 kcal/mol. To validate the method, we similarly generated two tessellations for each of the remaining protein-ligand complexes, computed their topological scores and the difference between the two scores for each complex, and applied the previously derived linear transformation of this topological score difference to predict binding affinities. For these one hundred complexes, we again observe a correlation of r = 0.79 (SE = 1.93 kcal/mol) between known and calculated binding affinities. Applying our model to an independent test set of high-resolution structures for three hundred diverse enzyme-inhibitor complexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosek, Wieslaw; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Wnek, Agnieszka; Zbylut-Gorska, Maria; Popinski, Waldemar
2015-08-01
The geocenter time series determined from observations of satellite geodetic techniques, e.g. Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) represent the variations of the center of mass of the whole Earth (CM) with respect to the Earth center of figure (CF) considered as the origin of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The CM variations caused by the mass redistribution in the Earth fluid layers can be also expressed by the first degree gravity variations determined from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) corrected by the ocean and atmospheric models as well as the 2-nd and higher degree coefficients. The wavelet semblance filtering was applied to compute the common geodetic geocenter motion model from the SLR and GNSS geocenter time series which is in a good agreement in the annual frequency band with geophysical one based on the satellite gravimetry data.The theories of Earth rotation assume always that the underlying Earth-fixed reference system is geocentric, that is its origin is at the instantaneous center of mass. Here we address the following problems: 1) if the observed offset between the CM and CF has significant impact on the equations which are used for interpretation of the observed EOP variations; 2) if and how the observed geocenter motion can be used to correct the polar motion data while keeping the equations of polar motion unchanged. Finally we make an analysis of the time series of corrections and discuss their importance for the current polar motion excitation studies.
Deciphering the crowd: modeling and identification of pedestrian group motion.
Yücel, Zeynep; Zanlungo, Francesco; Ikeda, Tetsushi; Miyashita, Takahiro; Hagita, Norihiro
2013-01-14
Associating attributes to pedestrians in a crowd is relevant for various areas like surveillance, customer profiling and service providing. The attributes of interest greatly depend on the application domain and might involve such social relations as friends or family as well as the hierarchy of the group including the leader or subordinates. Nevertheless, the complex social setting inherently complicates this task. We attack this problem by exploiting the small group structures in the crowd. The relations among individuals and their peers within a social group are reliable indicators of social attributes. To that end, this paper identifies social groups based on explicit motion models integrated through a hypothesis testing scheme. We develop two models relating positional and directional relations. A pair of pedestrians is identified as belonging to the same group or not by utilizing the two models in parallel, which defines a compound hypothesis testing scheme. By testing the proposed approach on three datasets with different environmental properties and group characteristics, it is demonstrated that we achieve an identification accuracy of 87% to 99%. The contribution of this study lies in its definition of positional and directional relation models, its description of compound evaluations, and the resolution of ambiguities with our proposed uncertainty measure based on the local and global indicators of group relation.
Neural population models for perception of motion in depth.
Peng, Qiuyan; Shi, Bertram E
2014-08-01
Changing disparity (CD) and interocular velocity difference (IOVD) are two possible mechanisms for stereomotion perception. We propose two neurally plausible models for the representation of motion-in-depth (MID) via the CD and IOVD mechanisms. These models create distributed representations of MID velocity as the responses from a population of neurons selective to different MID velocity. Estimates of perceived MID velocity can be computed from the population response. They can be applied directly to binocular image sequences commonly used to characterize MID perception in psychophysical experiments. Contrary to common assumptions, we find that the CD and IOVD mechanisms cannot be distinguished easily by random dot stereograms that disrupt correlations between the two eyes or through time. We also demonstrate that the assumed spatial connectivity between the units in these models can be learned through exposure to natural binocular stimuli. Our experiments with these developmental models of MID selectivity suggest that neurons selective to MID are more likely to develop via the CD mechanism than the IOVD mechanism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monaghan, James M.; Clement, John
2000-01-01
Hypothesizes that the construction of visual models, resolution of these visual models with numeric models and, in many cases, rejection of commitments such as the belief in one true velocity, are necessary for students to form integrated mental models of relative motion events. Studies high school students' relative motion problem solving.…
Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao
2017-02-01
Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.
Identifying Affinity Classes of Inorganic Materials Binding Sequences via a Graph-Based Model.
Du, Nan; Knecht, Marc R; Swihart, Mark T; Tang, Zhenghua; Walsh, Tiffany R; Zhang, Aidong
2015-01-01
Rapid advances in bionanotechnology have recently generated growing interest in identifying peptides that bind to inorganic materials and classifying them based on their inorganic material affinities. However, there are some distinct characteristics of inorganic materials binding sequence data that limit the performance of many widely-used classification methods when applied to this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to predict the affinity classes of peptide sequences with respect to an associated inorganic material. We first generate a large set of simulated peptide sequences based on an amino acid transition matrix tailored for the specific inorganic material. Then the probability of test sequences belonging to a specific affinity class is calculated by minimizing an objective function. In addition, the objective function is minimized through iterative propagation of probability estimates among sequences and sequence clusters. Results of computational experiments on two real inorganic material binding sequence data sets show that the proposed framework is highly effective for identifying the affinity classes of inorganic material binding sequences. Moreover, the experiments on the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) data set shows that the proposed framework is general and can be applied to traditional protein sequences.
Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar
2016-06-01
Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.
Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlig, Daniel V.
exhibited quasi-steady effects caused by small variations in the angle of attack. The quasi-steady effects, or small unsteady effects, caused variations in the aerodynamic characteristics (particularly incrementing the lift curve), and the magnitude of the influence depended on the angle-of-attack rate. In addition to nominal gliding flight, MAVs in general are capable of flying over a wide flight envelope including agile maneuvers such as perching, hovering, deep stall and maneuvering in confined spaces. From the captured motion trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics during the numerous unsteady flights were gathered without the complexity required for unsteady wind tunnel tests. Experimental results for the MAVs show large flight envelopes that included high angles of attack (on the order of 90 deg) and high angular rates, and the aerodynamic coefficients had dynamic stall hysteresis loops and large values. From the large number of unsteady high angle-of-attack flights, an aerodynamic modeling method was developed and refined for unsteady MAV flight at high angles of attack. The method was based on a separation parameter that depended on the time history of the angle of attack and angle-of-attack rate. The separation parameter accounted for the time lag inherit in the longitudinal characteristics during dynamic maneuvers. The method was applied to three MAVs and showed general agreement with unsteady experimental results and with nominal gliding flight results. The flight tests with the MAVs indicate that modern motion tracking systems are capable of capturing the flight trajectories, and the captured trajectories can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics. From the captured trajectories, low Reynolds number MAV flight is explored in both nominal gliding flight and unsteady high angle-of-attack flight. Building on the experimental results, a modeling method for the longitudinal characteristics is developed that is applicable to the full flight
Modeling closure of circular wounds through coordinated collective motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, David S.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Levine, Herbert
2016-02-01
Wound healing enables tissues to restore their original states, and is achieved through collective cell migration into the wound space, contraction of the wound edge via an actomyosin filament ‘purse-string,’ as well as cell division. Recently, experimental techniques have been developed to create wounds with various regular morphologies in epithelial monolayers, and these experiments of circular closed-contour wounds support coordinated lamellipodial cell crawling as the predominant driver of gap closure. Through utilizing a particle-based mechanical tissue simulation, exhibiting long-range coordination of cell motility, we computationally model these closed-contour experiments with a high level of agreement between experimentally observed and simulated wound closure dynamics and tissue velocity profiles. We also determine the sensitivity of wound closure time in the model to changes in cell motility force and division rate. Our simulation results confirm that circular wounds can close due to collective cell migration without the necessity for a purse-string mechanism or for cell division, and show that the alignment mechanism of cellular motility force with velocity, leading to collective motion in the model, may speed up wound closure.
Aagaard, Brad T.; Graves, Robert W.; Rodgers, Arthur; Brocher, Thomas M.; Simpson, Robert W.; Dreger, Douglas; Petersson, N. Anders; Larsen, Shawn C.; Ma, Shuo; Jachens, Robert C.
2010-01-01
We simulate long-period (T>1.0–2.0 s) and broadband (T>0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenario earthquakes (Mw 6.7–7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault, we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions, compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with about 50% of the urban area experiencing modified Mercalli intensity VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland earthquake and the 2007 Mw 5.45 Alum Rock earthquake show that the U.S. Geological Survey’s Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area for Hayward fault earthquakes, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions for the suite of scenarios exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute much of this difference to the seismic velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay area and how the NGA models account for basin amplification; the NGA relations may underpredict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins. The simulations also suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period.
Demonstrating Circular Motion with a Model Satellite/Earth System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittaker, Jeff
2008-01-01
A number of interesting demonstrations of circular and satellite motion have been described in this journal. This paper presents a variation of a centripetal force apparatus found in G.D. Freier and F.J. Anderson's "A Demonstration Handbook for Physics," which has been modified in order to demonstrate both centripetal force and satellite motion.…
Piecewise affine models of chaotic attractors: The Rössler and Lorenz systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaral, Gleison F. V.; Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis Antonio
2006-03-01
This paper proposes a procedure by which it is possible to synthesize Rössler [Phys. Lett. A 57, 397-398 (1976)] and Lorenz [J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 130-141 (1963)] dynamics by means of only two affine linear systems and an abrupt switching law. Comparison of different (valid) switching laws suggests that parameters of such a law behave as codimension one bifurcation parameters that can be changed to produce various dynamical regimes equivalent to those observed with the original systems. Topological analysis is used to characterize the resulting attractors and to compare them with the original attractors. The paper provides guidelines that are helpful to synthesize other chaotic dynamics by means of switching affine linear systems.
Angelina, Emilio; Andujar, Sebastian; Moreno, Laura; Garibotto, Francisco; Párraga, Javier; Peruchena, Nelida; Cabedo, Nuria; Villecco, Margarita; Cortes, Diego; Enriz, Ricardo D
2015-01-01
We synthesized and tested 3-chlorotyramine as a ligand of the D2 dopamine receptor. This compound displayed a similar affinity by this receptor to that previously reported for dopamine. In order to understand further the experimental results we performed a molecular modeling study of 3-chlorotyramine and structurally related compounds. By combining molecular dynamics simulations with semiempirical (PM6), ab initio and density functional theory calculations, a simple and generally applicable procedure to evaluate the binding energies of these ligands interacting with the D2 dopamine receptors is reported here. These results provided a clear picture of the binding interactions of these compounds from both structural and energetic view points. A reduced model for the binding pocket was used. This approach allowed us to perform more accurate quantum mechanical calculations as well as to obtain a detailed electronic analysis using the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) technique. Molecular aspects of the binding interactions between ligands and the D2 dopamine receptor are discussed in detail. A good correlation between the relative binding energies obtained from theoretical calculations and experimental IC50 values was obtained. These results allowed us to predict that 3-chlorotyramine possesses a significant affinity by the D2 -DR. Our theoretical predictions were experimentally corroborated when we synthesized and tested 3-chlorotyramine which displayed a similar affinity by the D2 -DR to that reported for DA.
Ferraris, María del Pilar; Gonzalez, Ulises A; Aguilar, Carlos F; Rodríguez, Jorge A
2016-05-01
An experimental model of affinity filtration process was designed using a macroligand composed by Cibacron Blue F3GA immobilized to yeast cells. Its performance was evaluated, at bench scale, through the recovery of egg white Lysozyme. The selective and reversible binding between the Cibacron ligand molecule and the enzyme is described. The separation of Lysozyme from the protein mixture included the application of stages such as affinity adsorption, concentration, diafiltration and elution. A tangential microfiltration system with an inorganic membrane was designed. The main finding was the development of the diafiltration operation, key stage in the enzyme isolation. The macroligand particle kept its integrity along the whole process and the degree of purity of the isolated Lysozyme was significant.
A novel body motion model based personal dead-reckoning system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Zhiyu; Qi, Baozhen; Wang, Jiafeng
2011-10-01
This paper presents a novel human body motion model based dead reckoning approach. After brief description of system overview, a new body motion model is given based on the inherent relationship between step frequency and step length existed in two common motion patterns: walking and running. The parameter calibration of the model is given as well. Upon receiving the data from sensors, step frequency is first computed by detecting the periodic changing of linear acceleration in vertical axis, and then the real-time footstep length can be obtained according to the proposed motion model. Angular velocity measurement produced by vertical gyroscope is filtered and integrated by Kalman filter to obtain motion direction change. With movement distance and direction in hand, dead-reckoning can be easily carried out. Experimental results based on real data acquired under different motion patterns show the promising performance of the system.
Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C
2009-11-04
We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minguzzi, E.
2017-03-01
We investigate spacetimes whose light cones could be anisotropic. We prove the equivalence of the structures: (a) Lorentz-Finsler manifold for which the mean Cartan torsion vanishes, (b) Lorentz-Finsler manifold for which the indicatrix (observer space) at each point is a convex hyperbolic affine sphere centered on the zero section, and (c) pair given by a spacetime volume and a sharp convex cone distribution. The equivalence suggests to describe (affine sphere) spacetimes with this structure, so that no algebraic-metrical concept enters the definition. As a result, this work shows how the metric features of spacetime emerge from elementary concepts such as measure and order. Non-relativistic spacetimes are obtained replacing proper spheres with improper spheres, so the distinction does not call for group theoretical elements. In physical terms, in affine sphere spacetimes the light cone distribution and the spacetime measure determine the motion of massive and massless particles (hence the dispersion relation). Furthermore, it is shown that, more generally, for Lorentz-Finsler theories non-differentiable at the cone, the lightlike geodesics and the transport of the particle momentum over them are well defined, though the curve parametrization could be undefined. Causality theory is also well behaved. Several results for affine sphere spacetimes are presented. Some results in Finsler geometry, for instance in the characterization of Randers spaces, are also included.
A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning
2016-04-01
A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.
Kormos, Bethany L.; Benitex, Yulia; Baranger, Anne M.; Beveridge, David L.
2007-01-01
Summary A MM-GBSA computational protocol was used successfully to account for wild type U1A-RNA and F56 U1A mutant experimental binding free energies. The trend in mutant binding free energies compared to wild type is well-reproduced. Following application of a linear-response-like equation to scale the various energy components, the binding free energies agree quantitatively with observed experimental values. Conformational adaptation contributes to the binding free energy for both the protein and the RNA in these systems. Small differences in ΔGs are the result of different and sometimes quite large relative contributions from various energetic components. Residual free energy decomposition indicates differences not only at the site of mutation, but throughout the entire protein. MM-GBSA and ab initio calculations performed on model systems suggest that stacking interactions may nearly, but not completely, account for observed differences in mutant binding affinities. This study indicates that there may be different underlying causes of ostensibly similar experimentally observed binding affinities of different mutants, and thus recommends caution in the interpretation of binding affinities and specificities purely by inspection. PMID:17603075
Analysis and Modelling of Muscles Motion during Whole Body Vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesarelli, M.; Fratini, A.; Bifulco, P.; La Gatta, A.; Romano, M.; Pasquariello, G.
2009-12-01
The aim of the study is to characterize the local muscles motion in individuals undergoing whole body mechanical stimulation. In this study we aim also to evaluate how subject positioning modifies vibration dumping, altering local mechanical stimulus. Vibrations were delivered to subjects by the use of a vibrating platform, while stimulation frequency was increased linearly from 15 to 60 Hz. Two different subject postures were here analysed. Platform and muscles motion were monitored using tiny MEMS accelerometers; a contra lateral analysis was also presented. Muscle motion analysis revealed typical displacement trajectories: motion components were found not to be purely sinusoidal neither in phase to each other. Results also revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour at some muscles, similar to a second-order system response. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject and his positioning. Proper mechanical stimulation can maximize muscle spindle solicitation, which may produce a more effective muscle activation.
Wang, Liang; Basarab, Adrian; Girard, Patrick R; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Delachartre, Philippe
2015-08-01
Different mathematical tools, such as multidimensional analytic signals, allow for the calculation of 2D spatial phases of real-value images. The motion estimation method proposed in this paper is based on two spatial phases of the 2D analytic signal applied to cardiac sequences. By combining the information of these phases issued from analytic signals of two successive frames, we propose an analytical estimator for 2D local displacements. To improve the accuracy of the motion estimation, a local bilinear deformation model is used within an iterative estimation scheme. The main advantages of our method are: (1) The phase-based method allows the displacement to be estimated with subpixel accuracy and is robust to image intensity variation in time; (2) Preliminary filtering is not required due to the bilinear model. The proposed algorithm, integrating phase-based optical flow motion estimation and the combination of global motion compensation with local bilinear transform, allows spatio-temporal cardiac motion analysis, e.g. strain and dense trajectory estimation over the cardiac cycle. Results from 7 realistic simulated tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences show that our method is more accurate compared with state-of-the-art method for cardiac motion analysis and with another differential approach from the literature. The motion estimation errors (end point error) of the proposed method are reduced by about 33% compared with that of the two methods. In our work, the frame-to-frame displacements are further accumulated in time, to allow for the calculation of myocardial Lagrangian cardiac strains and point trajectories. Indeed, from the estimated trajectories in time on 11 in vivo data sets (9 patients and 2 healthy volunteers), the shape of myocardial point trajectories belonging to pathological regions are clearly reduced in magnitude compared with the ones from normal regions. Myocardial point trajectories, estimated from our phase-based analytic
Unsteady aerodynamic modeling for arbitrary motions. [for active control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.
1977-01-01
Results indicating that unsteady aerodynamic loads derived under the assumption of simple harmonic motions executed by airfoil or wing can be extended to arbitrary motions are summarized. The generalized Theodorsen (1953) function referable to loads due to simple harmonic oscillations of a wing section in incompressible flow, the Laplace inversion integral for unsteady aerodynamic loads, calculations of root loci of aeroelastic loads, and analysis of generalized compressible transient airloads are discussed.
A Study of Motion Sickness: Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis
1988-12-01
levels of motion sick- ness experienced by a test subject during the course of an experiment (21:97; 25:59; 27:84). In 1987, Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault ...pro- cedures. Drylie and Gaudreault reported additional conclusions concerning motion sickness trends (11; 17). Fix developed a new equation for...and Gaudreault also noted low frequency EEG signals in the 0.1 Hz range (17:28). However, only one of their subjects had EEG signals with an amplitude
A generalized Brownian motion model for turbulent relative particle dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shivamoggi, B. K.
2016-08-01
There is speculation that the difficulty in obtaining an extended range with Richardson-Obukhov scaling in both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations is due to the finiteness of the flow Reynolds number Re in these situations. In this paper, a generalized Brownian motion model has been applied to describe the relative particle dispersion problem in more realistic turbulent flows and to shed some light on this issue. The fluctuating pressure forces acting on a fluid particle are taken to be a colored noise and follow a stationary process and are described by the Uhlenbeck-Ornstein model while it appears plausible to take their correlation time to have a power-law dependence on Re, thus introducing a bridge between the Lagrangian quantities and the Eulerian parameters for this problem. This ansatz is in qualitative agreement with the possibility of a connection speculated earlier by Corrsin [26] between the white-noise representation for the fluctuating pressure forces and the large-Re assumption in the Kolmogorov [4] theory for the 3D fully developed turbulence (FDT) as well as a similar argument of Monin and Yaglom [23] and a similar result of Sawford [13] and Borgas and Sawford [24]. It also provides an insight into the result that the Richardson-Obukhov scaling holds only in the infinite-Re limit and disappears otherwise. This ansatz further provides a determination of the Richardson-Obukhov constant g as a function of Re, with an asymptotic constant value in the infinite-Re limit. It is shown to lead to full agreement, in the small-Re limit as well, with the Batchelor-Townsend [27] scaling for the rate of change of the mean square interparticle separation in 3D FDT, hence validating its soundness further.
In Vitro Modeling of Repetitive Motion Injury and Myofascial Release
Meltzer, Kate R.; Cao, Thanh V.; Schad, Joseph F.; King, Hollis; Stoll, Scott T.; Standley, Paul R.
2010-01-01
Objective In this study we modeled repetitive motion strain (RMS) and myofascial release (MFR) in vitro to investigate possible cellular and molecular mechanisms to potentially explain the immediate clinical outcomes associated with RMS and MFR. Method Cultured human fibroblasts were strained with 8 hours RMS, 60 seconds MFR and combined treatment; RMS+MFR. Fibroblasts were immediately sampled upon cessation of strain and evaluated for cell morphology, cytokine secretions, proliferation, apoptosis, and potential changes to intracellular signaling molecules. Results RMS induced fibroblast elongation of lameopodia, cellular decentralization, reduction of cell to cell contact and significant decreases in cell area to perimeter ratios compared to all other experimental groups (p<0.0001). Cellular proliferation indicated no change among any treatment group; however RMS resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis rate (p<0.05) along with increases in death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation by 74% and 58% respectively, when compared to control. These responses were not observed in the MFR and RMS+MFR group. Of the twenty cytokines measured there was a significant increase in GRO secretion in the RMS+MFR group when compared to control and MFR alone. Conclusion Our modeled injury (RMS) appropriately displayed enhanced apoptosis activity and loss of intercellular integrity that is consistent with pro-apoptotic DAPK2 and FAK signaling. Treatment with MFR following RMS resulted in normalization in apoptotic rate and cell morphology both consistent with changes observed in DAPK2. These in vitro studies build upon the cellular evidence base needed to fully explain clinical efficacy of manual manipulative therapies. PMID:20226363
Hotspot motion inferred from mantle flow models: implications on global plate reconstructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberger, B.; O'Connell, R. J.
2003-04-01
The Hawaiian hotspot track predicted from a plate circuit, assuming that the Hawaiian hotspot is fixed relative to African hotspots, does not fit the observed track: The divergence is steadily increasing back to 43 Ma, and the predicted track does not show a bend. Here we use a model of plumes distorted by global mantle flow to compute hotspot motion, and test whether this motion can explain the misfit. Computations consistently predict a south- to southeastward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot, and a motion of about 1000 km southward during the past 80 Ma is within the range of model results. Thus, we find that our model of hotspot motion can account for the divergence from 0 to 43 Ma, but can not account for the bend and the track prior to 43 Ma. For this, both a rather sharp change in hotspot motion at 43 Ma, and a westward component of hotspot motion prior to 43 Ma would be required, and neither is predicted in the model. However, a combination of modelled hotspot motion and a relatively modest motion between W and E Antarctica - about 15 degrees clockwise rotation of W vs. E Antarctica - would permit a fit to the Hawaiian track from 80 to 43 My. The required deformation could have been accomplished entirely within continental crust, with rates similar to e.g. present extension in the western U.S., and we will argue that it is not in conflict with, but actually supported by geologic evidence.
Numerical modeling of on-orbit propellant motion resulting from an impulsive acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aydelott, John C.; Mjolsness, Raymond C.; Torrey, Martin D.; Hochstein, John I.
1987-01-01
In-space docking and separation maneuvers of spacecraft that have large fluid mass fractions may cause undesirable spacecraft motion in response to the impulsive-acceleration-induced fluid motion. An example of this potential low gravity fluid management problem arose during the development of the shuttle/Centaur vehicle. Experimentally verified numerical modeling techniques were developed to establish the propellant dynamics, and subsequent vehicle motion, associated with the separation of the Centaur vehicle from the shuttle orbiter cargo bay. Although the shuttle/Centaur development activity was suspended, the numerical modeling techniques are available to predict on-orbit liquid motion resulting from impulsive accelerations for other missions and spacecraft.
Numerical modeling of on-orbit propellant motion resulting from an impulsive acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aydelott, John C.; Mjolsness, Raymond C.; Torrey, Martin D.; Hochstein, John I.
1986-01-01
In-space docking and separation maneuvers of spacecraft that have large fluid mass fractions may cause undersirable spacecraft motion in response to the impulsive-acceleration-induced fluid motion. An example of this potential low gravity fluid management problem arose during the development of the shuttle/Centaur vehicle. Experimentally verified numerical modeling techniques were developed to establish the propellant dynamics, and subsequent vehicle motion, associated with the separation of the Centaur vehicle from the shuttle orbiter cargo bay. Although the shuttle/Centaur development activity was suspended, the numerical modeling techniques are available to predict on-orbit liquid motion resulting from impulsive accelerations for other missions and spacecraft.
One hybrid model combining singular spectrum analysis and LS + ARMA for polar motion prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yi; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Xin; Wei, Xiaobei; Li, Wudong
2017-01-01
Accurate real-time polar motion parameters play an important role in satellite navigation and positioning and spacecraft tracking. To meet the needs for real-time and high-accuracy polar motion prediction, a hybrid model that integrated singular spectrum analysis (SSA), least-squares (LS) extrapolation and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was proposed. SSA was applied to separate the trend, the annual and the Chandler components from a given polar motion time series. LS extrapolation models were constructed for the separated trend, annual and Chandler components. An ARMA model was established for a synthetic sequence that contained the remaining SSA component and the residual series of LS fitting. In applying this hybrid model, multiple sets of polar motion predictions with lead times of 360 days were made based on an IERS 08 C04 series. The results showed that the proposed method could effectively predict the polar motion parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaychik, Kirill; Cardullo, Frank; George, Gary; Kelly, Lon C.
2009-01-01
In order to use the Hess Structural Model to predict the need for certain cueing systems, George and Cardullo significantly expanded it by adding motion feedback to the model and incorporating models of the motion system dynamics, motion cueing algorithm and a vestibular system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate effectiveness of these innovations by performing a comparison analysis of the model performance with and without the expanded motion feedback. The proposed methodology is composed of two stages. The first stage involves fine-tuning parameters of the original Hess structural model in order to match the actual control behavior recorded during the experiments at NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The parameter tuning procedure utilizes a new automated parameter identification technique, which was developed at the Man-Machine Systems Lab at SUNY Binghamton. In the second stage of the proposed methodology, an expanded motion feedback is added to the structural model. The resulting performance of the model is then compared to that of the original one. As proposed by Hess, metrics to evaluate the performance of the models include comparison against the crossover models standards imposed on the crossover frequency and phase margin of the overall man-machine system. Preliminary results indicate the advantage of having the model of the motion system and motion cueing incorporated into the model of the human operator. It is also demonstrated that the crossover frequency and the phase margin of the expanded model are well within the limits imposed by the crossover model.
Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables of the GLDAS models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta
Continental hydrological loading, by land water, snow, and ice, is an element that is strongly needed for a full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of land hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of different variables for example: total evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt, soil moisture to polar motion excitations in annual and short term scale. In our consideration we employ several realizations of the GLDAS model as: GLDAS Common Land Model (CLM), GLDAS Mosaic Model, GLDAS National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Oregon State University/Air Force/Hydrologic Research Lab Model (Noah), GLDAS Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion, both global and regional, are determined by using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. First we compare a timing, spectra and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs with each other. Next, we estimate, the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation by subtracting the atmospheric -- AAM (pressure + wind) and oceanic -- OAM (bottom pressure + currents) contributions. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared to these hydrological signal in observed polar motion excitation series. The results help us understand which variables of considered hydrological models are the most important for the polar motion excitation and how well we can close polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges.
Optimal Affinity of a Monoclonal Antibody: Guiding Principles Using Mechanistic Modeling.
Tiwari, Abhinav; Abraham, Anson K; Harrold, John M; Zutshi, Anup; Singh, Pratap
2017-03-01
Affinity optimization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for developing drug candidates with the highest likelihood of clinical success; however, a quantitative approach for setting affinity requirements is often lacking. In this study, we computationally analyzed the in vivo mAb-target binding kinetics to delineate general principles for defining optimal equilibrium dissociation constant ([Formula: see text]) of mAbs against soluble and membrane-bound targets. Our analysis shows that in general [Formula: see text] to achieve 90% coverage for a soluble target is one tenth of its baseline concentration ([Formula: see text]), and is independent of the dosing interval, target turnover rate or the presence of competing ligands. For membrane-bound internalizing targets, it is equal to the ratio of internalization rate of mAb-target complex and association rate constant ([Formula: see text]). In cases where soluble and membrane-bound forms of the target co-exist, [Formula: see text] lies within a range determined by the internalization rate ([Formula: see text]) of the mAb-membrane target complex and the ratio of baseline concentrations of soluble and membrane-bound forms ([Formula: see text]). Finally, to demonstrate practical application of these general rules, we collected target expression and turnover data to project [Formula: see text] for a number of marketed mAbs against soluble (TNFα, RANKL, and VEGF) and membrane-bound targets (CD20, EGFR, and HER2).
Statistical modeling of 4D respiratory lung motion using diffeomorphic image registration.
Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz
2011-02-01
Modeling of respiratory motion has become increasingly important in various applications of medical imaging (e.g., radiation therapy of lung cancer). Current modeling approaches are usually confined to intra-patient registration of 3D image data representing the individual patient's anatomy at different breathing phases. We propose an approach to generate a mean motion model of the lung based on thoracic 4D computed tomography (CT) data of different patients to extend the motion modeling capabilities. Our modeling process consists of three steps: an intra-subject registration to generate subject-specific motion models, the generation of an average shape and intensity atlas of the lung as anatomical reference frame, and the registration of the subject-specific motion models to the atlas in order to build a statistical 4D mean motion model (4D-MMM). Furthermore, we present methods to adapt the 4D mean motion model to a patient-specific lung geometry. In all steps, a symmetric diffeomorphic nonlinear intensity-based registration method was employed. The Log-Euclidean framework was used to compute statistics on the diffeomorphic transformations. The presented methods are then used to build a mean motion model of respiratory lung motion using thoracic 4D CT data sets of 17 patients. We evaluate the model by applying it for estimating respiratory motion of ten lung cancer patients. The prediction is evaluated with respect to landmark and tumor motion, and the quantitative analysis results in a mean target registration error (TRE) of 3.3 ±1.6 mm if lung dynamics are not impaired by large lung tumors or other lung disorders (e.g., emphysema). With regard to lung tumor motion, we show that prediction accuracy is independent of tumor size and tumor motion amplitude in the considered data set. However, tumors adhering to non-lung structures degrade local lung dynamics significantly and the model-based prediction accuracy is lower in these cases. The statistical respiratory
Biedermannová, Lada; Mikulecký, Pavel; Zahradník, Jiří; Charnavets, Tatsiana; Šebo, Peter
2015-01-01
Combining computational and experimental tools, we present a new strategy for designing high affinity variants of a binding protein. The affinity is increased by mutating residues not at the interface, but at positions lining internal cavities of one of the interacting molecules. Filling the cavities lowers flexibility of the binding protein, possibly reducing entropic penalty of binding. The approach was tested using the interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) complex with IFNγ as a model. Mutations were selected from 52 amino acid positions lining the IFNγR1 internal cavities by using a protocol based on FoldX prediction of free energy changes. The final four mutations filling the IFNγR1 cavities and potentially improving the affinity to IFNγ were expressed, purified, and refolded, and their affinity towards IFNγ was measured by SPR. While individual cavity mutations yielded receptor constructs exhibiting only slight increase of affinity compared to WT, combinations of these mutations with previously characterized variant N96W led to a significant sevenfold increase. The affinity increase in the high affinity receptor variant N96W+V35L is linked to the restriction of its molecular fluctuations in the unbound state. The results demonstrate that mutating cavity residues is a viable strategy for designing protein variants with increased affinity. PMID:26060819
Angular motion point spread function model considering aberrations and defocus effects.
Klapp, Iftach; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak
2006-08-01
When motion blur is considered, the optics point spread function (PSF) is conventionally assumed to be fixed, and therefore cascading of the motion optical transfer function (OTF) with the optics OTF is allowed. However, in angular motion conditions, the image is distorted by space-variant effects of wavefront aberrations, defocus, and motion blur. The proposed model considers these effects and formulates a combined space-variant PSF obtained from the angle-dependent optics PSF and the motion PSF that acts as a weighting function. Results of comparison of the new angular-motion-dependent PSF and the traditional PSF show significant differences. To simplify the proposed model, an efficient approximation is suggested and evaluated.
Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L
2007-02-09
We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.
Minimal Assumptions Comprehensive Electrostatic Model for Mitotic Motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagliardi, L. John
2003-03-01
Primitive biological cells had to divide using very few biological mechanisms. This work proposes physicochemical mechanisms based on nanoscale electrostatics which explain and unify the basic motions during mitosis: (1) assembly of the asters, (2) motion of asters to poles, (3) chromosome attachment, (4) separation of sister chromatids, (5) prometaphase monovalent attachment motions, (6) chromosome congression to the cell equator, (7) metaphase oscillations, and (8) anaphase A poleward chromosome motion. In the cytosol of cells, electrostatic fields are subject to strong attenuation by ionic screening. However, the presence of microtubules within cells changes the situation completely. Microtubule dimer subunits are electric dipolar structures, and can act as intermediaries which extend the reach of the electrostatic interaction over cellular distances. Experimental studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits is sufficient to explain the dynamics of the above events and motions, including their timing and sequencing. The physicochemical methods utilized by primitive eukaryotic cells could provide important clues regarding our understanding of cell division in modern eukaryotic cells.
Motion analysis study on sensitivity of finite element model of the cervical spine to geometry.
Zafarparandeh, Iman; Erbulut, Deniz U; Ozer, Ali F
2016-07-01
Numerous finite element models of the cervical spine have been proposed, with exact geometry or with symmetric approximation in the geometry. However, few researches have investigated the sensitivity of predicted motion responses to the geometry of the cervical spine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of symmetric assumption on the predicted motion by finite element model of the cervical spine. We developed two finite element models of the cervical spine C2-C7. One model was based on the exact geometry of the cervical spine (asymmetric model), whereas the other was symmetric (symmetric model) about the mid-sagittal plane. The predicted range of motion of both models-main and coupled motions-was compared with published experimental data for all motion planes under a full range of loads. The maximum differences between the asymmetric model and symmetric model predictions for the principal motion were 31%, 78%, and 126% for flexion-extension, right-left lateral bending, and right-left axial rotation, respectively. For flexion-extension and lateral bending, the minimum difference was 0%, whereas it was 2% for axial rotation. The maximum coupled motions predicted by the symmetric model were 1.5° axial rotation and 3.6° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. Those coupled motions predicted by the asymmetric model were 1.6° axial rotation and 4° lateral bending, under applied lateral bending and axial rotation, respectively. In general, the predicted motion response of the cervical spine by the symmetric model was in the acceptable range and nonlinearity of the moment-rotation curve for the cervical spine was properly predicted.
Modeling Functional Motions of Biological Systems by Customized Natural Moves.
Demharter, Samuel; Knapp, Bernhard; Deane, Charlotte M; Minary, Peter
2016-08-23
Simulating the functional motions of biomolecular systems requires large computational resources. We introduce a computationally inexpensive protocol for the systematic testing of hypotheses regarding the dynamic behavior of proteins and nucleic acids. The protocol is based on natural move Monte Carlo, a highly efficient conformational sampling method with built-in customization capabilities that allows researchers to design and perform a large number of simulations to investigate functional motions in biological systems. We demonstrate the use of this protocol on both a protein and a DNA case study. Firstly, we investigate the plasticity of a class II major histocompatibility complex in the absence of a bound peptide. Secondly, we study the effects of the epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethyl on cytosine on the structure of the Dickerson-Drew dodecamer. We show how our customized natural moves protocol can be used to investigate causal relationships of functional motions in biological systems.
Rougier, P; Caron, O
2000-12-01
The authors modeled the center of gravity vertical projection (CG(v)) and the difference, CP - CG(v), which, combined, constitute the center of pressure (CP) trajectory, as fractional Brownian motion in order to investigate their relative contributions and their spatiotemporal articulation. The results demonstrated that CG(v) and CP - CG(v) motions are both endowed in complementary fashion with strong stochastic and part-deterministic behaviors. In addition, if the temporal coordinates remain similar for all 3 trajectories by definition, the switch between the successive control mechanisms appears for shorter displacements for CP - CG(v) and CG(v) than for CP trajectories. Results deduced from both input (CG(v)) and muscular stiffness (CP - CG(v)) thus provide insight into the way the central nervous system regulates stance control and in particular how CG and CP - CG are controlled.
Mozafari, Mona; Balasupramaniam, Shantheya; Preu, Lutz; El Deeb, Sami; Reiter, Christian G; Wätzig, Hermann
2017-03-03
A fast and precise affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method has been developed and applied for the investigation of the binding interactions between P-selectin and heparinoids as potential P-selectin inhibitors in the presence and absence of calcium ions. Furthermore, model proteins and vitronectin were used to appraise the binding behavior of P-selectin. The normalized mobility ratios (∆R/Rf ), which provided information about the binding strength and the overall charge of the protein-ligand complex, were used to evaluate the binding affinities. It was found that P-selectin interacts more strongly with heparinoids in the presence of calcium ions. P-selectin was affected by heparinoids at the concentration of 3 mg/L. In addition, the results of the ACE experiments showed that among other investigated proteins, albumins and vitronectin exhibited strong interactions with heparinoids. Especially with P-selectin and vitronectin, the interaction may additionally induce conformational changes. Subsequently, computational models were applied to interpret the ACE experiments. Docking experiments explained that the binding of heparinoids on P-selectin is promoted by calcium ions. These docking models proved to be particularly well suited to investigate the interaction of charged compounds, and are therefore complementary to ACE experiments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doytchinova, Irini A.; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Flower, Darren R.
2005-03-01
The affinities of 177 nonameric peptides binding to the HLA-A*0201 molecule were measured using a FACS-based MHC stabilisation assay and analysed using chemometrics. Their structures were described by global and local descriptors, QSAR models were derived by genetic algorithm, stepwise regression and PLS. The global molecular descriptors included molecular connectivity χ indices, κ shape indices, E-state indices, molecular properties like molecular weight and log P, and three-dimensional descriptors like polarizability, surface area and volume. The local descriptors were of two types. The first used a binary string to indicate the presence of each amino acid type at each position of the peptide. The second was also position-dependent but used five z-scales to describe the main physicochemical properties of the amino acids forming the peptides. The models were developed using a representative training set of 131 peptides and validated using an independent test set of 46 peptides. It was found that the global descriptors could not explain the variance in the training set nor predict the affinities of the test set accurately. Both types of local descriptors gave QSAR models with better explained variance and predictive ability. The results suggest that, in their interactions with the MHC molecule, the peptide acts as a complicated ensemble of multiple amino acids mutually potentiating each other.
