Science.gov

Sample records for affine velocity estimator

  1. Pore Velocity Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devary, J. L.; Doctor, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    Geostatistical data analysis techniques were used to stochastically model the spatial variability of groundwater pore velocity in a potential waste repository site. Kriging algorithms were applied to Hanford Reservation data to estimate hydraulic conductivities, hydraulic head gradients, and pore velocities. A first-order Taylor series expansion for pore velocity was used to statistically combine hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head gradient, and effective porosity surfaces and uncertainties to characterize the pore velocity uncertainty. Use of these techniques permits the estimation of pore velocity uncertainties when pore velocity measurements do not exist. Large pore velocity estimation uncertainties were found to be located in the region where the hydraulic head gradient relative uncertainty was maximal.

  2. Automatic gesture analysis using constant affine velocity.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Jenny; Boulanger, Pierre; Pham, Minh Tu; Moreau, Richard; Prieto, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Hand human gesture recognition has been an important research topic widely studied around the world, as this field offers the ability to identify, recognize, and analyze human gestures in order to control devices or to interact with computer interfaces. In particular, in medical training, this approach is an important tool that can be used to obtain an objective evaluation of a procedure performance. In this paper, some obstetrical gestures, acquired by a forceps, were studied with the hypothesis that, as the scribbling and drawing movements, they obey the one-sixth power law, an empirical relationship which connects path curvature, torsion, and euclidean velocity. Our results show that obstetrical gestures have a constant affine velocity, which is different for each type of gesture and based on this idea this quantity is proposed as an appropriate classification feature in the hand human gesture recognition field. PMID:25570332

  3. Ligand Affinities Estimated by Quantum Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Söderhjelm, Pär; Kongsted, Jacob; Ryde, Ulf

    2010-05-11

    We present quantum chemical estimates of ligand-binding affinities performed, for the first time, at a level of theory for which there is a hope that dispersion and polarization effects are properly accounted for (MP2/cc-pVTZ) and at the same time effects of solvation, entropy, and sampling are included. We have studied the binding of seven biotin analogues to the avidin tetramer. The calculations have been performed by the recently developed PMISP approach (polarizable multipole interactions with supermolecular pairs), which treats electrostatic interactions by multipoles up to quadrupoles, induction by anisotropic polarizabilities, and nonclassical interactions (dispersion, exchange repulsion, etc.) by explicit quantum chemical calculations, using a fragmentation approach, except for long-range interactions that are treated by standard molecular-mechanics Lennard-Jones terms. In order to include effects of sampling, 10 snapshots from a molecular dynamics simulation are studied for each biotin analogue. Solvation energies are estimated by the polarized continuum model (PCM), coupled to the multipole-polarizability model. Entropy effects are estimated from vibrational frequencies, calculated at the molecular mechanics level. We encounter several problems, not previously discussed, illustrating that we are first to apply such a method. For example, the PCM model is, in the present implementation, questionable for large molecules, owing to the use of a surface definition that gives numerous small cavities in a protein. PMID:26615702

  4. A minimax approach to spatial estimation using affinity matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. N.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates made in the plane to improve on noisy unbiased estimates were combined. Only a small fraction of points in a giant grid were used to do this, those that are most like a given point. A component of this process defining an affinity matrix of values, indicating which points are relevant to others. Minimax rules are shown to be based on affinity matrices.

  5. System for Estimating Horizontal Velocity During Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew; Cheng, Yang; Wilson, Reg; Goguen, Jay; Martin, Alejandro San; Leger, Chris; Matthies, Larry

    2007-01-01

    The descent image motion estimation system (DIMES) is a system of hardware and software, designed for original use in estimating the horizontal velocity of a spacecraft descending toward a landing on Mars. The estimated horizontal velocity is used in generating rocket-firing commands to reduce the horizontal velocity as part of an overall control scheme to minimize the landing impact. DIMES can also be used for estimating the horizontal velocity of a remotely controlled or autonomous aircraft for purposes of navigation and control.

  6. Estimating Shear Velocity and Roughness Length From Velocity Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Abrahams, Athol D.

    1992-08-01

    In turbulent boundary layer flows, shear velocity u*, and roughness length z0 are commonly derived from semilogarithmic flow velocity profiles by fitting a straight line by ordinary least squares regression to the profile and calculating estimates of u*, and z0 from the slope and intercept of the computed regression equation. However, it is not clear from the literature whether the appropriate regression is of flow velocity u on the logarithm of height above the bed In z or of ln z on u. In order to calculate estimates of u* and z0, the true or structural relation between u and In z must be established. Because u is generally observed with much greater error than is In z, the structural relation may be estimated by regressing u on ln z; regressing ln z on u is incorrect. An analysis of 24 stream channel flow velocity profiles indicates that even in situations where the correlation between u and ln z exceeds 0.9, performing the incorrect regression can result in the considerable overestimation of u* and z0.

  7. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, M. K.; Fomel, S. B.; Sethian, J. A.

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of estimating seismic velocities inside the Earth which is necessary for obtaining seismic images in regular Cartesian coordinates. The main goals are to develop algorithms to convert time-migration velocities to true seismic velocities, and to convert time-migrated images to depth images in regular Cartesian coordinates. Our main results are three-fold. First, we establish a theoretical relation between the true seismic velocities and the 'time-migration velocities' using the paraxial ray tracing. Second, we formulate an appropriate inverse problem describing the relation between time-migration velocities and depth velocities, and show that this problem is mathematically ill posed, i.e., unstable to small perturbations. Third, we develop numerical algorithms to solve regularized versions of these equations which can be used to recover smoothed velocity variations. Our algorithms consist of efficient time-to-depth conversion algorithms, based on Dijkstra-like fast marching methods, as well as level set and ray tracing algorithms for transforming Dix velocities into seismic velocities. Our algorithms are applied to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems, and we test them on a collection of both synthetic examples and field data.

  8. Constraining cosmology with pairwise velocity estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Li, Min; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a full statistical method for the pairwise velocity estimator previously proposed, and apply Cosmicflows-2 catalogue to this method to constrain cosmology. We first calculate the covariance matrix for line-of-sight velocities for a given catalogue, and then simulate the mock full-sky surveys from it, and then calculate the variance for the pairwise velocity field. By applying the 8315 independent galaxy samples and compressed 5224 group samples from Cosmicflows-2 catalogue to this statistical method, we find that the joint constraint on Ωm0.6h and σ8 is completely consistent with the WMAP 9-year and Planck 2015 best-fitting cosmology. Currently, there is no evidence for the modified gravity models or any dynamic dark energy models from this practice, and the error-bars need to be reduced in order to provide any concrete evidence against/to support ΛCDM cosmology.

  9. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina

    2007-05-31

    earth becomes horizontally nonconstant. Even mild lateral velocity variations can significantly distort subsurface structures on the time migrated images. Conversely, depth migration provides the potential for more accurate reconstructions, since it can handle significant lateral variations. However, this approach requires good input data, known as a 'velocity model'. We address the problem of estimating seismic velocities inside the earth, i.e., the problem of constructing a velocity model, which is necessary for obtaining seismic images in regular Cartesian coordinates. The main goals are to develop algorithms to convert time-migration velocities to true seismic velocities, and to convert time-migrated images to depth images in regular Cartesian coordinates. Our main results are three-fold. First, we establish a theoretical relation between the true seismic velocities and the 'time migration velocities' using the paraxial ray tracing. Second, we formulate an appropriate inverse problem describing the relation between time migration velocities and depth velocities, and show that this problem is mathematically ill-posed, i.e., unstable to small perturbations. Third, we develop numerical algorithms to solve regularized versions of these equations which can be used to recover smoothed velocity variations. Our algorithms consist of efficient time-to-depth conversion algorithms, based on Dijkstra-like Fast Marching Methods, as well as level set and ray tracing algorithms for transforming Dix velocities into seismic velocities. Our algorithms are applied to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems, and we test them on a collection of both synthetic examples and field data.

  10. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina

    earth becomes horizontally nonconstant. Even mild lateral velocity variations can significantly distort subsurface structures on the time migrated images. Conversely, depth migration provides the potential for more accurate reconstructions, since it can handle significant lateral variations. However, this approach requires good input data, known as a "velocity model". We address the problem of estimating seismic velocities inside the earth, i.e., the problem of constructing a velocity model, which is necessary for obtaining seismic images in regular Cartesian coordinates. The main goals are to develop algorithms to convert time-migration velocities to true seismic velocities, and to convert time-migrated images to depth images in regular Cartesian coordinates. Our main results are three-fold. First, we establish a theoretical relation between the true seismic velocities and the "time migration velocities" using the paraxial ray tracing. Second, we formulate an appropriate inverse problem describing the relation between time migration velocities and depth velocities, and show that this problem is mathematically ill-posed, i.e., unstable to small perturbations. Third, we develop numerical algorithms to solve regularized versions of these equations which can be used to recover smoothed velocity variations. Our algorithms consist of efficient time-to-depth conversion algorithms, based on Dijkstra-like Fast Marching Methods, as well as level set and ray tracing algorithms for transforming Dix velocities into seismic velocities. Our algorithms are applied to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems, and we test them on a collection of both synthetic examples and field data.

  11. Sound velocity estimation: A system theoretic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1993-07-30

    A system-theoretic approach is proposed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing a sound velocity profile (SVP) from acoustical hydrophone measurements. This problem is based on a state-space representation of the normal-mode propagation model. It is shown that this representation can be utilized to investigate the so-called observability of the SVP from noisy measurement data. A model-based processor is developed to extract this information and it is shown that even in cases where limited SVP information is available, the SVP can be estimated using this approach.

  12. AN AFFINE-INVARIANT SAMPLER FOR EXOPLANET FITTING AND DISCOVERY IN RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Fengji; Hogg, David W.; Goodman, Jonathan; Weare, Jonathan; Schwab, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) proves to be powerful for Bayesian inference and in particular for exoplanet radial velocity fitting because MCMC provides more statistical information and makes better use of data than common approaches like chi-square fitting. However, the nonlinear density functions encountered in these problems can make MCMC time-consuming. In this paper, we apply an ensemble sampler respecting affine invariance to orbital parameter extraction from radial velocity data. This new sampler has only one free parameter, and does not require much tuning for good performance, which is important for automatization. The autocorrelation time of this sampler is approximately the same for all parameters and far smaller than Metropolis-Hastings, which means it requires many fewer function calls to produce the same number of independent samples. The affine-invariant sampler speeds up MCMC by hundreds of times compared with Metropolis-Hastings in the same computing situation. This novel sampler would be ideal for projects involving large data sets such as statistical investigations of planet distribution. The biggest obstacle to ensemble samplers is the existence of multiple local optima; we present a clustering technique to deal with local optima by clustering based on the likelihood of the walkers in the ensemble. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the sampler on real radial velocity data.

  13. Monochromatic multicomponent fluorescence sedimentation velocity for the study of high-affinity protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Fu, Yan; Glasser, Carla; Andrade Alba, Eric J; Mayer, Mark L; Patterson, George; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic assembly of multi-protein complexes underlies fundamental processes in cell biology. A mechanistic understanding of assemblies requires accurate measurement of their stoichiometry, affinity and cooperativity, and frequently consideration of multiple co-existing complexes. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation equipped with fluorescence detection (FDS-SV) allows the characterization of protein complexes free in solution with high size resolution, at concentrations in the nanomolar and picomolar range. Here, we extend the capabilities of FDS-SV with a single excitation wavelength from single-component to multi-component detection using photoswitchable fluorescent proteins (psFPs). We exploit their characteristic quantum yield of photo-switching to imprint spatio-temporal modulations onto the sedimentation signal that reveal different psFP-tagged protein components in the mixture. This novel approach facilitates studies of heterogeneous multi-protein complexes at orders of magnitude lower concentrations and for higher-affinity systems than previously possible. Using this technique we studied high-affinity interactions between the amino-terminal domains of GluA2 and GluA3 AMPA receptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17812.001 PMID:27436096

  14. Monochromatic multicomponent fluorescence sedimentation velocity for the study of high-affinity protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaying; Fu, Yan; Glasser, Carla; Andrade Alba, Eric J; Mayer, Mark L; Patterson, George; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic assembly of multi-protein complexes underlies fundamental processes in cell biology. A mechanistic understanding of assemblies requires accurate measurement of their stoichiometry, affinity and cooperativity, and frequently consideration of multiple co-existing complexes. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation equipped with fluorescence detection (FDS-SV) allows the characterization of protein complexes free in solution with high size resolution, at concentrations in the nanomolar and picomolar range. Here, we extend the capabilities of FDS-SV with a single excitation wavelength from single-component to multi-component detection using photoswitchable fluorescent proteins (psFPs). We exploit their characteristic quantum yield of photo-switching to imprint spatio-temporal modulations onto the sedimentation signal that reveal different psFP-tagged protein components in the mixture. This novel approach facilitates studies of heterogeneous multi-protein complexes at orders of magnitude lower concentrations and for higher-affinity systems than previously possible. Using this technique we studied high-affinity interactions between the amino-terminal domains of GluA2 and GluA3 AMPA receptors. PMID:27436096

  15. Analytical Equation for Estimating Terminal Velocities of Spheroidal Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2007-06-01

    An analytical method for estimating the terminal velocities of spheroidal particles in a fluid medium has been derived form a graphical approach proposed by Haider and Levenspiel. Using an analytical equation enables the researcher to calculate the terminal velocities without resorting to graphical interpolations, thereby reducing errors and enabling terminal velocities to be estimated in automated calculations.

  16. Estimating 2-D vector velocities using multidimensional spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-08-01

    Wilson (1991) presented an ultrasonic wideband estimator for axial blood flow velocity estimation through the use of the 2-D Fourier transform. It was shown how a single velocity component was concentrated along a line in the 2-D Fourier space, where the slope was given by the axial velocity. Later, it was shown that this approach could also be used for finding the lateral velocity component by also including a lateral sampling. A single velocity component would then be concentrated along a plane in the 3-D Fourier space, tilted according to the 2 velocity components. This paper presents 2 new velocity estimators for finding both the axial and lateral velocity components. The estimators essentially search for the plane in the 3- D Fourier space, where the integrated power spectrum is largest. The first uses the 3-D Fourier transform to find the power spectrum, while the second uses a minimum variance approach. Based on this plane, the axial and lateral velocity components are estimated. Several phantom measurements, for flow-to-depth angles of 60, 75, and 90 degrees, were performed. Multiple parallel lines were beamformed simultaneously, and 2 different receive apodization schemes were tried. The 2 estimators were then applied to the data. The axial velocity component was estimated with an average standard deviation below 2.8% of the peak velocity, while the average standard deviation of the lateral velocity estimates was between 2.0% and 16.4%. The 2 estimators were also tested on in vivo data from a transverse scan of the common carotid artery, showing the potential of the vector velocity estimation method under in vivo conditions. PMID:18986918

  17. Porosity estimation based on seismic wave velocity at shallow depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Yoon, Hyung-Koo

    2014-06-01

    Seismic wave velocity and porosity are used for the estimation of dynamic behaviors in the Earth, including seismicity and liquefaction. To increase the resolution of subsurface observations, seismic wave velocity and porosity can be combined in a compound method. To this end, in this paper, we utilize and rearrange the Wood, Gassmann, and Foti methods - three techniques commonly used to estimate porosity based on seismic wave velocity at shallow depths. Seismic wave velocity is obtained by a field velocity probe using the horizontal transmission technique. Porosity calculated using the Gassmann method shows the highest reliability considering observed porosity criteria. The sensitivities of each method are compared using the error norm. Results show that the Gassmann method has low sensitivity for calculating porosity, whereas the Wood and Foti methods have high sensitivity. Consequently, the Gassmann method is recommended for estimating porosity at shallow depths when using measured elastic wave velocity.

  18. ESTIMATION OF ELECTRON AFFINITY BASED ON STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron affinity for a wide range of organic molecules was calculated from molecular structure using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC. hese models are based on fundamental chemical structure theory applied to the prediction of chemical reactivities for organic m...

  19. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A.

    2013-09-09

    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ε and δ, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter δ. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, δ, and ε is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that δ value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ε value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  20. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  1. A study of methods to estimate debris flow velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prochaska, A.B.; Santi, P.M.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flow velocities are commonly back-calculated from superelevation events which require subjective estimates of radii of curvature of bends in the debris flow channel or predicted using flow equations that require the selection of appropriate rheological models and material property inputs. This research investigated difficulties associated with the use of these conventional velocity estimation methods. Radii of curvature estimates were found to vary with the extent of the channel investigated and with the scale of the media used, and back-calculated velocities varied among different investigated locations along a channel. Distinct populations of Bingham properties were found to exist between those measured by laboratory tests and those back-calculated from field data; thus, laboratory-obtained values would not be representative of field-scale debris flow behavior. To avoid these difficulties with conventional methods, a new preliminary velocity estimation method is presented that statistically relates flow velocity to the channel slope and the flow depth. This method presents ranges of reasonable velocity predictions based on 30 previously measured velocities. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Estimation of Turbulent Wall Jet Velocity Fields for Noise Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickels, Adam; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Reger, Robert; Cattafesta, Louis

    2015-11-01

    Estimation of the time-dependent turbulent velocity field of a planar wall jet based on discrete surface pressure measurements is performed using stochastic estimation in both the time and frequency domain. Temporally-resolved surface pressure measurements are measured simultaneously with planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) snapshots, obtained at a relatively reduced rate. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is then applied to both the surface pressure probes and the PIV snapshots, allowing for the isolation of portions of the wall pressure and velocity field signals that are well correlated. Using the time-varying pressure expansion coefficients as unconditional variables, velocity expansion coefficients are estimated and used to produce reconstructed estimates of the velocity field. Optimization in terms of number of unconditional probes employed, location of probes, and effects of PIV discretization are investigated with regards to the resulting estimates. Coupled with this analysis, Poisson's equation for fluctuating pressure is solved such that the necessary source terms of an acoustic analogy can be calculated for estimates of the far-field acoustics. Specifically in this work, the effects of using estimated velocity fields to solve for the hydrodynamic pressure and acoustic pressure will be studied.

  3. Vertical velocity estimates in the North Pacific using Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical velocity in the oceans is critical for maintenance of the structure of the main thermoclines and the transport of nutrients from deepwater towards the surface and thus is an important variable for understanding the dynamics of the ocean and the transport of scalar variables. In the mid 1970s the author was engaged in discussions with Tom Rossby about how SOFAR floats might be used to observe the vertical component of velocity. This paper in some sense follows on from those discussions almost 40 years later. In this paper the Argo array is used to compute the horizontal volume divergence in a control volume in the North Pacific. Divergence is found and this must be related to a volume flux through the base of the control volume. The implied vertical velocity is large and various tests are proposed to determine whether or not the estimate is plausible. The first test shows that a vertical velocity this large is necessary to close the salt budget. The second test shows that the vertical velocity balances about half of the observed heat divergence, the remainder is then accounted for by heat flux at the sea surface. Finally the time variable vertical velocity is computed and used to compute the evolution of the salt content in the control volume. Thus though the estimated vertical velocity is surprisingly large, it passes plausibility tests.

  4. Robust seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, E.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Garnier, J.; Melis, N. S.; Papanicolaou, G.; Tsogka, C.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the problem of seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings. Motivated by (Zhan et al., 2013) we study how the velocity change estimation is affected by seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources. More precisely, we consider a numerical model and introduce spatio-temporal seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources. We show that indeed, as pointed out in (Zhan et al., 2013), the stretching method is affected by these fluctuations and produces misleading apparent velocity variations which reduce dramatically the signal to noise ratio of the method. We also show that these apparent velocity variations can be eliminated by an adequate normalization of the cross-correlation functions. Theoretically we expect our approach to work as long as the seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources are uniform, an assumption which holds for closely located seismic stations. We illustrate with numerical simulations in homogeneous and scattering media that the proposed normalization significantly improves the accuracy of the velocity change estimation. Similar behavior is also observed with real data recorded in the Aegean volcanic arc. We study in particular the volcano of Santorini during the seismic unrest of 2011-2012 and observe a decrease in the velocity of seismic waves which is correlated with GPS measured elevation.

  5. Robust seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, E.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Garnier, J.; Melis, N. S.; Papanicolaou, G.; Tsogka, C.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings. Motivated by Zhan et al., we study how the velocity change estimation is affected by seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources. More precisely, we consider a numerical model and introduce spatio-temporal seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources. We show that indeed, as pointed out by Zhan et al., the stretching method is affected by these fluctuations and produces misleading apparent velocity variations which reduce dramatically the signal to noise ratio of the method. We also show that these apparent velocity variations can be eliminated by an adequate normalization of the cross-correlation functions. Theoretically we expect our approach to work as long as the seasonal fluctuations in the noise sources are uniform, an assumption which holds for closely located seismic stations. We illustrate with numerical simulations in homogeneous and scattering media that the proposed normalization significantly improves the accuracy of the velocity change estimation. Similar behaviour is also observed with real data recorded in the Aegean volcanic arc. We study in particular the volcano of Santorini during the seismic unrest of 2011-2012 and observe a decrease in the velocity of seismic waves which is correlated with GPS measured elevation.

  6. Evaluation of the MV (CAPON) Coherent Doppler Lidar Velocity Estimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lottman, B.; Frehlich, R.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of the CAPON velocity estimator for coherent Doppler lidar is determined for typical space-based and ground-based parameter regimes. Optimal input parameters for the algorithm were determined for each regime. For weak signals, performance is described by the standard deviation of the good estimates and the fraction of outliers. For strong signals, the fraction of outliers is zero. Numerical effort was also determined.