TU-F-17A-03: An Analytical Respiratory Perturbation Model for Lung Motion Prediction
Li, G; Yuan, A; Wei, J
2014-06-15
Purpose: Breathing irregularity is common, causing unreliable prediction in tumor motion for correlation-based surrogates. Both tidal volume (TV) and breathing pattern (BP=ΔVthorax/TV, where TV=ΔVthorax+ΔVabdomen) affect lung motion in anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions. We developed a novel respiratory motion perturbation (RMP) model in analytical form to account for changes in TV and BP in motion prediction from simulation to treatment. Methods: The RMP model is an analytical function of patient-specific anatomic and physiologic parameters. It contains a base-motion trajectory d(x,y,z) derived from a 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) at simulation and a perturbation term Δd(ΔTV,ΔBP) accounting for deviation at treatment from simulation. The perturbation is dependent on tumor-specific location and patient-specific anatomy. Eleven patients with simulation and treatment 4DCT images were used to assess the RMP method in motion prediction from 4DCT1 to 4DCT2, and vice versa. For each patient, ten motion trajectories of corresponding points in the lower lobes were measured in both 4DCTs: one served as the base-motion trajectory and the other as the ground truth for comparison. In total, 220 motion trajectory predictions were assessed. The motion discrepancy between two 4DCTs for each patient served as a control. An established 5D motion model was used for comparison. Results: The average absolute error of RMP model prediction in superior-inferior direction is 1.6±1.8 mm, similar to 1.7±1.6 mm from the 5D model (p=0.98). Some uncertainty is associated with limited spatial resolution (2.5mm slice thickness) and temporal resolution (10-phases). Non-corrected motion discrepancy between two 4DCTs is 2.6±2.7mm, with the maximum of ±20mm, and correction is necessary (p=0.01). Conclusion: The analytical motion model predicts lung motion with accuracy similar to the 5D model. The analytical model is based on physical relationships, requires no
Politi, Regina; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander
2014-10-01
The thyroid hormone receptor (THR) is an important member of the nuclear receptor family that can be activated by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have been developed to facilitate the prioritization of THR-mediated EDC for the experimental validation. The largest database of binding affinities available at the time of the study for ligand binding domain (LBD) of THRβ was assembled to generate both continuous and classification QSAR models with an external accuracy of R{sup 2} = 0.55 and CCR = 0.76, respectively. In addition, for the first time a QSAR model was developed to predict binding affinities of antagonists inhibiting the interaction of coactivators with the AF-2 domain of THRβ (R{sup 2} = 0.70). Furthermore, molecular docking studies were performed for a set of THRβ ligands (57 agonists and 15 antagonists of LBD, 210 antagonists of the AF-2 domain, supplemented by putative decoys/non-binders) using several THRβ structures retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. We found that two agonist-bound THRβ conformations could effectively discriminate their corresponding ligands from presumed non-binders. Moreover, one of the agonist conformations could discriminate agonists from antagonists. Finally, we have conducted virtual screening of a chemical library compiled by the EPA as part of the Tox21 program to identify potential THRβ-mediated EDCs using both QSAR models and docking. We concluded that the library is unlikely to have any EDC that would bind to the THRβ. Models developed in this study can be employed either to identify environmental chemicals interacting with the THR or, conversely, to eliminate the THR-mediated mechanism of action for chemicals of concern. - Highlights: • This is the largest curated dataset for ligand binding domain (LBD) of the THRβ. • We report the first QSAR model for antagonists of AF-2 domain of THRβ. • A combination of QSAR and docking enables
A mathematical model of LANDSAT-D attitude dynamics with internal motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oh, S. D.; Abshire, G. W.; Buckley, J. M.
1981-01-01
An algorithm to model the effects of internal motion by the solar array and the high gain antenna on the attitude of the LANDSAT-D spacecraft is presented. The relative torque and angular momenta arising from the internal motions are assumed to be attitude independent but are considered to be a source of attitude perturbations. The equation of motion for the three body problem is derived and then compared with the one body case. The effect of the internal motion on the control of the spacecraft is shown in a computer study of the problem.
Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions
Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins
2011-11-01
A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.
Modelling the Projectile Motion of a Cricket Ball.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coutis, Peter
1998-01-01
Presents the equations of motion governing the trajectory of a cricket ball subject to a linear drag force. Uses a perturbation expansion technique to solve the resulting trajectory equation for the range of a cricket ball struck into the outfield. (Author/ASK)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClelland, Jamie
It is often difficult or impossible to directly monitor the respiratory motion of the tumour and other internal anatomy during RT treatment. Implanted markers can be used, but this involves an invasive procedure and has a number of other associated risks and problems. An alternative option is to use a correspondence model. This models the relationship between a respiratory surrogate signal(s), such as spirometry or the displacement of the skin surface, and the motion of the internal anatomy. Such a model allows the internal motion to be estimated from the surrogate signal(s), which can be easily monitored during RT treatment. The correspondence model is constructed prior to RT treatment. Imaging data is simultaneously acquired with the surrogate signal(s), and the internal motion is measured from the imaging data, e.g. using deformable image registration. A correspondence model is then fit relating the internal motion to the surrogate signal(s). This can then be used during treatment to estimate the internal motion from the surrogate signal(s). This chapter reviews the most popular correspondence models that have been used in the literature, as well as the different surrogate signals, types of imaging data used to measure the internal motion, and fitting methods used to fit the correspondence model to the data.
SU-E-J-163: A Biomechanical Lung Model for Respiratory Motion Study
Liu, X; Belcher, AH; Grelewicz, Z; Wiersma, RD
2015-06-15
Purpose: This work presents a biomechanical model to investigate the complex respiratory motion for the lung tumor tracking in radiosurgery by computer simulation. Methods: The models include networked massspring-dampers to describe the tumor motion, different types of surrogate signals, and the force generated by the diaphragm. Each mass-springdamper has the same mechanical structure and each model can have different numbers of mass-spring-dampers. Both linear and nonlinear stiffness parameters were considered, and the damping ratio was tuned in a range so that the tumor motion was over-damped (no natural tumor oscillation occurs without force from the diaphragm). The simulation was run by using ODE45 (ordinary differential equations by Runge-Kutta method) in MATLAB, and all time courses of motions and inputs (force) were generated and compared. Results: The curvature of the motion time courses around their peaks was sensitive to the damping ratio. Therefore, the damping ratio can be determined based on the clinical data of a high sampling rate. The peak values of different signals and the time the peaks occurred were compared, and it was found that the diaphragm force had a time lead over the tumor motion, and the lead time (0.1–0.4 seconds) depended on the distance between the tumor and the diaphragm. Conclusion: We reported a model based analysis approach for the spatial and temporal relation between the motion of the lung tumor and the surrogate signals. Due to the phase lead of the diaphragm in comparing with the lung tumor motion, the measurement of diaphragm motion (or its electromyography signal) can be used as a beam gating signal in radiosurgery, and it can also be an additional surrogate signal for better tumor motion tracking. The research is funded by the American Cancer Society (ACS) grant. The grant name is: Frameless SRS Based on Robotic Head Motion Cancellation. The grant number is: RSG-13-313-01-CCE.
An improved model of motion-related signal changes in fMRI.
Patriat, Rémi; Reynolds, Richard C; Birn, Rasmus M
2017-01-01
Head motion is a significant source of noise in the estimation of functional connectivity from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Current strategies to reduce this noise include image realignment, censoring time points corrupted by motion, and including motion realignment parameters and their derivatives as additional nuisance regressors in the general linear model. However, this nuisance regression approach assumes that the motion-induced signal changes are linearly related to the estimated realignment parameters, which is not always the case. In this study we develop an improved model of motion-related signal changes, where nuisance regressors are formed by first rotating and translating a single brain volume according to the estimated motion, re-registering the data, and then performing a principal components analysis (PCA) on the resultant time series of both moved and re-registered data. We show that these "Motion Simulated (MotSim)" regressors account for significantly greater fraction of variance, result in higher temporal signal-to-noise, and lead to functional connectivity estimates that are less affected by motion compared to the most common current approach of using the realignment parameters and their derivatives as nuisance regressors. This improvement should lead to more accurate estimates of functional connectivity, particularly in populations where motion is prevalent, such as patients and young children.
Spatio-temporal Rich Model Based Video Steganalysis on Cross Sections of Motion Vector Planes.
Tasdemir, Kasim; Kurugollu, Fatih; Sezer, Sakir
2016-05-11
A rich model based motion vector steganalysis benefiting from both temporal and spatial correlations of motion vectors is proposed in this work. The proposed steganalysis method has a substantially superior detection accuracy than the previous methods, even the targeted ones. The improvement in detection accuracy lies in several novel approaches introduced in this work. Firstly, it is shown that there is a strong correlation, not only spatially but also temporally, among neighbouring motion vectors for longer distances. Therefore, temporal motion vector dependency along side the spatial dependency is utilized for rigorous motion vector steganalysis. Secondly, unlike the filters previously used, which were heuristically designed against a specific motion vector steganography, a diverse set of many filters which can capture aberrations introduced by various motion vector steganography methods is used. The variety and also the number of the filter kernels are substantially more than that of used in previous ones. Besides that, filters up to fifth order are employed whereas the previous methods use at most second order filters. As a result of these, the proposed system captures various decorrelations in a wide spatio-temporal range and provides a better cover model. The proposed method is tested against the most prominent motion vector steganalysis and steganography methods. To the best knowledge of the authors, the experiments section has the most comprehensive tests in motion vector steganalysis field including five stego and seven steganalysis methods. Test results show that the proposed method yields around 20% detection accuracy increase in low payloads and 5% in higher payloads.
Basic simple modeling of balloting motion of railgun projectiles. Technical report
Chu, S.H.
1991-07-01
This is the second of three basic reports dealing with the in-bore balloting motion of a projectile launched in an electromagnetic railgun. The first report addressed axial projectile motion without cocking and was titled A Basic Single Model of In-bore Motion of Railgun Projectiles. Understanding the inbore motion of a projectile is important to its design and its ability to hit a target with some effectiveness. Analysis of in-bore motion is a complicated problem since many parameters are involved and the interacting relationships between them must be determined. To make the problem easier to understand, it was analyzed on several levels beginning with the basic simple model which computed only the axial motion and followed by more complicated models in the upper analysis levels that included as many lateral forces and gun tube vibration effects as possible. This report deals with the second basic or zero level of balloting analysis. A basic simple model considering only the effect of the propulsion force, the friction force of the armature, and the clearance between the projectile and the barrel is presented. The computation of the axial projectile motion with a certain cocking angle is the goal of this analysis. Equations of motion are derived and solved. A sample computation with available data is performed and the results plotted to give a clearer understanding of balloting action.
Garcia Lopez, Sebastian; Kim, Philip M.
2014-01-01
Advances in sequencing have led to a rapid accumulation of mutations, some of which are associated with diseases. However, to draw mechanistic conclusions, a biochemical understanding of these mutations is necessary. For coding mutations, accurate prediction of significant changes in either the stability of proteins or their affinity to their binding partners is required. Traditional methods have used semi-empirical force fields, while newer methods employ machine learning of sequence and structural features. Here, we show how combining both of these approaches leads to a marked boost in accuracy. We introduce ELASPIC, a novel ensemble machine learning approach that is able to predict stability effects upon mutation in both, domain cores and domain-domain interfaces. We combine semi-empirical energy terms, sequence conservation, and a wide variety of molecular details with a Stochastic Gradient Boosting of Decision Trees (SGB-DT) algorithm. The accuracy of our predictions surpasses existing methods by a considerable margin, achieving correlation coefficients of 0.77 for stability, and 0.75 for affinity predictions. Notably, we integrated homology modeling to enable proteome-wide prediction and show that accurate prediction on modeled structures is possible. Lastly, ELASPIC showed significant differences between various types of disease-associated mutations, as well as between disease and common neutral mutations. Unlike pure sequence-based prediction methods that try to predict phenotypic effects of mutations, our predictions unravel the molecular details governing the protein instability, and help us better understand the molecular causes of diseases. PMID:25243403
Embodied learning of a generative neural model for biological motion perception and inference
Schrodt, Fabian; Layher, Georg; Neumann, Heiko; Butz, Martin V.
2015-01-01
Although an action observation network and mirror neurons for understanding the actions and intentions of others have been under deep, interdisciplinary consideration over recent years, it remains largely unknown how the brain manages to map visually perceived biological motion of others onto its own motor system. This paper shows how such a mapping may be established, even if the biologically motion is visually perceived from a new vantage point. We introduce a learning artificial neural network model and evaluate it on full body motion tracking recordings. The model implements an embodied, predictive inference approach. It first learns to correlate and segment multimodal sensory streams of own bodily motion. In doing so, it becomes able to anticipate motion progression, to complete missing modal information, and to self-generate learned motion sequences. When biological motion of another person is observed, this self-knowledge is utilized to recognize similar motion patterns and predict their progress. Due to the relative encodings, the model shows strong robustness in recognition despite observing rather large varieties of body morphology and posture dynamics. By additionally equipping the model with the capability to rotate its visual frame of reference, it is able to deduce the visual perspective onto the observed person, establishing full consistency to the embodied self-motion encodings by means of active inference. In further support of its neuro-cognitive plausibility, we also model typical bistable perceptions when crucial depth information is missing. In sum, the introduced neural model proposes a solution to the problem of how the human brain may establish correspondence between observed bodily motion and its own motor system, thus offering a mechanism that supports the development of mirror neurons. PMID:26217215
Vakanski, A; Ferguson, JM; Lee, S
2016-01-01
Objective The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient’s exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient’s physician with recommendations for improvement. Methods The modeling approach employs an artificial neural network, consisting of layers of recurrent neuron units and layers of neuron units for estimating a mixture density function over the spatio-temporal dependencies within the human motion sequences. Input data are sequences of motions related to a prescribed exercise by a physiotherapist to a patient, and recorded with a motion capture system. An autoencoder subnet is employed for reducing the dimensionality of captured sequences of human motions, complemented with a mixture density subnet for probabilistic modeling of the motion data using a mixture of Gaussian distributions. Results The proposed neural network architecture produced a model for sets of human motions represented with a mixture of Gaussian density functions. The mean log-likelihood of observed sequences was employed as a performance metric in evaluating the consistency of a subject’s performance relative to the reference dataset of motions. A publically available dataset of human motions captured with Microsoft Kinect was used for validation of the proposed method. Conclusion The article presents a novel approach for modeling and evaluation of human motions with a potential application in home-based physical therapy and rehabilitation. The described approach
Architecture in motion: A model for music composition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Variego, Jorge Elias
2011-12-01
Speculations regarding the relationship between music and architecture go back to the very origins of these disciplines. Throughout history, these links have always reaffirmed that music and architecture are analogous art forms that only diverge in their object of study. In the 1 st c. BCE Vitruvius conceived Architecture as "one of the most inclusive and universal human activities" where the architect should be educated in all the arts, having a vast knowledge in history, music and philosophy. In the 18th c., the German thinker Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, described Architecture as "frozen music". More recently, in the 20th c., Iannis Xenakis studied the similar structuring principles between Music and Architecture creating his own "models" of musical composition based on mathematical principles and geometric constructions. The goal of this document is to propose a compositional method that will function as a translator between the acoustical properties of a room and music, to facilitate the creation of musical works that will not only happen within an enclosed space but will also intentionally interact with the space. Acoustical measurements of rooms such as reverberation time, frequency response and volume will be measured and systematically organized in correspondence with orchestrational parameters. The musical compositions created after the proposed model are evocative of the spaces on which they are based. They are meant to be performed in any space, not exclusively in the one where the acoustical measurements were obtained. The visual component of architectural design is disregarded; the room is considered a musical instrument, with its particular sound qualities and resonances. Compositions using the proposed model will not result as sonified shapes, they will be musical works literally "tuned" to a specific space. This Architecture in motion is an attempt to adopt scientific research to the service of a creative activity and to let the aural properties of
A finite state model for respiratory motion analysis in image guided radiation therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Huanmei; Sharp, Gregory C.; Salzberg, Betty; Kaeli, David; Shirato, Hiroki; Jiang, Steve B.
2004-12-01
Effective image guided radiation treatment of a moving tumour requires adequate information on respiratory motion characteristics. For margin expansion, beam tracking and respiratory gating, the tumour motion must be quantified for pretreatment planning and monitored on-line. We propose a finite state model for respiratory motion analysis that captures our natural understanding of breathing stages. In this model, a regular breathing cycle is represented by three line segments, exhale, end-of-exhale and inhale, while abnormal breathing is represented by an irregular breathing state. In addition, we describe an on-line implementation of this model in one dimension. We found this model can accurately characterize a wide variety of patient breathing patterns. This model was used to describe the respiratory motion for 23 patients with peak-to-peak motion greater than 7 mm. The average root mean square error over all patients was less than 1 mm and no patient has an error worse than 1.5 mm. Our model provides a convenient tool to quantify respiratory motion characteristics, such as patterns of frequency changes and amplitude changes, and can be applied to internal or external motion, including internal tumour position, abdominal surface, diaphragm, spirometry and other surrogates.
A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, I. D.
1977-01-01
A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.
Model-based risk assessment for motion effects in 3D radiotherapy of lung tumors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, René; Ehrhardt, Jan; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz
2012-02-01
Although 4D CT imaging becomes available in an increasing number of radiotherapy facilities, 3D imaging and planning is still standard in current clinical practice. In particular for lung tumors, respiratory motion is a known source of uncertainty and should be accounted for during radiotherapy planning - which is difficult by using only a 3D planning CT. In this contribution, we propose applying a statistical lung motion model to predict patients' motion patterns and to estimate dosimetric motion effects in lung tumor radiotherapy if only 3D images are available. Being generated based on 4D CT images of patients with unimpaired lung motion, the model tends to overestimate lung tumor motion. It therefore promises conservative risk assessment regarding tumor dose coverage. This is exemplarily evaluated using treatment plans of lung tumor patients with different tumor motion patterns and for two treatment modalities (conventional 3D conformal radiotherapy and step-&- shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy). For the test cases, 4D CT images are available. Thus, also a standard registration-based 4D dose calculation is performed, which serves as reference to judge plausibility of the modelbased 4D dose calculation. It will be shown that, if combined with an additional simple patient-specific breathing surrogate measurement (here: spirometry), the model-based dose calculation provides reasonable risk assessment of respiratory motion effects.
Politi, Regina; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander
2016-01-01
The thyroid hormone receptor (THR) is an important member of the nuclear receptor family that can be activated by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have been developed to facilitate the prioritization of THR-mediated EDC for the experimental validation. The largest database of binding affinities available at the time of the study for ligand binding domain (LBD) of THRβ was assembled to generate both continuous and classification QSAR models with an external accuracy of R2=0.55 and CCR=0.76, respectively. In addition, for the first time a QSAR model was developed to predict binding affinities of antagonists inhibiting the interaction of coactivators with the AF-2 domain of THRβ (R2=0.70). Furthermore, molecular docking studies were performed for a set of THRβ ligands (57 agonists and 15 antagonists of LBD, 210 antagonists of the AF-2 domain, supplemented by putative decoys/non-binders) using several THRβ structures retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. We found that two agonist-bound THRβ conformations could effectively discriminate their corresponding ligands from presumed non-binders. Moreover, one of the agonist conformations could discriminate agonists from antagonists. Finally, we have conducted virtual screening of a chemical library compiled by the EPA as part of the Tox21 program to identify potential THRβ-mediated EDCs using both QSAR models and docking. We concluded that the library is unlikely to have any EDC that would bind to the THRβ. Models developed in this study can be employed either to identify environmental chemicals interacting with the THR or, conversely, to eliminate the THR-mediated mechanism of action for chemicals of concern. PMID:25058446
Stochastic point-source modeling of ground motions in the Cascadia region
Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.
1997-01-01
A stochastic model is used to develop preliminary ground motion relations for the Cascadia region for rock sites. The model parameters are derived from empirical analyses of seismographic data from the Cascadia region. The model is based on a Brune point-source characterized by a stress parameter of 50 bars. The model predictions are compared to ground-motion data from the Cascadia region and to data from large earthquakes in other subduction zones. The point-source simulations match the observations from moderate events (M 100 km). The discrepancy at large magnitudes suggests further work on modeling finite-fault effects and regional attenuation is warranted. In the meantime, the preliminary equations are satisfactory for predicting motions from events of M < 7 and provide conservative estimates of motions from larger events at distances less than 100 km.
Motion sickness: an evolutionary and genetic basis for the negative reinforcement model.
Knox, Glenn W
2014-01-01
It has been theorized that motion sickness evolved as a negative reinforcement system which terminates motion involving postural instability and/or sensory conflict. A hypothetical example is provided by a "thought experiment" whereby protohominids are in a tree looking for food. Selection pressure results when the organisms that have an aversion to motion-producing sensory conflict do not venture out too far on the tree limbs and therefore tend to survive. In order to support an evolutionary model for motion sickness there must be evidence for genetic and/or heritable predisposition. The present study involves a retrospective literature review which reveals abundant evidence for genetic/heritable factors in motion sickness. Examples include genetic polymorphism of the alpha-2-adrenergic receptor, which has been shown to increase susceptibility to motion sickness, examination of family trees revealing heritable motion sickness susceptibility, evidence indicating that Asians are hyper-susceptible to motion sickness, and twin studies, just to mention a few. Thus, the theory of heritable negative reinforcement as a basis for motion sickness is supported by extensive evidence in the medical literature. This theory is compared and contrasted with other theories. Further areas for research are suggested.
Scalable complexity-distortion model for fast motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xiaoquan; Ling, Nam
2005-07-01
Recently established international video coding standard H.264/AVC and the upcoming standard on scalable video coding (SVC) bring part of the solution to high compression ratio requirement and heterogeneity requirement. However, these algorithms have unbearable complexities for real-time encoding. Therefore, there is an important challenge to reduce encoding complexity, preferably in a scalable manner. Motion estimation and motion compensation techniques provide significant coding gain but are the most time-intensive parts in an encoder system. They present tremendous research challenges to design a flexible, rate-distortion optimized, yet computationally efficient encoder, especially for various applications. In this paper, we present a scalable motion estimation framework for complexitydistortion consideration. We propose a new progressive initial search (PIS) method to generate an accurate initial search point, followed by a fast search method, which can greatly benefit from the tighter bounds of the PIS. Such approach offers not only significant speedup but also an optimal distortion performance for a given complexity constrain. We analyze the relationship between computational complexity and distortion (C-D) through probabilistic distance measure extending from the complexity and distortion theory. A configurable complexity quantization parameter (Q) is introduced. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scalable complexity-distortion framework enables video encoder to conveniently adjust its complexity while providing best possible services.
Hamdy, M; Hamdan, I
2015-07-01
In this paper, a robust H∞ fuzzy output feedback controller is designed for a class of affine nonlinear systems with disturbance via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy bilinear model. The parallel distributed compensation (PDC) technique is utilized to design a fuzzy controller. The stability conditions of the overall closed loop T-S fuzzy bilinear model are formulated in terms of Lyapunov function via linear matrix inequality (LMI). The control law is robustified by H∞ sense to attenuate external disturbance. Moreover, the desired controller gains can be obtained by solving a set of LMI. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), which is a benchmark problem in nonlinear process control, is discussed in detail to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach with a comparative study.
Research on motion model for the hypersonic boost-glide aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Shenda; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xueying
2015-11-01
A motion model for the hypersonic boost-glide aircraft(HBG) was proposed in this paper, which also analyzed the precision of model through simulation. Firstly the trajectory of HBG was analyzed, and a scheme which divide the trajectory into two parts then build the motion model on each part. Secondly a restrained model of boosting stage and a restrained model of J2 perturbation were established, and set up the observe model. Finally the analysis of simulation results show the feasible and high-accuracy of the model, and raise a expectation for intensive research.
Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables from the GLDAS model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David
2015-04-01
Continental hydrological loading, by land water, snow, and ice, is an element that is strongly needed for a full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (Hydrological Angular Momentum - HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model of the land-based hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of variables from different hydrological processes, including for example: total evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt, soil moisture to polar motion excitations in seasonal timescale. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion, both global and regional, are determined by using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. First we compare the timing, spectra and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs with each other. Next, we estimate, the hydrological signal in geodetically-observed polar motion excitation as a residual by subtracting the atmospheric - AAM (pressure + wind) and oceanic - OAM (bottom pressure + currents) contributions. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared to these hydrological signal from the observed polar motion excitation series residuals. The results help us understand the relative importance for polar motion excitation of the individual variables from different hydrological processes, based on hydrological modeling. This method can allows us to estimate how well the polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal spectral ranges can be closed.
A heuristic mathematical model for the dynamics of sensory conflict and motion sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oman, C. M.
1982-01-01
The etiology of motion sickness is now usually explained in terms of a qualitatively formulated sensory conflict hypothesis. By consideration of the information processing task faced by the central nervous system in estimating body spatial orientation and in controlling active body movement using an internal model referenced control strategy, a mathematical model for sensory conflict generation is developed. The model postulates a major dynamic functional role for sensory conflict signals in movement control, as well as in sensory motor adaptation. It accounts for the role of active movement in creating motion sickness symptoms in some experimental circumstances, and in alleviating them in others. The relationship between motion sickness produced by sensory rearrangement and that resulting from external motion disturbances is explicitly defined. A nonlinear conflict averaging model describes dynamic aspects of experimentally observed subjective discomfort sensation, and suggests resulting behavior.
A heuristic mathematical model for the dynamics of sensory conflict and motion sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oman, C. M.
1980-01-01
The etiology of motion sickness is explained in terms of a qualitatively formulated sensory conflict hypothesis. By consideration of the information processing task faced by the central nervous system in estimating body spatial orientation and in controlling active body movement using an internal model referenced control strategy, a mathematical model for sensory conflict generation is developed. The model postulates a major dynamic functional role for sensory conflict signals in movement control, as well as in sensory-motor adaptation. It accounts for the role of active movement in creating motion sickness symptoms in some experimental circumstances, and in alleviating them in others. The relationship between motion sickness produced by sensory rearrangement and that resulting from external motion disturbances is explicitly defined. A nonlinear conflict averaging model is proposed which describes dynamic aspects of experimentally observed subjective discomfort sensation, and suggests resulting behaviors.
Robust ego-motion estimation and 3-D model refinement using surface parallax.
Agrawal, Amit; Chellappa, Rama
2006-05-01
We present an iterative algorithm for robustly estimating the ego-motion and refining and updating a coarse depth map using parametric surface parallax models and brightness derivatives extracted from an image pair. Given a coarse depth map acquired by a range-finder or extracted from a digital elevation map (DEM), ego-motion is estimated by combining a global ego-motion constraint and a local brightness constancy constraint. Using the estimated camera motion and the available depth estimate, motion of the three-dimensional (3-D) points is compensated. We utilize the fact that the resulting surface parallax field is an epipolar field, and knowing its direction from the previous motion estimates, estimate its magnitude and use it to refine the depth map estimate. The parallax magnitude is estimated using a constant parallax model (CPM) which assumes a smooth parallax field and a depth based parallax model (DBPM), which models the parallax magnitude using the given depth map. We obtain confidence measures for determining the accuracy of the estimated depth values which are used to remove regions with potentially incorrect depth estimates for robustly estimating ego-motion in subsequent iterations. Experimental results using both synthetic and real data (both indoor and outdoor sequences) illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
No-net-rotation model of current plate velocities incorporating plate motion model NUVEL-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.
1991-01-01
NNR-NUVEL1 is presented which is a model of plate velocities relative to the unique reference frame defined by requiring no-net-rotation of the lithosphere while constraining relative plate velocities to equal those in global plate motion model NUVEL-1 (DeMets et al., 1990). In NNR-NUVEL1, the Pacific plate rotates in a right-handed sense relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 0.67 deg/m.y. about 63 deg S, 107 deg E. At Hawaii the Pacific plate moves relative to the no-net-rotation reference frame at 70 mm/yr, which is 25 mm/yr slower than the Pacific plate moves relative to the hotspots. Differences between NNR-NUVEL1 and HS2-NUVEL1 are described. The no-net-rotation reference frame differs significantly from the hotspot reference frame. If the difference between reference frames is caused by motion of the hotspots relative to a mean-mantle reference frame, then hotspots beneath the Pacific plate move with coherent motion towards the east-southeast. Alternatively, the difference between reference frames can show that the uniform drag, no-net-torque reference frame, which is kinematically equivalent to the no-net-rotation reference frame, is based on a dynamically incorrect premise.
Modelling of Motion of Bodies Near Triangular Lagrangian Points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobrov, O. A.
In this paper, we consider a system of three bodies connected by gravity, two of which are of comparable mass (the Sun and Jupiter), and the third is negligible and it is located in one of the triangular Lagrange points (restricted 3 - body problem). We used the equations of motion in a planar coordinate system that rotates together with massive bodies. Several programs have been written in the programming environment Pascal ABC, in order to build the trajectory of a small body, to indicate the osculating orbit around a massive body, to display equipotential surfaces.
Model-based respiratory motion compensation for emission tomography image reconstruction.
Reyes, M; Malandain, G; Koulibaly, P M; González-Ballester, M A; Darcourt, J
2007-06-21
In emission tomography imaging, respiratory motion causes artifacts in lungs and cardiac reconstructed images, which lead to misinterpretations, imprecise diagnosis, impairing of fusion with other modalities, etc. Solutions like respiratory gating, correlated dynamic PET techniques, list-mode data based techniques and others have been tested, which lead to improvements over the spatial activity distribution in lungs lesions, but which have the disadvantages of requiring additional instrumentation or the need of discarding part of the projection data used for reconstruction. The objective of this study is to incorporate respiratory motion compensation directly into the image reconstruction process, without any additional acquisition protocol consideration. To this end, we propose an extension to the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm that includes a respiratory motion model, which takes into account the displacements and volume deformations produced by the respiratory motion during the data acquisition process. We present results from synthetic simulations incorporating real respiratory motion as well as from phantom and patient data.
Cardiac Motion Analysis Using High-Speed Video Images in a Rat Model for Myocardial Infarction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Idaku; Okuda, Toshikazu; Nie, Yuman; Takaki, Takeshi; Orito, Kensuke; Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Hiroshi
In this study, we performed a cardiac motion analysis by using 1000-frames per second (fps) stereo images to capture the three-dimensional motion of small color markers in a rat heart. This method of recording cardiac motion could quantify the rate of change in the myocardial area, which indicated localized myocardial activity of rhythmic expansion and contraction. We analyzed the three-dimensional motion distributions in a rat model for myocardial infarction, in which the heart rate was 4 times/s or more. In the analysis, we spatiotemporally quantified the characteristic cardiac motion in ischemic heart diseases and found that infarction due to ischemia in the rat heart was spread around the left ventricle.
Beck, Cornelia; Ognibeni, Thilo; Neumann, Heiko
2008-01-01
Background Optic flow is an important cue for object detection. Humans are able to perceive objects in a scene using only kinetic boundaries, and can perform the task even when other shape cues are not provided. These kinetic boundaries are characterized by the presence of motion discontinuities in a local neighbourhood. In addition, temporal occlusions appear along the boundaries as the object in front covers the background and the objects that are spatially behind it. Methodology/Principal Findings From a technical point of view, the detection of motion boundaries for segmentation based on optic flow is a difficult task. This is due to the problem that flow detected along such boundaries is generally not reliable. We propose a model derived from mechanisms found in visual areas V1, MT, and MSTl of human and primate cortex that achieves robust detection along motion boundaries. It includes two separate mechanisms for both the detection of motion discontinuities and of occlusion regions based on how neurons respond to spatial and temporal contrast, respectively. The mechanisms are embedded in a biologically inspired architecture that integrates information of different model components of the visual processing due to feedback connections. In particular, mutual interactions between the detection of motion discontinuities and temporal occlusions allow a considerable improvement of the kinetic boundary detection. Conclusions/Significance A new model is proposed that uses optic flow cues to detect motion discontinuities and object occlusion. We suggest that by combining these results for motion discontinuities and object occlusion, object segmentation within the model can be improved. This idea could also be applied in other models for object segmentation. In addition, we discuss how this model is related to neurophysiological findings. The model was successfully tested both with artificial and real sequences including self and object motion. PMID:19043613
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberger, B. M.; O'Connor, J. M.; Koppers, A. A.
2011-12-01
The bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain is often seen as a consequence of Pacific plate motion change. Alternatively, it may record a change in motion of the Hawaii hotspot, or a combination of both. In order to devise a common reference frame for plate motions and flow in the mantle, which is needed to understand plate-mantle interaction, it is important to resolve that issue. Here we contribute towards that goal by comparing predictions of a geodynamic model of hotspot motion with new age and paleolatitude data from the Hawaiian-Emperor and Louisville chains. These are the two most prominent hotspot tracks on the Pacific plate and hence most suitable to constrain its motion. Comparing the age progression along both tracks can tell about the relative motion or fixity of the two hotspots, whereas paleo-latitude data ideally can resolve hotspot motion relative to the pole. However, their interpretation also needs to consider the possibility of true polar wander -- re-orientation of the entire Earth including the mantle relative to the pole. To model hotspot motion, we first compute large-scale mantle flow. Mantle density anomalies are inferred from seismic tomography models, assuming both density and seismic velocity anomalies are due to temperature anomalies, except in parts of the uppermost mantle (tectosphere) and possibly parts of the lowermost mantle (Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces). Radial mantle viscosity structure is chosen such that it is consistent with mineral physics, and the "Haskell average" inferred from postglacial rebound observations, and the model prediction of the geoid and global heat flux agrees well with observations. Time dependence is achieved by considering changes in plate motions and geometry as mantle flow boundary conditions, and advecting density anomalies back with the flow. Secondly we compute the motion of plume conduits in large-scale flow, assuming conduits are vertical at an initial time, and subsequently move with the flow
On-chip visual perception of motion: a bio-inspired connectionist model on FPGA.
Torres-Huitzil, César; Girau, Bernard; Castellanos-Sánchez, Claudio
2005-01-01
Visual motion provides useful information to understand the dynamics of a scene to allow intelligent systems interact with their environment. Motion computation is usually restricted by real time requirements that need the design and implementation of specific hardware architectures. In this paper, the design of hardware architecture for a bio-inspired neural model for motion estimation is presented. The motion estimation is based on a strongly localized bio-inspired connectionist model with a particular adaptation of spatio-temporal Gabor-like filtering. The architecture is constituted by three main modules that perform spatial, temporal, and excitatory-inhibitory connectionist processing. The biomimetic architecture is modeled, simulated and validated in VHDL. The synthesis results on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device show the potential achievement of real-time performance at an affordable silicon area.
A computational study of the dynamic motion of a bubble rising in Carreau model fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Yutaka; Sussman, Mark
2010-04-01
We present the results of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the dynamic motion of a gas bubble rising in Carreau model fluids. The simulations are carried out by a coupled level-set/volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) method, which combines some of the advantages of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method with the level-set (LS) method. In our study, it is shown that the motion of a rising gas bubble largely depends on the Carreau model parameters, n and B (n, the slope of decreasing viscosity and B, time constant). Both the model parameters, n and B, have considerable influence on the bubble rise motion. Using numerical analysis, we can understand in detail the bubble morphology for non-Newtonian two-phase flow systems. We also discuss bubble rise motion in shear-thinning fluids in terms of the effective viscosity, ηeff, the effective Reynolds number, Reeff and the effective Morton number, Meff.
CMA-HT: a crowd motion analysis framework based on heat-transfer analog model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yu; Melvin, William; Sritharan, Subramania I.; Fernandes, Shane; Barker, Darrell
2012-06-01
Crowd motion analysis covers the detection, tracking, recognition, and behavior interpretation of target group from persistent surveillance video data. This project is dedicated to investigating a crowd motion analysis system based on a heat-transfer-analog model (denoted as CMA-HT for simplicity), and a generic modeling and simulation framework describing crowd motion behavior. CMA-HT is formulated by coupling the statistical analysis of crowd's historical behavior at a given location, geographic information system, and crowd motion dynamics. The mathematical derivation of the CMA-HT model and the innovative methods involved in the framework's implementation will be discussed in detail. Using the sample video data collected by Central Florida University as benchmark, CMA-HT is employed to measure and identify anomalous personnel or group responses in the video.
Belgiorno, F.; Cattaneo, A.S. ); Fucito, F. ); Martellini, M. )
1993-09-15
In this paper we investigate a dilaton-gravity theory, which can be viewed as an SL(2) conformal affine Toda (CAT) theory. This new model is inspired by some previous work by Bilal, Callan, and de Alwis. The main results obtained in our approach are (i) a field redefinition of the CAT basis in terms of which it is possible to get the black hole solutions already known in the literature, and (ii) an investigation of the scattering matrix problem for the quantum black hole states. Given the validity of our assumptions, there is a range of values of the [ital N] free-falling shock matter fields forming the black hole solution, for which the end-point state of the black hole evaporation is a zero temperature regular remnant geometry. The quantum evolution to this final state seems to be nonunitary, in agreement with Hawking's scenario for black hole evaporation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letellier, Christophe; Amaral, Gleison F. V.; Aguirre, Luis A.