  7. Physiological responses at five estimates of critical velocity.

    PubMed

    Bull, Anthony J; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Rana, Sharon R

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare critical velocity (CV) estimates from five mathematical models, and to examine the oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) responses during treadmill runs at the five estimates of CV. Ten subjects (six males and four females) performed one incremental test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and four or five randomly ordered constant-velocity trials on a treadmill for the estimation of CV. Five mathematical models were used to estimate CV for each subject including two linear, two nonlinear, and an exponential model. Up to five randomly ordered runs to exhaustion were performed by each subject at treadmill velocities that corresponded to the five CV estimates, and VO(2) and HR responses were monitored throughout each trial. The 3-parameter, nonlinear (Non-3) model produced CV estimates that were significantly (P < 0.05) less than the other four models. During runs at CV estimates, five subjects did not complete 60 min at the their estimate from the Non-3 model, nine did not complete 60 min at their estimate from the Non-2 model, and no subjects completed 60 min at any estimate from the other three models. The mean HR value (179 +/- 18 beats min(-1), HR(peak)) at the end of runs at CV using the Non-3 model was significantly less than the maximal HR (195 +/- 7 beats min(-1), HR(max)) achieved during the incremental trial to exhaustion. However, mean HR(peak) values from runs at all other CV estimates were not significantly different from HR(max). Furthermore, data indicated that mean HR(peak) values increased during runs at CV estimates from the third minute to the end of exercise for all models, and that these increases in VO(2) (range = 367-458 ml min(-1)) were significantly greater than that typically associated with O(2) drift ( approximately 200 ml min(-1)) for all but the exponential model, indicating a VO(2) slow component associated with CV estimates from four of the five models. However, the mean VO(2

  8. Optical flow based velocity estimation for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuzhi; Zhao, Guanrong; Jia, Songmin; Qin, Baoling; Yang, Ailin

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an optical flow based novel technique to perceive the instant motion velocity of mobile robots. The primary focus of this study is to determine the robot's ego-motion using displacement field in temporally consecutive image pairs. In contrast to most previous approaches for estimating velocity, we employ a polynomial expansion based dense optical flow approach and propose a quadratic model based RANSAC refinement of flow fields to render our method more robust with respect to noise and outliers. Accordingly, techniques for geometrical transformation and interpretation of the inter-frame motion are presented. Advantages of our proposal are validated by real experimental results conducted on Pioneer robot.

  9. Seismic velocity estimation from wide-angle reflections in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdanski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Travel time inversion of wide-angle seismic data is well-known technique used in various scales. In specific case of the industrial profiling of a sedimentary layers, where rather flat structures with relatively small velocity differences are observed, we propose an extension of standard reflection tomography to wide-angle observations. In such conditions wide-angle reflections, and especially one observed at large angles, are dominant. They could be easily interpreted, and combined with observed refractions, gives precise estimation of velocities. Such an interpretation is presented based on full spread geometry seismic recording of standard vibroseis sources performing regular reflection seismic works. In the result it was possible to precisely recognize the velocity structure in layered media, and also perform its uncertainty analysis.

  10. Clutter filtering influence on blood velocity estimation using speckle tracking.

    PubMed

    Fadnes, Solveig; Bjærum, Steinar; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2015-12-01

    Blood speckle tracking has shown potential for solving the angle-dependency limitation in color flow imaging. However, as clutter filtering is still Doppler-based, flow velocities at near-perpendicular beam-to-flow angles can be severely attenuated. It is shown that the clutter filter also alters the speckle appearance through a decrease in the lateral imaging bandwidth, leading to poorer lateral resolution and thus tracking performance. Interestingly, at perpendicular beam-to-flow angles lateral band-pass characteristics are inferred, and the resulting lateral amplitude modulation could help improve tracking estimates. Simulations and flow phantom experiments showed that substantially improved results could be achieved by utilizing time-variant clutter filters (e.g., polynomial regression filters) despite the inherent decorrelation inferred by these filters, but only for higher ensemble sizes (N > 36). We found that, compared with color flow imaging, speckle tracking could yield consistent estimates well below the clutter filter cutoff, but with a higher variance attributed to the low signalto- noise ratio inferred by filter attenuation. Overall, provided that a low f-number and high ensemble lengths (N approx. > 36) can be used, speckle tracking can consistently provide angle- independent flow velocity estimates, limited only by a lower bound on the flow velocity itself. PMID:26670849

  11. PBSA_E: A PBSA-Based Free Energy Estimator for Protein-Ligand Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H

    2016-05-23

    Improving the accuracy of scoring functions for estimating protein-ligand binding affinity is of significant interest as well as practical utility in drug discovery. In this work, PBSA_E, a new free energy estimator based on the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) descriptors, has been developed. This free energy estimator was optimized using high-quality experimental data from a training set consisting of 145 protein-ligand complexes. The method was validated on two separate test sets containing 121 and 130 complexes. Comparison of the binding affinities predicted using the present method with those obtained using three popular scoring functions, i.e., GlideXP, GlideSP, and SYBYL_F, demonstrated that the PBSA_E method is more accurate. This new energy estimator requires a MM/PBSA calculation of the protein-ligand binding energy for a single complex configuration, which is typically obtained by optimizing the crystal structure. The present study shows that PBSA_E has the potential to become a robust tool for more reliable estimation of protein-ligand binding affinity in structure-based drug design. PMID:27088302

  12. Elasticity Estimation of Thin Flap Using Optical PIV Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, John; Belohlavek, Marek; McMahon, Eileen; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Heys, Jeffery; Milano, Michele

    2010-11-01

    We estimate the elasticity of a thin, cellulose acetate flap using forcing data derived from optical particle imaging velocimetry (optical-PIV) velocity fields. The flap is fixed on one end to a stand submerged within a PIV tank and deformed using a water jet pulse. PIV is then performed at the interface between the thin sheet and water jet throughout the deformation cycle; the resulting velocity field allows the determination of instantaneous pressure measurements via Poisson's equation. An optimal estimation technique utilizing ensemble Kalman filtering is coupled with a finite element analysis program to determine the sheet's elasticity. Results show good agreement with actual elasticity measurements for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous elasticity sheets. In addition, we performed a quantitative study to determine the optimal vector density for a given element size to achieve an accurate elasticity estimation value. Considering the success of this technique using optical-PIV, it should also be possible for in-vitro elasticity estimates based on ultrasound-PIV measurements.

  13. Performance comparison of rigid and affine models for motion estimation using ultrasound radio-frequency signals.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaochang; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinghua; Gao, Jing; Huang, Lingyun; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2015-11-01

    Tissue motion estimation is widely used in many ultrasound techniques. Rigid-model-based and nonrigid-modelbased methods are two main groups of space-domain methods of tissue motion estimation. The affine model is one of the commonly used nonrigid models. The performances of the rigid model and affine model have not been compared on ultrasound RF signals, which have been demonstrated to obtain higher accuracy, precision, and resolution in motion estimation compared with B-mode images. In this study, three methods, i.e., the normalized cross-correlation method with rigid model (NCC), the optical flow method with rigid model (OFRM), and the optical flow method with affine model (OFAM), are compared using ultrasound RF signals, rather than the B-mode images used in previous studies. Simulations, phantom, and in vivo experiments are conducted to make the comparison. In the simulations, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of axial and lateral displacements and strains are used to assess the accuracy of motion estimation, and the elastographic signal-tonoise ratio (SNRe) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe) are used to evaluate the quality of axial strain images. In the phantom experiments, the registration error between the pre- and postdeformation RF signals, as well as the SNRe and CNRe of axial strain images, are utilized as the evaluation criteria. In the in vivo experiments, the registration error is used to evaluate the estimation performance. The results show that the affinemodel- based method (i.e., OFAM) obtains the lowest RMSE or registration error and the highest SNRe and CNRe among all the methods. The affine model is demonstrated to be superior to the rigid model in motion estimation based on RF signals. PMID:26559623

  14. Estimating Protein-Ligand Binding Affinity using High-Throughput Screening by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, Matthew D.; Hage, David S.; Harbison, Gerard S.; Powers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many of today’s drug discovery programs utilize high-throughput screening methods that rely on quick evaluations of protein activity to rank potential chemical leads. By monitoring biologically relevant protein-ligand interactions, NMR can provide a means to validate these discovery leads and to optimize the drug discovery process. NMR-based screens typically use a change in chemical shift or linewidth to detect a protein-ligand interaction. However, the relatively low throughput of current NMR screens and their high demand on sample requirements generally makes it impractical to collect complete binding curves to measure the affinity for each compound in a large and diverse chemical library. As a result, NMR ligand screens are typically limited to identifying candidates that bind to a protein and do not give any estimate of the binding affinity. To address this issue, a methodology has been developed to rank binding affinities for ligands based on NMR-based screens that use 1D 1H NMR line-broadening experiments. This method was demonstrated by using it to estimate the dissociation equilibrium constants for twelve ligands with the protein human serum albumin (HSA). The results were found to give good agreement with previous affinities that have been reported for these same ligands with HSA. PMID:18831571

  15. Hyperconcentrated flow and men velocity estimation: a study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termini, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    Due to the complexity of the debris-flow process, numerical models to simulate propagation phenomenon are still limited. Different approaches (either monophase or two-phase) have been proposed in literature to solve the set of governing equations. But, the difficulty is due to the fact that these equations require suitable closure relations that should be valid in a very wide range of slope and materials characteristics. The point is that, in order to perform a hazard assessment and/or to design protective measures against debris flows, it is necessary to estimate important parameters such as mean flow velocity, peak discharge and runout distance. Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy) in order to evaluate the influence of different geometrical parameters (such as the slope and the geometrical characteristics of the confluences to the main channel) on the propagation phenomenon of the debris flow and its deposition. The experimental apparatus includes a high-precision camera allowing the estimation of hyperconcentrated flow velocity by applying the VIA technique. In a previous work (Termini and Di Leonardo, 2014) the influence of geometrical parameters on the propagation phenomenon were analyzed. In the present work the attention is devoted to the mean velocity and its estimation for different concentrations of solid materials. References Termini D., Di Leonardo A. 2014. "Propagation of hyperconcentrated flows in protection channels around urban areas:experimental investigation" -Urban and urbanization. ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI. University Press. Sofia.

  16. Position, velocity and acceleration estimates from the noisy radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, K. V.

    1984-04-01

    A two-dimensional Kalman tracking filter is described for obtaining optimum estimates of position, velocity and acceleration of an aircraft whose acceleration is perturbed due to maneuvers and/or other random factors. In a track-while-scan operation, a two-dimensional radar sensor is assumed to measure the range and bearing of the vehicle at uniform sampling intervals of time T seconds through random noise. The steady-state gain characteristics of the filter have been analytically obtained and the computer results are presented.

  17. Estimation of macro velocity models by wave field extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Hendricus Lambertus Hubertus

    A method to estimate accurate macro velocity models for prediction of traveltimes of seismic waves in the earth's subsurface is developed. The sensitivity of prestack migration is used to estimate the model and since model errors are expressed in the quality of the migration result, the migration process itself can be used to determine these errors. Using an initial model, shot records are downward extrapolated to grid points (depth points) in the subsurface. The extrapolated data can be reordered into so called common depth point (CDP) gathers, image gathers and focus panels. The deviation from horizontal alignment is used to quantify the errors in the model and to apply update corrections accordingly. The analysis can be done before or after stacking over all shot records (CDP stacking). the previously mentioned focus panels are generated by CDP stacking. The alignment analysis reduces then to a simple focusing analysis. The examples discussed show that horizontal alignment gives accurate macro velocity models for prestack depth migration. Focus panels can be difficult to interpret in complicated situations, where it is impossible to converge to the correct solution with focus panels only. The process should be guided by macrogeologic models of the area. In complicated situations, a layer stripping strategy is preferred.

  18. Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Conrad; Cavileer, Timothy D.; Nagler, James J.; Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2011-02-01

    Environmental estrogens have been the subject of intense research due to their documented detrimental effects on the health of fish and wildlife and their potential to negatively impact humans. A complete understanding of how these compounds affect health is complicated because environmental estrogens are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds. In this work, computational molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to predict the binding affinity of different compounds using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) estrogen receptors (ERs) as a model. Specifically, this study presents a comparison of the binding affinity of the natural ligand estradiol-17{beta} to the four rainbow trout ER isoforms with that of three known environmental estrogens 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, and raloxifene. Two additional compounds, atrazine and testosterone, that are known to be very weak or non-binders to ERs were tested. The binding affinity of these compounds to the human ER{alpha} subtype is also included for comparison. The results of this study suggest that, when compared to estradiol-17{beta}, bisphenol A binds less strongly to all four receptors, 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol binds more strongly, and raloxifene has a high affinity for the {alpha} subtype only. The results also show that atrazine and testosterone are weak or non-binders to the ERs. All of the results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the known in vivo estrogenicity of these compounds in the rainbow trout and other fishes. Computational estimation of binding affinities could be a valuable tool for predicting the impact of environmental estrogens in fish and other animals.

  19. Free energy calculations to estimate ligand-binding affinities in structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Rami; Reddy, C Ravikumar; Rathore, R S; Erion, Mark D; Aparoy, P; Reddy, R Nageswara; Reddanna, P

    2014-01-01

    Post-genomic era has led to the discovery of several new targets posing challenges for structure-based drug design efforts to identify lead compounds. Multiple computational methodologies exist to predict the high ranking hit/lead compounds. Among them, free energy methods provide the most accurate estimate of predicted binding affinity. Pathway-based Free Energy Perturbation (FEP), Thermodynamic Integration (TI) and Slow Growth (SG) as well as less rigorous end-point methods such as Linear interaction energy (LIE), Molecular Mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann./Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-PBSA/GBSA) and λ-dynamics have been applied to a variety of biologically relevant problems. The recent advances in free energy methods and their applications including the prediction of protein-ligand binding affinity for some of the important drug targets have been elaborated. Results using a recently developed Quantum Mechanics (QM)/Molecular Mechanics (MM) based Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) method, which has the potential to provide a very accurate estimation of binding affinities to date has been discussed. A case study for the optimization of inhibitors for the fructose 1,6- bisphosphatase inhibitors has been described. PMID:23947646

  20. Man-made velocity estimators based on insect vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Sreeja; O'Carroll, David; Abbott, Derek

    2005-04-01

    reliability and robustness of velocity estimation.

  1. Estimating Ocean Middle-Depth Velocities from ARGO Floats: Error Estimation and Application to Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Zhu, J.; Yan, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO) project creates a unique opportunity to estimate the absolute velocity at mid-depths of the global oceans. However, the estimation can only be made based on float surface trajectories. The diving and resurfacing positions of the float are not available in its trajectory file. This surface drifting effect makes it difficult to estimate mid-depth current. Moreover, the vertical shear during decent or ascent between parking depth and the surface is another major error source. In this presentation, we first quantify the contributions of the two major error sources using the current estimates from Estimating the Climate and Circulation of the Ocean (ECCO) and find that the surface drifting is a primary error source. Then, a sequential surface trajectory prediction/estimation scheme based on Kalman Filter is introduced and implemented to reduce the surface drifting error in the Pacific during November 2001 to October 2004. On average, the error of the estimated velocities is greatly reduced from 2.7 to 0.2 cm s if neglecting the vertical shear. These velocities with relative error less than 25% are analyzed and compared with previous studies on mid-depth currents. The current system derived from ARGO floats in Pacific at 1000 and 2000 dB is comparable to other measured by ADCP (Reid, 1997; Firing et al., 1998). This presentation is based on two submitted manuscripts of the same authors (Xie and Zhu, 2006; Zhu et al., 2006). More detailed results can be found in the two manuscripts.

  2. Position Estimation Method of Medical Implanted Devices Using Estimation of Propagation Velocity inside Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Makoto; Kohno, Ryuji

    Wireless communication devices in the field of medical implant, such as cardiac pacemakers and capsule endoscopes, have been studied and developed to improve healthcare systems. Especially it is very important to know the range and position of each device because it will contribute to an optimization of the transmission power. We adopt the time-based approach of position estimation using ultra wideband signals. However, the propagation velocity inside the human body differs in each tissue and each frequency. Furthermore, the human body is formed of various tissues with complex structures. For this reason, propagation velocity is different at a different point inside human body and the received signal so distorted through the channel inside human body. In this paper, we apply an adaptive template synthesis method in multipath channel for calculate the propagation time accurately based on the output of the correlator between the transmitter and the receiver. Furthermore, we propose a position estimation method using an estimation of the propagation velocity inside the human body. In addition, we show by computer simulation that the proposal method can perform accurate positioning with a size of medical implanted devices such as a medicine capsule.

  3. Neural network estimate of seismic velocities and resistivity of rocks from electromagnetic and seismic sounding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spichak, V. V.; Goidina, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    The neural network estimates of seismic P- and S-wave velocities from electrical resistivity of the rocks and, vice versa, resistivity estimates from seismic velocities are presented. It is shown that, depending on the ratio between the volumes of the known data and the data to be reconstructed, the accuracy of the estimates of the P- and S-wave velocities ranges within 1-4 and 4-6%, respectively. The logarithmic resistivity is estimated from seismic P- and S-velocities as accurately as up to 15-17%. In all cases, the biggest errors are obtained when the estimates are based on correlated data.

  4. DEPOSITION VELOCITY ESTIMATION WITH THE GENII V2 SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, H.

    2012-04-23

    In 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) Chief of Nuclear Safety and Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), with the support of industry experts in atmospheric sciences and accident dose consequences analysis, performed detailed analyses of the basis for the dry deposition velocity (DV) values used in the MACCS2 computer code. As a result of these analyses, DOE concluded that the historically used default DV values of 1 centimeter/second (cm/s) for unfiltered/unmitigated releases and 0.1 cm/s for filtered/mitigated releases may not be reasonably conservative for all DOE sites and accident scenarios. HSS recently issued Safety Bulletin 2011-02, Accident Analysis Parameter Update, recommending the use of the newly developed default DV, 0.1 cm/s for an unmitigated/unfiltered release. Alternatively site specific DV values can be developed using GENII version 2 (GENII v2) computer code. Key input parameters for calculating DV values include surface roughness, maximum wind speed for calm, particle size, particle density and meteorological data (wind speed and stability class). This paper will include reasonably conservative inputs, and a truncated parametric study. In lieu of the highly-conservative recommended DV value (0.1cm/s) for unmitigated/unfiltered release, GENII v2 has been used to justify estimated 95th percentile DV values. Also presented here are atmospheric dilution factors ({chi}/Q values) calculated with the MACCS2 code using the DV values form GENII v2, {chi}/Q values calculated directly with GENII v2, and a discussion of these results compare with one another. This paper will give an overview of the process of calculating DV with GENII v2 including a discussion of the sensitivity of input parameters.

  5. Estimation of velocity perturbations in satellite fragmentation events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Arjun

    1989-01-01

    The magnitude, variance and directionality of the velocity perturbations of the fragments of a satellite can shed valuable information regarding the nature and intensity of the fragmentation. Up until now, the only method used to calculate the three orthogonal components of the velocity change consisted of inverting the process of evaluating the changes in the orbital elements of the fragments due to velocity perturbing forces. But the traditional method failed in five different cases: (1) when the parent satellite's orbit was circular; (2) and (3) when the true anomaly of the parent was either 0 deg or 180 deg; and (4) and (5) when the argument of latitude of the parent was 90 deg or 270 deg. Described here is a new method of calculating the velocity perturbations which is free from the shortcomings of the traditional method and could be used in all occasions, provided the fragmentation data and the orbital elements data are consistent with one another.

  6. Hurst exponent estimation of self-affine time series using quantile graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanharo, Andriana S. L. O.; Ramos, Fernando M.

    2016-02-01

    In the context of dynamical systems, time series analysis is frequently used to identify the underlying nature of a phenomenon of interest from a sequence of observations. For signals with a self-affine structure, like fractional Brownian motions (fBm), the Hurst exponent H is one of the key parameters. Here, the use of quantile graphs (QGs) for the estimation of H is proposed. A QG is generated by mapping the quantiles of a time series into nodes of a graph. H is then computed directly as the power-law scaling exponent of the mean jump length performed by a random walker on the QG, for different time differences between the time series data points. The QG method for estimating the Hurst exponent was applied to fBm with different H values. Comparison with the exact H values used to generate the motions showed an excellent agreement. For a given time series length, estimation error depends basically on the statistical framework used for determining the exponent of the power-law model. The QG method is numerically simple and has only one free parameter, Q, the number of quantiles/nodes. With a simple modification, it can be extended to the analysis of fractional Gaussian noises.

  7. Radiocarbon determinations for estimating groundwater flow velocities in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Back, W.; Rubin, M.

    1965-01-01

    Carbon-14 activity was determined from HCO3- in samples of groundwater obtained from the principal artesian aquifer in Florida. From these data the "age" of water obtained from a series of wells, each progressively farther down gradient on the piezometric surface, was established. Relative carbon-14 ages indicated a velocity of groundwater movement of 23 feet (7 meters) per year for about 85 miles (137 kilometers) of travel. A velocity of 23 feet per year was calculated independently from Darcy's law.

  8. Estimation of Laminar Burning Velocities by Direct Digital Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uske, J.; Barat, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Bunsen burner flame, which is the most common flame in the laboratory, can be easily studied for its dynamics because of modern, economical digital technology available to student laboratories. Direct digital photography of Bunsen flames is used to obtain laminar burning velocities of selected gaseous hydrocarbon/air flames.