2007-06-01
The characterization of chaotic attractors has been a widely addressed problem and there are now many different techniques to define their nature in a rather accurate way, at least in the case of a three-dimensional system. Nevertheless, the link between the structure of the ordinary differential equations and the topology of their solutions is still missing and only a few necessary conditions on the algebraic structure are known today. By using a feedback circuit analysis, it is shown that it is possible to identify the relevant terms of the equations, that is, the terms that really contribute to the structure of the phase portrait. Such analysis also provides some guidelines for constructing piecewise affine models. Moreover, equivalence classes can be defined on the basis of the active feedback circuits involved.
A heuristic mathematical model for the dynamics of sensory conflict and motion sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oman, C. M.
1982-01-01
By consideration of the information processing task faced by the central nervous system in estimating body spatial orientation and in controlling active body movement using an internal model referenced control strategy, a mathematical model for sensory conflict generation is developed. The model postulates a major dynamic functional role for sensory conflict signals in movement control, as well as in sensory-motor adaptation. It accounts for the role of active movement in creating motion sickness symptoms in some experimental circumstance, and in alleviating them in others. The relationship between motion sickness produced by sensory rearrangement and that resulting from external motion disturbances is explicitly defined. A nonlinear conflict averaging model is proposed which describes dynamic aspects of experimentally observed subjective discomfort sensation, and suggests resulting behaviours. The model admits several possibilities for adaptive mechanisms which do not involve internal model updating. Further systematic efforts to experimentally refine and validate the model are indicated.
Chen, J X; Wechsler, H; Pullen, J M; Zhu, Y; MacMahon, E B
2001-09-01
We present a new system that integrates computer graphics, physics-based modeling, and interactive visualization to assist knee study and surgical operation. First, we discuss generating patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) knee models from patient's magnetic resonant images (MRIs). The 3-D model is obtained by deforming a reference model to match the MRI dataset. Second, we present simulating knee motion that visualizes patient-specific motion data on the patient-specific knee model. Third, we introduce visualizing biomechanical information on a patient-specific model. The focus is on visualizing contact area, contact forces, and menisci deformation. Traditional methods have difficulty in visualizing knee contact area without using invasive methods. The approach presented here provides an alternative of visualizing the knee contact area and forces without any risk to the patient. Finally, a virtual surgery can be performed. The constructed 3-D knee model is the basis of motion simulation, biomechanical visualization, and virtual surgery. Knee motion simulation determines the knee rotation angles as well as knee contact points. These parameters are used to solve the biomechanical model. Our results integrate 3-D construction, motion simulation, and biomechanical visualization into one system. Overall, the methodologies here are useful elements for future virtual medical systems where all the components of visualization, automated model generation, and surgery simulation come together.
Neural network-based motion control of an underactuated wheeled inverted pendulum model.
Yang, Chenguang; Li, Zhijun; Cui, Rongxin; Xu, Bugong
2014-11-01
In this paper, automatic motion control is investigated for one of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) models, which have been widely applied for modeling of a large range of two wheeled modern vehicles. First, the underactuated WIP model is decomposed into a fully actuated second order subsystem Σa consisting of planar movement of vehicle forward and yaw angular motions, and a nonactuated first order subsystem Σb of pendulum motion. Due to the unknown dynamics of subsystem Σa and the universal approximation ability of neural network (NN), an adaptive NN scheme has been employed for motion control of subsystem Σa . The model reference approach has been used whereas the reference model is optimized by the finite time linear quadratic regulation technique. The pendulum motion in the passive subsystem Σb is indirectly controlled using the dynamic coupling with planar forward motion of subsystem Σa , such that satisfactory tracking of a set pendulum tilt angle can be guaranteed. Rigours theoretic analysis has been established, and simulation studies have been performed to demonstrate the developed method.
Analytical approach to calculation of response spectra from seismological models of ground motion
Safak, Erdal
1988-01-01
An analytical approach to calculate response spectra from seismological models of ground motion is presented. Seismological models have three major advantages over empirical models: (1) they help in an understanding of the physics of earthquake mechanisms, (2) they can be used to predict ground motions for future earthquakes and (3) they can be extrapolated to cases where there are no data available. As shown with this study, these models also present a convenient form for the calculation of response spectra, by using the methods of random vibration theory, for a given magnitude and site conditions. The first part of the paper reviews the past models for ground motion description, and introduces the available seismological models. Then, the random vibration equations for the spectral response are presented. The nonstationarity, spectral bandwidth and the correlation of the peaks are considered in the calculation of the peak response.
Observing and Modeling Long-Period Tidal Variations in Polar Motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, Richard S.; Dickman, S. R.
2011-01-01
By exchanging angular momentum with the solid Earth, ocean tides cause the Earth's rotation to change. While hydrodynamic tide models have been used to study the effect of ocean tides on polar motion, it is shown here that none of the published models can fully account for the observed variations. An empirical ocean tide model is therefore determined by fitting periodic terms at the tidal frequencies to polar motion excitation observations, from which atmospheric and non-tidal oceanic effects were removed. While the empirical ocean tide model does fully account for allof the observed tidal power, tests indicate that the model may not have completely converged. So better models of the effects of ocean tides on polar motion are still needed, both dynamical and empirical.
4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing
2016-02-01
A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.
Sledge, Isaac; Krieg, Michael; Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran
2015-10-23
The movements of organisms can be thought of as aggregations of motion primitives: motion segments containing one or more significant actions. Here, we present a means to identify and characterize motion primitives from recorded movement data. We address these problems by assuming that the motion sequences can be characterized as a series of dynamical-system-based pattern generators. By adopting a nonparametric, Bayesian formalism for learning and simplifying these pattern generators, we arrive at a purely data-driven model to automatically identify breakpoints in the movement sequences. We apply this model to swimming sequences from two hydromedusa. The first hydromedusa is the prolate Sarsia tubulosa, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell cavity pressurization, jet formation, jetting, cavity fluid refill, and coasting. The second hydromedusa is the oblate Aequorea victoria, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell compression, vortex separation, cavity fluid refill, vortex formation, and coasting. Our experimental results indicate that the breakpoints between primitives are correlated with transitions in the bell geometry, vortex formation and shedding, and changes in derived dynamical quantities. These dynamics quantities include terms like pressure, power, drag, and thrust. Such findings suggest that dynamics information is inherently present in the observed motions.
4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling
Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing
2016-01-01
A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp–Davis–Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26758496
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, Aidan J.; McGarry, Conor K.; Butterworth, Karl T.; Prise, Kevin M.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.
2012-11-01
Respiratory motion introduces complex spatio-temporal variations in the dosimetry of radiotherapy. There is a paucity of literature investigating the radiobiological consequences of intrafraction motion and concerns regarding the impact of movement when applied to cancer cell lines in vitro exist. We have addressed this by developing a novel model which accurately replicates respiratory motion under experimental conditions to allow clinically relevant irradiation of cell lines. A bespoke phantom and motor driven moving platform was adapted to accommodate flasks containing medium and cells in order to replicate respiratory motion using varying frequencies and amplitude settings. To study this effect on cell survival in vitro, dose response curves were determined for human lung cancer cell lines H1299 and H460 exposed to a uniform 6 MV radiation field under moving or stationary conditions. Cell survival curves showed no significant difference between irradiation at different dose points for these cell lines in the presence or absence of motion. These data indicate that motion of unshielded cells in vitro does not affect cell survival in the presence of uniform irradiation. This model provides a novel research platform to investigate the radiobiological consequences of respiratory motion in radiotherapy.
Conjugation of squalene to acyclovir improves the affinity for biomembrane models.
Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Micieli, Dorotea; Rocco, Flavio; Ceruti, Maurizio; Castelli, Francesco
2009-12-01
Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the interaction of acyclovir and its prodrug squalenoyl-acyclovir (obtained by conjugation of 1,1',2-tris-nor-squalene acid (squaleneCOOH) with acyclovir) with biomembrane models made of DMPC multilamellar vesicles with the aim to verify whether a stronger interaction of the prodrug with respect to the free drug can be obtained. Multilamellar vesicles were prepared in the presence of increasing molar fractions of acyclovir, squaleneCOOH or prodrug and the effect of the compounds on the thermotropic behavior of vesicles was researched, revealing no effect of acyclovir but a strong effect of squaleneCOOH and prodrug. To evaluate if acyclovir, squaleneCOOH and prodrug can be absorbed by the biomembrane model, an experiment was carried out in which the considered compounds were left in contact with the biomembrane model and their eventual uptake was evaluated analyzing the effect on the thermotropic behavior of the biomembrane model. A very small uptake was revealed for all the compounds. To check the potential use of liposomes as a delivery system for the prodrug, the biomembrane models were incubated with liposomes loaded with the compounds and the compounds transferring from the loaded liposomes to the unloaded biomembrane model was followed. The results suggest that liposomes could be used to deliver the squalenoyl-acyclovir to the biomembrane model.
Human motion recognition based on features and models selected HMM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haixiang; Zhou, Hongjun
2015-03-01
This paper research on the motion recognition based on HMM with Kinect. Kinect provides skeletal data consist of 3D body joints with its lower price and convenience. In this work, several methods are used to determine the optimal subset of features among Cartesian coordinates, distance to hip center, velocity, angle and angular velocity, in order to improve the recognition rate. K-means is used for vector quantization and HMM is used as recognition method. HMM is an effective signal processing method which contains time calibration, provides a learning mechanism and recognition ability. Cluster numbers of K-means, structure and state numbers of HMM are optimized as well. The proposed methods are applied to the MSR Action3D dataset. Results show that the proposed methods obtain better recognition accuracy than the state of the art methods.
One-degree-of-freedom spherical model for the passive motion of the human ankle joint.
Sancisi, Nicola; Baldisserri, Benedetta; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo; Belvedere, Claudio; Leardini, Alberto
2014-04-01
Mathematical modelling of mobility at the human ankle joint is essential for prosthetics and orthotic design. The scope of this study is to show that the ankle joint passive motion can be represented by a one-degree-of-freedom spherical motion. Moreover, this motion is modelled by a one-degree-of-freedom spherical parallel mechanism model, and the optimal pivot-point position is determined. Passive motion and anatomical data were taken from in vitro experiments in nine lower limb specimens. For each of these, a spherical mechanism, including the tibiofibular and talocalcaneal segments connected by a spherical pair and by the calcaneofibular and tibiocalcaneal ligament links, was defined from the corresponding experimental kinematics and geometry. An iterative procedure was used to optimize the geometry of the model, able to predict original experimental motion. The results of the simulations showed a good replication of the original natural motion, despite the numerous model assumptions and simplifications, with mean differences between experiments and predictions smaller than 1.3 mm (average 0.33 mm) for the three joint position components and smaller than 0.7° (average 0.32°) for the two out-of-sagittal plane rotations, once plotted versus the full flexion arc. The relevant pivot-point position after model optimization was found within the tibial mortise, but not exactly in a central location. The present combined experimental and modelling analysis of passive motion at the human ankle joint shows that a one degree-of-freedom spherical mechanism predicts well what is observed in real joints, although its computational complexity is comparable to the standard hinge joint model.
3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhou, S.; Hurwitz, M.; Mishra, P.; Cai, W.; Rottmann, J.; Li, R.; Williams, C.; Wagar, M.; Berbeco, R.; Ionascu, D.; Lewis, J. H.
2015-05-01
3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we developed and performed initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and used these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparison to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT-based and 4DCT-based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery.
3D fluoroscopic image estimation using patient-specific 4DCBCT-based motion models
Dhou, Salam; Hurwitz, Martina; Mishra, Pankaj; Cai, Weixing; Rottmann, Joerg; Li, Ruijiang; Williams, Christopher; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Ionascu, Dan; Lewis, John H.
2015-01-01
3D fluoroscopic images represent volumetric patient anatomy during treatment with high spatial and temporal resolution. 3D fluoroscopic images estimated using motion models built using 4DCT images, taken days or weeks prior to treatment, do not reliably represent patient anatomy during treatment. In this study we develop and perform initial evaluation of techniques to develop patient-specific motion models from 4D cone-beam CT (4DCBCT) images, taken immediately before treatment, and use these models to estimate 3D fluoroscopic images based on 2D kV projections captured during treatment. We evaluate the accuracy of 3D fluoroscopic images by comparing to ground truth digital and physical phantom images. The performance of 4DCBCT- and 4DCT- based motion models are compared in simulated clinical situations representing tumor baseline shift or initial patient positioning errors. The results of this study demonstrate the ability for 4DCBCT imaging to generate motion models that can account for changes that cannot be accounted for with 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating tumor baseline shift and patient positioning errors of up to 5 mm, the average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error in six datasets were 1.20 and 2.2 mm, respectively, for 4DCBCT-based motion models. 4DCT-based motion models applied to the same six datasets resulted in average tumor localization error and the 95th percentile error of 4.18 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Analysis of voxel-wise intensity differences was also conducted for all experiments. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image generation in digital and physical phantoms, and shows the potential advantage of 4DCBCT-based 3D fluoroscopic image estimation when there are changes in anatomy between the time of 4DCT imaging and the time of treatment delivery. PMID:25905722
Couch-based motion compensation: modelling, simulation and real-time experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, Olivier C. L.; Skworcow, Piotr; Paluszczyszyn, Daniel; Sahih, Abdelhamid; Ruta, Mariusz; Mills, John A.
2012-09-01
The paper presents a couch-based active motion compensation strategy evaluated in simulation and validated experimentally using both a research and a clinical Elekta Precise Table™. The control strategy combines a Kalman filter to predict the surrogate motion used as a reference by a linear model predictive controller with the control action calculation based on estimated position and velocity feedback provided by an observer as well as predicted couch position and velocity using a linearized state space model. An inversion technique is used to compensate for the dead-zone nonlinearity. New generic couch models are presented and applied to model the Elekta Precise Table™ dynamics and nonlinearities including dead zone. Couch deflection was measured for different manufacturers and found to be up to 25 mm. A feed-forward approach is proposed to compensate for such couch deflection. Simultaneous motion compensation for longitudinal, lateral and vertical motions was evaluated using arbitrary trajectories generated from sensors or loaded from files. Tracking errors were between 0.5 and 2 mm RMS. A dosimetric evaluation of the motion compensation was done using a sinusoidal waveform. No notable differences were observed between films obtained for a fixed- or motion-compensated target. Further dosimetric improvement could be made by combining gating, based on tracking error together with beam on/off time, and PSS compensation.
Couch-based motion compensation: modelling, simulation and real-time experiments.
Haas, Olivier C L; Skworcow, Piotr; Paluszczyszyn, Daniel; Sahih, Abdelhamid; Ruta, Mariusz; Mills, John A
2012-09-21
The paper presents a couch-based active motion compensation strategy evaluated in simulation and validated experimentally using both a research and a clinical Elekta Precise Table™. The control strategy combines a Kalman filter to predict the surrogate motion used as a reference by a linear model predictive controller with the control action calculation based on estimated position and velocity feedback provided by an observer as well as predicted couch position and velocity using a linearized state space model. An inversion technique is used to compensate for the dead-zone nonlinearity. New generic couch models are presented and applied to model the Elekta Precise Table™ dynamics and nonlinearities including dead zone. Couch deflection was measured for different manufacturers and found to be up to 25 mm. A feed-forward approach is proposed to compensate for such couch deflection. Simultaneous motion compensation for longitudinal, lateral and vertical motions was evaluated using arbitrary trajectories generated from sensors or loaded from files. Tracking errors were between 0.5 and 2 mm RMS. A dosimetric evaluation of the motion compensation was done using a sinusoidal waveform. No notable differences were observed between films obtained for a fixed- or motion-compensated target. Further dosimetric improvement could be made by combining gating, based on tracking error together with beam on/off time, and PSS compensation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
karimzadeh Naghshineh, S.; Askan, A.; Sisman, F. N. N.
2015-12-01
One approach to model the high-frequency attenuation of spectral amplitudes of S-waves is to express the observed exponential decay in terms of Kappa factor. Kappa is a significant parameter used for identifying the high frequency attenuation behavior of ground motions as well as one of the key parameters for stochastic strong ground motion simulation method. Recently, it has been also used in adjusting ground motion predictions from one region to another. Currently, other than a previous study by the authors, there are no detailed studies on kappa using Turkish strong ground motion datasets. In this study, with the objective of deriving regional kappa models, we examine ground motion datasets from different regions in Turkey with varying source properties, site classes and epicentral distances. Statistical tools are used to investigate the dependency of kappa on these parameters. In addition, potential correlations between kappa and Vs30 values of the stations are also studied. Main findings of this study are regional kappa models on North Anatolian Fault zone. Finally, we also present high-frequency strong motion simulations of past events in the selected regions using the proposed kappa models. Regardless of the magnitude, source-to-site distance and local site conditions at the stations, the high-frequency spectral decay is simulated effectively.
Specification of hierarchical-model-based fast quarter-pixel motion estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Junsang; Suh, Jung W.; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang
2010-06-01
We propose a robust and fast quarter-pixel motion estimation algorithm. This algorithm is an advanced version of the previously proposed model-based quarter-pixel motion estimation (MBQME). MBQME has many advantages in computational complexity, running speed, and hardware implementations. But it has the problem that it does not find the quarter-pixel positions that locate beyond the half-pixel positions. That is one of limitations of model-based motion estimation methods, and it leads to both peak-SNR degradation and bit-rate increase. To solve this problem, we propose a hierarchical mathematical model with minimum interpolations. Through this model, we can determine a motion vector at every quarter-pixel point, which is perfectly compatible with the quarter-pixel motion estimation method within international video coding standards such as MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC. The simulation results show that the proposed method yields almost the same or even better peak-SNR performance than that of full-search quarter-pixel motion estimation, with much lower computational complexity.
Applying Model Analysis to a Resource-Based Analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.; Carter, Tom
2014-01-01
Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information…
Gordon, R.G. )
1991-01-01
The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.
The use of the logistic model in space motion sickness prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Karl K.; Reschke, Millard F.
1987-01-01
The one-equation and the two-equation logistic models were used to predict subjects' susceptibility to motion sickness in KC-135 parabolic flights using data from other ground-based motion sickness tests. The results show that the logistic models correctly predicted substantially more cases (an average of 13 percent) in the data subset used for model building. Overall, the logistic models ranged from 53 to 65 percent predictions of the three endpoint parameters, whereas the Bayes linear discriminant procedure ranged from 48 to 65 percent correct for the cross validation sample.
Key elements of regional seismic velocity models for long period ground motion simulations
Brocher, T.M.
2008-01-01
Regional 3-D seismic velocity models used for broadband strong motion simulations must include compressional-wave velocity (Vp), shear-wave velocity (Vs), intrinsic attenuation (Qp, Qs), and density. Vs and Qs are the most important of these parameters because the strongest ground motions are generated chiefly by shear- and surface-wave arrivals. Because Vp data are more common than Vs data, many researchers first develop a Vp model and convert it to a Vs model. I describe recent empirical relations between Vs, Vp, Qs, Qp, and density that allow velocity models to be rapidly and accurately calculated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.
Stockner, Thomas; Montgomery, Therese R.; Kudlacek, Oliver; Weissensteiner, Rene; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H.
2013-01-01
The high-resolution crystal structure of the leucine transporter (LeuT) is frequently used as a template for homology models of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Although similar in structure, DAT differs considerably from LeuT in a number of ways: (i) when compared to LeuT, DAT has very long intracellular amino and carboxyl termini; (ii) LeuT and DAT share a rather low overall sequence identity (22%) and (iii) the extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of DAT is substantially longer than that of LeuT. Extracellular zinc binds to DAT and restricts the transporter‚s movement through the conformational cycle, thereby resulting in a decrease in substrate uptake. Residue H293 in EL2 praticipates in zinc binding and must be modelled correctly to allow for a full understanding of its effects. We exploited the high-affinity zinc binding site endogenously present in DAT to create a model of the complete transmemberane domain of DAT. The zinc binding site provided a DAT-specific molecular ruler for calibration of the model. Our DAT model places EL2 at the transporter lipid interface in the vicinity of the zinc binding site. Based on the model, D206 was predicted to represent a fourth co-ordinating residue, in addition to the three previously described zinc binding residues H193, H375 and E396. This prediction was confirmed by mutagenesis: substitution of D206 by lysine and cysteine affected the inhibitory potency of zinc and the maximum inhibition exerted by zinc, respectively. Conversely, the structural changes observed in the model allowed for rationalizing the zinc-dependent regulation of DAT: upon binding, zinc stabilizes the outward-facing state, because its first coordination shell can only be completed in this conformation. Thus, the model provides a validated solution to the long extracellular loop and may be useful to address other aspects of the transport cycle. PMID:23436987
Stockner, Thomas; Montgomery, Therese R; Kudlacek, Oliver; Weissensteiner, Rene; Ecker, Gerhard F; Freissmuth, Michael; Sitte, Harald H
2013-01-01
The high-resolution crystal structure of the leucine transporter (LeuT) is frequently used as a template for homology models of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Although similar in structure, DAT differs considerably from LeuT in a number of ways: (i) when compared to LeuT, DAT has very long intracellular amino and carboxyl termini; (ii) LeuT and DAT share a rather low overall sequence identity (22%) and (iii) the extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of DAT is substantially longer than that of LeuT. Extracellular zinc binds to DAT and restricts the transporter's movement through the conformational cycle, thereby resulting in a decrease in substrate uptake. Residue H293 in EL2 praticipates in zinc binding and must be modelled correctly to allow for a full understanding of its effects. We exploited the high-affinity zinc binding site endogenously present in DAT to create a model of the complete transmemberane domain of DAT. The zinc binding site provided a DAT-specific molecular ruler for calibration of the model. Our DAT model places EL2 at the transporter lipid interface in the vicinity of the zinc binding site. Based on the model, D206 was predicted to represent a fourth co-ordinating residue, in addition to the three previously described zinc binding residues H193, H375 and E396. This prediction was confirmed by mutagenesis: substitution of D206 by lysine and cysteine affected the inhibitory potency of zinc and the maximum inhibition exerted by zinc, respectively. Conversely, the structural changes observed in the model allowed for rationalizing the zinc-dependent regulation of DAT: upon binding, zinc stabilizes the outward-facing state, because its first coordination shell can only be completed in this conformation. Thus, the model provides a validated solution to the long extracellular loop and may be useful to address other aspects of the transport cycle.
Safe motion planning for mobile agents: A model of reactive planning for multiple mobile agents
Fujimura, Kikuo.
1990-01-01
The problem of motion planning for multiple mobile agents is studied. Each planning agent independently plans its own action based on its map which contains a limited information about the environment. In an environment where more than one mobile agent interacts, the motions of the robots are uncertain and dynamic. A model for reactive agents is described and simulation results are presented to show their behavior patterns. 18 refs., 2 figs.
Coronary arteries motion modeling on 2D x-ray images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yang; Sundar, Hari
2012-02-01
During interventional procedures, 3D imaging modalities like CT and MRI are not commonly used due to interference with the surgery and radiation exposure concerns. Therefore, real-time information is usually limited and building models of cardiac motion are difficult. In such case, vessel motion modeling based on 2-D angiography images become indispensable. Due to issues with existing vessel segmentation algorithms and the lack of contrast in occluded vessels, manual segmentation of certain branches is usually necessary. In addition, such occluded branches are the most important vessels during coronary interventions and obtaining motion models for these can greatly help in reducing the procedure time and radiation exposure. Segmenting different cardiac phases independently does not guarantee temporal consistency and is not efficient for occluded branches required manual segmentation. In this paper, we propose a coronary motion modeling system which extracts the coronary tree for every cardiac phase, maintaining the segmentation by tracking the coronary tree during the cardiac cycle. It is able to map every frame to the specific cardiac phase, thereby inferring the shape information of the coronary arteries using the model corresponding to its phase. Our experiments show that our motion modeling system can achieve promising results with real-time performance.
Besalú, Emili
2016-01-01
The Superposing Significant Interaction Rules (SSIR) method is described. It is a general combinatorial and symbolic procedure able to rank compounds belonging to combinatorial analogue series. The procedure generates structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and also serves as an inverse SAR tool. The method is fast and can deal with large databases. SSIR operates from statistical significances calculated from the available library of compounds and according to the previously attached molecular labels of interest or non-interest. The required symbolic codification allows dealing with almost any combinatorial data set, even in a confidential manner, if desired. The application example categorizes molecules as binding or non-binding, and consensus ranking SAR models are generated from training and two distinct cross-validation methods: leave-one-out and balanced leave-two-out (BL2O), the latter being suited for the treatment of binary properties. PMID:27240346
Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu
2015-01-01
Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the Neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. PMID:26531324
Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing
2015-11-21
Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing
2015-11-01
Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.
Toward a computational theory for motion understanding: The expert animators model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohamed, Ahmed S.; Armstrong, William W.
1988-01-01
Artificial intelligence researchers claim to understand some aspect of human intelligence when their model is able to emulate it. In the context of computer graphics, the ability to go from motion representation to convincing animation should accordingly be treated not simply as a trick for computer graphics programmers but as important epistemological and methodological goal. In this paper we investigate a unifying model for animating a group of articulated bodies such as humans and robots in a three-dimensional environment. The proposed model is considered in the framework of knowledge representation and processing, with special reference to motion knowledge. The model is meant to help setting the basis for a computational theory for motion understanding applied to articulated bodies.
Simulation model for combined motion of myosin cross-bridges agrees with experimental data.
Marandos, Peter; Midde, Krishna
2014-06-01
The motivation for this work was to derive a theoretical model for the combined motion of a sample of muscle tissue with a small number (approximately 12) of myosin molecules. This was then compared to data collected at the University of North Texas Health Science center. A theoretical model of the motion of the myosin cross-bridges has been derived. The solution is a combination of solutions from the classical harmonic oscillator, Brownian motion, and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The model illustrates the myosin behavior as a function of the number of myosin molecules, the temperature of the sample, and the spring constant. The results show that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data.
Local harmonic motion monitoring of focused ultrasound surgery--a simulation model.
Heikkilä, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo
2010-01-01
In this paper, a computational model for localized harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. The LHM technique is based on a focused, time-varying ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local oscillatory motions at the focal region. These vibrations are tracked, using pulse-echo imaging, and then, used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM is feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation process affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic sonication fields, sonication-induced temperature elevation and mechanical motion, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These 3-D simulation models are based on Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated-tissue temperature elevation and mechanical motion were compared with previously published in vivo measurements. Finally, the simulation model was used to simulate coagulation and LHM monitoring, as would occur with multiple, neighbouring sonication locations covering a large tumor.
Elastic network models capture the motions apparent within ensembles of RNA structures.
Zimmermann, Michael T; Jernigan, Robert L
2014-06-01
The role of structure and dynamics in mechanisms for RNA becomes increasingly important. Computational approaches using simple dynamics models have been successful at predicting the motions of proteins and are often applied to ribonucleo-protein complexes but have not been thoroughly tested for well-packed nucleic acid structures. In order to characterize a true set of motions, we investigate the apparent motions from 16 ensembles of experimentally determined RNA structures. These indicate a relatively limited set of motions that are captured by a small set of principal components (PCs). These limited motions closely resemble the motions computed from low frequency normal modes from elastic network models (ENMs), either at atomic or coarse-grained resolution. Various ENM model types, parameters, and structure representations are tested here against the experimental RNA structural ensembles, exposing differences between models for proteins and for folded RNAs. Differences in performance are seen, depending on the structure alignment algorithm used to generate PCs, modulating the apparent utility of ENMs but not significantly impacting their ability to generate functional motions. The loss of dynamical information upon coarse-graining is somewhat larger for RNAs than for globular proteins, indicating, perhaps, the lower cooperativity of the less densely packed RNA. However, the RNA structures show less sensitivity to the elastic network model parameters than do proteins. These findings further demonstrate the utility of ENMs and the appropriateness of their application to well-packed RNA-only structures, justifying their use for studying the dynamics of ribonucleo-proteins, such as the ribosome and regulatory RNAs.
A model for the fluid motion of vitreous humour of the human eye during saccadic movement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, Tim; Smye, Steve; Dabbs, Tim; James, Teifi
1998-06-01
During saccadic motion the eyewall moves in a manner similar to a sinusoid or at least can be represented by a sine Fourier series. Motion of the vitreous is induced by the saccade and the vitreo-retinal interface is subjected to a time-dependent shear. This force may be a significant factor for retinal tearing in the neighbourhood of small retinal holes or tears. An analytical viscoelastic model and a numerical, Newtonian model of the motion of the vitreous are presented and compared. Under sinusoidal boundary motion the analytical model shows that a viscous wave propagates inward toward the axis of rotation and the characteristic length of this wave is a function of the Womersley number. The numerical solution indicates that the vitreous moves similarly to the analytical result with small secondary motion; however, this motion allows complete recirculation of the vitreous over large timescales. Excellent agreement is found between the analytical and numerical models. The time-dependent fluid shear is evaluated and from the analytical solution the maximum value of this is found to be proportional to , where is the eye radius, the modified complex visocosity and the sinusoidal frequency. This indicates that myopes have a larger shear force exerted on them by virtue of the larger eye size. Further work is directed toward a model which links the stress found in the sclera to that exerted on the vitreo-retinal interface by the vitreous fluid motion.
Elastic network models capture the motions apparent within ensembles of RNA structures
Zimmermann, Michael T.; Jernigan, Robert L.
2014-01-01
The role of structure and dynamics in mechanisms for RNA becomes increasingly important. Computational approaches using simple dynamics models have been successful at predicting the motions of proteins and are often applied to ribonucleo-protein complexes but have not been thoroughly tested for well-packed nucleic acid structures. In order to characterize a true set of motions, we investigate the apparent motions from 16 ensembles of experimentally determined RNA structures. These indicate a relatively limited set of motions that are captured by a small set of principal components (PCs). These limited motions closely resemble the motions computed from low frequency normal modes from elastic network models (ENMs), either at atomic or coarse-grained resolution. Various ENM model types, parameters, and structure representations are tested here against the experimental RNA structural ensembles, exposing differences between models for proteins and for folded RNAs. Differences in performance are seen, depending on the structure alignment algorithm used to generate PCs, modulating the apparent utility of ENMs but not significantly impacting their ability to generate functional motions. The loss of dynamical information upon coarse-graining is somewhat larger for RNAs than for globular proteins, indicating, perhaps, the lower cooperativity of the less densely packed RNA. However, the RNA structures show less sensitivity to the elastic network model parameters than do proteins. These findings further demonstrate the utility of ENMs and the appropriateness of their application to well-packed RNA-only structures, justifying their use for studying the dynamics of ribonucleo-proteins, such as the ribosome and regulatory RNAs. PMID:24759093
A patient specific 4D MRI liver motion model based on sparse imaging and registration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noorda, Y. H.; Bartels, L. W.; van Stralen, Marijn; Pluim, J. P. W.
2013-03-01
Introduction: Image-guided minimally invasive procedures are becoming increasingly popular. Currently, High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of lesions in mobile organs, such as the liver, is in development. A requirement for such treatment is automatic motion tracking, such that the position of the lesion can be followed in real time. We propose a 4D liver motion model, which can be used during planning of this procedure. During treatment, the model can serve as a motion predictor. In a similar fashion, this model could be used for radiotherapy treatment of the liver. Method: The model is built by acquiring 2D dynamic sagittal MRI data at six locations in the liver. By registering these dynamics to a 3D MRI liver image, 2D deformation fields are obtained at every location. The 2D fields are ordered according to the position of the liver at that specific time point, such that liver motion during an average breathing period can be simulated. This way, a sparse deformation field is created over time. This deformation field is finally interpolated over the entire volume, yielding a 4D motion model. Results: The accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing unseen slices to the slice predicted by the model at that specific location and phase in the breathing cycle. The mean Dice coefficient of the liver regions was 0.90. The mean misalignment of the vessels was 1.9 mm. Conclusion: The model is able to predict patient specific deformations of the liver and can predict regular motion accurately.
Moreira, Pedro; Zemiti, Nabil; Liu, Chao; Poignet, Philippe
2014-09-01
Controlling the interaction between robots and living soft tissues has become an important issue as the number of robotic systems inside the operating room increases. Many researches have been done on force control to help surgeons during medical procedures, such as physiological motion compensation and tele-operation systems with haptic feedback. In order to increase the performance of such controllers, this work presents a novel force control scheme using Active Observer (AOB) based on a viscoelastic interaction model. The control scheme has shown to be stable through theoretical analysis and its performance was evaluated by in vitro experiments. In order to evaluate how the force control scheme behaves under the presence of physiological motion, experiments considering breathing and beating heart disturbances are presented. The proposed control scheme presented a stable behavior in both static and moving environment. The viscoelastic AOB presented a compensation ratio of 87% for the breathing motion and 79% for the beating heart motion.
A three-dimensional ankle kinetostatic model to simulate loaded and unloaded joint motion.
Forlani, Margherita; Sancisi, Nicola; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo
2015-06-01
A kinetostatic model able to replicate both the natural unloaded motion of the tibiotalar (or ankle) joint and the joint behavior under external loads is presented. The model is developed as the second step of a sequential procedure, which allows the definition of a kinetostatic model as a generalization of a kinematic model of the joint defined at the first step. Specifically, this kinematic model taken as the starting point of the definition procedure is a parallel spatial mechanism which replicates the ankle unloaded motion. It features two rigid bodies (representing the tibia-fibula and the talus-calcaneus complexes) interconnected by five rigid binary links, that mimic three articular contacts and two nearly isometric fibers (IFs) of the tibiocalcaneal ligament (TiCaL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CaFiL). In the kinetostatic model, the five links are considered as compliant; moreover, further elastic structures are added to represent all the main ankle passive structures of the joint. Thanks to this definition procedure, the kinetostatic model still replicates the ankle unloaded motion with the same accuracy as the kinematic model. In addition, the model can replicate the behavior of the joint when external loads are applied. Finally, the structures that guide these motions are consistent with the anatomical evidence. The parameters of the model are identified for two specimens from both subject-specific and published data. Loads are then applied to the model in order to simulate two common clinical tests. The model-predicted ankle motion shows good agreement with results from the literature.
Flap motion of helicopter rotors with novel, dynamic stall model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Chen, Lei; Su, Xichao; Zhao, Peng
2016-01-01
In this paper, a nonlinear flapping equation for large inflow angles and flap angles is established by analyzing the aerodynamics of helicopter blade elements. In order to obtain a generalized flap equation, the Snel stall model was first applied to determine the lift coefficient of the helicopter rotor. A simulation experiment for specific airfoils was then conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Snel stall model as it applies to helicopters. Results show that the model requires no extraneous parameters compared to the traditional stall model and is highly accurate and practically applicable. Based on the model, the relationship between the flapping angle and the angle of attack was analyzed, as well as the advance ratio under the dynamic stall state.
The application of the sinusoidal model to lung cancer patient respiratory motion
George, R.; Vedam, S.S.; Chung, T.D.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Keall, P.J.
2005-09-15
Accurate modeling of the respiratory cycle is important to account for the effect of organ motion on dose calculation for lung cancer patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a respiratory model for lung cancer patients. Lujan et al. [Med. Phys. 26(5), 715-720 (1999)] proposed a model, which became widely used, to describe organ motion due to respiration. This model assumes that the parameters do not vary between and within breathing cycles. In this study, first, the correlation of respiratory motion traces with the model f(t) as a function of the parameter n(n=1,2,3) was undertaken for each breathing cycle from 331 four-minute respiratory traces acquired from 24 lung cancer patients using three breathing types: free breathing, audio instruction, and audio-visual biofeedback. Because cos{sup 2} and cos{sup 4} had similar correlation coefficients, and cos{sup 2} and cos{sup 1} have a trigonometric relationship, for simplicity, the cos{sup 1} value was consequently used for further analysis in which the variations in mean position (z{sub 0}), amplitude of motion (b) and period ({tau}) with and without biofeedback or instructions were investigated. For all breathing types, the parameter values, mean position (z{sub 0}), amplitude of motion (b), and period ({tau}) exhibited significant cycle-to-cycle variations. Audio-visual biofeedback showed the least variations for all three parameters (z{sub 0}, b, and {tau}). It was found that mean position (z{sub 0}) could be approximated with a normal distribution, and the amplitude of motion (b) and period ({tau}) could be approximated with log normal distributions. The overall probability density function (pdf) of f(t) for each of the three breathing types was fitted with three models: normal, bimodal, and the pdf of a simple harmonic oscillator. It was found that the normal and the bimodal models represented the overall respiratory motion pdfs with correlation values from 0.95 to 0.99, whereas the range
Strong ground-motion prediction from Stochastic-dynamic source models
Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Beroza, G.C.; Boatwright, J.
2003-01-01
In the absence of sufficient data in the very near source, predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions from future large earthquakes depend strongly on our ability to develop realistic models of the earthquake source. In this article we simulate near-fault strong ground motion using dynamic source models. We use a boundary integral method to simulate dynamic rupture of earthquakes by specifying dynamic source parameters (fracture energy and stress drop) as spatial random fields. We choose these quantities such that they are consistent with the statistical properties of slip heterogeneity found in finite-source models of past earthquakes. From these rupture models we compute theoretical strong-motion seismograms up to a frequency of 2 Hz for several realizations of a scenario strike-slip Mw 7.0 earthquake and compare empirical response spectra, spectra obtained from our dynamic models, and spectra determined from corresponding kinematic simulations. We find that spatial and temporal variations in slip, slip rise time, and rupture propagation consistent with dynamic rupture models exert a strong influence on near-source ground motion. Our results lead to a feasible approach to specify the variability in the rupture time distribution in kinematic models through a generalization of Andrews' (1976) result relating rupture speed to apparent fracture energy, stress drop, and crack length to 3D dynamic models. This suggests that a simplified representation of dynamic rupture may be obtained to approximate the effects of dynamic rupture without having to do full dynamic simulations.