  9. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Horndt, Volker; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd; Naething, Richard M.

    2014-09-01

    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  10. Coda wave interferometry for estimating nonlinear behavior in seismic velocity.

    PubMed

    Snieder, Roel; Grêt, Alexandre; Douma, Huub; Scales, John

    2002-03-22

    In coda wave interferometry, one records multiply scattered waves at a limited number of receivers to infer changes in the medium over time. With this technique, we have determined the nonlinear dependence of the seismic velocity in granite on temperature and the associated acoustic emissions. This technique can be used in warning mode, to detect the presence of temporal changes in the medium, or in diagnostic mode, where the temporal change in the medium is quantified. PMID:11910107

  11. Robust angle-independent blood velocity estimation based on dual-angle plane wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Fadnes, Solveig; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Nyrnes, Siri Ann; Torp, Hans; Lovstakken, Lasse

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional blood velocity estimation has shown potential to solve the angle-dependency of conventional ultrasound flow imaging. Clutter filtering, however, remains a major challenge for large beam-to-flow angles, leading to signal drop-outs and corrupted velocity estimates. This work presents and evaluates a compounding speckle tracking (ST) algorithm to obtain robust angle-independent 2-D blood velocity estimates for all beam-to-flow angles. A dual-angle plane wave imaging setup with full parallel receive beamforming is utilized to achieve high-frame-rate speckle tracking estimates from two scan angles, which may be compounded to obtain velocity estimates of increased robustness. The acquisition also allows direct comparison with vector Doppler (VD) imaging. Absolute velocity bias and root-mean-square (RMS) error of the compounding ST estimations were investigated using simulations of a rotating flow phantom with low velocities ranging from 0 to 20 cm/s. In a challenging region where the estimates were influenced by clutter filtering, the bias and RMS error for the compounding ST estimates were 11% and 2 cm/s, a significant reduction compared with conventional single-angle ST (22% and 4 cm/s) and VD (36% and 6 cm/s). The method was also tested in vivo for vascular and neonatal cardiac imaging. In a carotid artery bifurcation, the obtained blood velocity estimates showed that the compounded ST method was less influenced by clutter filtering than conventional ST and VD methods. In the cardiac case, it was observed that ST velocity estimation is more affected by low signal-to-noise (SNR) than VD. However, with sufficient SNR the in vivo results indicated that a more robust angle-independent blood velocity estimator is obtained using compounded speckle tracking compared with conventional ST and VD methods. PMID:26470038

  12. Ligand-Binding Affinity Estimates Supported by Quantum-Mechanical Methods.

    PubMed

    Ryde, Ulf; Söderhjelm, Pär

    2016-05-11

    One of the largest challenges of computational chemistry is calculation of accurate free energies for the binding of a small molecule to a biological macromolecule, which has immense implications in drug development. It is well-known that standard molecular-mechanics force fields used in most such calculations have a limited accuracy. Therefore, there has been a great interest in improving the estimates using quantum-mechanical (QM) methods. We review here approaches involving explicit QM energies to calculate binding affinities, with an emphasis on the methods, rather than on specific applications. Many different QM methods have been employed, ranging from semiempirical QM calculations, via density-functional theory, to strict coupled-cluster calculations. Dispersion and other empirical corrections are mandatory for the approximate methods, as well as large basis sets for the stricter methods. QM has been used for the ligand, for a few crucial groups around the ligand, for all the closest atoms (200-1000 atoms), or for the full receptor-ligand complex, but it is likely that with a proper embedding it might be enough to include all groups within ∼6 Å of the ligand. Approaches involving minimized structures, simulations of the end states of the binding reaction, or full free-energy simulations have been tested. PMID:27077817

  13. Multiple GPCR conformations and signalling pathways: implications for antagonist affinity estimates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jillian G.; Hill, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Antagonist affinity measurements have traditionally been considered important in characterizing the cell-surface receptors present in a particular cell or tissue. A central assumption has been that antagonist affinity is constant for a given receptor–antagonist interaction, regardless of the agonist used to stimulate that receptor or the downstream response that is measured. As a consequence, changes in antagonist affinity values have been taken as initial evidence for the presence of novel receptor subtypes. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that receptors can possess multiple binding sites and the same receptor can show different antagonist affinity measurements under distinct experimental conditions. Here, we discuss several mechanisms by which antagonists have different affinities for the same receptor as a consequence of allosterism, coupling to different G proteins, multiple (but non-interacting) receptor sites, and signal-pathway-dependent pharmacology (where the pharmacology observed varies depending on the signalling pathway measured). PMID:17629959

  14. Impact of Seasonal Changes on Noise and Velocity Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Each of the GPS-derived time series consists of the deterministic and stochastic part. We propose that the deterministic part includes all harmonics of periodicities from 1st to 9th of residual Chandler, tropical and draconitic periods and compare it with commonly used calculations of the annual and semi-annual tropical curve. Then, we address the issues of whether all residual periodicities, as proposed here, need to be taken into consideration when performing noise analysis. We use the position time series from 180 International GNSS Service stations obtained at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using the GIPSY-OASIS software in a Precise Point Positioning mode. The longest series has 22.1 years of GPS daily solutions. The spectral indices range from -0.12 to -0.92, while the median values of „global" spectral indices are equal to: -0.41 ± 0.15, -0.38 ± 0.12 and -0.33 ± 0.18 for North, East and Up components, respectively. All non-modelled geophysical processes or non-included artificial effects in time series lead to an underestimation of errors of velocities, but also to changes in the velocity values themselves. The proposed assumption of seasonal oscillations subtraction caused the Akaike information criterion values to show a decrease in the median value of 30 %, which in fact means that all the seasonals mentioned here must be taken into account when analyzing noises. Finally, we noticed that there are some of the GPS stations that improved their velocity uncertainty even of 56 %.

  15. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  16. A comparative study for the estimation of geodetic point velocity by artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Gullu, M.

    2014-06-01

    Space geodesy era provides velocity information which results in the positioning of geodetic points by considering the time evolution. The geodetic point positions on the Earth's surface change over time due to plate tectonics, and these changes have to be accounted for geodetic purposes. The velocity field of geodetic network is determined from GPS sessions. Velocities of the new structured geodetic points within the geodetic network are estimated from this velocity field by the interpolation methods. In this study, the utility of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) widely applied in diverse fields of science is investigated in order to estimate the geodetic point velocities. Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) are used to estimate the geodetic point velocities. In order to evaluate the performance of ANNs, the velocities are also interpolated by Kriging (KRIG) method. The results are compared in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE) over five different geodetic networks. It was concluded that the estimation of geodetic point velocity by BPANN is more effective and accurate than by KRIG when the points to be estimated are more than the points known.

  17. Velocity estimation of slow moving targets in AT-InSAR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, A.; Pascazio, V.; Schirinzi, G.

    2007-10-01

    Along Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AT-InSAR) systems use more than one SAR antennas (typically two), mounted on the same platform and displaced along the platform moving direction, to detect slow ground moving targets. The phase of the ATI signal is related to the target motion parameters and may thus be used to estimate the radial velocity. In this paper we approach the velocity estimation problem using statistical techniques based on the statistical distribution of the measured interferometric phases. We analyze the radial velocity estimation with respect to ATI system parameters, such as velocity values, the signal to clutter ratio (SCR), the clutter to noise ratio (CNR), considering a deterministic target whose velocity is estimated using a Gaussian model. This model allows to take into account the lack of knowledge of the target radar cross section (RCS) values and provides an analytical form for the interferometric phase probability density function. Simulations results show that the adoption of Maximum Likelihood (ML) techniques, to perform a joint estimation of velocity and SCR, and multi-channel configurations, to overcome ambiguities problems, provide very good velocity estimation accuracy.

  18. Angular velocity estimation from measurement vectors of star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jun-cai; Yi, Wen-jun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Yang, Jian-kun; Li, Xiu-jian; Tan, Ji-chun

    2012-06-01

    In most spacecraft, there is a need to know the craft's angular rate. Approaches with least squares and an adaptive Kalman filter are proposed for estimating the angular rate directly from the star tracker measurements. In these approaches, only knowledge of the vector measurements and sampling interval is required. The designed adaptive Kalman filter can filter out noise without information of the dynamic model and inertia dyadic. To verify the proposed estimation approaches, simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging minisatellite payload (CHAMP) satellite and experimental tests with night-sky observation are performed. Both the simulations and experimental testing results have demonstrated that the proposed approach performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and performance. PMID:22695598

  19. Estimating phosphorus concentrations following alum treatment using apparent settling velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panuska, John; Robertson, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    he apparent settling velocity (Vs) is a term used in empirical, steady-state, mass-balance lake models to represent the net phosphorus flux from the water column. The Vollenweider (1969) mixed-reactor lake model was rearranged and used to calculate Vs values for total phosphorus (TP) for three lakes treated with alum to reduce the internal flux of P to the water column (Delavan Lake, Wisconsin; Lake Morey, Vermont; and West Twin Lake, Ohio). An analysis of Vs values was conducted using data from these three lakes for both the pre- and post-alum treated conditions. Analysis of Vs values for both the pre- and post-alum conditions in Lake Morey and West Twin Lake resulted in a post-treatment mean Vs value of 7 ± 2.0 m·yr−1. The effect of the alum treatment, although short-lived in Delavan Lake, resulted in a mean post-treatment Vs value of 3.4 ± 0.3 m·yr−1. The consistency in the post-treatment Vs values in Lake Morey and West Twin Lake is used to demonstrate a predictive analysis method for water column TP concentrations in lakes following a successful treatment of the anoxic sediment area with alum. Additional pre- and post-alum in-lake and watershed loading data are needed to advance this concept into a management model.

  20. Linear Interaction Energy Based Prediction of Cytochrome P450 1A2 Binding Affinities with Reliability Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Capoferri, Luigi; Verkade-Vreeker, Marlies C. A.; Buitenhuis, Danny; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Pastor, Manuel; Vermeulen, Nico P. E.; Geerke, Daan P.

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) binding affinities of small ligands, i.e., substrates and inhibitors, represents an important task for predicting drug-drug interactions. A quantitative assessment of the ligand binding affinity towards different CYPs can provide an estimate of inhibitory activity or an indication of isoforms prone to interact with the substrate of inhibitors. However, the accuracy of global quantitative models for CYP substrate binding or inhibition based on traditional molecular descriptors can be limited, because of the lack of information on the structure and flexibility of the catalytic site of CYPs. Here we describe the application of a method that combines protein-ligand docking, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Linear Interaction Energy (LIE) theory, to allow for quantitative CYP affinity prediction. Using this combined approach, a LIE model for human CYP 1A2 was developed and evaluated, based on a structurally diverse dataset for which the estimated experimental uncertainty was 3.3 kJ mol-1. For the computed CYP 1A2 binding affinities, the model showed a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.1 kJ mol-1 and a standard error in prediction (SDEP) in cross-validation of 4.3 kJ mol-1. A novel approach that includes information on both structural ligand description and protein-ligand interaction was developed for estimating the reliability of predictions, and was able to identify compounds from an external test set with a SDEP for the predicted affinities of 4.6 kJ mol-1 (corresponding to 0.8 pKi units). PMID:26551865

  1. A new time-domain narrowband velocity estimation technique for Doppler ultrasound flow imaging. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, P J; Cobbold, R C

    1998-01-01

    A significant improvement in blood velocity estimation accuracy can be achieved by simultaneously processing both temporal and spatial information obtained from a sample volume. Use of the spatial information becomes especially important when the temporal resolution is limited. By using a two-dimensional sequence of spatially sampled Doppler signal "snapshots" an improved estimate of the Doppler correlation matrix can be formed. Processing Doppler data in this fashion addresses the range-velocity spread nature of the distributed red blood cell target, leading to a significant reduction in spectral speckle. Principal component spectral analysis of the "snapshot" correlation matrix is shown to lead to a new and robust Doppler mode frequency estimator. By processing only the dominant subspace of the Doppler correlation matrix, the Cramer-Rao bounds on the estimation error of target velocity is significantly reduced in comparison to traditional narrowband blood velocity estimation methods and achieves almost the same local accuracy as a wideband estimator. A time-domain solution is given for the velocity estimate using the root-MUSIC algorithm, which makes the new estimator attractive for real-time implementation. PMID:18244249

  2. Prediction and Analysis of Canonical EF Hand Loop and Qualitative Estimation of Ca2+ Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Mohit; Padhan, Narendra; Bhattacharya, Alok; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of functions carried out by EF hand-containing calcium-binding proteins is due to various interactions made by these proteins as well as the range of affinity levels for Ca2+ displayed by them. However, accurate methods are not available for prediction of binding affinities. Here, amino acid patterns of canonical EF hand sequences obtained from available crystal structures were used to develop a classifier that distinguishes Ca2+-binding loops and non Ca2+-binding regions with 100% accuracy. To investigate further, we performed a proteome-wide prediction for E. histolytica, and classified known EF-hand proteins. We compared our results with published methods on the E. histolytica proteome scan, and demonstrated our method to be more specific and accurate for predicting potential canonical Ca2+-binding loops. Furthermore, we annotated canonical EF-hand motifs and classified them based on their Ca2+-binding affinities using support vector machines. Using a novel method generated from position-specific scoring metrics and then tested against three different experimentally derived EF-hand-motif datasets, predictions of Ca2+-binding affinities were between 87 and 90% accurate. Our results show that the tool described here is capable of predicting Ca2+-binding affinity constants of EF-hand proteins. The web server is freely available at http://202.41.10.46/calb/index.html. PMID:24760183

  3. A VLBI baseline post-adjustment approach for station velocity estimation in Eurasian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    Baseline lengths and their time-derivatives among 58 geodetic VLBI stations were fitted by using 4439 observing sessions from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). First, the velocities of eight stations in Eurasian continent were set as unknown quantities. Then, two standard global solutions from 3523 IVS sessions and 1110 sessions from database code XA, respectively, were applied prior to all-station coordinates and the non-estimated station velocities. Finally, from the relations among the coordinates, velocities, baseline length and its time-derivative, two types of baseline post-adjustment (BPA) were used to estimate the velocities of the eight stations. We discuss the data processing details, including the effect of different prior values for the stations and the optimal solution. The results suggest that the precision of the station velocities based on the proposed approach is comparable to that of the global solution of the XA sessions. The baseline structure and the prior values of the stations affect the velocity estimates. Compared to the standard method of velocity estimation, there are no external constrains and conditions used in the proposed method.

  4. Magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity filtering estimation for attitude changing spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Shijie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an improved real-time sequential filter (IRTSF) for magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation of spacecraft during its attitude changing (including fast and large angular attitude maneuver, rapidly spinning or uncontrolled tumble). In this new magnetometer-only attitude determination technique, both attitude dynamics equation and first time derivative of measured magnetic field vector are directly leaded into filtering equations based on the traditional single vector attitude determination method of gyroless and real-time sequential filter (RTSF) of magnetometer-only attitude estimation. The process noise model of IRTSF includes attitude kinematics and dynamics equations, and its measurement model consists of magnetic field vector and its first time derivative. The observability of IRTSF for small or large angular velocity changing spacecraft is evaluated by an improved Lie-Differentiation, and the degrees of observability of IRTSF for different initial estimation errors are analyzed by the condition number and a solved covariance matrix. Numerical simulation results indicate that: (1) the attitude and angular velocity of spacecraft can be estimated with sufficient accuracy using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data; (2) compared with that of RTSF, the estimation accuracies and observability degrees of attitude and angular velocity using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data are both improved; and (3) universality: the IRTSF of magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation is observable for any different initial state estimation error vector.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations for deriving the precision in GPR velocity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. A.; Booth, A.; Murray, T.

    2010-12-01

    Models of ground penetrating radar (GPR) propagation velocity are often used to quantify physical subsurface properties (e.g., layer thickness, porosity, water content). A common approach is to conduct semblance analysis on common midpoint (CMP) gathers, in which successive pairs of stacking velocity and travel-time are input to Dix’s Equation, to obtain a velocity estimate, termed interval stacking velocity. However, the precision in interval stacking velocity is seldom reported since it is cumbersome to obtain an analytic expression for precision particularly since Dix’s Equation has four independently resolved degrees of freedom. We present Monte Carlo simulations as a means of expressing interval stacking velocities, and its derivative quantities, as a probability density functions (PDFs). These are built using Gaussian distributions of pseudo-random samples from within the 50% contour around successive coherence responses; precision is summarised using the median and inter-quartile range of each PDF. To verify this method’s accuracy, we simulate CMP data in which travel-times are computed for reflections from two horizontal horizons at depths of 5 and 10 m, with isotropic interval velocity of 0.1 m/ns, for source-receiver offsets from 0 to 30 m. The Monte Carlo simulation produces 107 manifestations of interval stacking velocity and layer thickness, and yields estimates of 0.1±0.003 m/ns and 4.99±0.16 m, respectively. The simulation is repeated for real CMP data, acquired with 50 MHz antennas, for establishing the precision in interval stacking velocity and speculative estimates (in the absence of extensive borehole logs) of layer thickness and fractional porosity (via the complex refractive index method, CRIM). The site comprises Quaternary sediment, in which the water table is observed at ~2 m depth, overlying Cambrian basement at 10-15 m depth. The resolution of stacking velocity in semblance analysis decreases with depth, as reflected in PDFs of

  6. Using eddy covariance to estimate air–sea gas transfer velocity for oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-07-01

    Air-sea gas transfer velocity for O2 is calculated using directly measured fluxes with the eddy covariance technique. It is a direct method and is frequently used to determine fluxes of heat, humidity, and CO2, but has not previously been used to estimate transfer velocities for O2, using atmospheric eddy covariance data. The measured O2 fluxes are upward directed, in agreement with the measured air-sea gradient of the O2 concentration, and opposite to the direction of the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes. The transfer velocities estimated from measurements are compared with prominent wind speed parameterizations of the transfer velocity for CO2 and O2, previously established from various measurement techniques. Our result indicates stronger wind speed dependence for the transfer velocity of O2 compared to CO2 starting at intermediate wind speeds. This stronger wind speed dependence appears to coincide with the onset of whitecap formation in the flux footprint and the strong curvature of a cubic wind-dependent function for the transfer velocity provides the best fit to the data. Additional data using the measured O2 flux and an indirect method (based on the Photosynthetic Quotient) to estimate oxygen concentration in water, support the stronger wind dependence for the transfer velocity of O2 compared to CO2.

  7. A novel method to estimate the affinity of HLA-A∗0201 restricted CTL epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yun-sheng; Lin, Yong; Zhu, Bo; Lin, Zhi-hua

    2009-02-01

    A set of 70 peptides with affinity for the class I MHC HLA-A∗0201 molecule was subjected to quantitative structure-affinity relationship studies based on the SCORE function with good results ( r2 = 0.6982, RMS = 0.280). Then the 'leave-one-out' cross-validation (LOO-CV) and an outer test set including 18 outer samples were used to validate the QSAR model. The results of the LOO-CV were q2 = 0.6188, RMS = 0.315, and the results of outer test set were r2 = 0.5633, RMS = 0.2292. All these show that the QSAR model has good predictability. Statistical analysis showed that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interaction played a significant role in peptide-MHC molecule binding. The study also provided useful information for structure modification of CTL epitope, and laid theoretical base for molecular design of therapeutic vaccine.

  8. Fast Estimation of Defect Profiles from the Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal Based on a Multi-Power Affine Projection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wenhua; Shen, Xiaohui; Xu, Jun; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guiyun; Wu, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection is one of the most important and sensitive nondestructive testing approaches. For online MFL inspection of a long-range railway track or oil pipeline, a fast and effective defect profile estimating method based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm (MAPA) is proposed, where the depth of a sampling point is related with not only the MFL signals before it, but also the ones after it, and all of the sampling points related to one point appear as serials or multi-power. Defect profile estimation has two steps: regulating a weight vector in an MAPA filter and estimating a defect profile with the MAPA filter. Both simulation and experimental data are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high speed while maintaining the estimated profiles clearly close to the desired ones in a noisy environment, thereby meeting the demand of accurate online inspection. PMID:25192314

  9. Fast estimation of defect profiles from the magnetic flux leakage signal based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenhua; Shen, Xiaohui; Xu, Jun; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guiyun; Wu, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection is one of the most important and sensitive nondestructive testing approaches. For online MFL inspection of a long-range railway track or oil pipeline, a fast and effective defect profile estimating method based on a multi-power affine projection algorithm (MAPA) is proposed, where the depth of a sampling point is related with not only the MFL signals before it, but also the ones after it, and all of the sampling points related to one point appear as serials or multi-power. Defect profile estimation has two steps: regulating a weight vector in an MAPA filter and estimating a defect profile with the MAPA filter. Both simulation and experimental data are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high speed while maintaining the estimated profiles clearly close to the desired ones in a noisy environment, thereby meeting the demand of accurate online inspection. PMID:25192314

  10. Estimating velocity from noisy GPS data for investigating the temporal variability of slope movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirz, V.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Gubler, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    Detecting and monitoring of moving and potentially hazardous slopes requires reliable estimations of velocities. Separating any movement signal from measurement noise is crucial for understanding the temporal variability of slope movements and detecting changes in the movement regime, which may be important indicators of the process. Thus, methods capable of estimating velocity and its changes reliably are required. In this paper we develop and test a method for deriving velocities based on noisy GPS (Global Positioning System) data, suitable for various movement patterns and variable signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR). We tested this method on synthetic data, designed to mimic the characteristics of diverse processes, but where we have full knowledge of the underlying velocity patterns, before applying it to explore data collected.

  11. Accuracy of visual estimates of joint angle and angular velocity using criterion movements.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Craig S; Knudson, Duane; Clayburn, Colby; Haywood, Philip

    2005-06-01

    A descriptive study to document undergraduate physical education majors' (22.8 +/- 2.4 yr. old) estimates of sagittal plane elbow angle and angular velocity of elbow flexion visually was performed. 42 subjects rated videotape replays of 30 movements organized into three speeds of movement and two criterion elbow angles. Video images of the movements were analyzed with Peak Motus to measure actual values of elbow angles and peak angular velocity. Of the subjects 85.7% had speed ratings significantly correlated with true peak elbow angular velocity in all three angular velocity conditions. Few (16.7%) subjects' ratings of elbow angle correlated significantly with actual angles. Analysis of the subjects with good ratings showed the accuracy of visual ratings was significantly related to speed, with decreasing accuracy for slower speeds of movement. The use of criterion movements did not improve the small percentage of novice observers who could accurately estimate body angles during movement. PMID:16060418

  12. Estimating Stellar Radial Velocity Variability from Kepler and GALEX: Implications for the Radial Velocity Confirmation of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegla, H. M.; Stassun, K. G.; Watson, C. A.; Bastien, F. A.; Pepper, J.

    2014-01-01

    We cross match the GALEX and Kepler surveys to create a unique dataset with both ultraviolet (UV) measurements and highly precise photometric variability measurements in the visible light spectrum. As stellar activity is driven by magnetic field modulations, we have used UV emission from the magnetically heated gas in the stellar atmosphere to serve as our proxy for the more well-known stellar activity indicator, R' HK . The R' HK approximations were in turn used to estimate the level of astrophysical noise expected in radial velocity (RV) measurements and these were then searched for correlations with photometric variability. We find significant scatter in our attempts to estimate RV noise for magnetically active stars, which we attribute to variations in the phase and strength of the stellar magnetic cycle that drives the activity of these targets. However, for stars we deem to be magnetically quiet, we do find a clear correlation between photometric variability and estimated levels of RV noise (with variability up to ~10 m s-1). We conclude that for these quiet stars, we can use photometric measurements as a proxy to estimate the RV noise expected. As a result, the procedure outlined in this paper may help select targets best-suited for RV follow-up necessary for planet confirmation.

  13. Estimating stellar radial velocity variability from Kepler and GALEX: Implications for the radial velocity confirmation of exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Cegla, H. M.; Watson, C. A.; Stassun, K. G.; Bastien, F. A.; Pepper, J.

    2014-01-01

    We cross match the GALEX and Kepler surveys to create a unique dataset with both ultraviolet (UV) measurements and highly precise photometric variability measurements in the visible light spectrum. As stellar activity is driven by magnetic field modulations, we have used UV emission from the magnetically heated gas in the stellar atmosphere to serve as our proxy for the more well-known stellar activity indicator, R' {sub HK}. The R' {sub HK} approximations were in turn used to estimate the level of astrophysical noise expected in radial velocity (RV) measurements and these were then searched for correlations with photometric variability. We find significant scatter in our attempts to estimate RV noise for magnetically active stars, which we attribute to variations in the phase and strength of the stellar magnetic cycle that drives the activity of these targets. However, for stars we deem to be magnetically quiet, we do find a clear correlation between photometric variability and estimated levels of RV noise (with variability up to ∼10 m s{sup –1}). We conclude that for these quiet stars, we can use photometric measurements as a proxy to estimate the RV noise expected. As a result, the procedure outlined in this paper may help select targets best-suited for RV follow-up necessary for planet confirmation.

  14. Groundwater velocities at the Nevada Test Site: {sup 14}Carbon-based estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.B.; Hershey, R.L.; Lyles, B.F.

    1995-07-01

    Chemical and isotopic data can be used to constrain and validate groundwater flow models. This study examines probable groundwater flowpaths at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and estimates groundwater velocities for these flowpaths using water chemistry and carbon isotopes. These velocities are provided for comparison to velocities calculated by a numerical flow model developed by GeoTrans, Inc. Similar to numerical flow models, models of chemical and isotopic evolution are not unique; any number of combinations of reactions can simulate evolution from one water to another, but are no guarantee that the simulation is correct. Knowledge of the hydrology, mineralogy, and chemistry must be combined to produce feasible evolutionary paths.

  15. Gas hydrate concentration estimated from P- and S-wave velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, J. M.; Gei, D.

    2003-04-01

    We estimate the concentration of gas hydrate at the Mallik 2L-38 research site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada, using P- and S-wave velocities obtained from well logging and vertical seismic profiles (VSP). The theoretical velocities are obtained from a poro-viscoelastic model based on a Biot-type approach. It considers the existence of two solids (grains and gas hydrate) and a fluid mixture and is based on the assumption that hydrate fills the pore space and shows interconnection. The moduli of the matrix formed by gas hydrate are obtained from the percolation model described by Leclaire et al., (1994). An empirical mixing law introduced by Brie et al., (1995) provides the effective bulk modulus of the fluid phase, giving Wood's modulus at low frequency and Voigt's modulus at high frequencies. The dry-rock moduli are estimated from the VSP profile where the rock is assumed to be fully saturated with water, and the quality factors are obtained from the velocity dispersion observed between the sonic and VSP velocities. Attenuation is described by using a constant-Q model for the dry rock moduli. The amount of dissipation is estimated from the difference between the seismic velocities and the sonic-log velocities. We estimate the amount of gas hydrate by fitting the sonic-log and seismic velocities to the theoretical velocities, using the concentration of gas hydrate as fitting parameter. We obtain hydrate concentrations up to 75 %, average values of 43 and 47 % from the VSP P- and S-wave velocities, respectively, and 47 and 42 % from the sonic-log P- and S-wave velocities, respectively. These averages are computed from 897 to 1110 m, excluding the zones where there is no gas hydrate. We found that modeling attenuation is important to obtain reliable results. largeReferences} begin{description} Brie, A., Pampuri, F., Marsala A.F., Meazza O., 1995, Shear Sonic Interpretation in Gas-Bearing Sands, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1995. Carcione, J

  16. Estimating V̄s(30) (or NEHRP site classes) from shallow velocity models (depths < 30 m)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The average velocity to 30 m [V??s(30)] is a widely used parameter for classifying sites to predict their potential to amplify seismic shaking. In many cases, however, models of shallow shear-wave velocities, from which V??s(30) can be computed, do not extend to 30 m. If the data for these cases are to be used, some method of extrapolating the velocities must be devised. Four methods for doing this are described here and are illustrated using data from 135 boreholes in California for which the velocity model extends to at least 30 m. Methods using correlations between shallow velocity and V??s(30) result in significantly less bias for shallow models than the simplest method of assuming that the lowermost velocity extends to 30 m. In addition, for all methods the percent of sites misclassified is generally less than 10% and falls to negligible values for velocity models extending to at least 25 m. Although the methods using correlations do a better job on average of estimating V??s(30), the simplest method will generally result in a lower value of V??s(30) and thus yield a more conservative estimate of ground motion [which generally increases as V??s(30) decreases].

  17. Preliminary Estimates of Specific Discharge and TransportVelocities near Borehole NC-EWDP-24PB

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Doughty, Christine; Finsterle, Stefan

    2006-06-21

    This report summarizes fluid electrical conductivity (FEC)and thermal logging data collected in Borehole NC-EWDP-24PB, locatedapproximately 15 km south of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain.Preliminary analyses of a small fraction of the FEC and temperature dataindicate that relatively large, localized fluid fluxes are likely toexist at this location. The implication that considerable flow is inducedby small gradients, and that flow is highly localized, is significant forthe estimation of groundwater transport velocities and radionuclidetravel times. The sensitivity of the data to potential perturbationsduring testing (i.e., internal wellbore flow in the case of FEC data, andbuoyancy effects in the case of thermal logging data) make it difficultto conclusively derive fluid fluxes and transport velocities without adetailed analysis of all data and processes involved. Such acomprehensive analysis has not yet been performed. However, thepreliminary results suggest that the ambient component of the estimatedflow rates is significant and on the order of liters per minute, yieldinggroundwater transport velocities in the range of kilometers per year. Oneparticular zone in the Bullfrog tuff exhibits estimated velocities on theorder of 10 km/yr. Given that the preliminary estimates of ambient flowrates and transport velocities are relatively high, and considering thepotential impact of high rates and velocities on saturated-zone flow andtransport behavior, we recommend that a comprehensive analysis of all theavailable data be performed. Moreover, additional data sets at otherlocations should be collected to examine whether the current data set isrepresentative of the regional flow system near YuccaMountain.

  18. Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Accardo, Domenico; Grassi, Michele

    2013-01-01

    An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components. PMID:24072023

  19. Satellite angular velocity estimation based on star images and optical flow techniques.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Accardo, Domenico; Grassi, Michele

    2013-01-01

    An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components. PMID:24072023

  20. Ultrasonic position and velocity measurement for a moving object by M-sequence pulse compression using Doppler velocity estimation by spectrum-pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, Yohei; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Pulse compression using a maximum-length sequence (M-sequence) can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflected echo in the pulse-echo method. In the case of a moving object, however, the echo is modulated owing to the Doppler effect. The Doppler-shifted M-sequence-modulated signal cannot be correlated with the reference signal that corresponds to the transmitted M-sequence-modulated signal. Therefore, Doppler velocity estimation by spectrum-pattern analysis of a cyclic M-sequence-modulated signal and cross correlations with Doppler-shifted reference signals that correspond to the estimated Doppler velocities has been proposed. In this paper, measurements of the position and velocity of a moving object by the proposed method are described. First, Doppler velocities of the object are estimated using a microphone array. Secondly, the received signal from each microphone is correlated with each Doppler-shifted reference signal. Then, the position of the object is determined from the B-mode image formed from all cross-correlation functions. After that, the velocity of the object is calculated from velocity components estimated from the Doppler velocities and the position. Finally, the estimated Doppler velocities, determined positions, and calculated velocities are evaluated.

  1. Accurate electron affinity of Co and fine-structure splittings of C o- via slow-electron velocity-map imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Ning, Chuangang

    2016-05-01

    The high-resolution photoelectron spectra of C o- were obtained via the slow-electron velocity-map imaging method. The electron affinity of cobalt element was determined to be 5341.45 (37 ) c m-1 or 662.256(46) meV. The fine structure of C o- was well resolved. The fine-structure intervals C o-(F34) -C o-(F33) and C o-(F34) -C o-(F32) were found to be 920.9 (6 ) c m-1 and 1550.3 (9 ) c m-1 , respectively. The accuracy was improved by a factor of more than ten with respect to the previous laser photodetachment threshold measurement.

  2. Range and Velocity Estimation of Moving Targets Using Multiple Stepped-frequency Pulse Trains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Meng, Huadong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Peng, Ying-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Range and velocity estimation of moving targets using conventional stepped-frequency pulse radar may suffer from the range-Doppler coupling and the phase wrapping. To overcome these problems, this paper presents a new radar waveform named multiple stepped-frequency pulse trains and proposes a new algorithm. It is shown that by using multiple stepped-frequency pulse trains and the robust phase unwrapping theorem (RPUT), both of the range-Doppler coupling and the phase wrapping can be robustly resolved, and accordingly, the range and the velocity of a moving target can be accurately estimated.

  3. The impact of theoretical errors on velocity estimation and accuracy of duplex grading of carotid stenosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicholas; Taylor, Peter; Padayachee, Soundrie

    2002-02-01

    Two potential errors in velocity estimation, Doppler angle misalignment and intrinsic spectral broadening (ISB), were determined and used to correct recorded blood velocities obtained from 20 patients (38 bifurcations). The recorded and corrected velocities were used to grade stenoses of greater than 70% using two duplex classification schemes. The first scheme used a peak systolic velocity (PSV) of > 250 cm/s in the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the second a PSV ratio of > 3.4 (ICA PSV/common carotid artery PSV). The "gold standard" was digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The maximum error in velocity estimation due to Doppler angle misalignment was 33 cm/s, but this did not alter sensitivity of stenosis detection. ISB correction caused a reduction in PSV that decreased the sensitivity of the PSV scheme from 65% to 45%. The PSV ratio classification was not affected by ISB errors. Centres using a PSV criterion for grading stenosis should use a fixed Doppler angle and should establish velocity thresholds in-house. PMID:11937281

  4. Ice Velocity Estimation Using SAR Data in PANDA Section, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, F.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Ice-flow velocity is a significant parameter in dynamic models of the Antarctic ice sheet, indicating how ice is transported from the interior to the ocean and how ice mass evolves. PANDA (Prydz Bay - Amery Ice shelf - Dome A) section is the key area of Chinese expedition in the Antarctic, and many scientific studies have been conducted here. In this research, SAR images including ERS-1/2, Envisat and ALOS were applied to estimate the ice velocity of PANDA Section using DInSAR and offset-tracking methods. Compared to MEaSUREs velocity (ice velocity map of the Antarctic released by National Snow and Ice Data Center) of 450 m resolution, our result with 200 m resolution achieved similar accuracy. Ice mass of PANDA section flows into the ocean mainly through Amery Ice Shelf and Polar Record Glacier. The ice velocity at the front edge of Amery Ice shelf is almost 1500 m/a, and the ice velocity of Polar Record Glacier can reach as high as 800 m/a. At most inner area of PANDA section, ice velocity is below 40 m/a. Due to the blocking of rocks and nunataks, ice flow feature in Grove Mountains area is quite complicated, which can help to demonstrate the meteorite concentration mechanism in this area.

  5. Estimation of the average surface heat flux over an inhomogeneous terrain from the vertical velocity variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eilts, M. D.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Evans, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An indirect method of estimating the surface heat flux from observations of vertical velocity variance at the lower mid-levels of the convective atmospheric boundary layer is described. Comparison of surface heat flux estimates with those from boundary-layer heating rates is good, and this method seems to be especially suitable for inhomogeneous terrain for which the surface-layer profile method cannot be used.

  6. Estimation of red blood cell aggregate velocity during sedimentation using the Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempczyński, A.; Grzegorzewski, B.

    2008-11-01

    A method for velocity estimation of sedimenting three-dimensional (3D) red blood cell (RBC) aggregates by means of an image processing technique is proposed. Successive images of RBC suspension near the wall of a container reveal rouleaux formation, sedimentation of 3D RBC aggregates and formation of the deposit of the cells. Plots of the position versus time for the 3D RBC aggregates were extracted by a processing of successive images of the suspension. The plots exhibit a quasi-linear structures in noisy background. With the use of the Hough transform the detection of the slope of the structures was performed and the velocity of the aggregates was estimated. To show the potential of the method spatio-temporal dependence of the aggregate velocity is presented for RBCs in plasma, RBCs in Dextran and for hardened cells at haematocrit 5%.

  7. Estimation of the velocities and discharge rates of groundwater flows by helium and tritium distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.V.; Antonenko, E.F.; Obukhova, S.N.

    1995-11-01

    Modeling is used to show that bends in the curves of groundwater flows and confluence of different-age flows demonstrate themselves in spatial variability in concentration fields of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}H, and {sup 14}C isotopes. The results are used to reveal typical flows in a section of Switzerland and to estimate their velocities and discharge rates.

  8. Estimation of seabed shear-wave velocity profiles using shear-wave source data.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hefeng; Nguyen, Thanh-Duong; Duffaut, Kenneth

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates seabed shear-wave velocity profiles and their uncertainties using interface-wave dispersion curves extracted from data generated by a shear-wave source. The shear-wave source generated a seismic signature over a frequency range between 2 and 60 Hz and was polarized in both in-line and cross-line orientations. Low-frequency Scholte- and Love-waves were recorded. Dispersion curves of the Scholte- and Love-waves for the fundamental mode and higher-order modes are extracted by three time-frequency analysis methods. Both the vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles in the sediment are estimated by the Scholte- and Love-wave dispersion curves, respectively. A Bayesian approach is utilized for the inversion. Differential evolution, a global search algorithm is applied to estimate the most-probable shear-velocity models. Marginal posterior probability profiles are computed by Metropolis-Hastings sampling. The estimated vertically and horizontally polarized shear-wave velocity profiles fit well with the core and in situ measurements. PMID:23862796

  9. An empirical method to estimate shear wave velocity of soils in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, B.-Z.; Pezeshk, S.; Chang, T.-S.; Hall, K.H.; Liu, Huaibao P.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, a set of charts are developed to estimate shear wave velocity of soils in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), using the standard penetration test (SPT) N values and soil depths. Laboratory dynamic test results of soil samples collected from the NMSZ showed that the shear wave velocity of soils is related to the void ratio and the effective confining pressure applied to the soils. The void ratio of soils can be estimated from the SPT N values and the effective confining pressure depends on the depth of soils. Therefore, the shear wave velocity of soils can be estimated from the SPT N value and the soil depth. To make the methodology practical, two corrections should be made. One is that field SPT N values of soils must be adjusted to an unified SPT N??? value to account the effects of overburden pressure and equipment. The second is that the effect of water table to effective overburden pressure of soils must be considered. To verify the methodology, shear wave velocities of five sites in the NMSZ are estimated and compared with those obtained from field measurements. The comparison shows that our approach and the field tests are consistent with an error of less than of 15%. Thus, the method developed in this study is useful for dynamic study and practical designs in the NMSZ region. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Limited.

  10. Graphlet signature-based scoring method to estimate protein–ligand binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Omkar; Sawariya, Kunal; Aparoy, Polamarasetty

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, various computational methodologies have been developed to understand and quantify receptor–ligand interactions. Protein–ligand interactions can also be explained in the form of a network and its properties. The ligand binding at the protein-active site is stabilized by formation of new interactions like hydrogen bond, hydrophobic and ionic. These non-covalent interactions when considered as links cause non-isomorphic sub-graphs in the residue interaction network. This study aims to investigate the relationship between these induced sub-graphs and ligand activity. Graphlet signature-based analysis of networks has been applied in various biological problems; the focus of this work is to analyse protein–ligand interactions in terms of neighbourhood connectivity and to develop a method in which the information from residue interaction networks, i.e. graphlet signatures, can be applied to quantify ligand affinity. A scoring method was developed, which depicts the variability in signatures adopted by different amino acids during inhibitor binding, and was termed as GSUS (graphlet signature uniqueness score). The score is specific for every individual inhibitor. Two well-known drug targets, COX-2 and CA-II and their inhibitors, were considered to assess the method. Residue interaction networks of COX-2 and CA-II with their respective inhibitors were used. Only hydrogen bond network was considered to calculate GSUS and quantify protein–ligand interaction in terms of graphlet signatures. The correlation of the GSUS with pIC50 was consistent in both proteins and better in comparison to the Autodock results. The GSUS scoring method was better in activity prediction of molecules with similar structure and diverse activity and vice versa. This study can be a major platform in developing approaches that can be used alone or together with existing methods to predict ligand affinity from protein–ligand complexes. PMID:26064572

  11. Estimating hurricane vertical velocity from Doppler radar for high-resolution hurricane model initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    A mesoscale vorticity method derives the hurricane inner-core vertical velocity from the vorticity variations in space and in time estimated from a deep layer of wind measurements obtained from Doppler radar. The vorticity method derives the hurricane inner core vertical velocity and thus, the divergent wind based on the mesoscale vorticity equation. The inner-core divergent wind inferred dynamically and rotational wind estimated from radar data form the total horizontal wind which is dynamically balanced with the derived vertical velocity. The derived high-resolution balance wind field is suitable for high resolution hurricane models initialization. The vorticity method is tested using a high-resolution non-hydrostatic hurricane model with radar data from Hurricane Danny which made landfall along the Alabama coast in 1997. Numerical experiments with a high resolution non-hydrostatic hurricane model show positive radar data impacts on track and intensity forecasts, in particular, substantial improvements on the hurricane inner core velocity field, can be obtained with the vertical velocity and thus inner-core divergent wind inferred from the mesoscale vorticity method.

  12. Complete regional waveform modeling to estimate seismic velocity structure and source parameters for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bredbeck, T; Rodgers, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    The velocity structures and source parameters estimated by waveform modeling provide valuable information for CTBT monitoring. The inferred crustal and uppermost mantle structures advance understanding of tectonics and guides regionalization for event location and identification efforts. Estimation of source parameters such as seismic moment, depth and mechanism (whether earthquake, explosion or collapse) is crucial to event identification. In this paper we briefly outline some of the waveform modeling research for CTBT monitoring performed in the last year. In the future we will estimate structure for new regions by modeling waveforms of large well-observed events along additional paths. Of particular interest will be the estimation of velocity structure in aseismic regions such as most of Africa and the Former Soviet Union. Our previous work on aseismic regions in the Middle East, north Africa and south Asia give us confidence to proceed with our current methods. Using the inferred velocity models we plan to estimate source parameters for smaller events. It is especially important to obtain seismic moments of earthquakes for use in applying the Magnitude-Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC; Taylor et al., 1999) to regional body-wave amplitudes for discrimination and calibrating the coda-based magnitude scales.