ROTATING MOTIONS AND MODELING OF THE ERUPTING SOLAR POLAR-CROWN PROMINENCE ON 2010 DECEMBER 6
Su, Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan
2013-02-10
A large polar-crown prominence composed of different segments spanning nearly the entire solar disk erupted on 2010 December 6. Prior to the eruption, the filament in the active region part split into two layers: a lower layer and an elevated layer. The eruption occurs in several episodes. Around 14:12 UT, the lower layer of the active region filament breaks apart: One part ejects toward the west, while the other part ejects toward the east, which leads to the explosive eruption of the eastern quiescent filament. During the early rise phase, part of the quiescent filament sheet displays strong rolling motion (observed by STEREO-B) in the clockwise direction (viewed from east to west) around the filament axis. This rolling motion appears to start from the border of the active region, then propagates toward the east. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observes another type of rotating motion: In some other parts of the erupting quiescent prominence, the vertical threads turn horizontal, then turn upside down. The elevated active region filament does not erupt until 18:00 UT, when the erupting quiescent filament has already reached a very large height. We develop two simplified three-dimensional models that qualitatively reproduce the observed rolling and rotating motions. The prominence in the models is assumed to consist of a collection of discrete blobs that are tied to particular field lines of a helical flux rope. The observed rolling motion is reproduced by continuous twist injection into the flux rope in Model 1 from the active region side. Asymmetric reconnection induced by the asymmetric distribution of the magnetic fields on the two sides of the filament may cause the observed rolling motion. The rotating motion of the prominence threads observed by AIA is consistent with the removal of the field line dips in Model 2 from the top down during the eruption.
Moving object detection using dynamic motion modelling from UAV aerial images.
Saif, A F M Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid
2014-01-01
Motion analysis based moving object detection from UAV aerial image is still an unsolved issue due to inconsideration of proper motion estimation. Existing moving object detection approaches from UAV aerial images did not deal with motion based pixel intensity measurement to detect moving object robustly. Besides current research on moving object detection from UAV aerial images mostly depends on either frame difference or segmentation approach separately. There are two main purposes for this research: firstly to develop a new motion model called DMM (dynamic motion model) and secondly to apply the proposed segmentation approach SUED (segmentation using edge based dilation) using frame difference embedded together with DMM model. The proposed DMM model provides effective search windows based on the highest pixel intensity to segment only specific area for moving object rather than searching the whole area of the frame using SUED. At each stage of the proposed scheme, experimental fusion of the DMM and SUED produces extracted moving objects faithfully. Experimental result reveals that the proposed DMM and SUED have successfully demonstrated the validity of the proposed methodology.
Mathematical analysis and modeling of motion direction selectivity in the retina.
Escobar, María-José; Pezo, Danilo; Orio, Patricio
2013-11-01
Motion detection is one of the most important and primitive computations performed by our visual system. Specifically in the retina, ganglion cells producing motion direction-selective responses have been addressed by different disciplines, such as mathematics, neurophysiology and computational modeling, since the beginnings of vision science. Although a number of studies have analyzed theoretical and mathematical considerations for such responses, a clear picture of the underlying cellular mechanisms is only recently emerging. In general, motion direction selectivity is based on a non-linear asymmetric computation inside a receptive field differentiating cell responses between preferred and null direction stimuli. To what extent can biological findings match these considerations? In this review, we outline theoretical and mathematical studies of motion direction selectivity, aiming to map the properties of the models onto the neural circuitry and synaptic connectivity found in the retina. Additionally, we review several compartmental models that have tried to fill this gap. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges that computational models will have to tackle in order to fully understand the retinal motion direction-selective circuitry.
Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America
Pasyanos, Michael E.
2015-11-01
Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for themore » rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.« less
Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America
Pasyanos, Michael E.
2015-11-01
Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for the rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.
Evaluation of deformable image registration and a motion model in CT images with limited features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kincaid, R.; Goodman, K. A.; Mageras, G. S.
2012-05-01
Deformable image registration (DIR) is increasingly used in radiotherapy applications and provides the basis for a previously described model of patient-specific respiratory motion. We examine the accuracy of a DIR algorithm and a motion model with respiration-correlated CT (RCCT) images of software phantom with known displacement fields, physical deformable abdominal phantom with implanted fiducials in the liver and small liver structures in patient images. The motion model is derived from a principal component analysis that relates volumetric deformations with the motion of the diaphragm or fiducials in the RCCT. Patient data analysis compares DIR with rigid registration as ground truth: the mean ± standard deviation 3D discrepancy of liver structure centroid positions is 2.0 ± 2.2 mm. DIR discrepancy in the software phantom is 3.8 ± 2.0 mm in lung and 3.7 ± 1.8 mm in abdomen; discrepancies near the chest wall are larger than indicated by image feature matching. Marker's 3D discrepancy in the physical phantom is 3.6 ± 2.8 mm. The results indicate that visible features in the images are important for guiding the DIR algorithm. Motion model accuracy is comparable to DIR, indicating that two principal components are sufficient to describe DIR-derived deformation in these datasets.
Tang, Xiaolin; Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez
2014-01-01
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototype for negative sense non segmented (NNS) RNA viruses which include potent human and animal pathogens such as Rabies, Ebola and measles. The polymerases of NNS RNA viruses only initiate transcription at or near the 3′ end of their genome template. We measured the dissociation constant of VSV polymerases from their whole genome template to be 20 pM. Given this low dissociation constant, initiation and sustainability of transcription becomes nontrivial. To explore possible mechanisms, we simulated the first hour of transcription using Monte Carlo methods and show that a one-time initial dissociation of all polymerases during entry is not sufficient to sustain transcription. We further show that efficient transcription requires a sliding mechanism for non-transcribing polymerases and can be realized with different polymerase-polymerase interactions and distinct template topologies. In conclusion, we highlight a model in which collisions between transcribing and sliding non-transcribing polymerases result in release of the non-transcribing polymerases allowing for redistribution of polymerases between separate templates during transcription and suggest specific experiments to further test these mechanisms. PMID:25501005
Multi-modal gesture recognition using integrated model of motion, audio and video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko
2015-07-01
Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.
Patient specific respiratory motion modeling using a 3D patient’s external surface
Fayad, Hadi; Pan, Tinsu; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris
2012-01-01
Purpose: Respiratory motion modeling of both tumor and surrounding tissues is a key element in minimizing errors and uncertainties in radiation therapy. Different continuous motion models have been previously developed. However, most of these models are based on the use of parameters such as amplitude and phase extracted from 1D external respiratory signal. A potentially reduced correlation between the internal structures (tumor and healthy organs) and the corresponding external surrogates obtained from such 1D respiratory signal is a limitation of these models. The objective of this work is to describe a continuous patient specific respiratory motion model, accounting for the irregular nature of respiratory signals, using patient external surface information as surrogate measures rather than a 1D respiratory signal. Methods: Ten patients were used in this study having each one 4D CT series, a synchronized RPM signal and patient surfaces extracted from the 4D CT volumes using a threshold based segmentation algorithm. A patient specific model based on the use of principal component analysis was subsequently constructed. This model relates the internal motion described by deformation matrices and the external motion characterized by the amplitude and the phase of the respiratory signal in the case of the RPM or using specific regions of interest (ROI) in the case of the patients’ external surface utilization. The capability of the different models considered to handle the irregular nature of respiration was assessed using two repeated 4D CT acquisitions (in two patients) and static CT images acquired at extreme respiration conditions (end of inspiration and expiration) for one patient. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative parameters covering local and global measures, including an expert observer study, were used to assess and compare the performance of the different motion estimation models considered. Results indicate that using surface information
Defining ATR solutions using affine transformations on a union of subspaces model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hester, Charles F.; Risko, Kelly K. D.
2012-05-01
The ability to recognize a target in an image is an important problem for machine vision, surveillance systems, and military weapons. There are many "solutions" to an automatic target recognition (ATR) problem proposed by practitioners. Often the definition of the problem leads to multiple solutions due to the incompleteness of the definition. Solutions are also made approximate due to resource limitations. Issues concerning "best" solution and solution performance are very open issues, since problem definitions and solutions are ill-defined. Indeed from information based physical measurement theory such as found in the Minimum Description Length (MDL) the exact solution is intractable1. Generating some clarity in defining problems on restricted sets seems an appropriate approach for improving this vagueness in ATR definitions and solutions. Given that a one to one relationship between a physical system and the MDL exists, then this uniqueness allows that a solution can be defined by its description and a norm assigned to that description. Moreover, the solution can be characterized by a set of metrics that are based on the algorithmic information of the physical measurements. The MDL, however, is not a constructive theory, but solutions can be defined by concise problem descriptions. This limits the scope of the problem and we will take this approach here. The paper will start with a definition of an ATR problem followed by our proposal of a descriptive solution using a union of subspaces model of images as described below based on Lu and Do2. This solution uses the concept of informative representations3 implicitly which we review briefly. Then we will present some metrics to be used to characterize the solution(s) which we will demonstrate by a simple example. In the discussions following the example we will suggest how this fits in the context of present and future work.
Adaptive update using visual models for lifting-based motion-compensated temporal filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Song; Xiong, H. K.; Wu, Feng; Chen, Hong
2005-03-01
Motion compensated temporal filtering is a useful framework for fully scalable video compression schemes. However, when supposed motion models cannot represent a real motion perfectly, both the temporal high and the temporal low frequency sub-bands may contain artificial edges, which possibly lead to a decreased coding efficiency, and ghost artifacts appear in the reconstructed video sequence at lower bit rates or in case of temporal scaling. We propose a new technique that is based on utilizing visual models to mitigate ghosting artifacts in the temporal low frequency sub-bands. Specifically, we propose content adaptive update schemes where visual models are used to determine image dependent upper bounds on information to be updated. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve subjective visual quality of the low-pass temporal frames and at the same time, coding performance can catch or exceed the classical update steps.
Statistical mechanics models for motion and force planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, G.
1990-01-01
The models of statistical mechanics provide an alternative to the methods of classical mechanics more traditionally used in robotics. They have a potential to: improve analysis of object collisions; handle kinematic and dynamic contact interactions within the same frmework; and reduce the need for perfect deterministic world model information. The statistical mechanics models characterize the state of the system as a probability density function (p.d.f.) whose time evolution is governed by a partial differential equation subject to boundary and initial conditions. The boundary conditions when rigid objects collide reflect the conservation of momentum. The models are being developed to embedd in remote semi-autonomous systems with a need to reason and interact with a multiobject environment.
Modeling of stochastic motion of bacteria propelled spherical microbeads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arabagi, Veaceslav; Behkam, Bahareh; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin
2011-06-01
This work proposes a stochastic dynamic model of bacteria propelled spherical microbeads as potential swimming microrobotic bodies. Small numbers of S. marcescens bacteria are attached with their bodies to surfaces of spherical microbeads. Average-behavior stochastic models that are normally adopted when studying such biological systems are generally not effective for cases in which a small number of agents are interacting in a complex manner, hence a stochastic model is proposed to simulate the behavior of 8-41 bacteria assembled on a curved surface. Flexibility of the flagellar hook is studied via comparing simulated and experimental results for scenarios of increasing bead size and the number of attached bacteria on a bead. Although requiring more experimental data to yield an exact, certain flagellar hook stiffness value, the examined results favor a stiffer flagella. The stochastic model is intended to be used as a design and simulation tool for future potential targeted drug delivery and disease diagnosis applications of bacteria propelled microrobots.
Advances in Dynamical Predictions and Modelling of Tropical Cyclone Motion
1993-03-01
improvement at early times is reasonable as the data assimilation procedure is blending previous storm positions into the model initial conditions at t = 0...operational barotropic model that has no assimilation procedure and with a simple nudging assimilation approach over the prior 24 h. The Bennett et aL...Notice that the synthetic observations become part of the data set provided to the four-dimensional assimilation procedure . Although they are blended with
Smyczynski, Mark S.; Gifford, Howard C.; Lehovich, Andre; McNamara, Joseph E.; Segars, W. Paul; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; King, Michael A.
2016-01-01
The objectives of this investigation were to model the respiratory motion of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) and then use this model to determine the impact of respiratory motion on the localization and detection of small SPN in SPECT imaging for four reconstruction strategies. The respiratory motion of SPN was based on that of normal anatomic structures in the lungs determined from breath-held CT images of a volunteer acquired at two different stages of respiration. End-expiration (EE) and time-averaged (Frame Av) non-uniform-B-spline cardiac torso (NCAT) digital-anthropomorphic phantoms were created using this information for respiratory motion within the lungs. SPN were represented as 1 cm diameter spheres which underwent linear motion during respiration between the EE and end-inspiration (EI) time points. The SIMIND Monte Carlo program was used to produce SPECT projection data simulating Tc-99m depreotide (NeoTect) imaging. The projections were reconstructed using 1) no correction (NC), 2) attenuation correction (AC), 3) resolution compensation (RC), and 4) attenuation correction, scatter correction, and resolution compensation (AC_SC_RC). A human-observer localization receiver operating characteristics (LROC) study was then performed to determine the difference in localization and detection accuracy with and without the presence of respiratory motion. The LROC comparison determined that respiratory motion degrades tumor detection for all four reconstruction strategies, thus correction for SPN motion would be expected to improve detection accuracy. The inclusion of RC in reconstruction improved detection accuracy for both EE and Frame Av over NC and AC. Also the magnitude of the impact of motion was least for AC_SC_RC. PMID:27182079
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodgers, A. J.; Xie, X.; Petersson, A.
2007-12-01
The next major earthquake in the San Francisco Bay area is likely to occur on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system. Attention on the southern Hayward section is appropriate given the upcoming 140th anniversary of the 1868 M 7 rupture coinciding with the estimated recurrence interval. This presentation will describe ground motion simulations for large (M > 6.5) earthquakes on the Hayward Fault using a recently developed elastic finite difference code and high-performance computers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our code easily reads the recent USGS 3D seismic velocity model of the Bay Area developed in 2005 and used for simulations of the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Previous work has shown that the USGS model performs very well when used to model intermediate period (4-33 seconds) ground motions from moderate (M ~ 4-5) earthquakes (Rodgers et al., 2008). Ground motions for large earthquakes are strongly controlled by the hypocenter location, spatial distribution of slip, rise time and directivity effects. These are factors that are impossible to predict in advance of a large earthquake and lead to large epistemic uncertainties in ground motion estimates for scenario earthquakes. To bound this uncertainty, we are performing suites of simulations of scenario events on the Hayward Fault using stochastic rupture models following the method of Liu et al. (Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 96, 2118-2130, 2006). These rupture models have spatially variable slip, rupture velocity, rise time and rake constrained by characterization of inferred finite fault ruptures and expert opinion. Computed ground motions show variability due to the variability in rupture models and can be used to estimate the average and spread of ground motion measures at any particular site. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No.W-7405-Eng-48. This is
1987-04-01
Electron Affinities by S N Lindsay, Lin Chu, Youqi Wang and Thomas F. George Prepared fur Publication 1in Journal of Chemical Physics 5epartments of...Affinities. 12. PERSONAL AUTIHORiS) D. M. LIndsay, L. Chu, Y. Wang and Thomas F. George 13. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED vid. OATE OF REPORT fVro .1o...New York, New York 10031 Youqi Wang Department of Chemistry California Institute of Technology Pasadena, Califonia 91125 Thomas IF. Georg Departments
Model-guided respiratory organ motion prediction of the liver from 2D ultrasound.
Preiswerk, Frank; De Luca, Valeria; Arnold, Patrik; Celicanin, Zarko; Petrusca, Lorena; Tanner, Christine; Bieri, Oliver; Salomir, Rares; Cattin, Philippe C
2014-07-01
With the availability of new and more accurate tumour treatment modalities such as high-intensity focused ultrasound or proton therapy, accurate target location prediction has become a key issue. Various approaches for diverse application scenarios have been proposed over the last decade. Whereas external surrogate markers such as a breathing belt work to some extent, knowledge about the internal motion of the organs inherently provides more accurate results. In this paper, we combine a population-based statistical motion model and information from 2d ultrasound sequences in order to predict the respiratory motion of the right liver lobe. For this, the motion model is fitted to a 3d exhalation breath-hold scan of the liver acquired before prediction. Anatomical landmarks tracked in the ultrasound images together with the model are then used to reconstruct the complete organ position over time. The prediction is both spatial and temporal, can be computed in real-time and is evaluated on ground truth over long time scales (5.5 min). The method is quantitatively validated on eight volunteers where the ultrasound images are synchronously acquired with 4D-MRI, which provides ground-truth motion. With an average spatial prediction accuracy of 2.4 mm, we can predict tumour locations within clinically acceptable margins.
Flocking and Turning: a New Model for Self-organized Collective Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Grigera, Tomas; Jelic, Asja; Melillo, Stefania; Mora, Thierry; Parisi, Leonardo; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2015-02-01
Birds in a flock move in a correlated way, resulting in large polarization of velocities. A good understanding of this collective behavior exists for linear motion of the flock. Yet observing actual birds, the center of mass of the group often turns giving rise to more complicated dynamics, still keeping strong polarization of the flock. Here we propose novel dynamical equations for the collective motion of polarized animal groups that account for correlated turning including solely social forces. We exploit rotational symmetries and conservation laws of the problem to formulate a theory in terms of generalized coordinates of motion for the velocity directions akin to a Hamiltonian formulation for rotations. We explicitly derive the correspondence between this formulation and the dynamics of the individual velocities, thus obtaining a new model of collective motion. In the appropriate overdamped limit we recover the well-known Vicsek model, which dissipates rotational information and does not allow for polarized turns. Although the new model has its most vivid success in describing turning groups, its dynamics is intrinsically different from previous ones in a wide dynamical regime, while reducing to the hydrodynamic description of Toner and Tu at very large length-scales. The derived framework is therefore general and it may describe the collective motion of any strongly polarized active matter system.
Robot body self-modeling algorithm: a collision-free motion planning approach for humanoids.
Leylavi Shoushtari, Ali
2016-01-01
Motion planning for humanoid robots is one of the critical issues due to the high redundancy and theoretical and technical considerations e.g. stability, motion feasibility and collision avoidance. The strategies which central nervous system employs to plan, signal and control the human movements are a source of inspiration to deal with the mentioned problems. Self-modeling is a concept inspired by body self-awareness in human. In this research it is integrated in an optimal motion planning framework in order to detect and avoid collision of the manipulated object with the humanoid body during performing a dynamic task. Twelve parametric functions are designed as self-models to determine the boundary of humanoid's body. Later, the boundaries which mathematically defined by the self-models are employed to calculate the safe region for box to avoid the collision with the robot. Four different objective functions are employed in motion simulation to validate the robustness of algorithm under different dynamics. The results also confirm the collision avoidance, reality and stability of the predicted motion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheller, Johannes; Braza, Marianna; Triantafyllou, Michael
2016-11-01
Bats and other animals rapidly change their wingspan in order to control the aerodynamic forces. A NACA0013 type airfoil with dynamically changing span is proposed as a simple model to experimentally study these biomimetic morphing wings. Combining this large-scale morphing with inline motion allows to control both force magnitude and direction. Force measurements are conducted in order to analyze the impact of the 4 degree of freedom flapping motion on the flow. A blade-element theory augmented unsteady aerodynamic model is then used to derive optimal flapping trajectories.
Direct Visuo-Haptic 4D Volume Rendering Using Respiratory Motion Models.
Fortmeier, Dirk; Wilms, Matthias; Mastmeyer, Andre; Handels, Heinz
2015-01-01
This article presents methods for direct visuo-haptic 4D volume rendering of virtual patient models under respiratory motion. Breathing models are computed based on patient-specific 4D CT image data sequences. Virtual patient models are visualized in real-time by ray casting based rendering of a reference CT image warped by a time-variant displacement field, which is computed using the motion models at run-time. Furthermore, haptic interaction with the animated virtual patient models is provided by using the displacements computed at high rendering rates to translate the position of the haptic device into the space of the reference CT image. This concept is applied to virtual palpation and the haptic simulation of insertion of a virtual bendable needle. To this aim, different motion models that are applicable in real-time are presented and the methods are integrated into a needle puncture training simulation framework, which can be used for simulated biopsy or vessel puncture in the liver. To confirm real-time applicability, a performance analysis of the resulting framework is given. It is shown that the presented methods achieve mean update rates around 2,000 Hz for haptic simulation and interactive frame rates for volume rendering and thus are well suited for visuo-haptic rendering of virtual patients under respiratory motion.
Multi-level model for 2D human motion analysis and description
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foures, Thomas; Joly, Philippe
2003-01-01
This paper deals with the proposition of a model for human motion analysis in a video. Its main caracteristic is to adapt itself automatically to the current resolution, the actual quality of the picture, or the level of precision required by a given application, due to its possible decomposition into several hierarchical levels. The model is region-based to address some analysis processing needs. The top level of the model is only defined with 5 ribbons, which can be cut into sub-ribbons regarding to a given (or an expected) level of details. Matching process between model and current picture consists in the comparison of extracted subject shape with a graphical rendering of the model built on the base of some computed parameters. The comparison is processed by using a chamfer matching algorithm. In our developments, we intend to realize a platform of interaction between a dancer and tools synthetizing abstract motion pictures and music in the conditions of a real-time dialogue between a human and a computer. In consequence, we use this model in a perspective of motion description instead of motion recognition: no a priori gestures are supposed to be recognized as far as no a priori application is specially targeted. The resulting description will be made following a Description Scheme compliant with the movement notation called "Labanotation".
Generation of a mixture model ground-motion prediction equation for Northern Chile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haendel, A.; Kuehn, N. M.; Scherbaum, F.
2012-12-01
In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) empirically derived ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are usually applied to estimate the ground motion at a site of interest as a function of source, path and site related predictor variables. Because GMPEs are derived from limited datasets they are not expected to give entirely accurate estimates or to reflect the whole range of possible future ground motion, thus giving rise to epistemic uncertainty in the hazard estimates. This is especially true for regions without an indigenous GMPE where foreign models have to be applied. The choice of appropriate GMPEs can then dominate the overall uncertainty in hazard assessments. In order to quantify this uncertainty, the set of ground motion models used in a modern PSHA has to capture (in SSHAC language) the center, body, and range of the possible ground motion at the site of interest. This was traditionally done within a logic tree framework in which existing (or only slightly modified) GMPEs occupy the branches of the tree and the branch weights describe the degree-of-belief of the analyst in their applicability. This approach invites the problem to combine GMPEs of very different quality and hence to potentially overestimate epistemic uncertainty. Some recent hazard analysis have therefore resorted to using a small number of high quality GMPEs as backbone models from which the full distribution of GMPEs for the logic tree (to capture the full range of possible ground motion uncertainty) where subsequently generated by scaling (in a general sense). In the present study, a new approach is proposed to determine an optimized backbone model as weighted components of a mixture model. In doing so, each GMPE is assumed to reflect the generation mechanism (e. g. in terms of stress drop, propagation properties, etc.) for at least a fraction of possible ground motions in the area of interest. The combination of different models into a mixture model (which is learned from
Young, A A
1999-12-01
Although magnetic resonance tissue tagging is a useful tool for the non-invasive measurement of three-dimensional (3-D) heart wall motion, the clinical utility of current analysis techniques is limited by the prohibitively long time required for image analysis. A method was therefore developed for the reconstruction of 3-D heart wall motion directly from tagged magnetic resonance images, without prior identification of ventricular boundaries or tag stripe locations. The method utilized a finite-element model to describe the shape and motion of the heart. Initially, the model geometry was determined at the time of tag creation by fitting a small number of guide points which were placed interactively on the images. Model tags were then created within the model as material surfaces which defined the location of the magnetic tags. An objective function was derived to measure the degree of match between the model tags and the image stripes. The objective was minimized by allowing the model to deform directly under the influence of the images, utilizing an efficient method for calculating image-derived motion constraints. The model deformation could also be manipulated interactively by guide points. Experiments were performed using clinical images of a normal volunteer, as well as simulated images in which the true motion was specified. The root-mean-squared errors between the known and calculated displacement and strain for the simulated images were similar to those obtained using previous stripe-tracking and model-fitting methods. A significant improvement in analysis time was obtained for the normal volunteer and further improvements may allow the method to be applied in a 'real-time' clinical environment.
Meteorological Excitations of Polar Motion for an Earth Model with Frequency-dependent Responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, W.; Ray, J.; Li, J.; Huang, C.; Shen, W.
2013-12-01
Polar motion excitation involves the mass redistributions and motions of the Earth system relative to the mantle, as well as the frequency-dependent rheology of the Earth, where the latter has recently been modeled in the form of complex and frequency-dependent Love numbers and polar motion excitation transfer functions. At seasonal and intra-seasonal time scales, polar motions are dominated by angular momentum fluctuations due to mass redistributions and relative motions in the atmosphere, oceans, and continental water, snow and ice. In this study, we compare the geophysical excitations derived from various global atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological models (NCEP, ECCO, ERA40, ERAinterim and ECMWF operational products), and construct two model sets LDC1 and LDC2 by combining the above models with a least difference method, which selects FFT coefficients of the above data series closest to those of the geodetic excitation at each frequency to build a new series. Comparisons between the geodetic excitation (derived from the polar motion series IERS EOP 08 C04) and the geophysical excitations (based on those meteorological models) imply that the atmospheric models are the most reliable while the hydrological ones suffer from significant uncertainties; that the ERAinterim is, in general, the best model set among the original ones, but the combined models LDC1 and LDC2 are much better than ERAinterim; and that applying the frequency-dependent transfer functions to LDC1 and LDC2 improves their agreements with the geodetic excitation. Thus, we conclude that the combined models LDC1 and LDC2 are reliable, and the complex and frequency-dependent Love numbers and polar motion excitation transfer functions are well modeled. This study is supported in parts by the National 973 Project of China (No. 2013CB733305), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41174011, 41128003 and 11073044), and the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth
Meteorological excitations of polar motion for an Earth model with frequency-dependent responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Ray, Jim; Li, JianCheng; Shen, WenBin; Huang, ChengLi
2014-05-01
Polar motion excitation involves the mass redistributions and motions of the Earth system relative to the mantle, as well as the frequency-dependent rheology of the Earth, where the latter has recently been modeled in the form of complex and frequency-dependent Love numbers and polar motion excitation transfer functions. At seasonal and intra-seasonal time scales, polar motions are dominated by angular momentum fluctuations due to mass redistributions and relative motions in the atmosphere, oceans, and continental water, snow and ice. In this study, we compare the geophysical excitations derived from various global atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological models (NCEP, ECCO, ERA40, ERAinterim and ECMWF operational products), and construct two model sets LDC1 and LDC2 by combining the above models with a least difference method, which selects FFT coefficients of the above data series closest to those of the geodetic excitation at each frequency to build a new series. Comparisons between the geodetic excitation (derived from the polar motion series IERS EOP 08 C04) and the geophysical excitations (based on those meteorological models) imply that the atmospheric models are the most reliable while the hydrological ones suffer from significant uncertainties; that the ERAinterim is, in general, the best model set among the original ones, but the combined models LDC1 and LDC2 are much better than ERAinterim; and that applying the frequency-dependent transfer functions to LDC1 and LDC2 improves their agreements with the geodetic excitation. Thus, we conclude that the combined models LDC1 and LDC2 are reliable, and the complex and frequency-dependent Love numbers and polar motion excitation transfer functions are well modeled. This study is supported in parts by the National 973 Project of China (No. 2013CB733301 and 2013CB733305), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41174011, 41128003 and 11073044), and the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Geodesy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Yu; Liu, Shao-jun
2013-04-01
An integrated dynamic model of China's deep ocean mining system is developed and the fast simulation analysis of its longitudinal reciprocating motion operation processes is achieved. The seafloor tracked miner is built as a three-dimensional single-body model with six-degree-of-freedom. The track-terrain interaction is modeled by partitioning the track-terrain interface into a certain number of mesh elements with three mutually perpendicular forces, including the normal force, the longitudinal shear force and the lateral shear force, acting on the center point of each mesh element. The hydrodynamic force of the miner is considered and applied. By considering the operational safety and collection efficiency, two new mining paths for the miner on the seafloor are proposed, which can be simulated with the established single-body dynamic model of the miner. The pipeline subsystem is built as a three-dimensional multi-body discrete element model, which is divided into rigid elements linked by flexible connectors. The flexible connector without mass is represented by six spring-damper elements. The external hydrodynamic forces of the ocean current from the longitudinal and lateral directions are both considered and modeled based on the Morison formula and applied to the mass center of each corresponding discrete rigid element. The mining ship is simplified and represented by a general kinematic point, whose heave motion induced by the ocean waves and the longitudinal and lateral towing motions are considered and applied. By integrating the single-body dynamic model of the miner and the multi-body discrete element dynamic model of the pipeline, and defining the kinematic equations of the mining ship, the integrated dynamic model of the total deep ocean mining system is formed. The longitudinal reciprocating motion operation modes of the total mining system, which combine the active straight-line and turning motions of the miner and the ship, and the passive towed motions
Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.
2016-07-01
Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.
Modeling and simulation of micro-motion in the complex warhead target
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Chao; Xiao, Zhihe; Wang, Chao; Yin, Hongcheng
2007-11-01
The micro-motion dynamics induce the micro-Doppler effect. The rotating motion of radar targets is introduced, the formulas of micro-Doppler for point-scatter model targets are derived, and some simulations for a warhead with a sphere-head cone is given in the paper. After geometrical modeling and meshing, the static RCS of the sphere-cone is calculated with PO+PTD. On the basis of the stationary modeling, a new method of quasi-dynamic electromagnetic modeling is provided. The time domain returned signal of coning warhead could be simulated in this method, after processing by time-frequency transform, the period of coning can be obtained. The simulation results are in agreement with the theoretical result. The method by geometrical model is more accurate than point-scatters model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, T. D.; Pei, J. S.; Yang, S. L.; Liu, Z. Q.; Sun, R. L.
Space motion sickness (MS) is one of the most important problems in the field of space medicine. In order to prevent space MS, a new medicine, PMPA, has been prepared by means of synthesizing in our laboratory. The purposes of this study were to set up animal models of PMPA against MS, and to observe its effects on anti-MS, and to prove its function of antagonism to choline. Eight cats, forty rabbits and two hundred and ten rats were selected as animal subjects. The parallel swing stimulus, a method causing the reversal syndromes and tests of anti-choline function were used in our experiments. The results are as follows: (1) The score of MS symptoms in cats with PMPA or scopolamine (SCOP) is significantly lower than that in cats with placebo (p<0.01), while the incidences of efficiency and prevention of PMPA (87.5%, 75%) are higher than those of SCOP (75.0%, 50%) in cats. (2) PMPA of 1.6 mg/kg or 0.8 mg/kg could antagonize the reversal syndromes and repress reversal rotation significantly in rabbits like SCOP in comparison with placebo (p<0.01). (3) PMPA could inhibit tremor evoked by oxotremorine or by nicotine-procaine in rats like SCOP, and play an important role in the antagonism to central M-choline and N-choline receptors. The animal experiments demonstrate that PMPA is an effective medicine against MS with antagonism function to choline.
Population variability in the Active Brownian Particle model of Daphnia motions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moss, Frank; Erdmann, Udo; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Ordmann, Anke
2004-03-01
Three characteristic motions of foraging biological agents are predicted by the Active Brownian Particle model [1]. These are random motions about the minimum of a central attracting potential, a bifurcation to bidirectional circular motions about the axis of symmetry of the potential, and a transition to vortex motion. All three can be observed in swarms of the zooplankton Daphnia swimming in light fields. Here we focus on the bidirectional circular motions in 2-D space [1]. The mean radii, as well as other characteristics of the paths, are determined by three strength parameters appropriate to individual Daphnia: energy uptake from the medium, metabolistic drain, and dissipation due to movement. It is shown that individual variability can be represented by distributions of these strength parameters. Conditions for which the experimental data are best described by the model are discussed. [1] U. Erdmann, W. Ebeling and V. S. Anishchenko, Excitation of rotational modes in two-dimensional systems of driven Brownian particles. Phys. Rev. E 65, 061106 (2002)
Wood, Nathan A; Del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N
2011-12-05
HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described.
Contractions of affine spherical varieties
Arzhantsev, I V
1999-08-31
The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL{sub 2}-varieties are considered.
Continuum Limit of a Mesoscopic Model with Elasticity of Step Motion on Vicinal Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Yuan; Liu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Jianfeng
2016-12-01
This work considers the rigorous derivation of continuum models of step motion starting from a mesoscopic Burton-Cabrera-Frank-type model following the Xiang's work (Xiang in SIAM J Appl Math 63(1):241-258, 2002). We prove that as the lattice parameter goes to zero, for a finite time interval, a modified discrete model converges to the strong solution of the limiting PDE with first-order convergence rate.
Modeling Visual, Vestibular and Oculomotor Interactions in Self-Motion Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perrone, John
1997-01-01
A computational model of human self-motion perception has been developed in collaboration with Dr. Leland S. Stone at NASA Ames Research Center. The research included in the grant proposal sought to extend the utility of this model so that it could be used for explaining and predicting human performance in a greater variety of aerospace applications. This extension has been achieved along with physiological validation of the basic operation of the model.
Meeting Review: Diffuse X-Ray Scattering to Model Protein Motions
Wall, Michael E.; Adams, Paul D.; Fraser, James S.; Sautter, Nicholas K.
2014-01-01
Problems in biology increasingly need models of protein flexibility to understand and control protein function. At the same time, as they improve, crystallographic methods are marching closer to the limits of what can be learned from Bragg data in isolation. It is thus inevitable that mainstream protein crystallography will turn to diffuse scattering to model protein motions and improve crystallographic models. The time is ripe to make it happen. PMID:24507780
4DCBCT-based motion modeling and 3D fluoroscopic image generation for lung cancer radiotherapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dhou, Salam; Hurwitz, Martina; Mishra, Pankaj; Berbeco, Ross; Lewis, John
2015-03-01
A method is developed to build patient-specific motion models based on 4DCBCT images taken at treatment time and use them to generate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Motion models are built by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the displacement vector fields (DVFs) estimated by performing deformable image registration on each phase of 4DCBCT relative to a reference phase. The resulting PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively by comparing 2D projections captured at treatment time with projections estimated using the motion model. The optimized coefficients are used to generate 3D fluoroscopic images. The method is evaluated using anthropomorphic physical and digital phantoms reproducing real patient trajectories. For physical phantom datasets, the average tumor localization error (TLE) and (95th percentile) in two datasets were 0.95 (2.2) mm. For digital phantoms assuming superior image quality of 4DCT and no anatomic or positioning disparities between 4DCT and treatment time, the average TLE and the image intensity error (IIE) in six datasets were smaller using 4DCT-based motion models. When simulating positioning disparities and tumor baseline shifts at treatment time compared to planning 4DCT, the average TLE (95th percentile) and IIE were 4.2 (5.4) mm and 0.15 using 4DCT-based models, while they were 1.2 (2.2) mm and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based ones, respectively. 4DCBCT-based models were shown to perform better when there are positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties at treatment time. Thus, generating 3D fluoroscopic images based on 4DCBCT-based motion models can capture both inter- and intra- fraction anatomical changes during treatment.
Modelling Chemotactic Motion of Cells in Biological Tissues
Vasiev, Bakhtier
2016-01-01
Developmental processes in biology are underlined by proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells. The latter two are interlinked since cellular differentiation is governed by the dynamics of morphogens which, in turn, is affected by the movement of cells. Mutual effects of morphogenetic and cell movement patterns are enhanced when the movement is due to chemotactic response of cells to the morphogens. In this study we introduce a mathematical model to analyse how this interplay can result in a steady movement of cells in a tissue and associated formation of travelling waves in a concentration field of morphogen. Using the model we have identified four chemotactic scenarios for migration of single cell or homogeneous group of cells in a tissue. Such a migration can take place if moving cells are (1) repelled by a chemical produced by themselves or (2) attracted by a chemical produced by the surrounding cells in a tissue. Furthermore, the group of cells can also move if cells in surrounding tissue are (3) repelled by a chemical produced by moving cells or (4) attracted by a chemical produced by surrounding cells themselves. The proposed mechanisms can underlie migration of cells during embryonic development as well as spread of metastatic cells. PMID:27798687
A cyclic model for particle motion in the pulmonary acinus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haber, S.; Tsuda, A.
2006-11-01
A simplified model for the pulmonary alveolus that imitates the rhythmical expansion of the alveolus and the periodic shear flow in the adjacent airway is explored. The model consists of two eccentric cylinders and incompressible fluid that occupies the gap between them. The two cylinders undergo a simultaneous rhythmical expansion and contraction (mimicking the alveolus expansion) while the inner cylinder performs a periodic rotation about its axis (inducing shear flow mimicking airway ductal flow). An analytical solution is obtained for the creeping flow induced by the simultaneously expanding cylinders. It is shown that above a certain critical value of rotation to expansion velocity ratio, the flow exhibits characteristic features such as a saddle point and closed streamlines about a centre, similar to those existing inside a single alveolus during inhalation and exhalation. Poincaré maps of the trajectories of fluid particles demonstrate that, under various flow conditions, chaotic trajectories may exist, provided that expansion and rotation are slightly out of phase. This is similar to normal breathing conditions where the periodic expansion of the alveolus and the tidal flow (i.e. shear flow above the mouth of the alveolus) may be slightly out of phase. A novel definition of overall convective mixing efficiency is also suggested that inherently discounts reversible processes that do not contribute to mixing. It is demonstrated that two different convective mechanisms, related to the irreversibility of exhalation and inhalation and the onset of chaos, govern mixing efficiency in lung alveoli.
Uniform circular motion concept attainment through circle share learning model using real media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ponimin; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Sunarno, W.