  13. Three-Dimensional Object Motion and Velocity Estimation Using a Single Computational RGB-D Camera

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwon; Jeong, Kyungwon; Park, Jinho; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) object moving direction and velocity estimation method is presented using a dual off-axis color-filtered aperture (DCA)-based computational camera. Conventional object tracking methods provided only two-dimensional (2D) states of an object in the image for the target representation. The proposed method estimates depth information in the object region from a single DCA camera that transforms 2D spatial information into 3D model parameters of the object. We also present a calibration method of the DCA camera to estimate the entire set of camera parameters for a practical implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed DCA-based color and depth (RGB-D) camera can calculate the 3D object moving direction and velocity of a randomly moving object in a single-camera framework. PMID:25580899

  14. Estimation of friction velocity from the wind-wave spectrum at extremely high wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagaki, N.; Komori, S.; Suzuki, N.

    2016-05-01

    The equilibrium range of wind-waves at normal and extremely high wind speeds was investigated experimentally using a high-speed wind-wave tank together with field measurements at normal wind speeds. Water level fluctuations at normal and extremely high wind speeds were measured with resistance-type wave gauges, and the wind-wave spectrum and significant phase velocity were calculated. The equilibrium range constant was estimated from the wind-wave spectrum and showed the strong relationship with inverse wave age at normal and extremely high wind speeds. Using the strong relation between the equilibrium range constant and inverse wave age, a new method for estimating the wind speed at 10-m height (U 10) and friction velocity (u*) was proposed. The results suggest that U 10 and u* can be estimated from wave measurements alone at extremely high wind speeds in oceans under tropical cyclones.

  15. Developing Improved Water Velocity and Flux Estimation from AUVs - Results From Recent ASTEP Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Camilli, R.; German, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Water velocity measurements are crucial to quantifying fluxes and better understanding water as a fundamental transport mechanism for marine chemical and biological processes. The importance of flux to understanding these processes makes it a crucial component of astrobiological exploration to moons possessing large bodies of water, such as Europa. Present technology allows us to obtain submerged water velocity measurements from stationary platforms; rarer are measurements from submerged vehicles which possess the ability to autonomously survey tens of kilometers over extended periods. Improving this capability would also allow us to obtain co-registered water velocity and other sensor data (e.g., mass spectrometers, temperature, oxygen, etc) and significantly enhance our ability to estimate fluxes. We report results from 4 recent expeditions in which we measured water velocities from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to help quantify flux in three different oceanographic contexts: hydrothermal vent plumes; an oil spill cruise responding to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout; and two expeditions investigating naturally occurring methane seeps. On all of these cruises, we directly measured the water velocities with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on the AUV. Vehicle motion was corrected for using bottom-lock Doppler tracks when available and, in the absence of bottom-lock, estimates of vehicle velocity based on dynamic models. In addition, on the methane seep cruises, we explored the potential of using acoustic mapping sonars, such as multi-beam and sub-bottom profiling systems, to localize plumes and indirectly quantify flux. Data obtained on these expeditions enhanced our scientific investigations and provides data for future development of algorithms for autonomously processing, identifying, and classifying water velocity and flux measurements. Such technology will be crucial in future astrobiology missions where highly constrained

  16. Estimation of global aortic pulse wave velocity by flow-sensitive 4D MRI.

    PubMed

    Markl, Michael; Wallis, Wolf; Brendecke, Stefanie; Simon, Jan; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Harloff, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of flow-sensitive four-dimensional MRI for the assessment of pulse wave velocity as a measure of vessel compliance in the thoracic aorta. Findings in 12 young healthy volunteers were compared with those in 25 stroke patients with aortic atherosclerosis and an age-matched normal control group (n = 9). Results from pulse wave velocity calculations incorporated velocity data from the entire aorta and were compared to those of standard methods based on flow waveforms at only two specific anatomic landmarks. Global aortic pulse wave velocity was higher in patients with atherosclerosis (7.03 +/- 0.24 m/sec) compared to age-matched controls (6.40 +/- 0.32 m/sec). Both were significantly (P < 0.001) increased compared to younger volunteers (4.39 +/- 0.32 m/sec). Global aortic pulse wave velocity in young volunteers was in good agreement with previously reported MRI studies and catheter measurements. Estimation of measurement inaccuracies and error propagation analysis demonstrated only minor uncertainties in measured flow waveforms and moderate relative errors below 16% for aortic compliance in all 46 subjects. These results demonstrate the feasibility of pulse wave velocity calculation based on four-dimensional MRI data by exploiting its full volumetric coverage, which may also be an advantage over standard two-dimensional techniques in the often-distorted route of the aorta in patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:20512861

  17. Site-effect estimations for Taipei Basin based on shallow S-wave velocity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Chi; Huang, Huey-Chu; Wu, Cheng-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Shallow S-wave velocities have been widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. Thus, the S-wave velocity structures of Taipei Basin, Taiwan were investigated using array records of microtremors at 15 sites (Huang et al., 2015). In this study, seven velocity structures are added to the database describing Taipei Basin. Validity of S-wave velocity structures are first examined using the 1D Haskell method and well-logging data at the Wuku Sewage Disposal Plant (WK) borehole site. Basically, the synthetic results match well with the observed data at different depths. Based on S-wave velocity structures at 22 sites, theoretical transfer functions at five different formations of the sedimentary basin are calculated. According to these results, predominant frequencies for these formations are estimated. If the S-wave velocity of the Tertiary basement is assumed to be 1000 m/s, the predominant frequencies of the Quaternary sediments are between 0.3 Hz (WUK) and 1.4 Hz (LEL) in Taipei Basin while the depths of sediments between 0 m (i.e. at the edge of the basin) and 616 m (i.e. site WUK) gradually increase from southeast to northwest. Our results show good agreement with available geological and geophysical information.

  18. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  19. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, Nikolay; Pancino, Elena; Romano, Donatella; Tsymbal, Vadim

    2015-08-01

    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a Least Squares Deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to analyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (± 1 km/s) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 km/s even with a low number of high-resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  20. A noninvasive method to estimate pulse wave velocity in arteries locally by means of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Brands, P J; Willigers, J M; Ledoux, L A; Reneman, R S; Hoeks, A P

    1998-11-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of vessel wall properties in humans is hampered by the absence of methods to assess directly local distensibility, compliance, and Young's modulus. Contemporary ultrasound methods are capable of assessing end-diastolic artery diameter, the local change in artery diameter as a function of time, and local wall thickness. However, to assess vessel wall properties of the carotid artery, for example, the pulse pressure in the brachial artery still must be used as a substitute for local pulse pressure. The assessment of local pulse wave velocity as described in the present article provides a direct estimate of local vessel wall properties (distensibility, compliance, and Young's modulus) and, in combination with the relative change in artery cross-sectional area, an estimate of the local pulse pressure. The local pulse wave velocity is obtained by processing radio frequency ultrasound signals acquired simultaneously along two M-lines spaced at a known distance along the artery. A full derivation and mathematical description of the method to assess local pulse wave velocity, using the temporal and longitudinal gradients of the change in diameter, are presented. A performance evaluation of the method was carried out by means of experiments in an elastic tube under pulsatile pressure conditions. It is concluded that, in a phantom set-up, the assessed local pulse wave velocity provides reliable estimates for local distensibility. PMID:10385955

  1. A dual sensor device to estimate fluid flow velocity at diffuse hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, J.; Rodier, P.; Tivey, M. K.; Singh, H.; Schultz, A.; Sarradin, P. M.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high-frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/s at the substratum level, in low-temperature (4.5-16.4 °C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate the flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.

  2. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  3. ESTIMATION OF S-WAVE VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF FUKUI PLAIN BASED ON MICROTREMOR ARRAY OBSERVATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Keisuke; Moto, Koudai

    The precise evaluations of Quaternary structure of the region are indispensable in order to accurately predict the seismic damage. However, deep borehole, PS-logging and elastic wave exploration have been executed only on limited points around the Fukui Plain. The problem analyzed in this study is statistical estimation of the 3D S-wave velocity structure down to the Tertiary bedrock of the Fukui Plain based on the data from 75 microtremor array observation sites. The Rayleigh wave phase velocities at each array site were calculated by the spatial autocorrelation method. The phase velocities at each site were inverted to a 1D S-wave profile using a genetic inversion. The 3-components single-site microtremor observations were carried out to compensate the array observations. The 3D S-wave velocity structure around the Fukui plain have been interpolated by using Kriging and Co-Kriging techniques. In the Co-Kriging procedure, the correlations between the estimated depths of Quaternary and the observed predominant periods of the sites were taken into account. The validity of the estimated structure from the microtremor observation was confirmed by comparing with the density structure and with the existing PS-logging data.

  4. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  5. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Kepler, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available. PMID:26098764

  6. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Feng; Kepler, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available. PMID:26098764

  7. Cross-correlation based time delay estimation for turbulent flow velocity measurements: Statistical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Balazs; Bencze, Attila; Zoletnik, Sandor; Veres, Gabor; Por, Gabor

    2011-12-15

    Time delay estimation methods (TDE) are well-known techniques to investigate poloidal flows in hot magnetized plasmas through the propagation properties of turbulent structures in the medium. One of these methods is based on the estimation of the time lag at which the cross-correlation function (CCF) estimation reaches its maximum value. The uncertainty of the peak location refers to the smallest determinable flow velocity modulation, and therefore the standard deviation of the time delay imposes important limitation to the measurements. In this article, the relative standard deviation of the CCF estimation and the standard deviation of its peak location are calculated analytically using a simple model of turbulent signals. This model assumes independent (non interacting) overlapping events (coherent structures) with randomly distributed spatio-temporal origins moving with background flow. The result of our calculations is the derivation of a general formula for the CCF variance, which is valid not exclusively in the high event density limit, but also for arbitrary event densities. Our formula reproduces the well known expression for high event densities previously published in the literature. In this paper we also present a derivation of the variance of time delay estimation that turns out to be inversely proportional to the applied time window. The derived formulas were tested in real plasma measurements. The calculations are an extension of the earlier work of Bencze and Zoletnik [Phys. Plasmas 12, 052323 (2005)] where the autocorrelation-width technique was developed. Additionally, we show that velocities calculated by a TDE method possess a broadband noise which originates from this variance, its power spectral density cannot be decreased by worsening the time resolution and can be coherent with noises of other velocity measurements where the same turbulent structures are used. This noise should not be confused with the impact of zero mean frequency zonal flow

  8. Effective Estimation of Dynamic Metabolic Fluxes Using 13C Labeling and Piecewise Affine Approximation: From Theory to Practical Applicability

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Robin; Wahl, S. Aljoscha

    2015-01-01

    The design of microbial production processes relies on rational choices for metabolic engineering of the production host and the process conditions. These require a systematic and quantitative understanding of cellular regulation. Therefore, a novel method for dynamic flux identification using quantitative metabolomics and 13C labeling to identify piecewise-affine (PWA) flux functions has been described recently. Obtaining flux estimates nevertheless still required frequent manual reinitalization to obtain a good reproduction of the experimental data and, moreover, did not optimize on all observables simultaneously (metabolites and isotopomer concentrations). In our contribution we focus on measures to achieve faster and robust dynamic flux estimation which leads to a high dimensional parameter estimation problem. Specifically, we address the following challenges within the PWA problem formulation: (1) Fast selection of sufficient domains for the PWA flux functions, (2) Control of over-fitting in the concentration space using shape-prescriptive modeling and (3) robust and efficient implementation of the parameter estimation using the hybrid implicit filtering algorithm. With the improvements we significantly speed up the convergence by efficiently exploiting that the optimization problem is partly linear. This allows application to larger-scale metabolic networks and demonstrates that the proposed approach is not purely theoretical, but also applicable in practice. PMID:26690237

  9. Shear wave velocity estimation in the metropolitan area of Málaga (S Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, D.; Rosa-Cintas, S.; López-Casado, C.; Delgado, J.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.

    2014-10-01

    We carry out a seismic noise study based on array measurements at three sites in the Málaga basin, South Spain, for the further estimation of shear wave velocity profiles. For this purpose, we use both the H/V method and the f-k technique in order to characterize the different materials present in the zone, i.e., Quaternary sediments and Pliocene sedimentary rocks above the bedrock. The H/V analysis shows frequency peaks going from 1 Hz, in areas close to the border of the basin, to 0.3 Hz in places located toward the center of the formation. The f-k analysis allows obtaining the dispersion curves associated with each site and subsequently, estimating the Vs profiles by inversion of the respective group velocities. In this way, the basin basement can be characterized by S-wave velocities greater than 2000 m/s. Regarding the basin fill, it is divided into three layers defined by different wave velocity intervals. The shallowest one is featured by velocities ranging from 150 to 400 m/s and comprises the Quaternary sediments, while velocities going from 550-700 to1200-1600 m/s characterize the two underlying layers composed by Pliocene sediments. Finally, the information provided by the three Vs profiles is integrated in a 2D cross-section of the basin to have a spatial view of its sedimentary structure. The results obtained here, in addition to providing useful information about the infill of the basin near the metropolitan area of Málaga, will be very helpful for future seismic zonation studies in the region.

  10. Rapid analysis of non-uniformly sampled pulsed field gradient data for velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Park, J C; Pavlovskaya, G E; Gibbs, S J

    2001-06-01

    Bretthorst's recent generalization of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram shows that a sufficient statistic for frequency estimation from non-uniformly, but simultaneously sampled quadrature data is equivalent to the FFT of those data with the missing samples replaced by zeros. We have applied this concept to the rapid analysis of pulsed field gradient MRI data which have been non-uniformly sampled in the velocity encoding wave vector q. For a small number of q samples, it is more computationally efficient to calculate the periodogram directly rather than using the FFT algorithm with a large number of zeros. The algorithm we have implemented for finding the peak of the generalized periodogram is simple and robust; it involves repeated apodization and grid searching of the periodogram until the desired velocity resolution is achieved. The final estimate is refined by quadratic interpolation. We have tested the method for fully developed Poiseuille flow of a Newtonian fluid and have demonstrated substantial improvement in the precision of velocity measurement achievable in a fixed acquisition time with non-uniform sampling. The method is readily extendible to multidimensional data. Analysis of a 256 by 256 pixel image with 8 q samples and an effective velocity resolution of better than 1/680 of the Nyquist range requires approximately 1 minute computation time on a 400 MHz SUN Ultrasparc II processor. PMID:11672628

  11. Estimating fracture parameters from p-wave velocity profiles about a geothermal well

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.T.; Henyey, T.L.; Sammis, C.G.; Leary, P.C.; McRaney, J.K.

    1981-12-01

    The feasibility of locating fracture zones and estimating their crack parameters was examined using an areal well shoot method centered on Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1, Beaver County, Utah. High-resolution travel time measurements were made between a borehole sensor and an array of shot stations distributed radially and azimuthally about the well. Directional velocity behavior in the vicinity of the well was investigated by comparing velocity logs derived from the travel time data. Three fracture zones were identified form the velocity data, corroborating fracture indicators seen in other geophysical logs conducted in Well 9-1. Crack densities and average crack aspect ratios for these fracture zones were estimated using a self-consistent velocity theory (O'Connell and Budiansy 1974). Probable trends of these fracture zones were established from a combination of the data from the more distant shot stations and the results of a gravity survey. The results of this study indicate that the areal well shoot is a potentially powerful tool for the reconnaisance of fracture-controlled fluid and gas reservoirs. Improvements in methodology and hardware could transform it into an operationally viable survey method.

  12. Calibrated Tully-fisher Relations For Improved Photometric Estimates Of Disk Rotation Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Pizagno, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present calibrated scaling relations (also referred to as Tully-Fisher relations or TFRs) between rotation velocity and photometric quantities-- absolute magnitude, stellar mass, and synthetic magnitude (a linear combination of absolute magnitude and color)-- of disk galaxies at z 0.1. First, we selected a parent disk sample of 170,000 galaxies from SDSS DR7, with redshifts between 0.02 and 0.10 and r band absolute magnitudes between -18.0 and -22.5. Then, we constructed a child disk sample of 189 galaxies that span the parameter space-- in absolute magnitude, color, and disk size-- covered by the parent sample, and for which we have obtained kinematic data. Long-slit spectroscopy were obtained from the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m for 99 galaxies, and from Pizagno et al. (2007) for 95 galaxies (five have repeat observations). We find the best photometric estimator of disk rotation velocity to be a synthetic magnitude with a color correction that is consistent with the Bell et al. (2003) color-based stellar mass ratio. The improved rotation velocity estimates have a wide range of scientific applications, and in particular, in combination with weak lensing measurements, they enable us to constrain the ratio of optical-to-virial velocity in disk galaxies.

  13. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.

  14. Estimating wave orbital velocity through the azimuth cutoff from space-borne satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Collard, Fabrice

    2015-11-01

    It has been long accepted that ocean wave conditions recorded from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) aboard satellites resolve large scale swells. SARs make use of its displacement to achieve fine resolution; however the random surface motions can reduce its nominal azimuthal resolution. Accordingly, the SAR spectral azimuth response mirrors the probability distribution of the radial velocity component of the scatters. This effect, quantified in a measure called the azimuth cutoff, is estimated by defining a scale based on the fitting of a Gaussian function to the radar cross section azimuth spectrum. The independent measure provides additional sea state information related to the root mean square surface orbital wave velocity. We use data recorded from the European Space Agency's ENVISAT advanced SAR in the C-band spanning its lifetime 2003-2012. Our purpose is to first establish the validity of the azimuth cutoff using both colocated buoys and modeled wave data. Some systematic biases are corrected using other SAR derived parameters, improving the accuracy of the estimate. Despite our efforts, errors exist in the presence of swell, extreme wind waves, and related to the wave direction. Under the majority of the sea states the parameter is well behaved. As a final point, applications using the wave orbital velocities are described in terms of diagnosing a spectral wave model and the wave climate. As illustrated, the returned radar signal provides useful sea state information that resolves wind speeds, wave orbital velocities from the wind waves, and swells.

  15. An algorithm to estimate unsteady and quasi-steady pressure fields from velocity field measurements.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, John O; Bose, Sanjeeb; Gemmell, Brad J; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H

    2014-02-01

    We describe and characterize a method for estimating the pressure field corresponding to velocity field measurements such as those obtained by using particle image velocimetry. The pressure gradient is estimated from a time series of velocity fields for unsteady calculations or from a single velocity field for quasi-steady calculations. The corresponding pressure field is determined based on median polling of several integration paths through the pressure gradient field in order to reduce the effect of measurement errors that accumulate along individual integration paths. Integration paths are restricted to the nodes of the measured velocity field, thereby eliminating the need for measurement interpolation during this step and significantly reducing the computational cost of the algorithm relative to previous approaches. The method is validated by using numerically simulated flow past a stationary, two-dimensional bluff body and a computational model of a three-dimensional, self-propelled anguilliform swimmer to study the effects of spatial and temporal resolution, domain size, signal-to-noise ratio and out-of-plane effects. Particle image velocimetry measurements of a freely swimming jellyfish medusa and a freely swimming lamprey are analyzed using the method to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach when applied to empirical data. PMID:24115059

  16. Estimation of the circulation distribution on a rotor blade from detailed near wake velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, E. H. M.; Vermeer, L. J.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2004-07-01

    The circulation distribution over a blade of a wind turbine model is estimated by use of a vortex model, which is matched with measured wake properties. With near wake velocities and the Biot-Savart law an optimization scheme is constructed to estimate the circulation distribution over the blade using a polynomial function series to approximate the circulation distribution. The velocities resulting from the calculated distribution are compared with the measured data, and deviations are discussed and explained. The vortex model offers insight into how the measured velocities can be separated into induced velocities of the different parts of the vortex system, such as the influence of the tip vortex. The sensitivity of the vortex model to its most uncertain parameters is tested. Finally the circulation distribution obtained with the vortex model is compared with the circulation distribution obtained through application of a blade element momentum (BEM) code. The BEM results show an underestimation of the circulation near the root and an overestimation of the circulation near the tip with respect to the vortex model results. Copyright

  17. Baseband velocity estimation for second-harmonic signals exploiting the invariance of the Doppler equation.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, X A; Ledoux, L A; Brands, P J; Hoeks, A P

    1998-10-01

    All Doppler systems, whether conventional Doppler domain or radio frequency (RF) processing is employed, relate the temporal frequency characteristics of the signal at a certain point in depth as function of time to the spatial frequency characteristics of the received signal as function of depth. The mean frequency of the latter may change as a result of depth-dependent attenuation, nonlinear scattering mechanisms, as in harmonic imaging of ultrasound contrast agents, or RF signal demodulation. For all these cases, the relationship between spatial and temporal mean frequency and target velocity is still governed by the familiar Doppler expression if the signal modifications have been properly accounted for. A major drawback of RF signal processing to extract the target velocity is the large number of data points to consider. The computational complexity increases further for harmonic imaging. It is shown conceptually, and demonstrated by signal simulations, that prior to velocity estimation RF demodulation followed by decimation 1) does not affect the Doppler equation, 2) enhances the information content of the samples, 3) reduces the computational load by a factor of four and for harmonic signals by a higher factor, and 4) while demodulation does not have to be actually performed, but can be accounted for by a scaling factor in the cross-correlation function. It is concluded that decimation hardly affects the precision of the velocity estimate if possible frequency aliasing is maintained within bounds, suggesting that the decimation factor is not critical. PMID:9775535

  18. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  19. Estimating velocity from noisy GPS data for investigating the temporal variability of slope movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirz, V.; Gruber, S.; Gubler, S.; Purves, R. S.