2017-01-01
Uniform circular motion is an important concept and has many applications in life. Student’s concept understanding of uniform circular motion is not optimal because the teaching learning is not carried out properly in accordance with the characteristics of the concept. To improve student learning outcomes required better teaching learning which is match with the characteristics of uniform circular motion. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of real media and circle share model to the understanding of the uniform circular motion concept. The real media was used to visualize of uniform circular motion concept. The real media consists of toy car, round table and spring balance. Circle share model is a learning model through discussion sequentially and programmed. Each group must evaluate the worksheets of another group in a circular position. The first group evaluates worksheets the second group, the second group evaluates worksheets third group, and the end group evaluates the worksheets of the first group. Assessment of learning outcomes includes experiment worksheets and post-test of students. Based on data analysis we obtained some findings. First, students can explain the understanding of uniform circular motion whose angular velocity and speed is constant correctly. Second, students can distinguish the angular velocity and linear velocity correctly. Third, students can explain the direction of the linear velocity vector and the direction of the centripetal force vector. Fourth, the student can explain the influence of the mass, radius, and velocity toward the centripetal force. Fifth, students can explain the principle of combined of wheels. Sixth, teaching learning used circle share, can increase student activity, experimental results and efficiency of discussion time.
Effects of Teaching One and Two Dimensional Motion Units through Mathematical Modeling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baskan, Zeynep; Alev, Nedim
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of physics lessons that are taught through mathematical modelling on conceptual understanding and operational achievements of prospective science teachers in one and two dimensional motions. Through a quasi-experimental design "operational achievement test" (OAT) and "conceptual…
From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions
Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; ...
2015-07-28
The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy severalmore » conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.« less
From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions
Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.
2015-07-28
The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.
Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin
2010-01-01
This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…
Construction of kidney phantom model with acoustic shadow by rib bones and respiratory organ motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Dongjun; Koizumi, Norihiro; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Takashi; Nomiya, Akira; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Naohiko; Homma, Yukio; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru
2017-03-01
We have been studying the Non-Invasive Ultrasound Theragnostic System (NIUTS), which tracks and follows the affected area while irradiating High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). In this report, we propose a phantom model that includes rib bones and respiratory motion.
Modeling, system identification, and control for slosh-free motion of an open container of liquid
Feddema, J.; Baty, R.; Dykhuizen, R.; Dohrmann, C.; Parker, G.; Robinett, R.; Romero, V.; Schmitt, D.
1996-04-01
This report discusses work performed under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) with Corning, Inc., to analyze and test various techniques for controlling the motion of a high speed robotic arm carrying an open container of viscous liquid, in this case, molten glass. A computer model was generated to estimate the modes of oscillation of the liquid based on the shape of the container and the viscosity of the liquid. This fluid model was experimentally verified and tuned based on experimental data from a capacitive sensor on the side of the container. A model of the robot dynamics was also developed and verified through experimental tests on a Fanuc S-800 robot arm. These two models were used to estimate the overall modes of oscillation of an open container of liquid being carried by a robot arm. Using the estimated modes, inverse dynamic control techniques were used to determine a motion profile which would eliminate waves on the liquid`s surface. Experimental tests showed that residual surface waves in an open container of water at the end of motion were reduced by over 95% and that in-motion surface waves were reduced by over 75%.
Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers
Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.
2015-01-01
To better characterize the noise of a number of commonly deployed accelerometers in a standardized way, we conducted noise measurements on five different models of strong‐motion accelerometers. Our study was limited to traditional accelerometers (Fig. 1) and is in no way exhaustive.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kottonau, Johannes
2011-01-01
Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…
From deep TLS validation to ensembles of atomic models built from elemental motions
Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Fraser, James S.; Adams, Paul D.
2015-07-28
Procedures are described for extracting the vibration and libration parameters corresponding to a given set of TLS matrices and their simultaneous validation. Knowledge of these parameters allows the generation of structural ensembles corresponding to these matrices. The translation–libration–screw model first introduced by Cruickshank, Schomaker and Trueblood describes the concerted motions of atomic groups. Using TLS models can improve the agreement between calculated and experimental diffraction data. Because the T, L and S matrices describe a combination of atomic vibrations and librations, TLS models can also potentially shed light on molecular mechanisms involving correlated motions. However, this use of TLS models in mechanistic studies is hampered by the difficulties in translating the results of refinement into molecular movement or a structural ensemble. To convert the matrices into a constituent molecular movement, the matrix elements must satisfy several conditions. Refining the T, L and S matrix elements as independent parameters without taking these conditions into account may result in matrices that do not represent concerted molecular movements. Here, a mathematical framework and the computational tools to analyze TLS matrices, resulting in either explicit decomposition into descriptions of the underlying motions or a report of broken conditions, are described. The description of valid underlying motions can then be output as a structural ensemble. All methods are implemented as part of the PHENIX project.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratkiewicz, R.; Barnes, A.; Molvik, G. A.
1996-07-01
The heliospheric termination shock is expected to move in response to variation in upstream solar wind conditions. Using numerical techniques, we extend an earlier strictly one-dimensional (planar) analytic gasdynamic model of shock motion [Barnes, 1993] to spherically symmetric [Ratkiewicz et al., 1995], to investigate the qualitative features of global behavior of shock motion. The boundary conditions of the calculation are given by the solar wind parameters as a function of time on an inner spherical boundary, and a constant pressure (roughly simulating the effect of the local interstellar medium) on an outer boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yan; Li, Shiqi; Chen, Gwen-guo
2013-03-01
Non-obstacle design is critical to tailor physically handicapped workers in manufacturing system. Simultaneous consideration of variability in physically disabled users, machines and environment of the manufacturing system is extremely complex and generally requires modeling of physically handicapped interaction with the system. Most current modeling either concentrates on the task results or functional disability. The integration of physical constraints with task constraints is far more complex because of functional disability and its extended influence on adjacent body parts. A framework is proposed to integrate the two constraints and thus model the specific behavior of the physical handicapped in virtual environment generated by product specifications. Within the framework a simplified model of physical disabled body is constructed, and body motion is generated based on 3 levels of constraints(effecter constraints, kinematics constraints and physical constraints). The kinematics and dynamic calculations are made and optimized based on the weighting manipulated by the kinematics constraints and dynamic constraints. With object transferring task as example, the model is validated in Jack 6.0. Modelled task motion elements except for squatting and overreaching well matched with captured motion elements. The proposed modeling method can model the complex behavior of the physically handicapped by integrating both task and physical disability constraints.
2010-11-10
In this context, the perching motion is modeled according to the wing motions of birds to rapidly reduce velocity when landing on a small spot i.e...is modelled according to the wing motions of birds to rapidly reduce velocity when landing on a small spot i.e. a perch. The here discussed perching...called virtual cams) are exported into the . csv file format. Here, a resolution of 4096 coordinate points is used, which is the maximum capacity of
A new plate motions model for the central Atlantic region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tassi, L.; Schettino, A.
2010-12-01
direction is compatible with that proposed in a recent model of opening of the proto-Atlantic, but extends the trend well beyond the early Jurassic; 2) an independent Moroccan plate existed during the Oligocene and early Miocene, with spreading rates as high as 40 mm/yr north of the Atlantis FZ. The results of this study have important implications for the western Mediterranean plate kinematics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Takahiro; Saito, Jun
1994-01-01
We studied five new Antartic achondrites, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88177, Yamato (Y)74357, Y75274, Y791491 and Elephant Moraine (EET)84302 by mineralogical techniques to gain a better understanding of the mineral assemblages of a group of meteorites with an affinity to Lodran (stony-iron meteorite) and their formation processes. This group is being called lodranites. These meteorites contain major coarse-grained orthopyroxene (Opx) and olivine as in Lodran and variable amounts of FeNi metal and troilite etc. MAC88177 has more augite and less FeNi than Lodran; Y74357 has more olivine and contains minor augite; Y791491 contains in addition plagioclase. EET84302 has an Acapulco-like chondritic mineral assembladge and is enriched in FeNi metal and plagioclase, but one part is enriched in Opx and chromite. The EET84302 and MAC88177 Opx crystals have dusty cores as in Acapulco. EET84302 and Y75274 are more Mg-rich than other members of the lodranite group, and Y74357 is intermediate. Since these meteorites all have coarse-grained textures, similar major mineral assemblages, variable amounts of augite, plagioclase, FeNi metal, chromite and olivine, we suggest that they are related and are linked to a parent body with modified chondritic compositions. The variability of the abundances of these minerals are in line with a proposed model of the surface mineral assemblages of the S asteroids. The mineral assemblages can best be explained by differing degrees of loss or movements of lower temperature partial melts and recrystallization, and reduction. A portion of EET84302 rich in metal and plagioclase may represent a type of component removed from the lodranite group meteorites. Y791058 and Caddo County, which were studied for comparison, are plagioclase-rich silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites and may have been derived by similar process but in a different body.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Takahiro; Saito, Jun
1994-11-01
We studied five new Antartic achondrites, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88177, Yamato (Y)74357, Y75274, Y791491 and Elephant Moraine (EET)84302 by mineralogical techniques to gain a better understanding of the mineral assemblages of a group of meteorites with an affinity to Lodran (stony-iron meteorite) and their formation processes. This group is being called lodranites. These meteorites contain major coarse-grained orthopyroxene (Opx) and olivine as in Lodran and variable amounts of FeNi metal and troilite etc. MAC88177 has more augite and less FeNi than Lodran; Y74357 has more olivine and contains minor augite; Y791491 contains in addition plagioclase. EET84302 has an Acapulco-like chondritic mineral assemblage and is enriched in FeNi metal and plagioclase, but one part is enriched in Opx and chromite. The EET84302 and MAC88177 Opx crystals have dusty cores as in Acapulco. EET84302 and Y75274 are more Mg-rich than other members of the lodranite group, and Y74357 is intermediate. Since these meteorites all have coarse-grained textures, similar major mineral assemblages, variable amounts of augite, plagioclase, FeNi metal, chromite and olivine, we suggest that they are related and are linked to a parent body with modified chondritic compositions. The variability of the abundances of these minerals are in line with a proposed model of the surface mineral assemblages of the S asteroids. The mineral assemblages can best be explained by differing degrees of loss or movements of lower temperature partial melts and recrystallization, and reduction. A portion of EET84302 rich in metal and plagioclase may represent a type of component removed from the lodranite group meteorites. Y791058 and Caddo County, which were studied for comparison, are plagioclase-rich silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites and may have been derived by similar process but in a different body.
Software package for modeling spin–orbit motion in storage rings
Zyuzin, D. V.
2015-12-15
A software package providing a graphical user interface for computer experiments on the motion of charged particle beams in accelerators, as well as analysis of obtained data, is presented. The software package was tested in the framework of the international project on electric dipole moment measurement JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations). The specific features of particle spin motion imply the requirement to use a cyclic accelerator (storage ring) consisting of electrostatic elements, which makes it possible to preserve horizontal polarization for a long time. Computer experiments study the dynamics of 10{sup 6}–10{sup 9} particles in a beam during 10{sup 9} turns in an accelerator (about 10{sup 12}–10{sup 15} integration steps for the equations of motion). For designing an optimal accelerator structure, a large number of computer experiments on polarized beam dynamics are required. The numerical core of the package is COSY Infinity, a program for modeling spin–orbit dynamics.
Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N; Rosowski, John J; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme
2013-02-01
Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18 kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves.
Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme
2013-01-01
Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18 kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110
Sensory vestibular contributions to constructing internal models of self-motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Andrea M.; Shaikh, Aasef G.; Angelaki, Dora E.
2005-09-01
The ability to navigate in the world and execute appropriate behavioral and motor responses depends critically on our capacity to construct an accurate internal representation of our current motion and orientation in space. Vestibular sensory signals are among those that may make an essential contribution to the construction of such 'internal models'. Movement in a gravitational environment represents a situation where the construction of internal models becomes particularly important because the otolith organs, like any linear accelerometer, sense inertial and gravitational accelerations equivalently. Otolith afferents thus provide inherently ambiguous motion information, as they respond identically to translation and head reorientation relative to gravity. Resolution of this ambiguity requires the nonlinear integration of linear acceleration and angular velocity cues, as predicted by the physical equations of motion. Here, we summarize evidence that during translations and tilts from upright the firing rates of brainstem and cerebellar neurons encode a combination of dynamically processed semicircular canal and otolith signals appropriate to construct an internal model representation of the computations required for inertial motion detection.
Subject-specific four-dimensional liver motion modeling based on registration of dynamic MRI
Noorda, Yolanda H.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P.W.
2016-01-01
Abstract. Magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of the liver is a promising noninvasive technique for ablation of liver lesions. For the technique to be used in clinical practice, however, the issue of liver motion needs to be addressed. A subject-specific four-dimensional liver motion model is presented that is created based on registration of dynamically acquired magnetic resonance data. This model can be used for predicting the tumor motion trajectory for treatment planning and to indicate the tumor position for treatment guidance. The performance of the model was evaluated on a dynamic scan series that was not used to build the model. The method achieved an average Dice coefficient of 0.93 between the predicted and actual liver profiles and an average vessel misalignment of 3.0 mm. The model performed robustly, with a small variation in the results per subject. The results demonstrate the potential of the model to be used for MRI-guided treatment of liver lesions. Furthermore, the model can possibly be applied in other image-guided therapies, for instance radiotherapy of the liver. PMID:27493981
Angular motion estimation using dynamic models in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit.
Edwan, Ezzaldeen; Knedlik, Stefan; Loffeld, Otmar
2012-01-01
In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU). The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU) that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV) composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements' produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters.
A Simulation Model for Local Harmonic Motion Monitoring of Focused Ultrasound Surgery
Heikkilae, Janne; Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo
2009-04-14
A computational model for local harmonic motion (LHM) imaging-based monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is presented. LMH technique is based on a focused ultrasound radiation force excitation, which induces local mechanical vibrations at the focal region. These pulse-echo imaged vibrations are then used to estimate the mechanical properties of the sonication region. LHM has been proven to be feasible for FUS monitoring because changes in the material properties during the coagulation affect the measured displacements. The presented model includes separate models to simulate acoustic fields, sonication induced temperature elevation and mechanical vibrations, and pulse-echo imaging of the induced motions. These simulation models are based on Rayleigh integral, finite element, and spatial impulse response methods. Simulated temperature rise and vibration amplitudes have been compared with in vivo rabbit experiments with noninvasive MRI thermometry.
Integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered Trademark) Models with the Vertical Motion Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Emily K.; Vuong, Nghia D.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the integration of MATLAB Simulink(Registered TradeMark) models into the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center. The VMS is a high-fidelity, large motion flight simulator that is capable of simulating a variety of aerospace vehicles. Integrating MATLAB Simulink models into the VMS needed to retain the development flexibility of the MATLAB environment and allow rapid deployment of model changes. The process developed at the VMS was used successfully in a number of recent simulation experiments. This accomplishment demonstrated that the model integrity was preserved, while working within the hard real-time run environment of the VMS architecture, and maintaining the unique flexibility of the VMS to meet diverse research requirements.
Amoeba-like motion of an oil droplet. Chemical model of self-motile organisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumino, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.
2014-06-01
In this paper, we demonstrate our recent attempt to construct a chemical model system of amoeboid motion. The system is intended to mimic biological motility based on the generation and collapse of an elastic aggregate; it is composed of oil, water, and surfactants. In this chemical system, the oil-water interface shows extension and retreat of spherical extrusions accompanied by the generation of aggregate on the interface. This instability of the oil-water interface can cause autonomous splitting and motion of a floating oil droplet. The current mathematical model based on the generation of a passive elastic gel is explained, as well as the discrepancy between the model and the experiments. We further describe recently observed microscopic characteristics of the aggregate formation process that might cause the interfacial instability. Finally, we discuss the disadvantage of a chemical model system compared with active colloid and in vitro biological systems, and also mention its potential advantages.
On low-frequency errors of uniformly modulated filtered white-noise models for ground motions
Safak, Erdal; Boore, David M.
1988-01-01
Low-frequency errors of a commonly used non-stationary stochastic model (uniformly modulated filtered white-noise model) for earthquake ground motions are investigated. It is shown both analytically and by numerical simulation that uniformly modulated filter white-noise-type models systematically overestimate the spectral response for periods longer than the effective duration of the earthquake, because of the built-in low-frequency errors in the model. The errors, which are significant for low-magnitude short-duration earthquakes, can be eliminated by using the filtered shot-noise-type models (i. e. white noise, modulated by the envelope first, and then filtered).
Development of a Panel Method for Modeling Configurations with Unsteady Component Motions. Phase 1
1988-04-15
significant length scales, the methods rely on the results of existing wake modeling techniques to specify the boundary conditions on their solution...15ANALYTICAL METHODS REPORT 8801 ( I DEVELOPMENT OF A PANEL METHOD FOR MODELING CONFIGURATIONS WITH UNSTEADY COMPONENT MOTIONS PHASE I FINAL REPORT...PREPARED UNDER SEIR CONTRACT DAALO3-87-C-OO11 Lfl Prepared By: David R. Clark & Brian Maskew Analytical Methods Inc. 2133 152nd Avenue N.E. Redmond
Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V; Van Benschoten, Andrew H; Fraser, James S; Adams, Paul D
2016-09-01
Researcher feedback has indicated that in Urzhumtsev et al. [(2015) Acta Cryst. D71, 1668-1683] clarification of key parts of the algorithm for interpretation of TLS matrices in terms of elemental atomic motions and corresponding ensembles of atomic models is required. Also, it has been brought to the attention of the authors that the incorrect PDB code was reported for one of test models. These issues are addressed in this article.
Salt, D W; Maccari, L; Botta, M; Ford, M G
2004-01-01
Two QSAR models have been identified that predict the affinity and selectivity of arylpiperazinyl derivatives for alpha1 and alpha2 adrenoceptors (ARs). The models have been specified and validated using 108 compounds whose structures and inhibition constants (Ki) are available in the literature [Barbaro et al., J. Med. Chem., 44 (2001) 2118; Betti et al., J. Med. Chem., 45 (2002) 3603; Barbaro et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 10 (2002) 361; Betti et al., J. Med. Chem., 46 (2003) 3555]. One hundred and forty-seven predictors have been calculated using the Cerius 2 software available from Accelrys. This set of variables exhibited redundancy and severe multicollinearity, which had to be identified and removed as appropriate in order to obtain robust regression models free of inflated errors for the beta estimates - so-called bouncing betas. Those predictors that contained information relevant to the alpha2 response were identified on the basis of their pairwise linear correlations with affinity (-log Ki) for alpha2 adrenoceptors; the remaining variables were discarded. Subsequent variable selection made use of Factor Analysis (FA) and Unsupervised Variable Selection (UzFS). The data was divided into test and training sets using cluster analysis. These two sets were characterised by similar and consistent distributions of compounds in a high dimensional, but relevant predictor space. Multiple regression was then used to determine a subset of predictors from which to determine QSAR models for affinity to alpha2-ARs. Two multivariate procedures, Continuum Regression (the Portsmouth formulation) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), have been used to specify models for affinity and selectivity, respectively. Reasonable predictions were obtained using these in silico screening tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salt, D. W.; Maccari, L.; Botta, M.; Ford, M. G.
2004-07-01
Two QSAR models have been identified that predict the affinity and selectivity of arylpiperazinyl derivatives for α1 and α2 adrenoceptors (ARs). The models have been specified and validated using 108 compounds whose structures and inhibition constants ( K i) are available in the literature [Barbaro et al., J. Med. Chem., 44 (2001) 2118; Betti et al., J. Med. Chem., 45 (2002) 3603; Barbaro et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 10 (2002) 361; Betti et al., J. Med. Chem., 46 (2003) 3555]. One hundred and forty-seven predictors have been calculated using the Cerius 2 software available from Accelrys. This set of variables exhibited redundancy and severe multicollinearity, which had to be identified and removed as appropriate in order to obtain robust regression models free of inflated errors for the β estimates - so-called bouncing βs. Those predictors that contained information relevant to the α2 response were identified on the basis of their pairwise linear correlations with affinity (-log K i) for α2 adrenoceptors; the remaining variables were discarded. Subsequent variable selection made use of Factor Analysis (FA) and Unsupervised Variable Selection (UzFS). The data was divided into test and training sets using cluster analysis. These two sets were characterised by similar and consistent distributions of compounds in a high dimensional, but relevant predictor space. Multiple regression was then used to determine a subset of predictors from which to determine QSAR models for affinity to α2-ARs. Two multivariate procedures, Continuum Regression (the Portsmouth formulation) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), have been used to specify models for affinity and selectivity, respectively. Reasonable predictions were obtained using these in silico screening tools.
Audouze, Karine; Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard; Olsen, Gunnar M; Ahring, Philip; Jørgensen, Tino Dyhring; Peters, Dan; Liljefors, Tommy; Balle, Thomas
2006-06-01
A new series of piperazines, diazepanes, diazocanes, diazabicyclononanes, and diazabicyclodecanes with affinity for the alpha4beta2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were synthesized on the basis of results from a previous computational study. A predictive 3D-QSAR model was developed using the GRID/GOLPE approach (R2 = 0.94, Q2 = 0.83, SDEP = 0.34). The SAR was interpreted in terms of contour maps of the PLS coefficients and in terms of a homology model of the alpha4beta2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The results reveal that hydrogen bonding from both hydrogens on the protonated amine and from the pyridine nitrogen to a water molecule as well as van der Waals interactions between the substituent bearing the protonated amine and the receptor is of importance for ligand affinity. The combination of 3D-QSAR and homology modeling proved successful for the interpretation of structure-affinity relationships as well as the validation of the individual modeling approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Cheryl P.
2009-01-01
This new biochemistry laboratory course moves through a progression of experiments that generates a platform for guided inquiry-based experiments. RNase One gene is isolated from prokaryotic genomic DNA, expressed as a tagged protein, affinity purified, and tested for activity and substrate specificity. Student pairs present detailed explanations…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) can provide a valuable front-end enrichment strategy for the study of N-glycoproteins and has been used to characterize a broad range eukaryotic N-glycoproteomes. Moreover, studies with mammalian systems have suggested that the use of multiple lectins with differ...
Reevaluation of plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
Baksi, A.K.
1999-01-01
Plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans predict minimal movement (less than a few millimeters per year) between these hotspots and their counterparts in the Pacific Ocean for the past {approximately}100 m.yr., whereas plate circuit exercises indicate relative motions of {approximately}20 mm/yr. Hotspot-based models also suggest that the Rajmahal Traps, India, were located {approximately}1,000 km away from the Kerguelen hotspot at {approximately}115 Ma, and the Deccan Traps, India, were located a similar distance from the Reunion hotspot at {approximately}65 Ma; this is at odds with conclusions derived from paleomagnetism, plate circuits, and geochemical parameters that suggest a genetic link between flood basalt provinces in India and hotspots in the Indian Ocean. These divergent views may be explained by plume action {approximately}1,000 km from its center or errors in the hotspot motion models. The latter hypothesis is scrutinized in this article by examination of the radiometric ages for hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The {sup 40}/{sup 39}Ar step-heating data for rocks defining the tracks of the Reunion and Kerguelen hotspots in the Indian Ocean and the Great Metero and Tristan da Cunha hotspots in the Atlantic Ocean are critically reexamined. Of {approximately}35 such ages utilized for deriving plate motion models for the past 130 m.yr., at best, only three ({approximately}32, {approximately}50, and {approximately}52 Ma) in the Indian Ocean and one ({approximately}65 Ma) for the Atlantic Ocean may be treated as crystallization ages. Conclusions based on hotspot track modeling for Late Cretaceous to Eocene time are suspect, and those for the Early to Late Cretaceous period are untenable. In the absence of precise age data for the tracks of hotspots in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and inconsistent age progressions noted within a single volcanic chain, plate circuit models serve as the superior technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liew, Y. M.; McLaughlin, R. A.; Chan, B. T.; Aziz, Y. F. Abdul; Chee, K. H.; Ung, N. M.; Tan, L. K.; Lai, K. W.; Ng, S.; Lim, E.
2015-04-01
Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21 mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21-66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts.
Blind motion image deblurring using nonconvex higher-order total variation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Weihong; Chen, Rui; Xu, Shangwen; Gong, Weiguo
2016-09-01
We propose a nonconvex higher-order total variation (TV) method for blind motion image deblurring. First, we introduce a nonconvex higher-order TV differential operator to define a new model of the blind motion image deblurring, which can effectively eliminate the staircase effect of the deblurred image; meanwhile, we employ an image sparse prior to improve the edge recovery quality. Second, to improve the accuracy of the estimated motion blur kernel, we use L1 norm and H1 norm as the blur kernel regularization term, considering the sparsity and smoothing of the motion blur kernel. Third, because it is difficult to solve the numerically computational complexity problem of the proposed model owing to the intrinsic nonconvexity, we propose a binary iterative strategy, which incorporates a reweighted minimization approximating scheme in the outer iteration, and a split Bregman algorithm in the inner iteration. And we also discuss the convergence of the proposed binary iterative strategy. Last, we conduct extensive experiments on both synthetic and real-world degraded images. The results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the previous representative methods in both quality of visual perception and quantitative measurement.
Yao, Hua-Dong; Svensson, Mats Y; Nilsson, Håkan
2016-02-08
In vehicle collisions, the occupant's torso is accelerated in a given direction while the unsupported head tends to lag behind. This mechanism results in whiplash motion to the neck. In whiplash experiments conducted for animals, pressure transients have been recorded in the spinal canal. It was hypothesized that the transients caused dorsal root ganglion dysfunction. Neck motion introduces volume changes inside the vertebral canal. The changes require an adaptation which is likely achieved by redistribution of blood volume in the internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP). Pressure transients then arise from the rapid redistribution. The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis theoretically and analytically. Further, the objectives were to quantify the effect of the neck motion on the pressure generation and to identify the physical factors involved. We developed a hydrodynamic system of tubes that represent the IVVP and its lateral intervertebral vein connections. An analytical model was developed for an anatomical geometrical relation that the venous blood volume changes with respect to the vertebral angular displacement. This model was adopted in the hydrodynamic tube system so that the system can predict the pressure transients on the basis of the neck vertebral motion data from a whiplash experiment. The predicted pressure transients were in good agreement with the earlier experimental data. A parametric study was conducted and showed that the system can be used to assess the influences of anatomical geometrical properties and vehicle collision severity on the pressure generation.
Lin, Ting; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas
2013-01-01
The conditional spectrum (CS) is a target spectrum (with conditional mean and conditional standard deviation) that links seismic hazard information with ground-motion selection for nonlinear dynamic analysis. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) estimates the ground-motion hazard by incorporating the aleatory uncertainties in all earthquake scenarios and resulting ground motions, as well as the epistemic uncertainties in ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) and seismic source models. Typical CS calculations to date are produced for a single earthquake scenario using a single GMPM, but more precise use requires consideration of at least multiple causal earthquakes and multiple GMPMs that are often considered in a PSHA computation. This paper presents the mathematics underlying these more precise CS calculations. Despite requiring more effort to compute than approximate calculations using a single causal earthquake and GMPM, the proposed approach produces an exact output that has a theoretical basis. To demonstrate the results of this approach and compare the exact and approximate calculations, several example calculations are performed for real sites in the western United States. The results also provide some insights regarding the circumstances under which approximate results are likely to closely match more exact results. To facilitate these more precise calculations for real applications, the exact CS calculations can now be performed for real sites in the United States using new deaggregation features in the U.S. Geological Survey hazard mapping tools. Details regarding this implementation are discussed in this paper.
Simulation of single microorganism motion in fluid based on granular model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viridi, S.; Nuraini, N.
2016-04-01
Microorganism model for simulating its motion is proposed in this work. It consists of granular particles which can interact to each other through linear spring mimicking microorganism muscles, which is simpler than other model. As a part of the organism organ is moving, while the other remains at its position, it will push the surrounding fluid through Stoke's force and as reaction the fluid pushes back the microorganism. Contracting force is used to change the distance between two points in the organ. Gravity influence is simply neglected in this work. All the considered forces are used to get motion parameters of organism through molecular dynamics method. It is observed that the use of contracting (push-pull) organ constructs slightly more effective model than shrink- and swell-organs as previously investigated, if weighted effectiveness formula is used as function of number of considered forces and involved particles.
Heliospheric termination shock motion in response to LISM variations: Spherically symmetric model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratkiewicz, R.; Barnes, A.; Spreiter, J. R.
The unsteady spherically symmetric one-dimensional gasdynamic model appears to be a powerful tool in the investigation of the termination shock motion. Such a model has previously been used to examine the response of the heliospheric termination shock to variations in upstream solar wind conditions [Ratkiewicz et al., 1996]. In the current paper we apply the same model to study response of the shock to variations in the interstellar medium. The initial-boundary conditions for the unsteady calculations are given by the pressure as a function of time on an outer boundary either alone or with the density as a function of time on an inner boundary. The motion of the termination shock is caused by fluctuations in both solar wind and interstellar plasma parameters and has a rather complicated behavior, characterized by a sequence of perturbations that hit the termination shock and are reflected from the outer boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman
2015-10-01
This paper presents the development of new and simple empirical models for frequency content prediction of ground-motion records to resolve the assumed limitations on the useable magnitude range of previous studies. Three period values are used in the analysis for describing the frequency content of earthquake ground-motions named as the average spectral period ( T avg), the mean period ( T m), and the smoothed spectral predominant period ( T 0). The proposed models could predict these scalar indicators as function of magnitude, closest site-to-source distance and local site condition. Three site classes as rock, stiff soil, and soft soil has been considered in the analysis. The results of the proposed relationships have been compared with those of other published models. It has been found that the resulting regression equations can be used to predict scalar frequency content estimators over a wide range of magnitudes including magnitudes below 5.5.
Implications of the GSFC Q3 model for trapped particle motion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.
1988-01-01
The Uranus magnetic field model of Connerney et al. (1987), designated GSFC Q3, is used to compute field geometric invariant parameters that determine the adiabatic motion of energetic charged particles trapped in the Uranian magnetosphere, performing computations only for points located along the Voyager 2 flyby trajectory. The L-shell values computed along the Voyager-2 trajectory were compared with L shell values corresponding to the orbital positions for the Uranian satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Miranda, and Titania for a time period centered on the time of the Voyager 2 closest approach to the planet. Bimodal distributions of L minima asociated with the orbital motion of the moons are obtained, thus complicating the model predictions and correlations with charged particle data. The location of charged particle absorption signatures associated with the sweeping effects of the Uranian satellites is reasonably predicted, but significant discrepancies remain which cannot be explained by Q3 model uncertainties.
Implications of the GSFC Q3 model for trapped particle motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acuna, M. H.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ness, N. F.
1988-06-01
The Uranus magnetic field model of Connerney et al. (1987), designated GSFC Q3, is used to compute field geometric invariant parameters that determine the adiabatic motion of energetic charged particles trapped in the Uranian magnetosphere, performing computations only for points located along the Voyager 2 flyby trajectory. The L-shell values computed along the Voyager-2 trajectory were compared with L shell values corresponding to the orbital positions for the Uranian satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Miranda, and Titania for a time period centered on the time of the Voyager 2 closest approach to the planet. Bimodal distributions of L minima asociated with the orbital motion of the moons are obtained, thus complicating the model predictions and correlations with charged particle data. The location of charged particle absorption signatures associated with the sweeping effects of the Uranian satellites is reasonably predicted, but significant discrepancies remain which cannot be explained by Q3 model uncertainties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalb, M. W.; Perkey, D. J.
1985-01-01
The influence of synoptic scale initial conditions on the accuracy of mesoscale precipitation modeling is investigated. Attention is focused on the relative importance of the water vapor, cloud water, rain water, and vertical motion, with the analysis carried out using the Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The fully moist primitive equation model has 15 levels and a terrain-following sigma coordinate system. A K-theory approach was implemented to model the planetary boundary layer. A total of 15 sensitivity simulations were run to investigate the effects of the synoptic initial conditions of the four atmospheric variables. The absence of synoptic cloud and rain water amounts in the initialization caused a 2 hr delay in the onset of precipitation. The delay was increased if synoptic-scale vertical motion was used instead of mesoscale values. Both the delays and a choice of a smoothed moisture field resulted in underestimations of the total rainfall.
Choi, Jang-Hwan; Fahrig, Rebecca; Keil, Andreas; Besier, Thor F.; Pal, Saikat; McWalter, Emily J.; Beaupré, Gary S.; Maier, Andreas
2013-01-01
Purpose: Human subjects in standing positions are apt to show much more involuntary motion than in supine positions. The authors aimed to simulate a complicated realistic lower body movement using the four-dimensional (4D) digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom. The authors also investigated fiducial marker-based motion compensation methods in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) space. The level of involuntary movement-induced artifacts and image quality improvement were investigated after applying each method. Methods: An optical tracking system with eight cameras and seven retroreflective markers enabled us to track involuntary motion of the lower body of nine healthy subjects holding a squat position at 60° of flexion. The XCAT-based knee model was developed using the 4D XCAT phantom and the optical tracking data acquired at 120 Hz. The authors divided the lower body in the XCAT into six parts and applied unique affine transforms to each so that the motion (6 degrees of freedom) could be synchronized with the optical markers’ location at each time frame. The control points of the XCAT were tessellated into triangles and 248 projection images were created based on intersections of each ray and monochromatic absorption. The tracking data sets with the largest motion (Subject 2) and the smallest motion (Subject 5) among the nine data sets were used to animate the XCAT knee model. The authors defined eight skin control points well distributed around the knees as pseudo-fiducial markers which functioned as a reference in motion correction. Motion compensation was done in the following ways: (1) simple projection shifting in 2D, (2) deformable projection warping in 2D, and (3) rigid body warping in 3D. Graphics hardware accelerated filtered backprojection was implemented and combined with the three correction methods in order to speed up the simulation process. Correction fidelity was evaluated as a function of number of markers used (4–12) and
Shirzadi, Zahra; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Samani, Abbas
2013-05-15
Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to characterize lung tissue incompressibility variation during respiration. Estimating lung tissue incompressibility parameter variations resulting from air content variation throughout respiration is critical for computer assisted tumor motion tracking. Continuous tumor motion is a major challenge in lung cancer radiotherapy, especially with external beam radiotherapy. If not accounted for, this motion may lead to areas of radiation overdosage for normal tissue. Given the unavailability of imaging modality that can be used effectively for real-time lung tumor tracking, computer assisted approach based on tissue deformation estimation can be a good alternative. This approach involves lung biomechanical model where its fidelity depends on input tissue properties. This investigation shows that considering variable tissue incompressibility parameter is very important for predicting tumor motion accurately, hence improving the lung radiotherapy outcome. Methods: First, an in silico lung phantom study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of employing variable Poisson's ratio for tumor motion predication. After it was established that modeling this variability is critical for accurate tumor motion prediction, an optimization based technique was developed to estimate lung tissue Poisson's ratio as a function of respiration cycle time. In this technique, the Poisson's ratio and lung pressure value were varied systematically until optimal values were obtained, leading to maximum similarity between acquired and simulated 4D CT lung images. This technique was applied in an ex vivo porcine lung study where simulated images were constructed using the end exhale CT image and deformation fields obtained from the lung's FE modeling of each respiration time increment. To model the tissue, linear elastic and Marlow hyperelastic material models in conjunction with variable Poisson's ratio were used. Results: The phantom study showed that
Fractional Brownian Motion with Stochastic Variance:. Modeling Absolute Returns in STOCK Markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roman, H. E.; Porto, M.
We discuss a model for simulating a long-time memory in time series characterized in addition by a stochastic variance. The model is based on a combination of fractional Brownian motion (FBM) concepts, for dealing with the long-time memory, with an autoregressive scheme with conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH), responsible for the stochastic variance of the series, and is denoted as FBMARCH. Unlike well-known fractionally integrated autoregressive models, FBMARCH admits finite second moments. The resulting probability distribution functions have power-law tails with exponents similar to ARCH models. This idea is applied to the description of long-time autocorrelations of absolute returns ubiquitously observed in stock markets.
Relation of landslides triggered by the Kiholo Bay earthquake to modeled ground motion
Harp, Edwin L.; Hartzell, Stephen H.; Jibson, Randall W.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Schmitt, Robert G.
2014-01-01
The 2006 Kiholo Bay, Hawaii, earthquake triggered high concentrations of rock falls and slides in the steep canyons of the Kohala Mountains along the north coast of Hawaii. Within these mountains and canyons a complex distribution of landslides was triggered by the earthquake shaking. In parts of the area, landslides were preferentially located on east‐facing slopes, whereas in other parts of the canyons no systematic pattern prevailed with respect to slope aspect or vertical position on the slopes. The geology within the canyons is homogeneous, so we hypothesize that the variable landslide distribution is the result of localized variation in ground shaking; therefore, we used a state‐of‐the‐art, high‐resolution ground‐motion simulation model to see if it could reproduce the landslide‐distribution patterns. We used a 3D finite‐element analysis to model earthquake shaking using a 10 m digital elevation model and slip on a finite‐fault model constructed from teleseismic records of the mainshock. Ground velocity time histories were calculated up to a frequency of 5 Hz. Dynamic shear strain also was calculated and compared with the landslide distribution. Results were mixed for the velocity simulations, with some areas showing correlation of landslide locations with peak modeled ground motions but many other areas showing no such correlation. Results were much improved for the comparison with dynamic shear strain. This suggests that (1) rock falls and slides are possibly triggered by higher frequency ground motions (velocities) than those in our simulations, (2) the ground‐motion velocity model needs more refinement, or (3) dynamic shear strain may be a more fundamental measurement of the decoupling process of slope materials during seismic shaking.
TU-EF-304-04: A Heart Motion Model for Proton Scanned Beam Chest Radiotherapy
White, B; Kiely, J Blanco; Lin, L; Freedman, G; Both, S; Vennarini, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D
2015-06-15
Purpose: To model fast-moving heart surface motion as a function of cardiac-phase in order to compensate for the lack of cardiac-gating in evaluating accurate dose to coronary structures. Methods: Ten subjects were prospectively imaged with a breath-hold, cardiac-gated MRI protocol to determine heart surface motion. Radial and planar views of the heart were resampled into a 3-dimensional volume representing one heartbeat. A multi-resolution optical flow deformable image registration algorithm determined tissue displacement during the cardiac-cycle. The surface of the heart was modeled as a thin membrane comprised of voxels perpendicular to a pencil beam scanning (PBS) beam. The membrane’s out-of-plane spatial displacement was modeled as a harmonic function with Lame’s equations. Model accuracy was assessed with the root mean squared error (RMSE). The model was applied to a cohort of six chest wall irradiation patients with PBS plans generated on phase-sorted 4DCT. Respiratory motion was separated from the cardiac motion with a previously published technique. Volumetric dose painting was simulated and dose accumulated to validate plan robustness (target coverage variation accepted within 2%). Maximum and mean heart surface dose assessed the dosimetric impact of heart and coronary artery motion. Results: Average and maximum heart surface displacements were 2.54±0.35mm and 3.6mm from the end-diastole phase to the end-systole cardiac-phase respectively. An average RMSE of 0.11±0.04 showed the model to be accurate. Observed errors were greatest between the circumflex artery and mitral valve level of the heart anatomy. Heart surface displacements correspond to a 3.6±1.0% and 5.1±2.3% dosimetric impact on the maximum and mean heart surface DVH indicators respectively. Conclusion: Although heart surface motion parallel to beam’s direction was substantial, its maximum dosimetric impact was 5.1±2.3%. Since PBS delivers low doses to coronary structures relative to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bin; Kurtulus, Orkan; Groll, Eckhard A.
2015-08-01
A simulation model to predict the performance of a prototype CO2 compressor is presented. This prototype compressor employs the Sanderson-Rocker Arm Motion (S-RAM) mechanism, which converts the rotary motion of the shaft into a linear reciprocating motion of the cylinders. The piston stroke can be variable by changing the incline angle between the connecting rod and compressor main shaft centerline. The compressor model is mainly composed of two main sub-models simulating the kinematics of the drive mechanism and the compression process. A valve sub-model is included in the compression process model.
Automated 3D motion tracking using Gabor filter bank, robust point matching, and deformable models.
Chen, Ting; Wang, Xiaoxu; Chung, Sohae; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon
2010-01-01
Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tagged MRI or tMRI) provides a means of directly and noninvasively displaying the internal motion of the myocardium. Reconstruction of the motion field is needed to quantify important clinical information, e.g., the myocardial strain, and detect regional heart functional loss. In this paper, we present a three-step method for this task. First, we use a Gabor filter bank to detect and locate tag intersections in the image frames, based on local phase analysis. Next, we use an improved version of the robust point matching (RPM) method to sparsely track the motion of the myocardium, by establishing a transformation function and a one-to-one correspondence between grid tag intersections in different image frames. In particular, the RPM helps to minimize the impact on the motion tracking result of 1) through-plane motion and 2) relatively large deformation and/or relatively small tag spacing. In the final step, a meshless deformable model is initialized using the transformation function computed by RPM. The model refines the motion tracking and generates a dense displacement map, by deforming under the influence of image information, and is constrained by the displacement magnitude to retain its geometric structure. The 2D displacement maps in short and long axis image planes can be combined to drive a 3D deformable model, using the moving least square method, constrained by the minimization of the residual error at tag intersections. The method has been tested on a numerical phantom, as well as on in vivo heart data from normal volunteers and heart disease patients. The experimental results show that the new method has a good performance on both synthetic and real data. Furthermore, the method has been used in an initial clinical study to assess the differences in myocardial strain distributions between heart disease (left ventricular hypertrophy) patients and the normal control group. The final results show that the proposed method
Laggner, Christian; Schieferer, Claudia; Fiechtner, Birgit; Poles, Gloria; Hoffmann, Rémy D; Glossmann, Hartmut; Langer, Thierry; Moebius, Fabian F
2005-07-28
ERG2, emopamil binding protein (EBP), and sigma-1 receptor (sigma(1)) are enzymes of sterol metabolism and an enzyme-related protein, respectively, that share high affinity for various structurally diverse compounds. To discover novel high-affinity ligands, pharmacophore models were built with Catalyst based upon a series of 23 structurally diverse chemicals exhibiting K(i) values from 10 pM to 100 microM for all three proteins. In virtual screening experiments, we retrieved drugs that were previously reported to bind to one or several of these proteins and also tested 11 new hits experimentally, of which three, among them raloxifene, had affinities for sigma(1) or EBP of <60 nM. When used to search a database of 3525 biochemicals of intermediary metabolism, a slightly modified ERG2 pharmacophore model successfully retrieved 10 substrate candidates among the top 28 hits. Our results indicate that inhibitor-based pharmacophore models for sigma(1), ERG2, and EBP can be used to screen drug and metabolite databases for chemically diverse compounds and putative endogenous ligands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Ray, Jim; Shen, WenBin; Huang, ChengLi
2013-09-01
motion excitation involves mass redistributions and motions of the Earth system relative to the mantle, as well as the frequency-dependent rheology of the Earth, where the latter has recently been modeled in the form of frequency-dependent Love numbers and polar motion transfer functions. At seasonal and intraseasonal time scales, polar motions are dominated by angular momentum fluctuations due to mass redistributions and relative motions in the atmosphere, oceans, and continental water, snow, and ice. In this study, we compare the geophysical excitations derived from various global atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrological models (NCEP, ECCO, ERA40, ERAinterim, and ECMWF operational products), and construct two model sets LDC1 and LDC2 by combining the above models with a least difference method. Comparisons between the geodetic excitation (derived from the polar motion series IERS EOP 08 C04) and the geophysical excitations (based on those meteorological models) imply that the atmospheric models are the most reliable while the hydrological ones are the most inaccurate; that the ERAinterim is, in general, the best model set among the original ones, but the combined models LDC1 and LDC2 are much better than ERAinterim; and that applying the frequency-dependent transfer functions to LDC1 and LDC2 improves their agreements with the geodetic excitation. Thus, we conclude that the combined models LDC1 and LDC2 are reliable, and the frequency-dependent Love numbers and polar motion transfer functions are well modeled.
Multibody muscle driven model of an instrumented prosthetic knee during squat and toe rise motions.
Stylianou, Antonis P; Guess, Trent M; Kia, Mohammad
2013-04-01
Detailed knowledge of knee joint kinematics and dynamic loading is essential for improving the design and outcomes of surgical procedures, tissue engineering applications, prosthetics design, and rehabilitation. The need for dynamic computational models that link kinematics, muscle and ligament forces, and joint contacts has long been recognized but such body-level forward dynamic models do not exist in recent literature. A main barrier in using computational models in the clinic is the validation of the in vivo contact, muscle, and ligament loads. The purpose of this study was to develop a full body, muscle driven dynamic model with subject specific leg geometries and validate it during squat and toe-rise motions. The model predicted loads were compared to in vivo measurements acquired with an instrumented knee implant. Data for this study were provided by the "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In-Vivo Knee Loads" for the 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Summer Bioengineering Conference. Data included implant and bone geometries, ground reaction forces, EMG, and the instrumented knee implant measurements. The subject specific model was developed in the multibody framework. The knee model included three ligament bundles for the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and the medial collateral ligament (MCL), and one bundle for the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The implanted tibia tray was segmented into 326 hexahedral elements and deformable contacts were defined between the elements and the femoral component. The model also included 45 muscles on each leg. Muscle forces were computed for the muscle driven simulation by a feedback controller that used the error between the current muscle length in the forward simulation and the muscle length recorded during a kinematics driven inverse simulation. The predicted tibia forces and torques, ground reaction forces, electromyography (EMG) patterns, and kinematics were compared to the experimentally
Modelling Strong Ground Motions for Subduction Events in the Wellington Region, New Zealand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francois-Holden, C.; Zhao, J.
2010-12-01
This work is a part of the “It’s Our Fault” programme, whose goal is to make Wellington, New Zealand, a more resilient city regarding earthquake hazards. We are working on defining ground motions from large plate boundary earthquakes at specified locations in the Wellington region in terms of response spectra and acceleration time histories. These motions will provide input for risk modelling for a potential major earthquake additional to those associated with the active faults of the region. Broadband waveforms are modelled applying the hybrid technique combining deterministic and stochastic approaches. We follow the proposed recipe by Irikura et al. (2004) to predict strong ground motions. We validated Irikura’s code and recipe using the strong motion dataset from the 2003 Mw 7.2 Fiordland earthquake, with both empirical and stochastic Green’s functions. The method was satisfactorily tested using an intraslab rupture and a record from a nearby aftershock as the empirical Green’s function (EGF). Although the event generated many aftershocks, it was difficult to find small events with 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mainshock, recorded at a well distributed set of stations, with a rupture mechanism close enough to the mainshock. The alternative to using EGF is the stochastic Green’s functions (SGF) approach. We chose the Motazedian and Atkinson (2005) method for its assumption of a finite fault source model (instead of a point source). This assumption is closer to reality for Green’s functions in our case study where events have magnitudes greater than 5, and distances less than 200 km. We are now applying this method to a source scenario representing a locked interface underneath Wellington. A range of rupture scenarios will be modelled with varying hypocentre location, asperity locations, and overall rupture area. Finally, recent advances in detailed modelling of the Wellington basin geology will allow us to include site effects in our
Two modes of motion of the alligator lizard cochlea: Measurements and model predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aranyosi, A. J.; Freeman, Dennis M.
2005-09-01
Measurements of motion of an in vitro preparation of the alligator lizard basilar papilla in response to sound demonstrate elliptical trajectories. These trajectories are consistent with the presence of both a translational and rotational mode of motion. The translational mode is independent of frequency, and the rotational mode has a displacement peak near 5 kHz. These measurements can be explained by a simple mechanical system in which the basilar papilla is supported asymmetrically on the basilar membrane. In a quantitative model, the translational admittance is compliant while the rotational admittance is second order. Best-fit model parameters are consistent with estimates based on anatomy and predict that fluid flow across hair bundles is a primary source of viscous damping. The model predicts that the rotational mode contributes to the high-frequency slopes of auditory nerve fiber tuning curves, providing a physical explanation for a low-pass filter required in models of this cochlea. The combination of modes makes the sensitivity of hair bundles more uniform with radial position than that which would result from pure rotation. A mechanical analogy with the organ of Corti suggests that these two modes of motion may also be present in the mammalian cochlea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winska, M.
2016-12-01
The hydrological contribution to decadal, inter-annual and multi-annual suppress polar motion derived from climate model as well as from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data is discussed here for the period 2002.3-2016.0. The data set used here are Earth Orientation Parameters Combined 04 (EOP C04), Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model: Grid-point Version 2 (FGOAL-g2) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) climate models and GRACE CSR RL05 data for polar motion, hydrological and gravimetric excitation, respectively. Several Hydrological Angular Momentum (HAM) functions are calculated here from the selected variables: precipitation, evaporation, runoff, soil moisture, accumulated snow of the FGOALS and GLDAS climate models as well as from the global mass change fields from GRACE data provided by the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS) Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC). The contribution of different HAM excitation functions to achieve the full agreement between geodetic observations and geophysical excitation functions of polar motion is studied here.
A continuous 4D motion model from multiple respiratory cycles for use in lung radiotherapy
McClelland, Jamie R.; Blackall, Jane M.; Tarte, Segolene; Chandler, Adam C.; Hughes, Simon; Ahmad, Shahreen; Landau, David B.; Hawkes, David J.
2006-09-15
Respiratory motion causes errors when planning and delivering radiotherapy treatment to lung cancer patients. To reduce these errors, methods of acquiring and using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) datasets have been developed. We have developed a novel method of constructing computational motion models from 4DCT. The motion models attempt to describe an average respiratory cycle, which reduces the effects of variation between different cycles. They require substantially less memory than a 4DCT dataset, are continuous in space and time, and facilitate automatic target propagation and combining of doses over the respiratory cycle. The motion models are constructed from CT data acquired in cine mode while the patient is free breathing (free breathing CT - FBCT). A ''slab'' of data is acquired at each couch position, with 3-4 contiguous slabs being acquired per patient. For each slab a sequence of 20 or 30 volumes was acquired over 20 seconds. A respiratory signal is simultaneously recorded in order to calculate the position in the respiratory cycle for each FBCT. Additionally, a high quality reference CT volume is acquired at breath hold. The reference volume is nonrigidly registered to each of the FBCT volumes. A motion model is then constructed for each slab by temporally fitting the nonrigid registration results. The value of each of the registration parameters is related to the position in the respiratory cycle by fitting an approximating B spline to the registration results. As an approximating function is used, and the data is acquired over several respiratory cycles, the function should model an average respiratory cycle. This can then be used to calculate the value of each degree of freedom at any desired position in the respiratory cycle. The resulting nonrigid transformation will deform the reference volume to predict the contents of the slab at the desired position in the respiratory cycle. The slab model predictions are then concatenated to
A continuous 4D motion model from multiple respiratory cycles for use in lung radiotherapy.
McClelland, Jamie R; Blackall, Jane M; Tarte, Ségolène; Chandler, Adam C; Hughes, Simon; Ahmad, Shahreen; Landau, David B; Hawkes, David J
2006-09-01
Respiratory motion causes errors when planning and delivering radiotherapy treatment to lung cancer patients. To reduce these errors, methods of acquiring and using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) datasets have been developed. We have developed a novel method of constructing computational motion models from 4DCT. The motion models attempt to describe an average respiratory cycle, which reduces the effects of variation between different cycles. They require substantially less memory than a 4DCT dataset, are continuous in space and time, and facilitate automatic target propagation and combining of doses over the respiratory cycle. The motion models are constructed from CT data acquired in cine mode while the patient is free breathing (free breathing CT - FBCT). A "slab" of data is acquired at each couch position, with 3-4 contiguous slabs being acquired per patient. For each slab a sequence of 20 or 30 volumes was acquired over 20 seconds. A respiratory signal is simultaneously recorded in order to calculate the position in the respiratory cycle for each FBCT. Additionally, a high quality reference CT volume is acquired at breath hold. The reference volume is nonrigidly registered to each of the FBCT volumes. A motion model is then constructed for each slab by temporally fitting the nonrigid registration results. The value of each of the registration parameters is related to the position in the respiratory cycle by fitting an approximating B spline to the registration results. As an approximating function is used, and the data is acquired over several respiratory cycles, the function should model an average respiratory cycle. This can then be used to calculate the value of each degree of freedom at any desired position in the respiratory cycle. The resulting nonrigid transformation will deform the reference volume to predict the contents of the slab at the desired position in the respiratory cycle. The slab model predictions are then concatenated to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, K.; Cui, Z.; Kong, D.; Pan, Y.
2012-12-01
A fascinating phenomenon in living microorganisms under the influence of the geomagnetic field is the unusual swimming motion of magnetotactic bacteria along the field line discovered nearly four decades ago. We investigate, via both theoretical and experimental methods, the swimming motion of magnetotactic bacteria having the shape of an elongated prolate spheroid in a viscous liquid under the influence of an imposed magnetic field. A fully three-dimensional Stokes flow, driven by the translation and rotation of a swimming bacterium, exerts a complicated viscous drag/torque on the motion of a non-spherical bacterium. By assuming that the body of the bacterium is non-deformable and that the interaction between different bacteria is weak and, hence, negligible, we have derived a system of 12 coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that govern both the motion and orientation of a swimming spheroidal magnetotactic bacterium. It is revealed that the pattern/speed of a swimming spheroidal magnetotactic bacterium is highly sensitive not only to the direction of its magnetic moment but also to its shape. We also compare the theoretical pattern obtained from solutions of the 12 coupled differential equations to that observed in the laboratory experiments using the magnetotactic bacteria found in Lake Miyun near Beijing, China, showing that the observed pattern can be largely reproduced with an appropriate set of the parameters in our theoretical model.
Schnabel, Julia A; Heinrich, Mattias P; Papież, Bartłomiej W; Brady, Sir J Michael
2016-10-01
Over the past 20 years, the field of medical image registration has significantly advanced from multi-modal image fusion to highly non-linear, deformable image registration for a wide range of medical applications and imaging modalities, involving the compensation and analysis of physiological organ motion or of tissue changes due to growth or disease patterns. While the original focus of image registration has predominantly been on correcting for rigid-body motion of brain image volumes acquired at different scanning sessions, often with different modalities, the advent of dedicated longitudinal and cross-sectional brain studies soon necessitated the development of more sophisticated methods that are able to detect and measure local structural or functional changes, or group differences. Moving outside of the brain, cine imaging and dynamic imaging required the development of deformable image registration to directly measure or compensate for local tissue motion. Since then, deformable image registration has become a general enabling technology. In this work we will present our own contributions to the state-of-the-art in deformable multi-modal fusion and complex motion modelling, and then discuss remaining challenges and provide future perspectives to the field.
An improved Reynolds-equation model for gas damping of microbeam motion.
Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert
2003-09-01
An improved gas-damping model for the out-of-plane motion of a near-substrate microbeam is developed based on the Reynolds equation (RE). A boundary condition for the RE is developed that relates the pressure at the beam edge to the beam motion. The coefficients in this boundary condition are determined from Navier-Stokes slip-jump (NSSJ) simulations for small slip lengths (relative to the gap height) and from direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) molecular gas dynamics simulations for larger slip lengths. This boundary condition significantly improves the accuracy of the RE when the microbeam width is only slightly greater than the gap height between the microbeam and the substrate. The improved RE model is applied to microbeams fabricated using the SUMMiT V process.
Analysis of a system modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maity, Debayan; Takahashi, Takéo; Tucsnak, Marius
2016-09-01
We study a free boundary problem modelling the motion of a piston in a viscous gas. The gas-piston system fills a cylinder with fixed extremities, which possibly allow gas from the exterior to penetrate inside the cylinder. The gas is modeled by the 1D compressible Navier-Stokes system and the piston motion is described by the second Newton's law. We prove the existence and uniqueness of global in time strong solutions. The main novelty brought in by our results is that they include the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions which, as far as we know, have not been studied in this context. Moreover, even for homogeneous boundary conditions, our results require less regularity of the initial data than those obtained in previous works.
Color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating droplet motion with contact-angle hysteresis.
Ba, Yan; Liu, Haihu; Sun, Jinju; Zheng, Rongye
2013-10-01
Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is an effective tool for simulating the contact-line motion due to the nature of its microscopic dynamics. In contact-line motion, contact-angle hysteresis is an inherent phenomenon, but it is neglected in most existing color-gradient based LBMs. In this paper, a color-gradient based multiphase LBM is developed to simulate the contact-line motion, particularly with the hysteresis of contact angle involved. In this model, the perturbation operator based on the continuum surface force concept is introduced to model the interfacial tension, and the recoloring operator proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is used to produce phase segregation and resolve the lattice pinning problem. At the solid surface, the color-conserving wetting boundary condition [Hollis et al., IMA J. Appl. Math. 76, 726 (2011)] is applied to improve the accuracy of simulations and suppress spurious currents at the contact line. In particular, we present a numerical algorithm to allow for the effect of the contact-angle hysteresis, in which an iterative procedure is used to determine the dynamic contact angle. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the developed model, including the droplet partial wetting process and droplet dynamical behavior in a simple shear flow. The obtained results are compared with theoretical solutions and experimental data, indicating that the model is able to predict the equilibrium droplet shape as well as the dynamic process of partial wetting and thus permits accurate prediction of contact-line motion with the consideration of contact-angle hysteresis.
3D model-based catheter tracking for motion compensation in EP procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brost, Alexander; Liao, Rui; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert
2010-02-01
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained heart arrhythmia and a leading cause of stroke. Its treatment by radio-frequency catheter ablation, performed using fluoroscopic image guidance, is gaining increasingly more importance. Two-dimensional fluoroscopic navigation can take advantage of overlay images derived from pre-operative 3-D data to add anatomical details otherwise not visible under X-ray. Unfortunately, respiratory motion may impair the utility of these static overlay images for catheter navigation. We developed an approach for image-based 3-D motion compensation as a solution to this problem. A bi-plane C-arm system is used to take X-ray images of a special circumferential mapping catheter from two directions. In the first step of the method, a 3-D model of the device is reconstructed. Three-dimensional respiratory motion at the site of ablation is then estimated by tracking the reconstructed catheter model in 3-D. This step involves bi-plane fluoroscopy and 2-D/3-D registration. Phantom data and clinical data were used to assess our model-based catheter tracking method. Experiments involving a moving heart phantom yielded an average 2-D tracking error of 1.4 mm and an average 3-D tracking error of 1.1 mm. Our evaluation of clinical data sets comprised 469 bi-plane fluoroscopy frames (938 monoplane fluoroscopy frames). We observed an average 2-D tracking error of 1.0 mm +/- 0.4 mm and an average 3-D tracking error of 0.8 mm +/- 0.5 mm. These results demonstrate that model-based motion-compensation based on 2-D/3-D registration is both feasible and accurate.
Aerodynamic characteristics of the standard dynamics model in coning motion at Mach 0.6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jermey, C.; Schiff, L. B.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel test was conducted on the Standard Dynamics Model (a simplified generic fighter aircraft shape) undergoing coning motion at Mach 0.6. Six component force and moment data are presented for a range of angle of attack, sideslip, and coning rates. At the relatively low non-dimensional coning rate employed (omega b/2V less than or equal to 0.04), the lateral aerodynamic characteristics generally show a linear variation with coning rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruk, D.; Mielczarek, A.; Korpala, A.; Kozlowski, A.; Earle, K. A.; Moscicki, J.
2012-06-01
In order to study to what extent mechanisms of molecular motion can be unambiguously revealed by 2H NMR spectroscopy, 2H spectra for proteins (chicken villin protein headpiece HP36, selectively methyl-deuterated at leucine-69, Cδ D3) and binary systems of high viscosity (benzene-d6 in tricresyl phosphate) have been carefully analyzed as illustrative examples (the spectra are taken from the literature). In the first case, a model of restricted diffusion mediated by jumps between rotameric orientations has been tested against jump- and free diffusion models which describe rotational motion combined with jump dynamics. It has been found that the set of 2H spectra of methyl-deuterated at leucine-69 chicken villin protein headpiece HP36 can be consistently explained by different motional models as well as by a Gaussian distribution of correlation times assuming isotropic rotation (simple Brownian diffusion model). The last finding shows that when the possible distribution of correlation times is not very broad one might not be able to distinguish between heterogeneous and homogenous (but more complex) dynamics by analyzing 2H lineshapes. For benzene-d6 in tricresyl phosphate, the dynamics is heterogeneous and it has been demonstrated that a Gaussian distribution of correlation times reproduces well the experimental lineshapes, while for a Cole-Davidson distribution the agreement is somewhat worse. For inquires into the sensitivity of quadrupolar NMR spectral analysis (by "quadrupolar NMR spectroscopy we understand NMR spectroscopy of nuclei possessing quadrupole moment), the recently presented theoretical approach [Kruk et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224511 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3664783 has been used as it allows simulating quadrupolar spectra for arbitrary motional conditions by employing the stochastic Liouville equation.
Real-time modeling of transverse emittance growth due to ground motion
Shiltsev, V.D.; Parkhomchuk, V.V. |
1993-09-01
Ground motion noise at frequencies around 1 kHz causes growth of transverse emittance of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) collider beams. The effect was quantitatively investigated using real-time signals from seismometers installed at the tunnel depth and on the surface. The SSC beam was modeled as an ensemble of oscillators with a spread of betatron frequencies. The effect of transverse feedback on emittance growth was investigated.
Motion of magnetospheric particle clouds in a time-dependent electric field model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roederer, J. G.; Hones, E. H., Jr.
1974-01-01
A computer code has been developed to study quantitatively the drift motion of magnetospheric particles in a time-dependent electric field. These calculations were applied to the case of proton and electron injections from the plasma sheet during substorms; the model predictions were checked against observations on board the geosynchronous satellite ATS 5 by DeForest and McIlwain (1971). It was found that it is possible to simulate the observed proton spectrograms with an adequate choice of a time-dependent electric field model. The resulting kinematics is physically quite simple and in its gross features does not depend too strongly on the particular fine structure of the model.
Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin
2014-01-01
Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e., the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way.
Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K
2015-01-01
Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.
Toward a self-consistent, high-resolution absolute plate motion model for the Pacific
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessel, Paul; Harada, Yasushi; Kroenke, Loren W.
2006-03-01
The hot spot hypothesis postulates that linear volcanic trails form as lithospheric plates move relative to stationary or slowly moving plumes. Given geometry and ages from several trails, one can reconstruct absolute plate motions (APM) that provide valuable information about past and present tectonism, paleogeography, and volcanism. Most APM models have been designed by fitting small circles to coeval volcanic chain segments and determining stage rotation poles, opening angles, and time intervals. Unlike relative plate motion (RPM) models, such APM models suffer from oversimplicity, self-inconsistencies, inadequate fits to data, and lack of rigorous uncertainty estimates; in addition, they work only for fixed hot spots. Newer methods are now available that overcome many of these limitations. We present a technique that provides high-resolution APM models derived from stationary or moving hot spots (given prescribed paths). The simplest model assumes stationary hot spots, and an example of such a model is presented. Observations of geometry and chronology on the Pacific plate appear well explained by this type of model. Because it is a one-plate model, it does not discriminate between hot spot drift or true polar wander as explanations for inferred paleolatitudes from the Emperor chain. Whether there was significant relative motion within the hot spots under the Pacific plate during the last ˜70 m.y. is difficult to quantify, given the paucity and geological uncertainty of age determinations. Evidence in support of plume drift appears limited to the period before the 47 Ma Hawaii-Emperor Bend and, apart from the direct paleolatitude determinations, may have been somewhat exaggerated.
Motion Planning for Concentric Tube Robots Using Mechanics-based Models.
Torres, Luis G; Alterovitz, Ron
2011-01-01
Concentric tube robots have the potential to enable new minimally invasive surgical procedures by curving around anatomical obstacles to reach difficult-to-reach sites in body cavities. Planning motions for these devices is challenging in part due to their complex kinematics; concentric tube robots are composed of thin, pre-curved, telescoping tubes that can achieve a variety of shapes via extension and rotation of each of their constituent tubes. We introduce a new motion planner to maneuver these devices to clinical targets while minimizing the probability of colliding with anatomical obstacles. Unlike prior planners for these devices, we more accurately model device shape using mechanics-based models that consider torsional interaction between the tubes. We also account for the effects of uncertainty in actuation and predicted device shape. We integrate these models with a sampling-based approach based on the Rapidly-Exploring Roadmap to guarantee finding optimal plans as computation time is allowed to increase. We demonstrate our motion planner in simulation using a variety of evaluation scenarios including an anatomy-based neurosurgery case that requires maneuvering to a difficult-to-reach brain tumor at the skull base.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Amico, Sebastiano
2011-12-01
The evaluation of the expected peak ground motion caused by an earthquake is an important problem in earthquake seismology. It is particularly important for regions where strong-motion data are lacking. With the approach presented in this study of using data from small earthquakes, it is possible to extrapolate the peak motion parameters beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion data set on which they are calculated. To provide a description of the high frequency attenuation and ground motion parameters in southern Italy we used seismic recordings coming from two different projects: the SAPTEX (Southern Apennines Tomography Experiment) and the CAT/SCAN (Calabria Apennine Tyrrhenian - Subduction Collision Accretion Network). We used about 10,000 records with magnitudes between M=2.5 and M=4.7. Using regression model with the large number of weak-motion data, the regional propagation and the absolute source scaling were determined. To properly calibrate the source scaling it was necessary to compute moment magnitudes of several events in the data set. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the "Cut And Paste" and the SLUMT methods. Both methods determine the source depth, moment magnitude and focal mechanisms using a grid search technique. The methods provide quality solutions in the area in a magnitude range (2.5-4.5) that has been too small to be included in the Italian national earthquake catalogues. The derived database of focal mechanisms allowed us to better detail the transitional area in the Messina Strait between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (central-western Sicily). Stochastic simulations are generated for finite-fault ruptures using the derived propagation parameters to predict the absolute peaks of the ground acceleration for several faults, magnitude, and distance range, as well as beyond the magnitude range of the weak-motion
4D human body posture estimation based on a motion capture system and a multi-rigid link model.
Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Ozaki, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Nomura, Taishin
2012-01-01
Human motion analysis in various fields such as neurophysiology, clinical medicine, and sports sciences utilizes a multi-rigid link model of a human body for considering kinetics by solving inverse dynamics of a motion, in which a motion capture system with reflective markers are often used to measure the motion, and then the obtained motion are mapped onto the multi-rigid link model. However, algorithms for such a mapping from spatio-temporal positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of the model are not always fully disclosed. Moreover, a common difficulty for such algorithms is an error caused by displacements of the markers attached on the body surface, referred to as the skin motion error. In this study, we developed a simple algorithm that maps positions of the markers to the corresponding posture of a rigid link model, and examined accuracy of the algorithm by evaluating quantitatively differences between the measured and the estimated posture. We also analyzed the skin motion error. It is shown that magnitude of the error was determined not only by the amplitude of the skin motion, but also by the direction of the marker displacement relative to the frame of reference attached to each segment of the body.
Conformal field theory on affine Lie groups
Clubok, Kenneth Sherman
1996-04-01
Working directly on affine Lie groups, we construct several new formulations of the WZW model, the gauged WZW model, and the generic affine-Virasoro action. In one formulation each of these conformal field theories (CFTs) is expressed as a one-dimensional mechanical system whose variables are coordinates on the affine Lie group. When written in terms of the affine group element, this formulation exhibits a two-dimensional WZW term. In another formulation each CFT is written as a two-dimensional field theory, with a three- dimensional WZW term, whose fields are coordinates on the affine group. On the basis of these equivalent formulations, we develop a translation dictionary in which the new formulations on the affine Lie group are understood as mode formulations of the conventional formulations on the Lie group. Using this dictionary, we also express each CFT as a three-dimensional field theory on the Lie group with a four-dimensional WZW term. 36 refs.
Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)
1991-01-01
The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.
Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Bonifas Arredondo, Imelda; Femat, Ricardo; Garcia, Martin E.
2015-01-01
Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles’ arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We also show that
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadri, Sobhan; Wu, Christine
2013-06-01
For the first time, this paper investigates the application of the concept of Lyapunov exponents to the stability analysis of the nonlinear vehicle model in plane motion with two degrees of freedom. The nonlinearity of the model comes from the third-order polynomial expression between the lateral forces on the tyres and the tyre slip angles. Comprehensive studies on both system and structural stability analyses of the vehicle model are presented. The system stability analysis includes the stability, lateral stability region, and effects of driving conditions on the lateral stability region of the vehicle model in the state space. In the structural stability analysis, the ranges of driving conditions in which the stability of the vehicle model is guaranteed are given. Moreover, through examples, the largest Lyapunov exponent is suggested as an indicator of the convergence rate in which the disturbed vehicle model returns to its stable fixed point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grudinin, Sergei; Kadukova, Maria; Eisenbarth, Andreas; Marillet, Simon; Cazals, Frédéric
2016-09-01
The 2015 D3R Grand Challenge provided an opportunity to test our new model for the binding free energy of small molecules, as well as to assess our protocol to predict binding poses for protein-ligand complexes. Our pose predictions were ranked 3-9 for the HSP90 dataset, depending on the assessment metric. For the MAP4K dataset the ranks are very dispersed and equal to 2-35, depending on the assessment metric, which does not provide any insight into the accuracy of the method. The main success of our pose prediction protocol was the re-scoring stage using the recently developed Convex-PL potential. We make a thorough analysis of our docking predictions made with AutoDock Vina and discuss the effect of the choice of rigid receptor templates, the number of flexible residues in the binding pocket, the binding pocket size, and the benefits of re-scoring. However, the main challenge was to predict experimentally determined binding affinities for two blind test sets. Our affinity prediction model consisted of two terms, a pairwise-additive enthalpy, and a non pairwise-additive entropy. We trained the free parameters of the model with a regularized regression using affinity and structural data from the PDBBind database. Our model performed very well on the training set, however, failed on the two test sets. We explain the drawback and pitfalls of our model, in particular in terms of relative coverage of the test set by the training set and missed dynamical properties from crystal structures, and discuss different routes to improve it.
Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.
2006-01-01
In a recent study we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the ground-motion uncertainty of the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard model. The resulting ground-motion distribution is used in this article to evaluate the contribution of the hazard model to the uncertainty in earthquake loss ratio, the ratio of the expected loss to the total value of a structure. We use the Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) methodology for loss estimation because it is a widely used and publicly available risk model and intended for regional studies by public agencies and for use by governmental decision makers. We found that the loss ratio uncertainty depends not only on the ground-motion uncertainty but also on the mean ground-motion level. The ground-motion uncertainty, as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV), is amplified when converting to the loss ratio uncertainty because loss increases concavely with ground motion. By comparing the ground-motion uncertainty with the corresponding loss ratio uncertainty for the structural damage of light wood-frame buildings in Los Angeles area, we show that the COV of loss ratio is almost twice the COV of ground motion with a return period of 475 years around the San Andreas fault and other major faults in the area. The loss ratio for the 2475-year ground-motion maps is about a factor of three higher than for the 475-year maps. However, the uncertainties in ground motion and loss ratio for the longer return periods are lower than for the shorter return periods because the uncertainty parameters in the hazard logic tree are independent of the return period, but the mean ground motion increases with return period.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.
1987-01-01
A flow visualization study using selective dye injection and frame by frame analysis of a movie provided qualitative and quantitative data on the motion of marked fluid particles in a 60 degree artery branch model for simulation of physiological femoral artery flow. Physical flow features observed included jetting of the branch flow into the main lumen during the brief reverse flow period, flow separation along the main lumen wall during the near zero flow phase of diastole when the core flow was in the downstream direction, and inference of flow separation conditions along the wall opposite the branch later in systole at higher branch flow ratios. There were many similarities between dye particle motions in pulsatile flow and the comparative steady flow observations.
Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Sangyoup; Lee, Jong-Chul
2014-11-01
In previous research, we studied the electrical breakdown characteristics of a transformer oil-based magnetic fluid; mailnly, those were carried out by the experimental measurements. The first study was aimed at enhancing the dielectric breakdown voltage of transformer oil by adding magnetic nanoparticles experimentally under the official testing condition of dielectric liquids. The next study was focused on explaining the reason why the dielectric characterisitics of the fluids were changed through optically visualizing the particles motion in a microchannel using an optical microscopic measurement and numerically calculating the dielectrophoretic force induced in the fluids with considering only the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. In this study, we developed a simplified unified model for calculating further the motion of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the presence of electrohydrodynamic field using the COMSOL multiphysics finite element simulation suite and investigated the effects of magnetic nanoparticle dielectrophoretic activity aimed at enhancing the electrical breakdown characteristics of transformer oil.
Particle motion in x-dependent Harris-like magnetotail models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burkhart, Grant R.; Chen, James
1993-01-01
The dynamics of charged particles in x-dependent magnetotail models is examined, where x is along the sun-earth direction. An earlier paper showed that particle motion in a class of x-dependent Harris-like equilibrium models can be significantly different from the motion in x-independent magnetotail field models. In the present paper, it is shown that this Harris-like equilibrium models have 'bulb-shaped' field lines and that this property leads to the reported differences. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale length of variation of the Harris-like models in the x direction, L(x), is comparable to the typical excursion distance, Delta, of particles in the x direction and to rho(n) which is the gyroradius based on the magnetic field component B(n) normal to the plane of the current sheet. It is argued that neither bulb-shaped field lines nor scale lengths L(x) comparable to Delta or rho(n) apply to the earth's magnetotail. It is suggested that a key criterion for applicability of x-dependent models to the terrestrial magnetotail is Delta, rho(n) much less than L(x).
Plane surface suddenly set in motion in a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Maxwell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wenchang, Tan; Mingyu, Xu
2002-08-01
The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model of viscoelastic fluid is introduced. The flow near a wall suddenly set in motion is studied for a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Maxwell model. Exact solutions of velocity and stress are obtained by using the discrete inverse Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivatives. It is found that the effect of the fractional orders in the constitutive relationship on the flow field is significant. The results show that for small times there are appreciable viscoelastic effects on the shear stress at the plate, for large times the viscoelastic effects become weak.
Model-Based Nonrigid Motion Analysis Using Natural Feature Adaptive Mesh
Zhang, Y.; Goldgof, D.B.; Sarkar, S.; Tsap, L.V.
2000-04-25
The success of nonrigid motion analysis using physical finite element model is dependent on the mesh that characterizes the object's geometric structure. We suggest a deformable mesh adapted to the natural features of images. The adaptive mesh requires much fewer number of nodes than the fixed mesh which was used in our previous work. We demonstrate the higher efficiency of the adaptive mesh in the context of estimating burn scar elasticity relative to normal skin elasticity using the observed 2D image sequence. Our results show that the scar assessment method based on the physical model using natural feature adaptive mesh can be applied to images which do not have artificial markers.
Coupled large eddy simulation and discrete element model of bedload motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furbish, D.; Schmeeckle, M. W.
2011-12-01
We combine a three-dimensional large eddy simulation of turbulence to a three-dimensional discrete element model of turbulence. The large eddy simulation of the turbulent fluid is extended into the bed composed of non-moving particles by adding resistance terms to the Navier-Stokes equations in accordance with the Darcy-Forchheimer law. This allows the turbulent velocity and pressure fluctuations to penetrate the bed of discrete particles, and this addition of a porous zone results in turbulence structures above the bed that are similar to previous experimental and numerical results for hydraulically-rough beds. For example, we reproduce low-speed streaks that are less coherent than those over smooth-beds due to the episodic outflow of fluid from the bed. Local resistance terms are also added to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the drag of individual moving particles. The interaction of the spherical particles utilizes a standard DEM soft-sphere Hertz model. We use only a simple drag model to calculate the fluid forces on the particles. The model reproduces an exponential distribution of bedload particle velocities that we have found experimentally using high-speed video of a flat bed of moving sand in a recirculating water flume. The exponential distribution of velocity results from the motion of many particles that are nearly constantly in contact with other bed particles and come to rest after short distances, in combination with a relatively few particles that are entrained further above the bed and have velocities approaching that of the fluid. Entrainment and motion "hot spots" are evident that are not perfectly correlated with the local, instantaneous fluid velocity. Zones of the bed that have recently experienced motion are more susceptible to motion because of the local configuration of particle contacts. The paradigm of a characteristic saltation hop length in riverine bedload transport has infused many aspects of geomorphic thought, including
Analysis of myocardial motion using generalized spline models and tagged magnetic resonance images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Fang; Rose, Stephen E.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Veidt, Martin; Bennett, Cameron J.; Doddrell, David M.