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of processes and factors affecting slope instability is essential for detecting and monitoring potentially hazardous slopes. Knowing the timing of acceleration or deceleration of slope movements can help to identify important controls and hence to increase our process understanding. For this methods to derive reliable velocity estimations are important. The aim of this study was to develop and test a method to derive velocities based on noisy GPS data of various movement patterns and variable signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Derived velocities represent reliable average velocities representative for a given period. The applied smoothing windows directly depends on the SNR of the data, which is modeled using Monte Carlo simulation. Hence, all obtained velocities have a SNR above a predefined threshold and for each velocity period the SNR is known, which helps to interpret the temporal variability. In sensitivity tests with synthetic time-series the method was compared to established methods to derive velocities based on GPS positions, including spline and Kernel regression smoothing. Those sensitivity tests clearly demonstrated that methods are required that adopt the time window to the underlying error of the position data. The presented method performs well, even for a high noise levels and variable SNR. Different methods were further applied to investigate the inter-annual variability of permafrost slope movements based on daily GPS- and inclinometer data. In the framework of the new method, we further analyzed the error caused by a rotation of the GPS mast (hmast = 1.5 m). If the tilting is higher than its uncertainty, the rotational movement can be separated and the direction of movement became more uniform. At one GPS station, more than 12% of the measured displacement at the antenna was caused by the rotation of the station.

  20. Variable aspect ratio method in the Xu-White model for shear-wave velocity estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jun-Yu; Yue, Cheng-Qi; Liang, Yi-Qiang; Song, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Su; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Shear-wave velocity logs are useful for various seismic interpretation applications, including bright spot analyses, amplitude-versus-offset analyses and multicomponent seismic interpretations. This paper presents a method for predicting the shear-wave velocity of argillaceous sandstone from conventional log data and experimental data, based on Gassmann's equations and the Xu-White model. This variable aspect ratio method takes into account all the influences of the matrix nature, shale content, porosity size and pore geometry, and the properties of pore fluid of argillaceous sandstone, replacing the fixed aspect ratio assumption in the conventional Xu-White model. To achieve this, we first use the Xu-White model to derive the bulk and shear modulus of dry rock in a sand-clay mixture. Secondly, we use Gassmann's equations to calculate the fluid-saturated elastic properties, including compressional and shear-wave velocities. Finally, we use the variable aspect ratio method to estimate the shear-wave velocity. The numerical results indicate that the variable aspect ratio method provides an important improvement in the application of the Xu-White model for sand-clay mixtures and allows for a variable aspect ratio log to be introduced into the Xu-White model instead of the constant aspect ratio assumption. This method shows a significant improvement in predicting velocities over the conventional Xu-White model.

  1. MIDAS robust trend estimator for accurate GPS station velocities without step detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Gazeaux, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Automatic estimation of velocities from GPS coordinate time series is becoming required to cope with the exponentially increasing flood of available data, but problems detectable to the human eye are often overlooked. This motivates us to find an automatic and accurate estimator of trend that is resistant to common problems such as step discontinuities, outliers, seasonality, skewness, and heteroscedasticity. Developed here, Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) is a variant of the Theil-Sen median trend estimator, for which the ordinary version is the median of slopes vij = (xj-xi)/(tj-ti) computed between all data pairs i > j. For normally distributed data, Theil-Sen and least squares trend estimates are statistically identical, but unlike least squares, Theil-Sen is resistant to undetected data problems. To mitigate both seasonality and step discontinuities, MIDAS selects data pairs separated by 1 year. This condition is relaxed for time series with gaps so that all data are used. Slopes from data pairs spanning a step function produce one-sided outliers that can bias the median. To reduce bias, MIDAS removes outliers and recomputes the median. MIDAS also computes a robust and realistic estimate of trend uncertainty. Statistical tests using GPS data in the rigid North American plate interior show ±0.23 mm/yr root-mean-square (RMS) accuracy in horizontal velocity. In blind tests using synthetic data, MIDAS velocities have an RMS accuracy of ±0.33 mm/yr horizontal, ±1.1 mm/yr up, with a 5th percentile range smaller than all 20 automatic estimators tested. Considering its general nature, MIDAS has the potential for broader application in the geosciences.

  2. Profiling river surface velocities and volume flow estimation with bistatic UHF RiverSonde radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Lilleboe, P.; Cheng, R.; Gartner, J.

    2003-01-01

    From the velocity profiles across the river, estimates of total volume flow for the four methods were calculated based on a knowledge of the bottom depth vs position across the river. It was found that the flow comparisons for the American River were much closer, within 2% of each other among all of the methods. Sources of positional biases and anomalies in the RiverSonde measurement patterns along the river were identified and discussed.

  3. P wave detection thresholds, Pn velocity estimates, and T wave location uncertainty from oceanic hydrophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Philip D.; Fox, Christopher G.; Dziak, Robert P.

    1999-06-01

    P wave arrivals recorded by the U.S. Navy's SOund SUrveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophone arrays were used to estimate earthquake detection thresholds and Pn velocities in the northeast Pacific Ocean. The Navy hydrophones have been used successfully to detect and locate oceanic earthquakes using their waterborne acoustic tertiary (T) waves; however, use of these hydrophones for seismic body wave detection allows regional seismic analyses to be extended to the oceanic environment. The P wave detection threshold of the SOSUS hydrophones was quantified using the epicentral distance and magnitude of 250 northeast Pacific Ocean earthquakes. Earthquakes with body wave magnitudes as low as 2 have detectable P wave arrivals at epicentral distances of ≤500 km. Earthquakes with mb between 3.5 and 5 were detected ˜50% of the time at distances of 100-1500 km, while events with mb > 5 were all detected, even out to distances of 1000-1500 km. Both P and T wave hydrophone arrival times were used to estimate the epicenters of 100 earthquakes. The peak amplitude of the T wave coda and the onset of the P wave were used as the earthquake arrival times to estimate event locations. T wave arrival time residuals have a Gaussian distribution with zero mean, which implies that using T wave peak amplitude is consistent with using the P wave onset as the arrival time. There are typically ≤6 stations used to derive a T wave based location, hence location error ellipses are not well constrained. A Monte Carlo technique was employed to estimate T wave event location uncertainty. T wave locations have error bars of ˜1 km in latitude and longitude when >3 hydrophones are used for a location estimate. The detected P wave arrivals and earthquake locations were used to measure Pn velocities. Pn velocity values of 7.9 ± 0.1 and 8.0 ± 0.1 km/s were found for the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates, respectively. A Pn velocity of 7.5 ± 0.1 km/s was measured for rays traveling northward from the

  4. Estimating unbiased horizontal velocity components from ST/MST radar measurements: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Warnock, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a self-editing quick look procedure is presented for use at the Sunset radar. It is used for determining relatively unbiased hourly estimates of the u and v components of the wind. The technique presented here should be applicable to all height ranges, though only ST results are presented here. The vertical wind component, w, may be measured directly by pointing the radar beam straight up. The east and west components of the wind, u and v, however, must be estimated by projecting to the horizontal plane the radial velocity, vr, actually observed by pointing the radar suitably off zenith.

  5. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  6. Methodology to estimate the relative pressure field from noisy experimental velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, C. D.; Raguin, L. G.

    2008-11-01

    The determination of intravascular pressure fields is important to the characterization of cardiovascular pathology. We present a two-stage method that solves the inverse problem of estimating the relative pressure field from noisy velocity fields measured by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) on an irregular domain with limited spatial resolution, and includes a filter for the experimental noise. For the pressure calculation, the Poisson pressure equation is solved by embedding the irregular flow domain into a regular domain. To lessen the propagation of the noise inherent to the velocity measurements, three filters - a median filter and two physics-based filters - are evaluated using a 2-D Couette flow. The two physics-based filters outperform the median filter for the estimation of the relative pressure field for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = 5 to 30). The most accurate pressure field results from a filter that applies in a least-squares sense three constraints simultaneously: consistency between measured and filtered velocity fields, divergence-free and additional smoothness conditions. This filter leads to a 5-fold gain in accuracy for the estimated relative pressure field compared to without noise filtering, in conditions consistent with PC-MRI of the carotid artery: SNR = 5, 20 x 20 discretized flow domain (25 X 25 computational domain).

  7. Reconciliation of excess 14C-constrained global CO2 piston velocity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegler, Tobias

    2009-04-01

    Oceanic excess radiocarbon data is widely used as a constraint for air-sea gas exchange. However, recent estimates of the global mean piston velocity from Naegler et al., Krakauer et al., Sweeney et al. and Müller et al. differ substantially despite the fact that they all are based on excess radiocarbon data from the GLODAP data base. Here I show that these estimates of can be reconciled if first, the changing oceanic radiocarbon inventory due to net uptake of CO2 is taken into account; second, if realistic reconstructions of sea surface Δ14C are used and third, if is consistently reported with or without normalization to a Schmidt number of 660. These corrections applied, unnormalized estimates of from these studies range between 15.1 and 18.2cmh-1. However, none of these estimates can be regarded as the only correct value for . I thus propose to use the `average' of the corrected values of presented here (16.5+/-3.2cmh-1) as the best available estimate of the global mean unnormalized piston velocity , resulting in a gross ocean-to-atmosphere CO2 flux of 76 +/- 15PgCyr-1 for the mid-1990s.

  8. Estimation of unsteady lift on a pitching airfoil from wake velocity surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Panda, J.; Rumsey, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a joint experimental and computational study on the flowfield over a periodically pitched NACA0012 airfoil, and the resultant lift variation, are reported in this paper. The lift variation over a cycle of oscillation, and hence the lift hysteresis loop, is estimated from the velocity distribution in the wake measured or computed for successive phases of the cycle. Experimentally, the estimated lift hysteresis loops are compared with available data from the literature as well as with limited force balance measurements. Computationally, the estimated lift variations are compared with the corresponding variation obtained from the surface pressure distribution. Four analytical formulations for the lift estimation from wake surveys are considered and relative successes of the four are discussed.

  9. A simple method to estimate threshold friction velocity of wind erosion in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Belnap, Jayne; Munson, Seth M.; Miller, Mark E.

    2010-05-01

    This study provides a fast and easy-to-apply method to estimate threshold friction velocity (TFV) of wind erosion in the field. Wind tunnel experiments and a variety of ground measurements including air gun, pocket penetrometer, torvane, and roughness chain were conducted in Moab, Utah and cross-validated in the Mojave Desert, California. Patterns between TFV and ground measurements were examined to identify the optimum method for estimating TFV. The results show that TFVs were best predicted using the air gun and penetrometer measurements in the Moab sites. This empirical method, however, systematically underestimated TFVs in the Mojave Desert sites. Further analysis showed that TFVs in the Mojave sites can be satisfactorily estimated with a correction for rock cover, which is presumably the main cause of the underestimation of TFVs. The proposed method may be also applied to estimate TFVs in environments where other non-erodible elements such as postharvest residuals are found.

  10. Surface Vector Velocity Estimates and Gulf Stream Observations From the UMass Dual Beam Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkovic, D.; Toporkov, J. V.; Sletten, M. A.; Farquharson, G.; Frasier, S. J.; Marmorino, G. O.; Judd, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Dual Beam Interferometer (DBI) developed by University of Massachusetts (UMass) consists of two C-band along-track interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ATI-SAR). The beams of this airborne system are squinted 20 degrees forward and aft of broadside allowing surface vector velocity estimation in a single aircraft pass. The instrument has been deployed several times over the period of last two years off coastal areas of Florida on a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) WP-3D plane in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). During 2002-2003 the instrument has undergone a series of tests and engineering flights with the August 2003 data producing the first interferogram. March 2004 flights were mainly focused on the western boundary of the Gulf Stream off Cape Canaveral, Florida. Simultaneous imagery of the sea-surface temperature field were obtained using NRL's Infrared (IR) camera, which was mounted in belly of the aircraft. Multiple passes over the Gulf Stream were made under a range of environmental conditions and viewing geometries relative to the Gulf Stream current and the wind. Additional flights were made over the barrier islands west of Ft. Meyers, Florida at times of near maximum ebb tidal flow. This paper will present initial estimates of the surface vector velocities for each area. The Gulf Stream velocity estimates show a current maximum of 1.5 m/s across the edge of the Stream which is consistent with estimates of the current from IR imagery using feature tracking. Estimates of the flow between the barrier islands are of the order of 1.5 to 2 m/s, which agrees well with the predicted tidal flow.

  11. Motor unit action potential conduction velocity estimated from surface electromyographic signals using image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiano Araujo; Carvalho, João Luiz Azevedo; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques; de Andrade, Marcelino Monteiro; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    In surface electromyography (surface EMG, or S-EMG), conduction velocity (CV) refers to the velocity at which the motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) propagate along the muscle fibers, during contractions. The CV is related to the type and diameter of the muscle fibers, ion concentration, pH, and firing rate of the motor units (MUs). The CV can be used in the evaluation of contractile properties of MUs, and of muscle fatigue. The most popular methods for CV estimation are those based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). This work proposes an algorithm for estimating CV from S-EMG signals, using digital image processing techniques. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated, using both simulated and experimentally-acquired multichannel S-EMG signals. We show that the proposed algorithm is as precise and accurate as the MLE method in typical conditions of noise and CV. The proposed method is not susceptible to errors associated with MUAP propagation direction or inadequate initialization parameters, which are common with the MLE algorithm. Image processing -based approaches may be useful in S-EMG analysis to extract different physiological parameters from multichannel S-EMG signals. Other new methods based on image processing could also be developed to help solving other tasks in EMG analysis, such as estimation of the CV for individual MUs, localization and tracking of innervation zones, and study of MU recruitment strategies. PMID:26384112

  12. Estimation of groundwater velocities from Yucca Flat to the Amargosa Desert using geochemistry and environmental isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, R.L.; Acheampong, S.Y.

    1997-06-01

    Geochemical and isotopic data from groundwater sampling locations can be used to estimate groundwater flow velocities for independent comparison to velocities calculated by other methods. The objective of this study was to calculate groundwater flow velocities using geochemistry and environmental isotopes from the southern end of Yucca Flat to the Amargosa Desert, considering mixing of different groundwater inputs from sources each and southeast of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The approach used to accomplish the objective of this study consisted of five steps: (1) reviewing and selecting locations where carbon isotopic groundwater analyses, reliable ionic analysis, and well completion information are available; (2) calculating chemical speciation with the computer code WATEQ4F (Ball and Nordstrom, 1991) to determine the saturation state of mineral phases for each ground water location; (3) grouping wells into reasonable flowpaths and mixing scenarios from different groundwater sources; (4) using the computer code NETPATH (Plummer et al., 1991) to simulate mixing and the possible chemical reactions along the flowpath, and to calculate the changes in carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) as a result of these reactions; and (5) using carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) data to calculate velocity.

  13. The Event Detection and the Apparent Velocity Estimation Based on Computer Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, M.

    2012-08-01

    The high spatial and time resolution data obtained by the telescopes aboard Hinode revealed the new interesting dynamics in solar atmosphere. In order to detect such events and estimate the velocity of dynamics automatically, we examined the estimation methods of the optical flow based on the OpenCV that is the computer vision library. We applied the methods to the prominence eruption observed by NoRH, and the polar X-ray jet observed by XRT. As a result, it is clear that the methods work well for solar images if the images are optimized for the methods. It indicates that the optical flow estimation methods in the OpenCV library are very useful to analyze the solar phenomena.

  14. Considerations on ejection velocity estimations from infrared radiometer data: A case study at Stromboli volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Laure; Donnadieu, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Synchronous recordings of normal Strombolian explosions with a thermal camera and infrared radiometers provide a unique opportunity to understand signals from less expensive radiometers. Using records from Stromboli volcano, we analyze in particular the limitations of using signals from infrared radiometers alone to quantify the plume ascent kinetics. We conclude that infrared radiometers pointing close to the vent, either single or coupled, are often insufficient for velocity retrieval due to the complex structure and dynamics of the plumes and their evolution with time. In addition to practical implementation difficulties in the field, this is mainly due to the rapid succession and overlapping of thermal components in the radiometer's field of view. Optimized geometries of radiometer fields of view and new retrieval methodologies are proposed to improve velocity estimates from one or coupled radiometers.

  15. Velocity Estimates of Fast-Moving Outlet Glaciers on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdalati, Waleed; Krabill, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, airborne laser altimetry has been used with great success to investigate the mass balance characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet. One spinoff of this activity has been the application of these measurements to the study of surface velocities in some of Greenland's fast-moving drainage glaciers. This is accomplished by tracking the motion of elevation features, primarily crevasses, in pairs of aircraft laser altimetry surveys. Detailed elevation measurements are made along or across glaciers of interest with a scanning swath of 150 to 200 meters, and the surveys are repeated several days later, typically to within better than 50 meters of the previous flight line. Surface elevation features are identified in each image, and their offsets are compared yielding detailed velocities over narrow regions. During the 1998 field season, repeat flights were made over three glaciers for the purpose of estimating their surface velocities. These were the Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim glaciers on the east coast and the Jakobshavn Isbrae on the west coast. Each flows at such high speeds (on the order of a few kilometers per year) that their flow rates are difficult to assess by means of radar interferometry. The flexibility of the aircraft platform, however, allows for detailed measurements of the elevation and flow of these drainage areas, which are responsible for a significant portion of the ice discharge from the Greenland ice sheet. Velocity estimates for transects that span these glaciers will be presented, and where the ice thickness values are available (provided by researchers from the University of Kansas) the fluxes will be calculated.

  16. Slip Ratio Estimation and Regenerative Brake Control for Decelerating Electric Vehicles without Detection of Vehicle Velocity and Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toru; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    In slip ratio control systems, it is necessary to detect the vehicle velocity in order to obtain the slip ratio. However, it is very difficult to measure this velocity directly. We have proposed slip ratio estimation and control methods that do not require the vehicle velocity with acceleration. In this paper, the slip ratio estimation and control methods are proposed without detecting the vehicle velocity and acceleration when it is decelerating. We carried out simulations and experiments by using an electric vehicle to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. First storm-time plasma velocity estimates from high-resolution ionospheric data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Crowley, Geoff

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses data assimilation to estimate ionospheric state during storm time at subdegree resolution. We use Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) to resolve the three-dimensional time-varying electron density gradients of the storm-enhanced density poleward plume. By Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE), we infer the three-dimensional plasma velocity from the densities. EMPIRE estimates of ExB drift are made by correcting the Weimer 2000 electric potential model. This is the first time electron densities derived from GPS total electron content (TEC) data are being used to estimate field-aligned and field-perpendicular drifts at such high resolution, without reference to direct drift measurements. The time-varying estimated electron densities are used to construct the ionospheric spatial decorrelation in vertical total electron content (TEC) on horizontal scales of less than 100 km. We compare slant TEC (STEC) estimates to actual STEC GPS observations, including independent unassimilated data. The IDA4D density model of the extreme ionospheric storm on 20 November 2003 shows STEC delays of up to 210 TEC units, comparable to the STEC of the GPS ground stations. Horizontal drifts from EMPIRE are predicted to be northwestward within the storm-enhanced density plume and its boundary, turning northeast at high latitudes. These estimates compare favorably to independent Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics-assimilated high-latitude ExB drift estimates. Estimated and measured Defense Meteorological Satellite Program in situ drifts differ by a factor of 2-3 and in some cases have incorrect direction. This indicates that significant density rates of change and more accurate accounting for production and loss may be needed when other processes are not dominant.

  18. Estimation of Rotational Velocity of Baseball Using High-Speed Camera Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takuya; Uematsu, Yuko; Saito, Hideo

    Movies can be used to analyze a player's performance and improve his/her skills. In the case of baseball, the pitching is recorded by using a high-speed camera, and the recorded images are used to improve the pitching skills of the players. In this paper, we present a method for estimating of the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of movies recorded by high-speed cameras. Unlike in the previous methods, we consider the original seam pattern of the ball seen in the input movie and identify the corresponding image from a database of images by adopting the parametric eigenspace method. These database images are CG Images. The ball's posture can be determined on the basis of the rotational parameters. In the proposed method, the symmetric property of the ball is also taken into consideration, and the time continuity is used to determine the ball's posture. In the experiments, we use the proposed method to estimate the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of real movies and movies consisting of CG images of the baseball. The results of both the experiments prove that our method can be used to estimate the ball's rotation accurately.

  19. Estimating wind velocity standard deviation values in the inertial sublayer from observations in the roughness sublayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falabino, Simona; Trini Castelli, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    In air quality practice, observed data are often input to air pollution models to simulate the pollutants dispersion and to estimate their concentration. When the area of interest includes urban sites, observed data collected at urban or suburban stations can be available, and it can happen to use them for estimating surface layer parameters given in input to the models. In such case, roughness sublayer quantities may enter the parameterizations of the turbulence variables as if they were representative of the inertial sublayer, possibly leading to a not appropriate application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. We investigate whether it is possible to derive suitable values of the wind velocity standard deviations for the inertial sublayer using the friction velocity and stability parameter observed in the roughness sublayer, inside a similarity-like analytical function. For this purpose, an analysis of sonic anemometer data sets collected in suburban and urban sites is proposed. The values derived through this approach are compared to actual observations in the inertial sublayer. The transferability of the empirical coefficients estimated for the similarity functions between different sites, characterized by similar or different morphologies, is also addressed. The derived functions proved to be a reasonable approximation of the actual data. This method was found to be feasible and generally reliable, and can be a reference to keep using, in air pollution models, the similarity theory parameterizations when measurements are available only in the roughness sublayer.