2000-06-01
Heart wall motion abnormalities are the very sensitive indicators of common heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction and ischemia. Regional strain analysis is especially important in diagnosing local abnormalities and mechanical changes in the myocardium. In this work, we present a complete method for the analysis of cardiac motion and the evaluation of regional strain in the left ventricular wall. The method is based on the generalized spline models and tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the left ventricle. The whole method combines dynamical tracking of tag deformation, simulating cardiac movement and accurately computing the regional strain distribution. More specifically, the analysis of cardiac motion is performed in three stages. Firstly, material points within the myocardium are tracked over time using a semi-automated snake-based tag tracking algorithm developed for this purpose. This procedure is repeated in three orthogonal axes so as to generate a set of one-dimensional sample measurements of the displacement field. The 3D-displacement field is then reconstructed from this sample set by using a generalized vector spline model. The spline reconstruction of the displacement field is explicitly expressed as a linear combination of a spline kernel function associated with each sample point and a polynomial term. Finally, the strain tensor (linear or nonlinear) with three direct components and three shear components is calculated by applying a differential operator directly to the displacement function. The proposed method is computationally effective and easy to perform on tagged MR images. The preliminary study has shown potential advantages of using this method for the analysis of myocardial motion and the quantification of regional strain.
A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid and deformable ellipsoids in ductile flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Dazhi
2012-01-01
A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid or deformable objects in viscous flows is presented. It is shown that the rotation of a 3D object in a viscous fluid, regardless of the mechanical property and shape of the object, is defined by a common and simple differential equation, dQ/dt=-Θ˜Q, where Q is a matrix defined by the orientation of the object and Θ˜ is the angular velocity tensor of the object. The difference between individual cases lies only in the formulation for the angular velocity. Thus the above equation, together with Jeffery's theory for the angular velocity of rigid ellipsoids, describes the motion of rigid ellipsoids in viscous flows. The same equation, together with Eshelby's theory for the angular velocity of deformable ellipsoids, describes the motion of deformable ellipsoids in viscous flows. Both problems are solved here numerically by a general approach that is much simpler conceptually and more economic computationally, compared to previous approaches that consider the problems separately and require numerical solutions to coupled differential equations about Euler angles or spherical (polar coordinate) angles. A Runge-Kutta approximation is constructed for solving the above general differential equation. Singular cases of Eshelby's equations when the object is spheroidal or spherical are handled in this paper in a much simpler way than in previous work. The computational procedure can be readily implemented in any modern mathematics application that handles matrix operations. Four MathCad Worksheets are provided for modeling the motion of a single rigid or deformable ellipsoid immersed in viscous fluids, as well as the evolution of a system of noninteracting rigid or deformable ellipsoids embedded in viscous flows.
Kernel Affine Projection Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weifeng; Príncipe, José C.
2008-12-01
The combination of the famed kernel trick and affine projection algorithms (APAs) yields powerful nonlinear extensions, named collectively here, KAPA. This paper is a follow-up study of the recently introduced kernel least-mean-square algorithm (KLMS). KAPA inherits the simplicity and online nature of KLMS while reducing its gradient noise, boosting performance. More interestingly, it provides a unifying model for several neural network techniques, including kernel least-mean-square algorithms, kernel adaline, sliding-window kernel recursive-least squares (KRLS), and regularization networks. Therefore, many insights can be gained into the basic relations among them and the tradeoff between computation complexity and performance. Several simulations illustrate its wide applicability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Tran Viet; Kiyomiya, Osamu
2013-01-01
Northern Vietnam has experienced large earthquakes in the past, but waveforms are not mentioned in the Vietnamese Specification for Bridge Design, and the acceleration response spectrum in these specifications has not been adequately studied under Vietnamese seismic conditions. The simulation of future earthquake events based on regional seismicity and a ground motion model is necessary because of the absence of data on strong ground motions. This paper summarizes artificial ground motion procedures, which were studied using a stochastic point-source model. Simulated waveforms were employed to synthesize seismograms with VN L1 and VN L2 ground motions estimated using a 475-year return period (M 5.8) and the largest recorded earthquake events (M 7.0). Ground motions were simulated using different source parameters and their response spectra were compared with corresponding available data. As a result, target response spectra are proposed for future earthquake-resistant design in Vietnam.
Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Elz, Sigurd; Seifert, Roland; Straber, Andrea
2011-09-01
Histamine H(1)-receptor agonists and antagonists exhibit affinity to the human histamine H(4)-receptor (hH(4)R). However, the pharmacological profiles between hH(1)R and hH(4)R exhibit similarities and differences. Since suprahistaprodifen and trifluoromethylphenylhistamine show significant affinity to hH(4)R, the aim of this study was to analyse a large number of new phenylhistamines, histaprodifens and phenoprodifens at hH(4)R to extend the pharmacological profile of these compound classes at hH(4)R. The hH(4)R-RGS19 fusion protein was co-expressed with G(αi2) and G(β1γ2) in Sf9 insect cells, and [(3)H]histamine competition binding as well as GTPase assays were performed. Based on adequate crystal structures, homology models of hH(4)R were generated. Molecular modelling studies, including molecular dynamics and prediction of Gibbs energy of ligand binding, were performed in order to explain the pharmacological data at hH(4)R on molecular level. The exchange of the phenyl moiety of phenylhistamines into the diphenylpropyl moiety of histaprodifens acts, in contrast to hH(1)R, as partial agonism-inverse agonism switch at hH(4)R. Based on our studies, some phenylhistamine derivatives with significantly higher affinity at hH(4)R than at hH(1)R were identified. The molecular dynamic simulations revealed two different conformations for the highly conserved Trp(6.48), suggested to be involved in receptor activation. Furthermore, the predicted Gibbs energy of ligand binding for six selected phenylhistamines was in very good agreement with the experimentally determined affinities. We identified phenylhistamine derivatives with higher affinity at hH(4)R than at hH(1)R. Besides, we have identified partial agonism-inverse agonism switch between phenylhistamines and histaprodifens at hH(4)R. These results are very important to understand selectivity between hH(1)R and hH(4)R and to design new potent H(1)R and/or H(4)R receptor ligands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dong Ping; Edwards, Eddie; Mei, Lin; Rueckert, Daniel
2009-02-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach for coronary artery motion modeling from cardiac Computed Tomography( CT) images. The aim of this work is to develop a 4D motion model of the coronaries for image guidance in robotic-assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgery. To utilize the pre-operative cardiac images to guide the minimally invasive surgery, it is essential to have a 4D cardiac motion model to be registered with the stereo endoscopic images acquired intraoperatively using the da Vinci robotic system. In this paper, we are investigating the extraction of the coronary arteries and the modelling of their motion from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. We use a multi-scale vesselness filter to enhance vessels in the cardiac CT images. The centerlines of the arteries are extracted using a ridge traversal algorithm. Using this method the coronaries can be extracted in near real-time as only local information is used in vessel tracking. To compute the deformation of the coronaries due to cardiac motion, the motion is extracted from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. Each timeframe in this sequence is registered to the end-diastole timeframe of the sequence using a non-rigid registration algorithm based on free-form deformations. Once the images have been registered a dynamic motion model of the coronaries can be obtained by applying the computed free-form deformations to the extracted coronary arteries. To validate the accuracy of the motion model we compare the actual position of the coronaries in each time frame with the predicted position of the coronaries as estimated from the non-rigid registration. We expect that this motion model of coronaries can facilitate the planning of TECAB surgery, and through the registration with real-time endoscopic video images it can reduce the conversion rate from TECAB to conventional procedures.
Bertaccini, Edward J; Trudell, James R; Lindahl, Erik
2010-08-18
We have previously used molecular modeling and normal-mode analyses combined with experimental data to visualize a plausible model of a transmembrane ligand-gated ion channel. We also postulated how the gating motion of the channel may be affected by the presence of various ligands, especially anesthetics. As is typical for normal-mode analyses, those studies were performed in vacuo to reduce the computational complexity of the problem. While such calculations constitute an efficient way to model the large scale structural flexibility of transmembrane proteins, they can be criticized for neglecting the effects of an explicit phospholipid bilayer or hydrated environment. Here, we show the successful calculation of normal-mode motions for our model of a glycine α-1 receptor, now suspended in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer. Despite the almost uniform atomic density, the introduction of water and lipid does not grossly distort the overall gating motion. Normal-mode analysis revealed that even a fully immersed glycine α-1 receptor continues to demonstrate an iris-like channel gating motion as a low-frequency, high-amplitude natural harmonic vibration consistent with channel gating. Furthermore, the introduction of periodic boundary conditions allows the examination of simultaneous harmonic vibrations of lipid in synchrony with the protein gating motions that are compatible with reasonable lipid bilayer perturbations. While these perturbations tend to influence the overall protein motion, this work provides continued support for the iris-like motion model that characterizes gating within the family of ligand-gated ion channels.
Stephenson, William J.
2007-01-01
INTRODUCTION In support of earthquake hazards and ground motion studies in the Pacific Northwest, three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (3D Vp and Vs) and density (3D rho) models incorporating the Cascadia subduction zone have been developed for the region encompassed from about 40.2?N to 50?N latitude, and from about -122?W to -129?W longitude. The model volume includes elevations from 0 km to 60 km (elevation is opposite of depth in model coordinates). Stephenson and Frankel (2003) presented preliminary ground motion simulations valid up to 0.1 Hz using an earlier version of these models. The version of the model volume described here includes more structural and geophysical detail, particularly in the Puget Lowland as required for scenario earthquake simulations in the development of the Seattle Urban Hazards Maps (Frankel and others, 2007). Olsen and others (in press) used the model volume discussed here to perform a Cascadia simulation up to 0.5 Hz using a Sumatra-Andaman Islands rupture history. As research from the EarthScope Program (http://www.earthscope.org) is published, a wealth of important detail can be added to these model volumes, particularly to depths of the upper-mantle. However, at the time of development for this model version, no EarthScope-specific results were incorporated. This report is intended to be a reference for colleagues and associates who have used or are planning to use this preliminary model in their research. To this end, it is intended that these models will be considered a beginning template for a community velocity model of the Cascadia region as more data and results become available.
Bak, Andrzej; Wyszomirski, Miroslaw; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Smolinski, Adam; Polanski, Jaroslaw
2014-01-01
A comparative structure-affinity study of anthraquinone dyes adsorption on cellulose fibre is presented in this paper. We used receptor-dependent 4D-QSAR methods based on grid and neural (SOM) methodology coupled with IVEPLS procedure. The applied RD 4D-QSAR approach focuses mainly on the ability of mapping dye properties to verify the concept of tinctophore in dye chemistry. Moreover, the stochastic SMV procedure to investigate the predictive ability of the method for a large population of 4D-QSAR models was employed. The obtained findings were compared with the previously published RI 3D/4D-QSAR models for the corresponding anthraquinone trainings sets. The neutral (protonated) and anionic (deprotonated) forms of anthraquinone scaffold were examined in order to deal with the uncertainty of the dye ionization state. The results are comparable to both the neutral and anionic dye sets regardless of the occupancy and charge descriptors applied, respectively. It is worth noting that the SOM-4D-QSAR behaves comparably to the cubic counterpart which is observed in each training/test subset specification (4D-QSAR-Jo vs SOM- 4D-QSARo and 4D-QSAR-Jq vs SOM-4D-QSARq). Additionally, an attempt was made to specify a common set of variables contributing significantly to dye-fiber binding affinity; it was simultaneously performed for some arbitrary chosen SMV models. The presented RD 4D-QSAR methodology together with IVE-PLS procedure provides a robust and predictive modeling technique, which facilitates detailed specification of the molecular motifs significantly contributing to the fiber-dye affinity.
Evidence of multi-affinity in the Japanese stock market
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsuragi, Hiroaki
2000-04-01
Fluctuations of the Japanese stock market (Tokyo Stock Price Index: TOPIX) are analyzed using a multi-affine analysis method. In the research to date, only some simulated self-affine models have shown multi-affinity. In most experiments using observations of self-affine fractal profiles, multi-affinity has not been found. However, we find evidence of multi-affinity in fluctuations of the Japanese stock market (TOPIX). The qth-order Hurst exponent Hq varies with changes in q. This multi-affinity indicates that there are plural mechanisms that affect the same time scale as stock market price fluctuation dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.
2013-05-01
We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering
Using model order tests to determine sensory inputs in a motion study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Repperger, D. W.; Junker, A. M.
1977-01-01
In the study of motion effects on tracking performance, a problem of interest is the determination of what sensory inputs a human uses in controlling his tracking task. In the approach presented here a simple canonical model (FID or a proportional, integral, derivative structure) is used to model the human's input-output time series. A study of significant changes in reduction of the output error loss functional is conducted as different permutations of parameters are considered. Since this canonical model includes parameters which are related to inputs to the human (such as the error signal, its derivatives and integration), the study of model order is equivalent to the study of which sensory inputs are being used by the tracker. The parameters are obtained which have the greatest effect on reducing the loss function significantly. In this manner the identification procedure converts the problem of testing for model order into the problem of determining sensory inputs.
Modeling Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Surrogate Markers
Huguet, Florence; Yorke, Ellen D.; Davidson, Margaret; Zhang, Zhigang; Jackson, Andrew; Mageras, Gig S.; Wu, Abraham J.; Goodman, Karyn A.
2015-03-01
Purpose: To assess intrafractional positional variations of pancreatic tumors using 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), their impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage, the reliability of biliary stent, fiducial seeds, and the real-time position management (RPM) external marker as tumor surrogates for setup of respiratory gated treatment, and to build a correlative model of tumor motion. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the respiration-correlated 4D-CT images acquired during simulation of 36 patients with either a biliary stent (n=16) or implanted fiducials (n=20) who were treated with RPM respiratory gated intensity modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Respiratory displacement relative to end-exhalation was measured for the GTV, the biliary stent, or fiducial seeds, and the RPM marker. The results were compared between the full respiratory cycle and the gating interval. Linear mixed model was used to assess the correlation of GTV motion with the potential surrogate markers. Results: The average ± SD GTV excursions were 0.3 ± 0.2 cm in the left-right direction, 0.6 ± 0.3 cm in the anterior-posterior direction, and 1.3 ± 0.7 cm in the superior-inferior direction. Gating around end-exhalation reduced GTV motion by 46% to 60%. D95% was at least the prescribed 56 Gy in 76% of patients. GTV displacement was associated with the RPM marker, the biliary stent, and the fiducial seeds. The correlation was better with fiducial seeds and with biliary stent. Conclusions: Respiratory gating reduced the margin necessary for radiation therapy for pancreatic tumors. GTV motion was well correlated with biliary stent or fiducial seed displacements, validating their use as surrogates for daily assessment of GTV position during treatment. A patient-specific internal target volume based on 4D-CT is recommended both for gated and not-gated treatment; otherwise, our model can be used to predict the degree of GTV motion.
Using "Ridge-Spotting" as a Test for Pacific Absolute Plate Motion Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wessel, P.; Müller, D.; Williams, S.
2015-12-01
In the mid-1990s the "hotspotting" technique was developed to assess the internal consistency of Pacific absolute plate motions (APM) models derived from hotspot trails, with the assumption that mantle plumes were fixed. Being a variant of the Hough transform, hotspotting maps a dated location (1-D geometry) on the seafloor to a flow line (2-D geometry). The accumulation of intersections of these flow lines reveals the optimal location of a fixed hotspot, assuming that the plate motion model is correct. It is the optimal exploratory technique for a planet with moving rigid plates over a set of fixed hotspots. However, it seems increasingly unlikely that we live on such a planet. Avoiding hotspots altogether we introduce "ridge-spotting", another promising technique for a planet with moving rigid plates and fixed ridges. Alas, we may not be living on that planet either. Yet, ridges are expected to undergo slow changes (ridge jumps notwithstanding), but that does not necessarily imply that an optimal APM model should minimize the ridge migration speed. In particular, ridges between stationary continental plates and fast-moving oceanic plates will move relatively fast, and an APM model should be expected to reflect this motion. In contrast, ridges that have been "pinned" by large mantle upwellings for considerable periods of time might be expected to favor APM models that minimize ridge migration. Given the long-lived super-plume mantle upwelling in the Equatorial Pacific it seems possible that the East-Pacific Rise may be a candidate for the second scenario, while the Pacific-Antarctic ridge, pushing the Pacific away from a near-stationary Antarctic continent, may be a candidate for the former. We present the ridge-spotting method and test published Pacific APM models using seafloor formed at the two ridges. Preliminary results indicate that ridge-spotting identifies problematic APM models because they imply unreasonable ridge migration. Fixed hotspot APM models, but
Influence of pitch motion on the turbulent mixing in the wake of floating wind turbine models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rockel, Stanislav; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2014-11-01
Offshore wind turbines use fixed foundations, which are economical in shallow water up to a depth of 50m. For deeper water areas floating support structures are feasible alternatives. The added degrees of freedom of a floating platform introduce additional oscillations to the wind turbine and therefore influence the aerodynamics at the rotor and its wake, respectively. The influence of platform pitch motion on the wake of an upstream wind turbine and a turbine positioned in the wake is investigated. Wind tunnel experiments were performed using classical bottom fixed wind turbine models and turbines in free pitch motion. Using 2D-3C particle image elocimetry (SPIV), wakes of both turbines were measured. In both cases - fixed and pitching - the inflow conditions were kept constant. The differences in the turbulent quantities of the wake of the upwind turbine for the fixed and oscillating case are investigated and their influence the wake of the downwind turbine. Our results show that platform pitch and oscillatory motions of the wind turbine have a strong impact on the shape of the fluctuating components of the wake. Also the turbulent mixing is changed by the oscillations, which is transferred to statistical quantities of higher order in the wake of the downwind turbine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Peng; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei; Ren, Yanrong; Yang, Chao; Huang, Jian
2013-01-01
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a regression modeling methodology that establishes statistical correlation between structure feature and apparent behavior for a series of congeneric molecules quantitatively, has been widely used to evaluate the activity, toxicity and property of various small-molecule compounds such as drugs, toxicants and surfactants. However, it is surprising to see that such useful technique has only very limited applications to biomacromolecules, albeit the solved 3D atom-resolution structures of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes have accumulated rapidly in past decades. Here, we present a proof-of-concept paradigm for the modeling, prediction and interpretation of the binding affinity of 144 sequence-nonredundant, structure-available and affinity-known protein complexes (Kastritis et al. Protein Sci 20:482-491, 2011) using a biomacromolecular QSAR (BioQSAR) scheme. We demonstrate that the modeling performance and predictive power of BioQSAR are comparable to or even better than that of traditional knowledge-based strategies, mechanism-type methods and empirical scoring algorithms, while BioQSAR possesses certain additional features compared to the traditional methods, such as adaptability, interpretability, deep-validation and high-efficiency. The BioQSAR scheme could be readily modified to infer the biological behavior and functions of other biomacromolecules, if their X-ray crystal structures, NMR conformation assemblies or computationally modeled structures are available.
Simulation of strong ground motion in northern Iran using the specific barrier model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soghrat, M. R.; Khaji, N.; Zafarani, H.
2012-02-01
In this study, based upon the calibrated specific barrier model (SBM) against the latest available strong motion data, ground motion prediction equations for soil and rock sites in northern Iran are developed. The SBM may provide the most complete, simple and self-consistent description of the faulting process, which is applicable in both 'near-fault' and 'far-field' regions. Consequently, the SBM may provide consistent ground motion simulations over the entire necessary frequency range and for all distances of engineering interests. To determine source parameters in this study, we used 163 three-component records of 32 earthquakes with magnitude ranging from MW 4.9 to 7.4 in northern Iran. In the database, records with hypocentral distances less than 200 km are chosen and only earthquakes whose moment-magnitude estimates are available have been used. Furthermore, using the best available information, recording sites are classified into two main geologic categories: rock and soil. Because of the lack of site amplification information in the most regions of the world including Iran, we used the H/V ratio method for estimating the site amplification. Moreover, the Kappa factor that shows diminishing the high-frequency amplitude is determined. In this study, two data sets are considered for determining the source parameters (ΔσG and ΔσL) and the H/V ratio and the Kappa factor. Only S-wave part of signals is used in each analysis. Regression analysis is performed using 'random effects' method that considers both interseismic (event-to-event) and coseismic (within-event) variabilities to effectively deal with the problem of weighting observations from different earthquakes. The residuals are controlled against available northern Iranian strong ground motion data to verify that the model predictions are unbiased and that there are no significant residual trends with magnitude and distance. At first, it is assumed that no sign of self-similarity breakdown is observed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulusoy, İnan; Aydın, Eda; Evren Çubukçu, H.
2016-04-01
Analogue caldera models have long been used in volcanology to investigate structural evolution of volcanoes during tumescence and collapse periods. Influence of tectonic forces on volcanic features are also in the scope of those experiments. As well as interior modelling of the caldera experiments, topographic modelling is essential for digital monitoring and quantification purposes. Topographic modelling of those sandbox models is possible using laser scanning techniques. Particle tracking using still images is another way to demonstrate and quantify the structure and movement during the experiment. The quantum leap in the digital photography and computation tools and ease of access to both, provides the use of a new modelling technique in various scales and applications in Geology. Although the roots are older, Structure from Motion - Multiview stereo-photogrammetry (SfM-MVS) is a relatively new technique for surface modelling via several high resolution photographs. We have used SfM-MVS to digitally model the elevation of the tumescence and collapse cycles in analogue caldera experiments. Several sandbox experiments have been modelled using SfM-MVS technique stage by stage during tumescence and collapse periods. It has been possible to evaluate the structural evolution of the collapse models. Additionally, using particle tracking via still images acquired during the experiments, we have modelled the superficial evolution of the caldera structure. SfM-MVS is an effective low budget method for modelling in decimetric scale down to millimetre/micrometre precision.
SU-E-J-01: 3D Fluoroscopic Image Estimation From Patient-Specific 4DCBCT-Based Motion Models
Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Lewis, J; Mishra, P
2014-06-01
Purpose: 3D motion modeling derived from 4DCT images, taken days or weeks before treatment, cannot reliably represent patient anatomy on the day of treatment. We develop a method to generate motion models based on 4DCBCT acquired at the time of treatment, and apply the model to estimate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Methods: Motion models are derived through deformable registration between each 4DCBCT phase, and principal component analysis (PCA) on the resulting displacement vector fields. 3D fluoroscopic images are estimated based on cone-beam projections simulating kV treatment imaging. PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively through comparison of these cone-beam projections and projections estimated based on the motion model. Digital phantoms reproducing ten patient motion trajectories, and a physical phantom with regular and irregular motion derived from measured patient trajectories, are used to evaluate the method in terms of tumor localization, and the global voxel intensity difference compared to ground truth. Results: Experiments included: 1) assuming no anatomic or positioning changes between 4DCT and treatment time; and 2) simulating positioning and tumor baseline shifts at the time of treatment compared to 4DCT acquisition. 4DCBCT were reconstructed from the anatomy as seen at treatment time. In case 1) the tumor localization error and the intensity differences in ten patient were smaller using 4DCT-based motion model, possible due to superior image quality. In case 2) the tumor localization error and intensity differences were 2.85 and 0.15 respectively, using 4DCT-based motion models, and 1.17 and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based models. 4DCBCT performed better due to its ability to reproduce daily anatomical changes. Conclusion: The study showed an advantage of 4DCBCT-based motion models in the context of 3D fluoroscopic images estimation. Positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties were mitigated by the 4DCBCT
A Mixture Model for Robust Point Matching under Multi-Layer Motion
Ma, Jiayi; Chen, Jun; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen
2014-01-01
This paper proposes an efficient mixture model for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points under multi-layer motion. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to the true correspondences (inliers). Next we solve for correspondence by interpolating a set of spatial transformations on the putative correspondence set based on a mixture model, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a non-parametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose non-parametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We further provide a fast implementation based on sparse approximation which can achieve a significant speed-up without much performance degradation. We illustrate the proposed method on 2D and 3D real images for sparse feature correspondence, as well as a public available dataset for shape matching. The quantitative results demonstrate that our method is robust to non-rigid deformation and multi-layer/large discontinuous motion. PMID:24658087
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jie; Zhu, Dalin; Tang, Shengjing
2012-11-01
The initial trajectory design of the missile is an important part of the overall design, but often a tedious calculation and analysis process due to the large dimension nonlinear differential equations and the traditional statistical analysis methods. To improve the traditional design methods, a robust optimization concept and method are introduced in this paper to deal with the determination of the initial control point. First, the Gaussian Radial Basis Network is adopted to establish the approximate model of the missile's disturbance motion based on the disturbance motion and disturbance factors analysis. Then, a direct analytical relationship between the disturbance input and statistical results is deduced on the basis of Gaussian Radial Basis Network model. Subsequently, a robust optimization model is established aiming at the initial control point design problem and the niche Pareto genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization is adopted to solve this optimization model. An integral design example is give at last and the simulation results have verified the validity of this method.
THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL
Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.
2009-04-02
A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.
A mixture model for robust point matching under multi-layer motion.
Ma, Jiayi; Chen, Jun; Ming, Delie; Tian, Jinwen
2014-01-01
This paper proposes an efficient mixture model for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points under multi-layer motion. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to the true correspondences (inliers). Next we solve for correspondence by interpolating a set of spatial transformations on the putative correspondence set based on a mixture model, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a non-parametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose non-parametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We further provide a fast implementation based on sparse approximation which can achieve a significant speed-up without much performance degradation. We illustrate the proposed method on 2D and 3D real images for sparse feature correspondence, as well as a public available dataset for shape matching. The quantitative results demonstrate that our method is robust to non-rigid deformation and multi-layer/large discontinuous motion.
Curtis, Neil; Jones, Marc E. H.; Evans, Susan E.; Shi, JunFen; O'Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.
2010-01-01
The relationship between skull shape and the forces generated during feeding is currently under widespread scrutiny and increasingly involves the use of computer simulations such as finite element analysis. The computer models used to represent skulls are often based on computed tomography data and thus are structurally accurate; however, correctly representing muscular loading during food reduction remains a major problem. Here, we present a novel approach for predicting the forces and activation patterns of muscles and muscle groups based on their known anatomical orientation (line of action). The work was carried out for the lizard-like reptile Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia) using a sophisticated computer-based model and multi-body dynamics analysis. The model suggests that specific muscle groups control specific motions, and that during certain times in the bite cycle some muscles are highly active whereas others are inactive. The predictions of muscle activity closely correspond to data previously recorded from live Sphenodon using electromyography. Apparent exceptions can be explained by variations in food resistance, food size, food position and lower jaw motions. This approach shows considerable promise in advancing detailed functional models of food acquisition and reduction, and for use in other musculoskeletal systems where no experimental determination of muscle activity is possible, such as in rare, endangered or extinct species. PMID:19474084
Computational modeling and analysis for left ventricle motion using CT/Echo image fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kang, Nahyup; Lee, Hyoung-Euk; Kim, James D. K.
2014-03-01
In order to diagnose heart disease such as myocardial infarction, 2D strain through the speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) or the tagged MRI is often used. However out-of-plane strain measurement using STE or tagged MRI is inaccurate. Therefore, strain for whole organ which are analyzed by simulation of 3D cardiac model can be applied in clinical diagnosis. To simulate cardiac contraction in a cycle, cardiac physical properties should be reflected in cardiac model. The myocardial wall in left ventricle is represented as a transversely orthotropic hyperelastic material, with the fiber orientation varying sequentially from the epicardial surface, through about 0° at the midwall, to the endocardial surface. A time-varying elastance model is simulated to contract myocardial fiber, and physiological intraventricular systolic pressure curves are employed for the cardiac dynamics simulation in a cycle. And an exact description of the cardiac motion should be acquired in order that essential boundary conditions for cardiac simulation are obtained effectively. Real time cardiac motion can be acquired by using echocardiography and exact cardiac geometrical 3D model can be reconstructed using 3D CT data. In this research, image fusion technology from CT and echocardiography is employed in order to consider patient-specific left ventricle movement. Finally, longitudinal strain from speckle tracking echocardiography which is known to fit actual left ventricle deformation relatively well is used to verify these results.
Apparent Motion Suppresses Responses in Early Visual Cortex: A Population Code Model
Van Humbeeck, Nathalie; Putzeys, Tom; Wagemans, Johan
2016-01-01
Two stimuli alternately presented at different locations can evoke a percept of a stimulus continuously moving between the two locations. The neural mechanism underlying this apparent motion (AM) is thought to be increased activation of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons tuned to locations along the AM path, although evidence remains inconclusive. AM masking, which refers to the reduced detectability of stimuli along the AM path, has been taken as evidence for AM-related V1 activation. AM-induced neural responses are thought to interfere with responses to physical stimuli along the path and as such impair the perception of these stimuli. However, AM masking can also be explained by predictive coding models, predicting that responses to stimuli presented on the AM path are suppressed when they match the spatio-temporal prediction of a stimulus moving along the path. In the present study, we find that AM has a distinct effect on the detection of target gratings, limiting the maximum performance at high contrast levels. This masking is strongest when the target orientation is identical to the orientation of the inducers. We developed a V1-like population code model of early visual processing, based on a standard contrast normalization model. We find that AM-related activation in early visual cortex is too small to either cause masking or to be perceived as motion. Our model instead predicts strong suppression of early sensory responses during AM, consistent with the theoretical framework of predictive coding. PMID:27783622
Velocity estimation and comparison of two insect-vision-based motion-detection models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajesh, Sreeja; O'Carroll, David C.; Abbott, Derek
2003-10-01
Insects are blessed with a very efficient yet simple visual system which enable them to navigate with great ease and accuracy. Though a lot has been done in the field of insect vision, there is still not a clear understanding of how velocity is determined in biological vision systems. The dominant model for insect motion detection, first proposed by Hassentein and Reichardt in 1956 has gained widespread acceptance in the invertebrate vision community. The template model, proposed later by Horridge in 1990, permits simple tracking techniques and lends itself easily to both hardware and software. Analysis and simulation by Dror suggest that the inclusion of additional system components to perform pre-filtering, response compression, integration and adaptation, to a basic Reichardt correlator can make it less sensitive to contrast and spatial structure thereby providing a more robust estimate of local image velocity. It was found from the data obtained, from the intracellular recordings of the steady state responses of wide field neurons in the hoverfly Volucella, that the shape of the curves obtained, agreed perfectly with the theoretical predictions made by Dror. In order to compare it with the template model, an experiment was done to get the velocity response curves of the template model using the same image statistics. The results leads us to believe that the fly motion detector emulates a modified Reichardt correlator.
Model and computer simulations of the motion of DNA molecules during pulse field gel electrophoresis
Smith, S.B.; Bustamante, C. ); Heller, C. )
1991-05-28
A model is presented for the motion of individual molecules of DNA undergoing pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The molecule is represented by a chain of charged beads connected by entropic springs, and the gel is represented by a segmented tube surrounding the beads. This model differs from earlier reptation/tube models in that the tube is allowed to leak in certain places and the chain can double over and flow out of the side of the tube in kinks. It is found that these kinks often lead to the formation of U shapes, which are a major source of retardation in PFGE. The results of computer simulations using this model are compared with real DNA experimental results for the following cases: steady field motion as seen in fluorescence microscopy, mobility in steady fields, mobility in transverse field alternation gel electrophoresis (TFAGE), mobility in field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE), and linear dichroism (LD) of DNA in agarose gels during PFGE. Good agreement between the simulations and the experimental results is obtained.
Investigating motion and stability of particles in flows using numerical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurana, Nidhi
The phenomenon of transport of particles in a fluid is ubiquitous in nature and a detailed understanding of its mechanism continues to remain a fundamental question for physicists. In this thesis, we use numerical methods to study the dynamics and stability of particles advected in flows. First, we investigate the dynamics of a single, motile particle advected in a two-dimensional chaotic flow. The particle can be either spherical or ellipsoidal. Particle activity is modeled as a constant intrinsic swimming velocity and stochastic fluctuations in both the translational and rotational motions are also taken into account. Our results indicate that interaction of swimming with flow structures causes a reduction in long-term transport at low speeds. Swimmers can get trapped at the transport barriers of the flow. We show that elongated swimmers respond more strongly to the dynamical structures of the flow field. At low speeds, their macroscopic transport is reduced even further than in the case of spherical swimmers. However, at high speeds these elongated swimmers tend to get attracted to the stable manifolds of hyperbolic fixed points, leading to increased transport. We then investigate the collective dynamics of a system of particles. The particles may interact both with each other and with the background flow. We focus on two different cases. In the fist case, we examine the stability of aggregation models in a turbulent-like flow. We use a simple aggregation model in which a point-like particle moves with a constant intrinsic speed while its velocity vector is reoriented according to the average direction of motion of its neighbors. We generate a strongly fluctuating, spatially correlated background flow using Kinematic Simulation, and show that flocks are highly sensitive to this background flow and break into smaller clusters. Our results indicate that such environmental perturbations must be taken into account for models which aim to capture the collective
A Little Knowledge of Ground Motion: Explaining 3-D Physics-Based Modeling to Engineers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porter, K.
2014-12-01
Users of earthquake planning scenarios require the ground-motion map to be credible enough to justify costly planning efforts, but not all ground-motion maps are right for all uses. There are two common ways to create a map of ground motion for a hypothetical earthquake. One approach is to map the median shaking estimated by empirical attenuation relationships. The other uses 3-D physics-based modeling, in which one analyzes a mathematical model of the earth's crust near the fault rupture and calculates the generation and propagation of seismic waves from source to ground surface by first principles. The two approaches produce different-looking maps. The more-familiar median maps smooth out variability and correlation. Using them in a planning scenario can lead to a systematic underestimation of damage and loss, and could leave a community underprepared for realistic shaking. The 3-D maps show variability, including some very high values that can disconcert non-scientists. So when the USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) Haywired scenario project selected 3-D maps, it was necessary to explain to scenario users—especially engineers who often use median maps—the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the two approaches. We used authority, empirical evidence, and theory to support our choice. We prefaced our explanation with SAFRR's policy of using the best available earth science, and cited the credentials of the maps' developers and the reputation of the journal in which they published the maps. We cited recorded examples from past earthquakes of extreme ground motions that are like those in the scenario map. We explained the maps on theoretical grounds as well, explaining well established causes of variability: directivity, basin effects, and source parameters. The largest mapped motions relate to potentially unfamiliar extreme-value theory, so we used analogies to human longevity and the average age of the oldest person in samples of
Aagaard, B.T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; McCandless, K.; Nilsson, S.; Petersson, N.A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Zoback, M.L.
2008-01-01
We estimate the ground motions produce by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.
Biplane fluoroscopy for hindfoot motion analysis during gait: A model-based evaluation.
Cross, Janelle A; McHenry, Benjamin D; Molthen, Robert; Exten, Emily; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Harris, Gerald F
2017-03-01
The purpose of this study was to quantify the accuracy and precision of a biplane fluoroscopy system for model-based tracking of in vivo hindfoot motion during over-ground gait. Gait was simulated by manually manipulating a cadaver foot specimen through a biplane fluoroscopy system attached to a walkway. Three 1.6-mm diameter steel beads were implanted into the specimen to provide marker-based tracking measurements for comparison to model-based tracking. A CT scan was acquired to define a gold standard of implanted bead positions and to create 3D models for model-based tracking. Static and dynamic trials manipulating the specimen through the capture volume were performed. Marker-based tracking error was calculated relative to the gold standard implanted bead positions. The bias, precision, and root-mean-squared (RMS) error of model-based tracking was calculated relative to the marker-based measurements. The overall RMS error of the model-based tracking method averaged 0.43 ± 0.22mm and 0.66 ± 0.43° for static and 0.59 ± 0.10mm and 0.71 ± 0.12° for dynamic trials. The model-based tracking approach represents a non-invasive technique for accurately measuring dynamic hindfoot joint motion during in vivo, weight bearing conditions. The model-based tracking method is recommended for application on the basis of the study results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ratkiewicz, R.; Barnes, A.; Molvik, G. A.; Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.; Cuzzi, Jeffery N. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Large-scale fluctuations in the solar wind plasma upstream of the heliospheric termination shock (TS) will cause inward and outward motions of the shock. Using numerical techniques, we extend an earlier strictly one-dimensional (planar) analytic gas dynamic model to spherical symmetry to investigate the features of global behavior of shock motion. Our starting point is to establish a steady numerical solution of the gasdynamic equations describing the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. We then introduce disturbances of the solar wind dynamic pressure at an inner boundary, and follow the subsequent evolution of the system, especially the motion of the termination shock. Our model solves spherically symmetric gasdynamic equations as an initial-boundary value problem. The equations in conservative form are solved using a fully implicit Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) upwind scheme with Roe-type Riemann solver. Boundary conditions are given by the solar wind parameters on an inner spherical boundary, where they are allowed to vary with time for unsteady calculations, and by a constant pressure (roughly simulating the effect of the local interstellar medium) on an outer boundary. We find that immediately after the interaction, the shock moves with speeds given by the earlier analogous analytic models. However, as the termination shock propagates it begins to slow down, seeking a new equilibrium position. In addition, the disturbance transmitted through the TS, either a shock or rarefaction wave, will encounter the heliopause boundary and be reflected back. The reflected signal will encounter the TS, causing it to oscillate. The phenomenon may be repeated for a number of reflections, resulting in a "ringing" of the outer heliosphere.
Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross
2014-12-15
Purpose: Precise prediction of respiratory motion is a prerequisite for real-time motion compensation techniques such as beam, dynamic couch, or dynamic multileaf collimator tracking. Collection of tumor motion data to train the prediction model is required for most algorithms. To avoid exposure of patients to additional dose from imaging during this procedure, the feasibility of training a linear respiratory motion prediction model with an external surrogate signal is investigated and its performance benchmarked against training the model with tumor positions directly. Methods: The authors implement a lung tumor motion prediction algorithm based on linear ridge regression that is suitable to overcome system latencies up to about 300 ms. Its performance is investigated on a data set of 91 patient breathing trajectories recorded from fiducial marker tracking during radiotherapy delivery to the lung of ten patients. The expected 3D geometric error is quantified as a function of predictor lookahead time, signal sampling frequency and history vector length. Additionally, adaptive model retraining is evaluated, i.e., repeatedly updating the prediction model after initial training. Training length for this is gradually increased with incoming (internal) data availability. To assess practical feasibility model calculation times as well as various minimum data lengths for retraining are evaluated. Relative performance of model training with external surrogate motion data versus tumor motion data is evaluated. However, an internal–external motion correlation model is not utilized, i.e., prediction is solely driven by internal motion in both cases. Results: Similar prediction performance was achieved for training the model with external surrogate data versus internal (tumor motion) data. Adaptive model retraining can substantially boost performance in the case of external surrogate training while it has little impact for training with internal motion data. A minimum
Bailey, Cheryl P
2009-01-01
This new biochemistry laboratory course moves through a progression of experiments that generates a platform for guided inquiry-based experiments. RNase One gene is isolated from prokaryotic genomic DNA, expressed as a tagged protein, affinity purified, and tested for activity and substrate specificity. Student pairs present detailed explanations of materials and methods and the semester culminates in a poster session. Experimental plans take into account the expense and time required to move from gene isolation to enzyme assays. This combination of instructor-guided and student-designed experiments is a manageable foray into guided inquiry-based learning in a biochemistry laboratory course, while providing a cohesive story and context for individual experiments.
Zhang, Shuxing; Golbraikh, Alexander; Tropsha, Alexander
2009-01-01
Novel geometrical chemical descriptors have been derived based on the computational geometry of protein-ligand interfaces and Pauling atomic electronegativities (EN). Delaunay tessellation has been applied to a diverse set of 517 X-ray characterized protein-ligand complexes yielding a unique collection of interfacial nearest neighbor atomic quadruplets for each complex. Each quadruplet composition was characterized by a single descriptor calculated as the sum of the EN values for the four participating atom types. We termed these simple descriptors generated from atomic EN values and derived with the Delaunay Tessellation the ENTess descriptors and used them in the variable selection k-Nearest Neighbor quantitative structure-binding affinity relationship (QSBR) studies of 264 diverse protein-ligand complexes with known binding constants. 24 complexes with chemically dissimilar ligands were set aside as an independent validation set, and the remaining dataset of 240 complexes was divided into multiple training and test sets. The best models were characterized by the leave-one-out cross-validated correlation coefficient q2 as high as 0.66 for the training set and the correlation coefficient R2 as high as 0.83 for the test set. High predictive power of these models was confirmed independently by applying them to the validation set of 24 complexes yielding R2 as high as 0.85. We conclude that QSBR models built with the ENTess descriptors can be instrumental for predicting the binding affinity of receptor-ligand complexes. PMID:16640331
Modelling surface motion and spall at the Nevada Test Site. Los Alamos Source Region Project
App, F.N.; Brunish, W.M.
1992-01-01
Spallation of the ground surface accompanies all underground nuclear explosions of significant yield. This report discusses computer modelling used to investigate the physical processes that govern spallation and the amplitude and wavelength of motion at the free surface under a variety of conditions. Four events are selected: MERLIN which was conducted in desert alluvium; HEARTS which was conducted in tuff beneath the water table in Yucca Flat; TOWANDA which was conducted beneath the water table on Pahute Mesa; and HOUSTON which was conducted above the water table in very dense rock and Pahute Mesa. These span the range of test environments for Los Alamos underground nuclear tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasserman, Evgeny; Rustad, James R.; Felmy, Andrew R.
1999-03-01
Calculation of the energy of a charged defect on a surface in supercell geometry is discussed. An important example of such a calculation is evaluation of surface proton affinities and acidities, as adding or removing a proton creates a charged unit cell. Systems with periodic boundary conditions in three spatial directions and a vacuum gap between slabs are demonstrated to be inadequate for unit cells having non-zero ionic charge and uniform neutralizing background. In such a system the calculated energy diverges linearly with the thickness of the vacuum gap. A system periodic in two directions and finite in the direction perpendicular to the surface (2-D PBC) with the neutralizing background distributed as the surface charge density is free from this problem. Furthermore, the correction for the interaction of the charged defect with its own translational images is needed to speed up the convergence to the infinite dilution limit. The expression for the asymptotic correction for the energy of interaction of a charged defect with its translational images in 2-D PBC geometry has been developed in this study. The asymptotic correction is evaluated as the interaction energy of a 2-D translationally periodic array of point charges located above and below the plate of non-uniform dielectric. This is a generalization of the method of M. Leslie and M.J. Gillan [J. Phys. C, 18 (1985) 973] for the calculation of the energy of a charged defect in bulk crystals. The usefulness of this correction was demonstrated on two test cases involving the calculation of proton affinity and acidity at the (012) surface of hematite. The proposed method is likely to be important in ab initio calculations of the energy effect of the surface protonation reactions, where computational limitations dictate a small size for the unit cell.
Wang, Junqin; Liu, Jiluo; Pan, Leilei; Qi, Ruirui; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Wei; Cai, Yiling
2017-01-01
Sensory mismatch between actual motion information and anticipated sensory patterns (internal model) is the etiology of motion sickness (MS). Some evidence supports that hippocampus might involve the neural storage of the “internal model”. This study established an “internal model” acquisition-retention behavioral model using a repeated habituation rotation training protocol. We tried to identify the hippocampal subregion involved in “internal model” retention using chemical lesion methods. Hippocampal kinases (CaMK, CaMKIV, CREB and ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the target subregion was assayed and the effects of kinase inhibitors (KN93 or U0126) on “internal model” retention were investigated. The activities of potential kinases (CaMKII and CREB) were also examined in otoliths deficit het/het mice. In habituated rats, CA1 lesion reproduced MS-related behavioral responses on “internal model” retention day. Habituation training increased CaMKII and CREB activity but had no effect on CaMKIV and ERK1/2 activity in the CA1, while inhibition of CaMKII but not ERK1/2 impaired “internal model” retention. In het/het mice, CaMKII and CREB were not activated in the CA1 on the retention day. These results suggested that CaMKII/CREB pathway might potentially contribute to the storage of the “internal model” in the hippocampal CA1 after motion sickness induced by vestibular stimulation. PMID:28230177
Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Alsbou, N
2015-06-15
Purpose: To develop 4D-cone-beam CT (CBCT) algorithm by motion modeling that extracts actual length, CT numbers level and motion amplitude of a mobile target retrospective to image reconstruction by motion modeling. Methods: The algorithm used three measurable parameters: apparent length and blurred CT number distribution of a mobile target obtained from CBCT images to determine actual length, CT-number value of the stationary target, and motion amplitude. The predictions of this algorithm were tested with mobile targets that with different well-known sizes made from tissue-equivalent gel which was inserted into a thorax phantom. The phantom moved sinusoidally in one-direction to simulate respiratory motion using eight amplitudes ranging 0–20mm. Results: Using this 4D-CBCT algorithm, three unknown parameters were extracted that include: length of the target, CT number level, speed or motion amplitude for the mobile targets retrospective to image reconstruction. The motion algorithms solved for the three unknown parameters using measurable apparent length, CT number level and gradient for a well-defined mobile target obtained from CBCT images. The motion model agreed with measured apparent lengths which were dependent on the actual target length and motion amplitude. The gradient of the CT number distribution of the mobile target is dependent on the stationary CT number level, actual target length and motion amplitude. Motion frequency and phase did not affect the elongation and CT number distribution of the mobile target and could not be determined. Conclusion: A 4D-CBCT motion algorithm was developed to extract three parameters that include actual length, CT number level and motion amplitude or speed of mobile targets directly from reconstructed CBCT images without prior knowledge of the stationary target parameters. This algorithm provides alternative to 4D-CBCT without requirement to motion tracking and sorting of the images into different breathing phases
Bifurcation and Resonance of a Mathematical Model for Non-Linear Motion of a Flooded Ship in Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murashige, S.; Aihara, K.; Komuro, M.
1999-02-01
A flooded ship can exhibit undesirable non-linear roll motion even in waves of moderate amplitude. In order to understand the mechanism of this non-linear phenomenon, the non-linearly coupled dynamics of a ship and flood water are considered using a mathematical model for the simplified motion of a flooded ship in regular beam waves. This paper describes bifurcation and resonance of this coupled system. A bifurcation diagram shows that large-amplitude subharmonic motion exists in a wide range of parameters, and that the Hopf bifurcation is observed due to the dynamic effects of flood water. Resonance frequencies can be determined by linearization of this model. Comparison between the resonant points and the bifurcation curves suggests that non-linear resonance of this model can bring about large-amplitude subharmonic motion, even if it is in the non-resonate state of the linearized system.
Modeling the transient aerodynamic effects during the motion of a flexible trailing edge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolff, T.; Seume, J. R.
2016-09-01
Wind turbine blades have been becoming longer and more slender during the last few decades. The longer lever arm results in higher stresses at the blade root. Hence, the unsteady loads induced by turbulence, gust, or wind shear increase. One promising way to control these loads is to use flexible trailing edges near the blade tip. The unsteady effects which appear during the motion of a flexible trailing edge must be considered for the load calculation during the design process because of their high influence on aeroelastic effects and hence on the fatigue loads. This is not yet possible in most of the wind turbine simulation environments. Consequently, an empirical model is developed in the present study which accounts for unsteady effects during the motion of the trailing edge. The model is based on Fourier analyses of results generated with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of a typical thin airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The validation showed that the model fits Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results simulated with a random time series of the deflection angle.
Understanding Ground Motion in Las Vegas: Insights from Data Analysis and Two-Dimensional Modeling
Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D
2004-02-05
Seismic ground motions are amplified in low velocity sedimentary basins relative to adjacent sites on high velocity hard rock. We used historical recordings of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquake recordings in Las Vegas Valley to quantify frequency-dependent basin amplification using Standard Spectral Ratios. We show that amplifications, referred to as site response, can reach a factor of 10 in the frequency band 0.4-2.0 Hz. Band-averaged site response between 0.4-2.0 Hz is strongly correlated with basin depth. However, it is also well known that site response is related to shallow shear-wave velocity structure. We simulated low frequency (f<1Hz) ground motion and site response with two-dimensional elastic finite difference simulations. We demonstrate that physically plausible models of the shallow subsurface, including low velocity sedimentary structure, can predict relative amplification as well as some of the complexity in the observed waveforms. This study demonstrates that site response can be modeled without invoking complex and computationally expensive three-dimensional structural models.
Storage for free: a surprising property of a simple gain-control model of motion aftereffects.
van de Grind, Wim A; van der Smagt, Maarten J; Verstraten, Frans A J
2004-01-01
If a motion aftereffect (MAE) for given adaptation conditions has a duration T s, and the eyes are closed after adaptation during a waiting period tw=T s before testing, an unexpected MAE of a 'residual' duration TrT s is experienced. This effect is called 'storage' and it is often quantified by a storage factor sigma=TrT/T, which can reach values up to about 0.7-0.8. The phenomenon and its name have invited explanations in terms of inhibition of recovery during darkness. We present a model based on the opposite idea, that an effective test stimulus quickens recovery relative to darkness or other ineffective test stimuli. The model is worked out in mathematical detail and proves to explain 'storage' data from the literature, on the static MAE (sMAE: an MAE experienced for static test stimuli). We also present results of a psychophysical experiment with moving random pixel arrays, quantifying storage phenomena both for the sMAE and the dynamic MAE (dMAE: an MAE experienced for a random dynamic noise test stimulus). Storage factors for the dMAE are lower than for the sMAE. Our model also gives an excellent description of these new data on storage of the dMAE. The term 'storage' might therefore be a misnomer. If an effective test stimulus influences all direction tuned motion sensors indiscriminately and thus speeds up equalization of gains, one gets the storage phenomenon for free.
A Novel Model-Based Driving Behavior Recognition System Using Motion Sensors
Wu, Minglin; Zhang, Sheng; Dong, Yuhan
2016-01-01
In this article, a novel driving behavior recognition system based on a specific physical model and motion sensory data is developed to promote traffic safety. Based on the theory of rigid body kinematics, we build a specific physical model to reveal the data change rule during the vehicle moving process. In this work, we adopt a nine-axis motion sensor including a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, and apply a Kalman filter for noise elimination and an adaptive time window for data extraction. Based on the feature extraction guided by the built physical model, various classifiers are accomplished to recognize different driving behaviors. Leveraging the system, normal driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with caution) and aggressive driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with a sudden) can be classified with a high accuracy of 93.25%. Compared with traditional driving behavior recognition methods using machine learning only, the proposed system possesses a solid theoretical basis, performs better and has good prospects. PMID:27775625
Upscaling a Model for the Thermally-Driven Motion of Screw Dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudson, T.
2017-04-01
We formulate and study a stochastic model for the thermally-driven motion of interacting straight screw dislocations in a cylindrical domain with a convex polygonal cross-section. Motion is modelled as a Markov jump process, where waiting times for transitions from state to state are assumed to be exponentially distributed with rates expressed in terms of the potential energy barrier between the states. Assuming the energy of the system is described by a discrete lattice model, a precise asymptotic description of the energy barriers between states is obtained. Through scaling of the various physical constants, two dimensionless parameters are identified which govern the behaviour of the resulting stochastic evolution. In an asymptotic regime where these parameters remain fixed, the process is found to satisfy a Large Deviations Principle. A sufficiently explicit description of the corresponding rate functional is obtained such that the most probable path of the dislocation configuration may be described as the solution of Discrete Dislocation Dynamics with an explicit anisotropic mobility which depends on the underlying lattice structure.
A Novel Model-Based Driving Behavior Recognition System Using Motion Sensors.
Wu, Minglin; Zhang, Sheng; Dong, Yuhan
2016-10-20
In this article, a novel driving behavior recognition system based on a specific physical model and motion sensory data is developed to promote traffic safety. Based on the theory of rigid body kinematics, we build a specific physical model to reveal the data change rule during the vehicle moving process. In this work, we adopt a nine-axis motion sensor including a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, and apply a Kalman filter for noise elimination and an adaptive time window for data extraction. Based on the feature extraction guided by the built physical model, various classifiers are accomplished to recognize different driving behaviors. Leveraging the system, normal driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with caution) and aggressive driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with a sudden) can be classified with a high accuracy of 93.25%. Compared with traditional driving behavior recognition methods using machine learning only, the proposed system possesses a solid theoretical basis, performs better and has good prospects.
Subject-specific liver motion modeling in MRI: a feasibility study on spatiotemporal prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noorda, Yolanda H.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.
2017-04-01
A liver motion model based on registration of dynamic MRI data, as previously proposed by the authors, was extended with temporal prediction and respiratory signal data. The potential improvements of these extensions with respect to the original model were investigated. Additional evaluations were performed to investigate the limitations of the model regarding temporal prediction and extreme breathing motion. Data were acquired of four volunteers, with breathing instructions and a respiratory belt. The model was built from these data using spatial prediction only and using temporal forward prediction of 300 ms to 1200 ms, using the extended Kalman filter. From temporal prediction of 0 ms to 1200 ms ahead, the Dice coefficient of liver overlap decreased with 0.85%, the median liver surface distance increased with 20.6% and the vessel misalignment increased with 20%. The mean vessel misalignment was 2.9 mm for the original method, 3.42 mm for spatial prediction with a respiratory signal and 4.01 mm for prediction of 1200 ms ahead with a respiratory signal. Although the extension of the model to temporal prediction yields a decreased prediction accuracy, the results are still acceptable. The use of the breathing signal as input to the model is feasible. Sudden changes in the breathing pattern can yield large errors. However, these errors only persist during a short time interval, after which they can be corrected automatically. Therefore, this model could be useful in a clinical setting.
Fassi, Aurora; Schaerer, Joël; Fernandes, Mathieu; Riboldi, Marco; Sarrut, David; Baroni, Guido
2014-01-01
Purpose: To develop a tumor tracking method based on a surrogate-driven motion model, which provides noninvasive dynamic localization of extracranial targets for the compensation of respiration-induced intrafraction motion in high-precision radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The proposed approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, derived a priori from 4-dimensional planning computed tomography (CT) images. Model parameters (respiratory baseline, amplitude, and phase) are retrieved and updated at each treatment fraction according to in-room radiography acquisition and optical surface imaging. The baseline parameter is adapted to the interfraction variations obtained from the daily cone beam (CB) CT scan. The respiratory amplitude and phase are extracted from an external breathing surrogate, estimated from the displacement of the patient thoracoabdominal surface, acquired with a noninvasive surface imaging device. The developed method was tested on a database of 7 lung cancer patients, including the synchronized information on internal and external respiratory motion during a CBCT scan. Results: About 30 seconds of simultaneous acquisition of CBCT and optical surface images were analyzed for each patient. The tumor trajectories identified in CBCT projections were used as reference and compared with the target trajectories estimated from surface displacement with the a priori motion model. The resulting absolute differences between the reference and estimated tumor motion along the 2 image dimensions ranged between 0.7 and 2.4 mm; the measured phase shifts did not exceed 7% of the breathing cycle length. Conclusions: We investigated a tumor tracking method that integrates breathing motion information provided by the 4-dimensional planning CT with surface imaging at the time of treatment, representing an alternative approach to point-based external–internal correlation models. Although an in-room radiograph-based assessment of the
A second-order Markov process for modeling diffusive motion through spatial discretization.
Sant, Marco; Papadopoulos, George K; Theodorou, Doros N
2008-01-14
A new "mesoscopic" stochastic model has been developed to describe the diffusive behavior of a system of particles at equilibrium. The model is based on discretizing space into slabs by drawing equispaced parallel planes along a coordinate direction. A central role is played by the probability that a particle exits a slab via the face opposite to the one through which it entered (transmission probability), as opposed to exiting via the same face through which it entered (reflection probability). A simple second-order Markov process invoking this probability is developed, leading to an expression for the self-diffusivity, applicable for large slab widths, consistent with a continuous formulation of diffusional motion. This model is validated via molecular dynamics simulations in a bulk system of soft spheres across a wide range of densities.
Relativistic Brownian motion: from a microscopic binary collision model to the Langevin equation.
Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter
2006-11-01
The Langevin equation (LE) for the one-dimensional relativistic Brownian motion is derived from a microscopic collision model. The model assumes that a heavy pointlike Brownian particle interacts with the lighter heat bath particles via elastic hard-core collisions. First, the commonly known, nonrelativistic LE is deduced from this model, by taking into account the nonrelativistic conservation laws for momentum and kinetic energy. Subsequently, this procedure is generalized to the relativistic case. There, it is found that the relativistic stochastic force is still delta correlated (white noise) but no longer corresponds to a Gaussian white noise process. Explicit results for the friction and momentum-space diffusion coefficients are presented and discussed.
The benefits of extended plate motion history in mantle circulation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, Peter; Davies, Huw; Davies, Rhodri; Hochard, Cyril; Stampfli, Gerard
2010-05-01
Mantle Circulation Models (MCMs) are mantle convection simulations conditioned with plate motion history. Due to difficulties in reconstructing plate motions beyond ≈ 120 Ma, MCMs often only incorporate the most recent 120 Myr of plate tectonic evolution. We find that such models are strongly influenced by initial conditions. The development of a new series of tectonic reconstructions extending back to the Triassic (230 Ma) and including careful reconstruction of the oceanic parts of the plates (modified from Stampfli and Borel, 2004, Stampfli et al. 2008 and references therein) should prove to be of huge importance to MCMs. In this study we present a comparison between the traditionally used 120 Myr and the latest 230 Myr plate motion histories. We use the three-dimensional spherical mantle convection code TERRA (Bunge et al., 2003) to simulate convection at Earth like vigour. Here we apply the plate motion history as a surface velocity boundary condition to drive the internal convection of an already well-mixed system. The forward models from a chosen starting point to present day yield information on mantle temperature (as well as pressure, velocity and material properties) throughout the volume. One of the ways to validate our results is to compare these with tomographic models. Seismic tomography provides us with a snapshot of Earth's mantle at present day. Assuming that the mantle is driven largely by thermal convection, we can assume that the seismically fast regions are associated with cooler, denser material. The most significant of these can be interpreted as remnants of subducted slabs (Hafkenscheid et al 2006, van der Meer et al. 2010). We convert the temperatures predicted by the MCM to seismic velocities using the latest techniques (e.g. Cobden et al., 2008) and compare the calculated velocities to a range of seismic tomography models (both P and S wave). This way we can examine the validity of the surface velocity boundary condition and identify
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamali, Yousef; Jamali, Tahereh; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.
2013-07-01
Integrins are cell-surface protein heterodimers that coordinate cellular responses to mechanochemical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and stimulate the assembly of small adhesion complexes, which are the initial sites of cell-ECM adhesion. Clustering of integrins is known to mediate signaling through a variety of signal transduction pathways. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of integrin clustering are poorly understood. In this paper, we develop computational models, using agent based modeling (ABM) techniques, to explore two key underlying mechanisms of integrin clustering, namely ligand organization and integrin homo-oligomerization. Our models help to shed light on the potential roles ligand clustering and integrin homo-oligomerization may play in controlling integrin clustering. A potential mechanism for the clustering of integrin is discussed and the effects of other parameters such as integrin-ligand affinity, membrane crowdedness and ligand mobility on integrin clustering are examined.
Bruna-Larenas, Tamara; Gómez-Jeria, Juan S.
2012-01-01
We report the results of a search for model-based relationships between mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding affinity and molecular structure for a group of molecules having in common a morphine structural core. The wave functions and local reactivity indices were obtained at the ZINDO/1 and B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ levels of theory for comparison. New developments in the expression for the drug-receptor interaction energy expression allowed several local atomic reactivity indices to be included, such as local electronic chemical potential, local hardness, and local electrophilicity. These indices, together with a new proposal for the ordering of the independent variables, were incorporated in the statistical study. We found and discussed several statistically significant relationships for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding affinity at both levels of theory. Some of the new local reactivity indices incorporated in the theory appear in several equations for the first time in the history of model-based equations. Interaction pharmacophores were generated for mu, delta, and kappa receptors. We discuss possible differences regulating binding and selectivity in opioid receptor subtypes. This study, contrarily to the statistically backed ones, is able to provide a microscopic insight of the mechanisms involved in the binding process. PMID:25379287
Bruna-Larenas, Tamara; Gómez-Jeria, Juan S
2012-01-01
We report the results of a search for model-based relationships between mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding affinity and molecular structure for a group of molecules having in common a morphine structural core. The wave functions and local reactivity indices were obtained at the ZINDO/1 and B3LYP/6-31G(∗∗) levels of theory for comparison. New developments in the expression for the drug-receptor interaction energy expression allowed several local atomic reactivity indices to be included, such as local electronic chemical potential, local hardness, and local electrophilicity. These indices, together with a new proposal for the ordering of the independent variables, were incorporated in the statistical study. We found and discussed several statistically significant relationships for mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor binding affinity at both levels of theory. Some of the new local reactivity indices incorporated in the theory appear in several equations for the first time in the history of model-based equations. Interaction pharmacophores were generated for mu, delta, and kappa receptors. We discuss possible differences regulating binding and selectivity in opioid receptor subtypes. This study, contrarily to the statistically backed ones, is able to provide a microscopic insight of the mechanisms involved in the binding process.
Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, Robert A.
1991-01-01
Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David
2016-04-01
Our investigations are focused on the influence of different land hydrosphere surface parameters (precipitation, evaporation, total runoff, soil moisture, accumulated snow) on polar motion excitation functions at seasonal and nonseasonal timescales. Here these different variables are obtained from the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model, Grid point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2), which is a climate model from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5); with CMIP5 being composed of separate component models of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface. In this study Terrestrial Water Storage TWS changes were determined as: differences between the precipitation, evaporation and total surface runoff content, and as the total soil moisture content being a sum of soil moisture and snowfall flux changes. We compare the model-based data with those from estimates of the Equivalent Water Thickness determined by GRACE satellite observations from the Center for Space Research (CSR). The transfer of angular momentum from global geophysical fluids to the solid Earth is described by the equatorial components χ1 and χ2 of the polar motion excitation functions. Observationally, these so-called geodetic excitation functions of polar motion can be determined on the basis of the equations of motion by using observed x, y components of the pole. The second-degree, first-order coefficients of the Earth gravity field are proportional to variations of the equatorial component χ1, χ2 of the series of the gravimetric excitation function of polar motion. This gravimetric function can be compared with the mass term of geodetic excitation of polar motion. Our analysis comprises (1) determinations and comparisons of regional patterns of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion, and (2) comparison of the global hydrological function determined from the FGOALS-g2 and GRACE data with a hydrological signal in the geodetic excitation function of
Teske, Hendrik; Bartelheimer, Kathrin; Meis, Jan; Bendl, Rolf; Stoiber, Eva; Giske, Kristina
2017-03-28
The use of deformable image registration methods in the context of adaptive radiotherapy leads to uncertainties in the simulation of the administered dose distributions during the treatment course. Evaluation of these methods is a prerequisite to decide if a plan adaptation will improve the individual treatment. Current approaches using manual references limit the validity of evaluation, especially for low contrast regions. In particular for the head and neck region, the highly flexible anatomy and the low soft tissue contrast in control images pose a challenge to image registration and its evaluation. Biomechanical models promise to overcome this issue by providing anthropomorphic motion modelling of the patient. We introduce a novel biomechanical motion model for generation and sampling of different postures of the head and neck anatomy. Motion propagation behaviour of the individual bones is defined by an underlying kinematic model. This model interconnects the bones by joints and thus is capable to provide a wide range of motion. Triggered by the motion of the individual bones, soft tissue deformation is described by an extended heterogeneous tissue model based on the chainmail approach. This extension, for the first time, allows the propagation of decaying rotations within soft tissue without the necessity of explicit tissue segmentation. Overall motion simulation and sampling of deformed CT scans including a basic noise model is achieved within 30 seconds. The proposed biomechanical motion model for the head and neck site generates displacement vector fields on a voxel basis, approximating arbitrary anthropomorphic postures of the patient. It was developed with the intention to provide input data for the evaluation of deformable image registration.
Minimal model of a cell connecting amoebic motion and adaptive transport networks.
Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Shirakawa, Tomohiro; Niizato, Takayuki; Haruna, Taichi
2008-08-21
A cell is a minimal self-sustaining system that can move and compute. Previous work has shown that a unicellular slime mold, Physarum, can be utilized as a biological computer based on cytoplasmic flow encapsulated by a membrane. Although the interplay between the modification of the boundary of a cell and the cytoplasmic flow surrounded by the boundary plays a key role in Physarum computing, no model of a cell has been developed to describe this interplay. Here we propose a toy model of a cell that shows amoebic motion and can solve a maze, Steiner minimum tree problem and a spanning tree problem. Only by assuming that cytoplasm is hardened after passing external matter (or softened part) through a cell, the shape of the cell and the cytoplasmic flow can be changed. Without cytoplasm hardening, a cell is easily destroyed. This suggests that cytoplasmic hardening and/or sol-gel transformation caused by external perturbation can keep a cell in a critical state leading to a wide variety of shapes and motion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pototzky, Anthony S.
2010-01-01
A methodology is described for generating first-order plant equations of motion for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic applications. The description begins with the process of generating data files representing specialized mode-shapes, such as rigid-body and control surface modes, using both PATRAN and NASTRAN analysis. NASTRAN executes the 146 solution sequence using numerous Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP) calls to import the mode-shape files and to perform the aeroelastic response analysis. The aeroelastic response analysis calculates and extracts structural frequencies, generalized masses, frequency-dependent generalized aerodynamic force (GAF) coefficients, sensor deflections and load coefficients data as text-formatted data files. The data files are then re-sequenced and re-formatted using a custom written FORTRAN program. The text-formatted data files are stored and coefficients for s-plane equations are fitted to the frequency-dependent GAF coefficients using two Interactions of Structures, Aerodynamics and Controls (ISAC) programs. With tabular files from stored data created by ISAC, MATLAB generates the first-order aeroservoelastic plant equations of motion. These equations include control-surface actuator, turbulence, sensor and load modeling. Altitude varying root-locus plot and PSD plot results for a model of the F-18 aircraft are presented to demonstrate the capability.
Model of J_2 perturbed satellite relative motion with time-varying differential drag
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaias, Gabriella; Ardaens, Jean-Sébastien; Montenbruck, Oliver
2015-12-01
This work revisits the modeling of the relative motion between satellites flying in near-circular low-Earth-orbits. The motion is described through relative orbital elements and both Earth's oblateness and differential drag perturbations are addressed. With respect to the former formulation, the description of the J_2 effect is improved by including also the changes that this perturbation produces in both relative mean longitude and relative inclination vector during a drifting phase, when a non-vanishing relative semi-major axis is required. The second major improvement consists in a general empirical formulation to include the mean effects produced by non-conservative perturbations, such as the differential aerodynamic drag acceleration. As a result, in addition to the well-known actions on the relative semi-major axis and on the mean along-track separation, the model is able to reflect the mean variation of the relative eccentricity vector due to atmospheric density oscillations produced by day and night transitions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Antonio
2005-03-01
It is well-known that the mathematical theory of Brownian motion was first developed in the Ph. D. thesis of Louis Bachelier for the French stock market before Einstein [1]. In Ref. [2] we studied the so-called Heston model, where the stock-price dynamics is governed by multiplicative Brownian motion with stochastic diffusion coefficient. We solved the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation exactly and found an analytic formula for the time-dependent probability distribution of stock price changes (returns). The formula interpolates between the exponential (tent-shaped) distribution for short time lags and the Gaussian (parabolic) distribution for long time lags. The theoretical formula agrees very well with the actual stock-market data ranging from the Dow-Jones index [2] to individual companies [3], such as Microsoft, Intel, etc. [] [1] Louis Bachelier, ``Th'eorie de la sp'eculation,'' Annales Scientifiques de l''Ecole Normale Sup'erieure, III-17:21-86 (1900).[] [2] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Probability distribution of returns in the Heston model with stochastic volatility,'' Quantitative Finance 2, 443--453 (2002); Erratum 3, C15 (2003). [cond-mat/0203046] [] [3] A. C. Silva, R. E. Prange, and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Exponential distribution of financial returns at mesoscopic time lags: a new stylized fact,'' Physica A 344, 227--235 (2004). [cond-mat/0401225
Qiao, Dan; Nikitina, Lyudmila A; Buznikov, Gennady A; Lauder, Jean M; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A
2003-11-01
Embryonic development in the sea urchin requires trophic actions of the same neurotransmitters that participate in mammalian brain assembly. We evaluated the development of the high-affinity choline transporter, which controls acetylcholine synthesis. A variety of developmental neurotoxicants affect this transporter in mammalian brain. [3H]Hemicholinium-3 binding to the transporter was found in the cell membrane fraction at stages from the unfertilized egg to pluteus, with a binding affinity comparable with that seen in mammalian brain. Over the course of development, the concentration of transporter sites rose more than 3-fold, achieving concentrations comparable with those of cholinergically enriched mammalian brain regions. Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), a competitive inhibitor of choline transport, elicited dysmorphology beginning at the mid-blastula stage, with anomalies beginning progressively later as the concentration of DMAE was lowered. Pretreatment, cotreatment, or delayed treatment with acetylcholine or choline prevented the adverse effects of DMAE. Because acetylcholine was protective at a lower threshold, the DMAE-induced defects were most likely mediated by its effects on acetylcholine synthesis. Transient removal of the hyaline layer enabled a charged transport inhibitor, hemicholinium-3, to penetrate sufficiently to elicit similar anomalies, which were again prevented by acetylcholine or choline. These results indicate that the developing sea urchin possesses a high-affinity choline transporter analogous to that found in the mammalian brain, and, as in mammals, the functioning of this transporter plays a key role in the developmental, trophic activity of acetylcholine. The sea urchin model may thus be useful in high-throughput screening of suspected developmental neurotoxicants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valić, S.; Rakvin, B.; Veksli, Z.; Pečar, S.
1992-11-01
The slow molecular motion of several deuterated and undeuterated spin probes differing in size and shape, embedded in a model glycerol—water matrix, have been studied by double-modulated electron spin resonance (DMESR). The DMESR spectra as a function of temperature reveal two motional regions. From the experimental linewidths of both deuterated and undeuterated spin probes in the lower temperature region and simulated data based on the variation of T1 relaxation, two different dynamics of the -CH 3 groups attached to piperidine ring were resolved. Our results indicate that the onset of the whole spin probe motion depends on the type of probe and the matrix density.
Interplay between chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent barred galaxy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manos, T.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch
2013-06-01
We study the distinction and quantification of chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent Hamiltonian barred galaxy model. Recently, a strong correlation was found between the strength of the bar and the presence of chaotic motion in this system, as models with relatively strong bars were shown to exhibit stronger chaotic behavior compared to those having a weaker bar component. Here, we attempt to further explore this connection by studying the interplay between chaotic and regular behavior of star orbits when the parameters of the model evolve in time. This happens for example when one introduces linear time dependence in the mass parameters of the model to mimic, in some general sense, the effect of self-consistent interactions of the actual N-body problem. We thus observe, in this simple time-dependent model also, that the increase of the bar’s mass leads to an increase of the system’s chaoticity. We propose a new way of using the generalized alignment index (GALI) method as a reliable criterion to estimate the relative fraction of chaotic versus regular orbits in such time-dependent potentials, which proves to be much more efficient than the computation of Lyapunov exponents. In particular, GALI is able to capture subtle changes in the nature of an orbit (or ensemble of orbits) even for relatively small time intervals, which makes it ideal for detecting dynamical transitions in time-dependent systems. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.
A dielectric affinity microbiosensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Schultz, Jerome S.; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao
2010-01-01
We present an affinity biosensing approach that exploits changes in dielectric properties of a polymer due to its specific, reversible binding with an analyte. The approach is demonstrated using a microsensor comprising a pair of thin-film capacitive electrodes sandwiching a solution of poly(acrylamide-ran-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid), a synthetic polymer with specific affinity to glucose. Binding with glucose induces changes in the permittivity of the polymer, which can be measured capacitively for specific glucose detection, as confirmed by experimental results at physiologically relevant concentrations. The dielectric affinity biosensing approach holds the potential for practical applications such as long-term continuous glucose monitoring.
Heegaard, Niels H H
2009-06-01
The journal Electrophoresis has greatly influenced my approaches to biomolecular affinity studies. The methods that I have chosen as my main tools to study interacting biomolecules--native gel and later capillary zone electrophoresis--have been the topic of numerous articles in Electrophoresis. Below, the role of the journal in the development and dissemination of these techniques and applications reviewed. Many exhaustive reviews on affinity electrophoresis and affinity CE have been published in the last few years and are not in any way replaced by the present deliberations that are focused on papers published by the journal.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavenda, Bernard H.
1985-01-01
Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)
Choi, M. G.; Ho, T. C.; Angelici, R.
2008-02-29
Product/reactant ratios (Y) were determined for the reactions CpRu({eta}{sup 6}-DBT){sup +} + L CpRu({eta}{sup 6}-L){sup +} + DBT (where DBT is dibenzothiophene and L is a homo- or heterocyclic arene), which were conducted under UV photolysis conditions. In the photostationary state, the Y values for the different arenes decrease in the following order: mesitylene (17) > toluene (13) > indole (9.1) > carbazole (6.7) > benzene (5.9) > fluorene (5.1) > biphenyl (3.9) > DBT (1.0) > phenanthrene (0.65) > naphthalene (0.35). In general, alkyl-substituted arenes have a higher binding affinity than the parent arene, except for tert-butyl groups, which decrease the Y values. These trends in {eta}{sup 6}-arene binding to CpRu{sup +} provide a basis for understanding competitive adsorption of arenes on metal sites of hydrotreating catalysts. Such arene components in petroleum feedstocks reduce the rates of hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophenes.
SU-E-J-234: Application of a Breathing Motion Model to ViewRay Cine MR Images
O’Connell, D. P.; Thomas, D. H.; Dou, T. H.; Lamb, J. M.; Yang, L.; Low, D. A.
2015-06-15
Purpose: A respiratory motion model previously used to generate breathing-gated CT images was used with cine MR images. Accuracy and predictive ability of the in-plane models were evaluated. Methods: Sagittalplane cine MR images of a patient undergoing treatment on a ViewRay MRI/radiotherapy system were acquired before and during treatment. Images were acquired at 4 frames/second with 3.5 × 3.5 mm resolution and a slice thickness of 5 mm. The first cine frame was deformably registered to following frames. Superior/inferior component of the tumor centroid position was used as a breathing surrogate. Deformation vectors and surrogate measurements were used to determine motion model parameters. Model error was evaluated and subsequent treatment cines were predicted from breathing surrogate data. A simulated CT cine was created by generating breathing-gated volumetric images at 0.25 second intervals along the measured breathing trace, selecting a sagittal slice and downsampling to the resolution of the MR cines. A motion model was built using the first half of the simulated cine data. Model accuracy and error in predicting the remaining frames of the cine were evaluated. Results: Mean difference between model predicted and deformably registered lung tissue positions for the 28 second preview MR cine acquired before treatment was 0.81 +/− 0.30 mm. The model was used to predict two minutes of the subsequent treatment cine with a mean accuracy of 1.59 +/− 0.63 mm. Conclusion: Inplane motion models were built using MR cine images an