  20. Benchmarking passive seismic methods of estimating the depth of velocity interfaces down to ~300 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; Gorbatov, Alexei

    2016-04-01

    In shallow passive seismology it is generally accepted that the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method is more robust than the horizontal-over-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method at resolving the depth to surface-wave velocity (Vs) interfaces. Here we present results of a field test of these two methods over ten drill sites in western Victoria, Australia. The target interface is the base of Cenozoic unconsolidated to semi-consolidated clastic and/or carbonate sediments of the Murray Basin, which overlie Paleozoic crystalline rocks. Depths of this interface intersected in drill holes are between ~27 m and ~300 m. Seismometers were deployed in a three-arm spiral array, with a radius of 250 m, consisting of 13 Trillium Compact 120 s broadband instruments. Data were acquired at each site for 7-21 hours. The Vs architecture beneath each site was determined through nonlinear inversion of HVSR and SPAC data using the neighbourhood algorithm, implemented in the geopsy modelling package (Wathelet, 2005, GRL v35). The HVSR technique yielded depth estimates of the target interface (Vs > 1000 m/s) generally within ±20% error. Successful estimates were even obtained at a site with an inverted velocity profile, where Quaternary basalts overlie Neogene sediments which in turn overlie the target basement. Half of the SPAC estimates showed significantly higher errors than were obtained using HVSR. Joint inversion provided the most reliable estimates but was unstable at three sites. We attribute the surprising success of HVSR over SPAC to a low content of transient signals within the seismic record caused by low levels of anthropogenic noise at the benchmark sites. At a few sites SPAC waveform curves showed clear overtones suggesting that more reliable SPAC estimates may be obtained utilizing a multi-modal inversion. Nevertheless, our study indicates that reliable basin thickness estimates in the Australian conditions tested can be obtained utilizing HVSR data from a single

  1. The epoch state navigation filter. [for maximum likelihood estimates of position and velocity vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battin, R. H.; Croopnick, S. R.; Edwards, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The formulation of a recursive maximum likelihood navigation system employing reference position and velocity vectors as state variables is presented. Convenient forms of the required variational equations of motion are developed together with an explicit form of the associated state transition matrix needed to refer measurement data from the measurement time to the epoch time. Computational advantages accrue from this design in that the usual forward extrapolation of the covariance matrix of estimation errors can be avoided without incurring unacceptable system errors. Simulation data for earth orbiting satellites are provided to substantiate this assertion.

  2. Estimates of the solar internal angular velocity obtained with the Mt. Wilson 60-foot solar tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Woodard, Martin; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain

    1987-01-01

    Estimates are obtained of the solar internal angular velocity from measurements of the frequency splittings of p-mode oscillations. A 16-day time series of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained during July and August 1984 at the 60-foot tower telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory is analyzed. Power spectra were computed for all of the zonal, tesseral, and sectoral p-modes from l = 0 to 89 and for all of the sectoral p-modes from l = 90 to 200. A mean power spectrum was calculated for each degree up to 89. The frequency differences of all of the different nonzonal modes were calculated for these mean power spectra.

  3. Estimation of the velocity and trajectory of three-dimensional reaching movements from non-invasive magnetoencephalography signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Hong Gi; Sic Kim, June; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Studies on the non-invasive brain-machine interface that controls prosthetic devices via movement intentions are at their very early stages. Here, we aimed to estimate three-dimensional arm movements using magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals with high accuracy. Approach. Whole-head MEG signals were acquired during three-dimensional reaching movements (center-out paradigm). For movement decoding, we selected 68 MEG channels in motor-related areas, which were band-pass filtered using four subfrequency bands (0.5-8, 9-22, 25-40 and 57-97 Hz). After the filtering, the signals were resampled, and 11 data points preceding the current data point were used as features for estimating velocity. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate movement velocities. Movement trajectories were calculated by integrating estimated velocities. We evaluated our results by calculating correlation coefficients (r) between real and estimated velocities. Main results. Movement velocities could be estimated from the low-frequency MEG signals (0.5-8 Hz) with significant and considerably high accuracy (p <0.001, mean r > 0.7). We also showed that preceding (60-140 ms) MEG signals are important to estimate current movement velocities and the intervals of brain signals of 200-300 ms are sufficient for movement estimation. Significance. These results imply that disabled people will be able to control prosthetic devices without surgery in the near future.

  4. Estimation of lahar flow velocity on Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Manea, V. C.; Palacios, D.; Castillo-Rodriguez, M.

    2007-11-01

    During 1997 and 2001 two lahars took place in the Tenenepanco and Huiloac gorges on the northeastern sector of the Popocatépetl volcano in Mexico. These lahars were the result of volcanic activity characterized by a pyroclastic fall and flow. The lahars were triggered by the mass failures produced hours after the eruption. The well-known superelevation technique commonly used in this kind of study was applied to infer the lahar's mean velocity. Estimations show a broad flow velocity range of 1.3-13.8 m/s depending on the following geomorphological parameters: channel depth and slope, peak discharge and distance from the initial source. These results were compared with lahar velocities from Mount St Helens (1980) and Nevado del Ruiz (1985), which were obtained by the same superelevation technique. According to the data, the lahars from Nevado del Ruiz and Popocatépetl were triggered by similar conditions, while at Mount St Helens they were the result of the conversion of a pyroclastic surge cloud. Actually, the Mount St Helens lahars were almost twice as fast as the ones at Nevado del Ruiz and Popocatépetl. This observation shows the importance of the lahars' genesis in that the pyroclastic surge clouds produce faster lahars than do pyroclastic falls. Such results should be taken into account in lahar risk assessment studies for communities located near active volcanoes.

  5. [Estimates of velocity of the travelling wave in the high-range cochlea of the dolphin].

    PubMed

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Ia

    2014-07-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to sound pulses of precisely defined spectrum band of 0.5 oct (from 11.2-16 to 90-128 kHz) were recorded in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. At equal stimulus levels, ABR amplitude depended on the stimulus spectrum band: the higher the frequency, the higher the amplitude. ABR waveform little depended on the stimulus spectrum band, however ABR latency did depend: the higher the frequency, the shorter the latency. The latency difference between responses to the lowest-frequency (11.2-16 kHz) and the highest-frequency (90-129 kHz) stimuli was up to 0.3 ms. This latency difference was attributed to the time of the wave travelling along the basilar membrane. Therefore, the data were used to compute the travelling-wave velocity. The obtained estimates were: 38.2 oct/ms at the proximal (high-frequ- ency) end of the basilar membrane to 2.8 oct/ms at the distal (low-frequency) end. Comparison of the travelling-wave velocities in humans and dolphins shows that the travelling-wave velocity is linked to the characteristic frequency, not to the place in the cochlea. PMID:25669111

  6. Estimate of pyroclastic flow velocities resulting from explosive decompression of lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    1993-06-01

    APPARENTLY benign silicic domes or lava flows can travel for several kilometres and then suddenly collapse to generate pyroclastic phenomena capable of causing widespread destruction, as happened recently at Mount Unzen in Japan1. Two sources have been proposed for the energy that propels such 'Peléan' or 'Merapi'-type2 pyroclastic flows: gravitational col-lapse (supplemented by heating and expansion of air) and sudden expansion of pressurized gases from inside the lava flow. If gravity controls the energy transfer, then areas likely to be affected can be predicted on the basis of topography3, and the resulting deposits will bear a simple relationship to the part of the lava flow from which they issued. But if gas pressure adds a significant contribution, hazard assessment becomes more difficult because gas decompression adds velocities beyond those acquired by gravitational forces, putting much larger areas at risk and forming pyroclastic deposits that are much more difficult to relate to their source. Here we estimate the initial velocities of pyroclastic flows generated by dome disintegration for a range of lava compositions and volatile contents, and offer a conceptual framework for correlating the dynamics of dome-front collapse with the resulting sediment record. Our results indicate that explosive decompression at distal portions of domes can cause velocities comparable to gravitational collapse, especially in cases where volatiles become locally concentrated above equilibrium values.

  7. Combined Resistivity and Shear Wave Velocity Soil-type Estimation Beneath a Coastal Protection Levee.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.

  8. Ultrasonic distance and velocity measurement using a pair of LPM signals for cross-correlation method: improvement of Doppler-shift compensation and examination of Doppler velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shinnosuke; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2012-09-01

    Real-time distance measurement of a moving object with high accuracy and high resolution using an ultrasonic wave is difficult due to the influence of the Doppler effect or the limit of the calculation cost of signal processing. An over-sampling signal processing method using a pair of LPM signals has been proposed for ultrasonic distance and velocity measurement of moving objects with high accuracy and high resolution. The proposed method consists of cross correlation by single-bit signal processing, high-resolution Doppler velocity estimation with wide measurement range and low-calculation-cost Doppler-shift compensation. The over-sampling cross-correlation function is obtained from cross correlation by single-bit signal processing with low calculation cost. The Doppler velocity and distance of the object are determined from the peak interval and peak form in the cross-correlation function by the proposed method of Doppler velocity estimation and Doppler-shift compensation. In this paper, the proposed method of Doppler-shift compensation is improved. Accuracy of the determined distance was improved from approximately within ±140μm in the previous method to approximately within ±10μm in computer simulations. Then, the proposed method of Doppler velocity estimation is evaluated. In computer simulations, accuracy of the determined Doppler velocity and distance were demonstrated within ±8.471mm/s and ±13.87μm. In experiments, Doppler velocities of the motorized stage could be determined within ±27.9mm/s. PMID:22560801

  9. Estimating the bankfull velocity and discharge for rivers using remotely sensed river morphology information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerklie, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    A method to estimate the bankfull velocity and discharge in rivers that uses the morphological variables of the river channel, including bankfull width, channel slope, and meander length was developed and tested. Because these variables can be measured remotely from topographic and river alignment information derived from aerial photos and satellite imagery, it is possible that the bankfull state of flow can be estimated for rivers entirely from remotely-sensed information. Defining the bankfull hydraulics of rivers would also provide a reference condition for remote tracking of dynamic variables including width, stage, and slope, and for quantifying relative change in flow conditions of rivers over large regions. This could provide a more efficient method to inventory and quantify river hydraulic attributes and dynamics.

  10. A nonlinear estimator for reconstructing the angular velocity of a spacecraft without rate gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.; Lightsey, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    A scheme for estimating the angular velocity of a spacecraft without rate gyros is presented. It is based upon a nonlinear estimator whose inputs are measured inertial vectors and their calculated time derivatives relative to vehicle axes. It works for all spacecraft attitudes and requires no knowledge of attitude. It can use measurements from a variety of onboard sensors like Sun sensors, star trackers, or magnetometers, and in concert. It can also use look angle measurements from onboard tracking antennas for tracking and data relay satellites or global positioning system satellites. In this paper, it is applied to a Sun point scheme on the Hubble Space Telescope assuming all or most of its onboard rate gyros have failed. Simulation results are presented for verification.

  11. Estimation of αL, velocity, Kd and confidence limits from tracer injection test data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broermann, James; Bassett, R.L.; Weeks, Edwin P.; Borgstrom, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Bromide and boron were used as tracers during an injection experiment conducted at an artificial recharge facility near Stanton, Texas. The Ogallala aquifer at the Stanton site represents a heterogeneous alluvial environment and provides the opportunity to report scale dependent dispersivities at observation distances of 2 to 15 m in this setting. Values of longitudinal dispersivities are compared with other published values. Water samples were collected at selected depths both from piezometers and from fully screened observation wells at radii of 2, 5, 10 and 15 m. An exact analytical solution is used to simulate the concentration breakthrough curves and estimate longitudinal dispersivities and velocity parameters. Greater confidence can be placed on these data because the estimated parameters are error bounded using the bootstrap method. The non-conservative behavior of boron transport in clay rich sections of the aquifer were quantified with distribution coefficients by using bromide as a conservative reference tracer.

  12. Estimates of the Range in Flow Velocities Associated with the Circum-Chryse Outflow Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1996-03-01

    To know what we're getting out of the Mars Pathfinder "grab bag" landing site it is imperative that the detailed geology and hydraulic history of the circum-Chryse outflow channel complex be understood ahead of time. Crude estimates of the maximum channel flow velocities can be made simply by knowing the depth and slopes of the outflow channels themselves. Although these characteristics have been derived in part by stereophotogrammetry, they are subject to a considerable amount of error. Fortunately some Earth-based radar data exist which are both reasonably accurate and provide the spatial coverage necessary for determining the slopes of some of the channels. Using these data, the bed shear stress of a flow, or the retarding stress at the base of a flow, Tb, can be estimated from the depth-slope formula ~b = pghS where p is the density of the fluid, g is gravitational acceleration, h is the flow (or channel) depth, and S is the slope of the channel. This is equal to the bottom stress created by a flow, tau, where tau = pCf-u2 and Cf is a dimensionless drag coefficient and u is the mean flow velocity. Thus, the mean flow velocity for a channel can be calculated from -u = (ghS/Cf) 1/2. The dimensionless drag coefficient can be adjustment for gravity by the expression Cf = g(n21hll3) where n is the Manning roughness coefficient (units of s/ml/2), which has been derived empirically from terrestrial observations. Application of an appropriate Manning roughness coefficient, n, to Martian outflow channels is uncertain, so a range of reasonable values (0.015 to 0.035) is used. Estimates of the mean flow velocities were calculated from this method, however, at best these represent maximum values. Large-scale geologic mapping indicates that most channels were subjected to multiple episodes of flooding, which suggests that the channels may not have been completely full of water at any one time (i.e., bankfull discharge). This method is also not directly applicable to Simud

  13. Velocity and size estimation of nanoparticles down to 75nm with nano LDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vamos, Lenard; Jani, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Laser Doppler anemometry offers a non-intrusive in-situ flow measurement method both for scientific and industrial environments, especially in extreme conditions. Compared to the commercial LDA systems Nano-LDA device was developed for simultaneous flow measurement, particle counting and sizing down to the nanometer size range. High detection sensitivity was reached by applying single photon avalanche diodes with photon correlation technique and special techniques for particle counting (burst selecting) and individual burst signal processing. In this paper verifying measurements are performed with Palas 2.0 iP aerosol generator and differential mobility analyzer down to 75nm paraffin particles, which is in accord with the lower size limit of the generator. In case of individual particle velocity estimations the low SNR signal requires special prepare of the autocorrelation function such as unfolding, zero padding and windowing. A detailed discussion is shown for the role of the different techniques in velocity estimation. The amplitude technique in the particle sizing requires a calibration process to determine the intensity loss of the system. The model-based algorithm supports the calibration by the complete simulation of the measurement process and light scattering. By this way a single calibration measurement for one kind of monodisperse particles can be enough. The model-based algorithm is tested by measurements with monodisperse particles of different sizes set by the DMA.

  14. Estimation of Venus wind velocities from high-resolution infrared spectra. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Zonal velocity profiles in the Venus atmosphere above the clouds were estimated from measured asymmetries of HCl and HF infrared absorption lines in high-resolution Fourier interferometer spectra of the planet. These asymmetries are caused by both pressure-induced shifts in the positions of the hydrogen-halide lines perturbed by CO2 and Doppler shifts due to atmospheric motions. Particularly in the case of the HCl 2-0 band, the effects of the two types of line shifts can be easily isolated, making it possible to estimate a profile of average Venus equatorial zonal velocity as a function of pressure in the region roughly 60 to 70 km above the surface of the planet. The mean profiles obtained show strong vertical shear in the Venus zonal winds near the cloud-top level, and both the magnitude and direction of winds at all levels in this region appear to vary greatly with longitude relative to the sub-solar point.

  15. Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging of ground moving targets--Part 1: image formation and velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2014-06-01

    In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of imaging and velocity estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive imaging systems have significant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages over active systems. We describe a novel generalized Radon transform-type forward model and a corresponding filtered-backprojection-type image formation and velocity estimation method. We form a stack of position images over a range of hypothesized velocities, and show that the targets can be reconstructed at the correct position whenever the hypothesized velocity is equal to the true velocity of targets. We then use entropy to determine the most accurate velocity and image pair for each moving target. We present extensive numerical simulations to verify the reconstruction method. Our method does not require a priori knowledge of transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms. It can determine the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at different velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. In Part 2, we present the resolution analysis and analysis of positioning errors in passive SAR images due to erroneous velocity estimation. PMID:24815619

  16. A vehicle ABS adaptive sliding-mode control algorithm based on the vehicle velocity estimation and tyre/road friction coefficient estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangwen; Xu, Yong; Pan, Ming; Ren, Fenghua

    2014-04-01

    A sliding-mode observer is designed to estimate the vehicle velocity with the measured vehicle acceleration, the wheel speeds and the braking torques. Based on the Burckhardt tyre model, the extended Kalman filter is designed to estimate the parameters of the Burckhardt model with the estimated vehicle velocity, the measured wheel speeds and the vehicle acceleration. According to the estimated parameters of the Burckhardt tyre model, the tyre/road friction coefficients and the optimal slip ratios are calculated. A vehicle adaptive sliding-mode control (SMC) algorithm is presented with the estimated vehicle velocity, the tyre/road friction coefficients and the optimal slip ratios. And the adjustment method of the sliding-mode gain factors is discussed. Based on the adaptive SMC algorithm, a vehicle's antilock braking system (ABS) control system model is built with the Simulink Toolbox. Under the single-road condition as well as the different road conditions, the performance of the vehicle ABS system is simulated with the vehicle velocity observer, the tyre/road friction coefficient estimator and the adaptive SMC algorithm. The results indicate that the estimated errors of the vehicle velocity and the tyre/road friction coefficients are acceptable and the vehicle ABS adaptive SMC algorithm is effective. So the proposed adaptive SMC algorithm can be used to control the vehicle ABS without the information of the vehicle velocity and the road conditions.

  17. Angular and Linear Velocity Estimation for a Re-Entry Vehicle Using Six Distributed Accelerometers: Theory, Simulation and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G

    2003-04-28

    This report describes a feasibility study. We are interested in calculating the angular and linear velocities of a re-entry vehicle using six acceleration signals from a distributed accelerometer inertial measurement unit (DAIMU). Earlier work showed that angular and linear velocity calculation using classic nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) solvers is not practically feasible, due to mathematical and numerical difficulties. This report demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of using model-based nonlinear state estimation techniques to obtain the angular and linear velocities in this problem. Practical numerical and calibration issues require additional work to resolve. We show that the six accelerometers in the DAIMU are not sufficient to provide observability, so additional measurements of the system states are required (e.g. from a Global Positioning System (GPS) unit). Given the constraint that our system cannot use GPS, we propose using the existing on-board 3-axis magnetometer to measure angular velocity. We further show that the six nonlinear ODE's for the vehicle kinematics can be decoupled into three ODE's in the angular velocity and three ODE's in the linear velocity. This allows us to formulate a three-state Gauss-Markov system model for the angular velocities, using the magnetometer signals in the measurement model. This re-formulated model is observable, allowing us to build an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the angular velocities. Given the angular velocity estimates from the EKF, the three ODE's for the linear velocity become algebraic, and the linear velocity can be calculated by numerical integration. Thus, we do not need direct measurements of the linear velocity to provide observability, and the technique is mathematically feasible. Using a simulation example, we show that the estimator adds value over the numerical ODE solver in the presence of measurement noise. Calculating the velocities in the presence of

  18. Jet-intracluster medium interaction in Hydra A - I. Estimates of jet velocity from inner knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. A.; Wagner, A. Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; McNamara, B. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. we confirm the jet power estimates ˜1045 erg s-1 derived by Wise et al. from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an overpressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the black hole. The combined constraints of jet power, the observed jet radius profile along the jet and the estimated jet pressure and jet velocity imply a value of the jet density parameter χ ≈ 13 for the northern jet. We show that for a jet β = 0.8 and θ = 42°, an intrinsic asymmetry in the emissivity of the northern and southern jet is required for a consistent brightness ratio ≈7 estimated from the 6-cm Very Large Array image of Hydra A.

  19. Estimation of vertical migration velocity of (137)Cs in the Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Çakır, Rukiye; Karakurt, Hidayet

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a radioecological study carried out in the forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit, Turkey. For 118 soil profiles, the depth distribution of (137)Cs activity was established by fitting the experimental points to an exponential, a gaussian or a log-normal function. The relaxation lengths were in the range of 1.09-16.7 cm with a mean of 5.73 cm, showing a slow transport and a strong retention capacity of (137)Cs even after the 26-y period of Chernobyl accident. From the data for the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil profiles, the mean annual migration velocity of (137)Cs was in the range of 0.11-0.62 cm year(-1) with a mean of 0.30 cm year(-1). Statistically significant correlations between the thickness of the humus layer and the mean annual velocity of (137)Cs were found for both coniferous and mixed forest sites. The mean annual velocity of (137)Cs in the forests sites with Pinus nigra var pallasiana was significantly higher than sites with Pinus brutia. External dose-rates from the (137)Cs in forest soils were estimated using a conversion factor used in many studies and comprised with the external dose-rates determined according to the vertical distribution of (137)Cs within the soil depth profiles. It is clearly seen that both levels and spatial distribution patterns of the external dose-rates from (137)Cs were influenced considerably with the vertical migration rate and the vertical distribution of (137)Cs. PMID:25900013

  20. Estimation of Fuel Rate on the Galactic Disk from High Velocity Clouds (HVCs) Infall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Kwang Hyun; Kwak, Kyujin

    2016-06-01

    Continuous accretion of metal-poor gas can explain the discrepancy between the number of observed G-Dwarfs and the number predicted by the “simple model” of galactic evolution. The maximum accretion rate estimated based upon approaching high velocity clouds (HVCs) can be up to ~0.4 M⊙yr-1 which is comparable with the accretion rate required by many chemical evolution models that is at least ~0.45 M⊙yr-1. However, it is not clear to what extent the exchange of gas between the disk and the cloud can occur when a HVC collides with the galactic disk. Therefore, we examined a series of HVC-Disk collision simulations using the FLASH2.5 hydrodynamics simulation code. Our simulation results show that an HVC will more likely take away substances from the galactic disk rather than adding new material to the disk. We define this as a “negative fuel rate” event. Further outcomes in our study present that the fuel rate, which is defined as how much material is transferred to the galactic disk from the colliding HVC, can change depending on the combination among density, radius and velocity of an approaching HVC as well as the modeled galactic disk.

  1. Yield estimation based on calculated comparisons to particle velocity data recorded at low stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, J.

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimizing the yield estimation process if some of the material properties are known from geophysical measurements and others are inferred from in-situ dynamic measurements. The material models and 2-D simulations of the event are combined to determine the yield. Other methods of yield determination from peak particle velocity data have mostly been based on comparisons of nearby events in similar media at the Nevada Test Site. These methods are largely empirical and are subject to additional error when a new event has different properties than the population being used for a basis of comparison. The effect of material variations can be examined using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s KDYNA computer code. The data from the FLAX event provide an instructive example for simulation.

  2. Yield estimation based on calculated comparisons to particle velocity data recorded at low stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, J.

    1993-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimizing the yield estimation process if some of the material properties are known from geophysical measurements and others are inferred from in-situ dynamic measurements. The material models and 2-D simulations of the event are combined to determine the yield. Other methods of yield determination from peak particle velocity data have mostly been based on comparisons of nearby events in similar media at the Nevada Test Site. These methods are largely empirical and are subject to additional error when a new event has different properties than the population being used for a basis of comparison. The effect of material variations can be examined using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's KDYNA computer code. The data from the FLAX event provide an instructive example for simulation.

  3. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 1 – Parametric Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-16

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated.

  4. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images

  5. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Hansen, Peter Møller; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-08-01

    A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo. This paper investigates errors from estimating volumetric flow using a commercial ultrasound scanner and the common assumptions made in the literature. The theoretical model shows, e.g. that volume flow is underestimated by 15%, when the scan plane is off-axis with the vessel center by 28% of the vessel radius. The error sources were also studied in vivo under realistic clinical conditions, and the theoretical results were applied for correcting the volume flow errors. Twenty dialysis patients with arteriovenous fistulas were scanned to obtain vector flow maps of fistulas. When fitting an ellipsis to cross-sectional scans of the fistulas, the major axis was on average 10.2mm, which is 8.6% larger than the minor axis. The ultrasound beam was on average 1.5mm from the vessel center, corresponding to 28% of the semi-major axis in an average fistula. Estimating volume flow with an elliptical, rather than circular, vessel area and correcting the ultrasound beam for being off-axis, gave a significant (p=0.008) reduction in error from 31.2% to 24.3%. The error is relative to the Ultrasound Dilution Technique, which is considered the gold standard for volume flow estimation for dialysis patients. The study shows the importance of correcting for volume flow errors, which are often made in clinical practice. PMID:27164045

  6. Method of radial velocities for the estimation of aircraft wake vortex parameters from data measured by coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Smalikho, I N; Banakh, V A; Holzäpfel, F; Rahm, S

    2015-09-21

    The method of radial velocities (RV) is applied to estimate aircraft wake vortex parameters from measurements conducted with pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL). Operations of the Stream Line lidar and the 2-µm PCDL are simulated numerically to analyze the accuracy of the estimated wake vortex parameters with the RV method. The RV method is also used to estimate wake vortex trajectories and circulation from lidar measurements at Tomsk and Munich airports. The method of velocity envelopes and the RV method are compared employing data gathered with the 2-µm PCDL. The domain of applicability of the RV method is determined. PMID:26406749

  7. Study of Estimation Method for Unsteady Inflow Velocity in Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic-Measurement-Integrated Blood Flow Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Hiroko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Information on hemodynamics is essential for elucidation of mechanisms and development of novel diagnostic methods for circulatory diseases. Two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation can correctly reproduce an intravascular blood flow field and hemodynamics by feeding back an ultrasonic measurement to the numerical blood flow simulation. In this method, it is critically important to give the correct cross-sectional average inflow velocity (inflow velocity) as the boundary condition. However, systematic study has not been done on the relative validity and effectiveness of existing inflow velocity estimation methods for various target flow fields. The aim of this study was to examine the existing methods systematically and to establish a method to accurately estimate inflow velocities for various vessel geometries and flow conditions in 2D-UMI simulations. A numerical experiment was performed for 2D-UMI simulation of blood flow models in a straight vessel with inflow velocity profiles symmetric and asymmetric to the vessel axis using existing evaluation functions based on Doppler velocity error for the inflow velocity estimation. As a result, it was clarified that a significantly large estimation error occurs in the asymmetric flow due to a nonfeedback domain near the downstream end of the calculation domain. Hence, a new inflow velocity estimation method of 2D-UMI simulation is proposed in which the feedback and evaluation domains are extended to the downstream end. Further numerical experiments of 2D-UMI simulation for two realistic vessel geometries of a healthy blood vessel and a stenosed one confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26241967

  8. Repeatability of Surface Wave Velocity Estimates from Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, N.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Martin, E. R.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Robertson, M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Bjella, K.; Ulrich, C.

    2015-12-01

    The repeatability of surface wave velocity estimates from local ambient noise hinges on the stability of the crosscorrelation function for the receiver pair in the presence of a variable noise field, assuming near-surface soil properties are invariant over the duration of the surveys. Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) data recorded on a linear trenched fiber optic cable sensor can accurately sample surface waves in a near continuous fashion (>1 kHz) with high spatial resolution (>1 receiver/m) and long range (10's of km). DAS recordings of ambient noise represent a unique means to explore the practical reliability of field-scale seismic property estimation from seismic interferometry. We test this hypothesis using continuous DAS field recordings from a shallow trench experiment near a busy road with diurnally-variable traffic patterns. Continuous records are processed using a modified ambient noise workflow consisting of receiver pair crosscorrelation, signal stacking, dispersion analysis, and a Monte Carlo search procedure to determine a best-fitting Vs model. The same processing flow is also applied to campaign data acquired with geophones to determine the repeatability benefit of trenched DAS deployment.

  9. DO QUASAR BROAD-LINE VELOCITY WIDTHS ADD ANY INFORMATION TO VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES?

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, Scott M.

    2011-08-01

    We examine how much information measured broad-line widths add to virial black hole (BH) mass estimates for flux-limited samples of quasars. We do this by comparing the BH mass estimates to those derived by randomly reassigning the quasar broad-line widths to different objects and re-calculating the BH mass. For 9000 BH masses derived from the H{beta} line we find that the distributions of original and randomized BH masses in the M{sub BH}-redshift plane and the M{sub BH}-luminosity plane are formally identical. A two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test does not find a difference at >90% confidence. For the Mg II line (32,000 quasars) we do find very significant differences between the randomized and original BH masses, but the amplitude of the difference is still small. The difference for the C IV line (14,000 quasars) is 2{sigma}-3{sigma} and again the amplitude of the difference is small. Subdividing the data into redshift and luminosity bins we find that the median absolute difference in BH mass between the original and randomized data is 0.025, 0.01, and 0.04 dex for H{beta}, Mg II, and C IV, respectively. The maximum absolute difference is always {<=}0.1 dex. We investigate whether our results are sensitive to corrections to Mg II virial masses, such as those suggested by Onken and Kollmeier. These corrections do not influence our results, other than to reduce the significance of the difference between original and randomized BH masses to only 1{sigma}-2{sigma} for Mg II. Moreover, we demonstrate that the correlation between mass residuals and Eddington ratio discussed by Onken and Kollmeier is more directly attributable to the slope of the relation between H{beta} and Mg II line width. The implication is that the measured quasar broad-line velocity widths provide little extra information, after allowing for the mean velocity width. In this case virial estimates are equivalent to M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sup {alpha}}, with L/L{sub Edd

  10. Estimating Discharge using Multi-level Velocity Data from Acoustic Doppler Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Poulsen, J.; Rømer Rasmussen, K.; Bering Ovesen, N.

    2010-12-01

    In the majority of Danish streams, weed growth affects the effective stream width and bed roughness and therefore imposes temporal variations on the stage-discharge relationship. Small stream-gradients and firm ecology based restrictions prevent that hydraulic structures are made at the discharge stations and thus remove or limit such influences. Hence, estimation of the hydrograph is based on continuous stream gauging combined with monthly control measurements of discharge and assuming linear variation of bed roughness between the monthly measurements. As a result, any non-linear drift in weed density or structure which affect the frictional characteristics of the stream during both normal and peak flows are ignored. The present investigation studies if such temporal variation in the conveyance may be detected and eventually compensated for when estimating the hydrograph. Therefore acoustic Dopplers have been placed at the main discharge station in one of the largest Danish catchments (the Skjern). The instruments were set out in early February 2010 during the winter season and have been running since then. The long term average discharge at the station is near 14 m3/s and the cross sectional profile is roughly trapezoidal having width about 15 m., but slightly skew so that the stream is about 0.5 m. deeper off the right than off the left bank. During winter, the depths are typically near 2 m. while during summer they are about 1.5 m. During peak flows, when the discharge exceeds 35 m3/s, the depth increases to more than 3 m. The Doppler instruments (Nortek) are placed on a vertical pole about 2 m. off the right bank at three fixed elevations above the streambed (0.3, 0.6, and 1.3 m); the beams point horizontally towards the left bank perpendicularly to the average flow direction. At each depth, the Doppler sensor records 10 minute average stream velocities in the central 10 m. section of the stream. During summer periods with low flow, stream velocity has only

  11. Time evolving bed shear stress due the passage of gravity currents estimated with ADVP velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Jessica; Schleiss, Anton J.; Franca, Mário J.

    2016-04-01

    Density or gravity currents are geophysical flows driven by density gradients between two contacting fluids. The physical trigger mechanism of these phenomena lays in the density differences which may be caused by differences in the temperature, dissolved substances or concentration of suspended sediments. Saline density currents are capable to entrain bed sediments inducing signatures in the bottom of sedimentary basins. Herein, saline density currents are reproduced in laboratory over a movable bed. The experimental channel is of the lock-exchange type, it is 7.5 m long and 0.3 m wide, divided into two sections of comparable volumes by a sliding gate. An upstream reach serves as a head tank for the dense mixture; the current propagates through a downstream reach where the main measurements are made. Downstream of the channel a tank exist to absorb the reflection of the current and thus artifacts due to the limited length of the channel. High performance thermoplastic polyurethane simulating fine sediments forms the movable bed. Measures of 3D instantaneous velocities will be made with the use of the non-intrusive technique of the ADV (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler). With the velocity measurements, the evolution in time of the channel-bed shear stress due the passage of gravity currents is estimated. This is in turn related to the observed erosion and to such parameters determinant for the dynamics of the current as initial density difference, lock length and channel slope. This work was funded by the ITN-Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN under REA grant agreement n_607394-SEDITRANS.

  12. Aeroacoustics of volcanic jets: Acoustic power estimation and jet velocity dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Gee, Kent L.; Ogden, Darcy E.

    2013-12-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano acoustics is to relate observed infrasonic signals to the eruptive processes generating them. A link between acoustic power Πvelocity V was proposed by Woulff and McGetchin (1976) based upon the prevailing jet noise theory at the time (acoustic analogy theory). We reexamine this approach in the context of the current understanding of jet noise, using data from a laboratory jet, a full-scale military jet aircraft, and a full-scale rocket motor. Accurate estimates of Πvelocity-scaling laws currently proposed for acoustic intensity differ from those for acoustic power and are of the form I

  13. Estimation of surface-wave phase velocity from microtremor observation using an array with a reference station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kato, Kei; Chimoto, Kosuke; Tsuno, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    A procedure for estimation of Rayleigh wave phase velocities from microtremor observations, using an array with a reference station, is investigated in this study. Simultaneous observation of microtremors at a reference station and at a strong motion observation array in the Kanto Basin, Japan, was carried out. We first calculated cross correlations between records at the reference station and those at stations in the array using a seismic interferometric processing method on a 4300-h data series. After identifying dispersive Rayleigh waves from results of multiple filtering analysis of the cross correlations, semblance analysis of the cross correlations for different segments was carried out to estimate phase velocities for fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh waves. The phase velocities from the proposed method are more appropriate than those from conventional methods at long periods as they avoid contamination by higher mode Rayleigh waves. The fundamental Rayleigh wave phase velocities were inverted to an S-wave velocity profile for deep sedimentary layers. We also examined the variations in the phase velocity with decreasing data duration. The phase velocities at periods less than 3 s from 6-h records are similar to those from 4300-h records, suggesting that our method is possibly applicable in microtremor exploration.

  14. Acoustic Velocity Log Numerical Simulation and Saturation Estimation of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in Shenhu Area, South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Liu, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT) for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave) velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf), as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE), effective medium theory (EMT), resistivity log (Rt), and chloride anomaly method. PMID:23935407

  15. Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity in Seafloor Sediment by Seismo-Acoustic Interface Waves:. a Case Study for Geotechnical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hefeng; Hovem, Jens M.; Frivik, Svein Arne

    2006-10-01

    Estimates of shear wave velocity profiles in seafloor sediments can be obtained from inversion of measured dispersion relations of seismo-acoustic interface waves propagating along the seabed. The interface wave velocity is directly related to shear wave velocity with value of between 87-96% of the shear wave velocity, dependent on the Poission ratio of the sediments. In this paper we present two different techniques to determine the dispersion relation: a single-sensor method used to determine group velocity and a multi-sensor method used to determine the phase velocity of the interface wave. An inversion technique is used to determine shear wave velocity versus depth and it is based on singular value decomposition and regularization theory. The technique is applied to data acquired at Steinbåen outside Horten in the Oslofjorden (Norway) and compared with the result from independent core measurements taken at the same location. The results show good agreement between the two ways of determining shear wave velocity.

  16. An Improved Method for the Estimation and Visualization of Velocity Fields from Gastric High-Resolution Electrical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) electrical mapping is an important clinical research tool for understanding normal and abnormal gastric electrophysiology. Analyzing velocities of gastric electrical activity in a reliable and accurate manner can provide additional valuable information for quantitatively and qualitatively comparing features across and within subjects, particularly during gastric dysrhythmias. In this study we compared three methods of estimating velocities from HR recordings to determine which method was the most reliable for use with gastric HR electrical mapping. The three methods were i) Simple finite difference ii) Smoothed finite difference and a iii) Polynomial based method. With synthetic data, the accuracy of the simple finite difference method resulted in velocity errors almost twice that of the smoothed finite difference and the polynomial based method, in the presence of activation time error up to 0.5s. With three synthetic cases under various noise types and levels, the smoothed finite difference resulted in average speed error of 3.2% and an average angle error of 2.0° and the polynomial based method had an average speed error of 3.3% and an average angle error of 1.7°. With experimental gastric slow wave recordings performed in pigs, the three methods estimated similar velocities (6.3-7.3 mm/s), but the smoothed finite difference method had a lower standard deviation in its velocity estimate than the simple finite difference and the polynomial based method, leading it to be the method of choice for velocity estimation in gastric slow wave propagation. An improved method for visualizing velocity fields is also presented. PMID:22207635

  17. Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gary R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents selected recent advances in immobilization chemistry which have important connections to affinity chromatography. Discusses ligand immobilization and support modification. Cites 51 references. (CS)

  18. Estimation of volume flow in curved tubes based on analytical and computational analysis of axial velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkaik, A. C.; Beulen, B. W. A. M. M.; Bogaerds, A. C. B.; Rutten, M. C. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.

    2009-02-01

    To monitor biomechanical parameters related to cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to perform correct volume flow estimations of blood flow in arteries based on local blood velocity measurements. In clinical practice, estimates of flow are currently made using a straight-tube assumption, which may lead to inaccuracies since most arteries are curved. Therefore, this study will focus on the effect of curvature on the axial velocity profile for flow in a curved tube in order to find a new volume flow estimation method. The study is restricted to steady flow, enabling the use of analytical methods. First, analytical approximation methods for steady flow in curved tubes at low Dean numbers (Dn) and low curvature ratios (δ) are investigated. From the results a novel volume flow estimation method, the cos θ-method, is derived. Simulations for curved tube flow in the physiological range (1≤Dn≤1000 and 0.01≤δ≤0.16) are performed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The asymmetric axial velocity profiles of the analytical approximation methods are compared with the velocity profiles of the CFD model. Next, the cos θ-method is validated and compared with the currently used Poiseuille method by using the CFD results as input. Comparison of the axial velocity profiles of the CFD model with the approximations derived by Topakoglu [J. Math. Mech. 16, 1321 (1967)] and Siggers and Waters [Phys. Fluids 17, 077102 (2005)] shows that the derived velocity profiles agree very well for Dn≤50 and are fair for 50100), no analytical approximation method exists. In the position of the maximum axial velocity, a shift toward the inside of the curve is observed for low Dean numbers, while for high Dean numbers, the position of the maximum velocity is located at the outer curve. When the position of

  19. Position-dependent velocity of an effective temperature point for the estimation of the thermal diffusivity of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Settu; Shivaprakash, N. C.; Kameswara Rao, L.

    2016-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to estimate the thermal diffusivity of optically transparent solids at ambient temperature based on the velocity of an effective temperature point (ETP), and by using a two-beam interferometer the proposed concept is corroborated. 1D unsteady heat flow via step-temperature excitation is interpreted as a ‘micro-scale rectilinear translatory motion’ of an ETP. The velocity dependent function is extracted by revisiting the Fourier heat diffusion equation. The relationship between the velocity of the ETP with thermal diffusivity is modeled using a standard solution. Under optimized thermal excitation, the product of the ‘velocity of the ETP’ and the distance is a new constitutive equation for the thermal diffusivity of the solid. The experimental approach involves the establishment of a 1D unsteady heat flow inside the sample through step-temperature excitation. In the moving isothermal surfaces, the ETP is identified using a two-beam interferometer. The arrival-time of the ETP to reach a fixed distance away from heat source is measured, and its velocity is calculated. The velocity of the ETP and a given distance is sufficient to estimate the thermal diffusivity of a solid. The proposed method is experimentally verified for BK7 glass samples and the measured results are found to match closely with the reported value.

  20. Improving tomographic estimates of subsurface electromagnetic wave velocity obtained from ground-penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, James D.

    -receiver angles, this energy likely travels between the antenna tips. Using this knowledge, I develop an improved inversion methodology for crosshole GPR data. In addition to inverting for subsurface velocities, I estimate a small number of parameters that describe a travel-time correction curve as a function of ray angle. I then show the successful application of this improved inversion methodology to synthetic crosshole GPR data, and a data set collected at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site.

  1. Review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.J.; Swickard, S.M.; Stang, D.B.; Deguire, M.R.

    1990-03-01

    A review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials is presented. Initially, a semi-empirical model is developed showing the origin of the linear relationship between ultrasonic velocity and porosity fraction. Then, from a compilation of data produced by many researchers, scatter plots of velocity versus percent porosity data are shown for Al2O3, MgO, porcelain-based ceramics, PZT, SiC, Si3N4, steel, tungsten, UO2,(U0.30Pu0.70)C, and YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Linear regression analysis produced predicted slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, level of significance, and confidence interval statistics for the data. Velocity values predicted from regression analysis for fully-dense materials are in good agreement with those calculated from elastic properties.

  2. Review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Swickard, S. M.; Stang, D. B.; Deguire, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    A review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials is presented. Initially, a semi-empirical model is developed showing the origin of the linear relationship between ultrasonic velocity and porosity fraction. Then, from a compilation of data produced by many researchers, scatter plots of velocity versus percent porosity data are shown for Al2O3, MgO, porcelain-based ceramics, PZT, SiC, Si3N4, steel, tungsten, UO2,(U0.30Pu0.70)C, and YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Linear regression analysis produced predicted slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, level of significance, and confidence interval statistics for the data. Velocity values predicted from regression analysis for fully-dense materials are in good agreement with those calculated from elastic properties.

  3. Review and statistical analysis of the use of ultrasonic velocity for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Swickard, S. M.; Stang, D. B.; Deguire, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    A review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials is presented. Initially, a semiempirical model is developed showing the origin of the linear relationship between ultrasonic velocity and porosity fraction. Then, from a compilation of data produced by many researchers, scatter plots of velocity versus percent porosity data are shown for Al2O3, MgO, porcelain-based ceramics, PZT, SiC, Si3N4, steel, tungsten, UO2,(U0.30Pu0.70)C, and YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Linear regression analysis produces predicted slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, level of significance, and confidence interval statistics for the data. Velocity values predicted from regression analysis of fully-dense materials are in good agreement with those calculated from elastic properties.

  4. Lowermost Mantle Velocity Estimations Beneath the Central North Atlantic Area from Pdif Observed at Balkan, East Mediterranean, and American Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-02-01

    Lowermost mantle velocity in the area 15°S-70°N latitude/60°W-5° W longitude is estimated using two groups of observations, complementary to each other. There are 894 Pdif observations at stations in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean areas from 15 major earthquakes in Central and South America. Another 218 Pdif observations are associated with four earthquakes in Greece/Turkey and one event in Africa, recorded by American stations. A Pdif slowness tomographic approach of the structures immediately above the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB) is used, incorporating corrections for ellipticity, station elevation and velocity perturbations along the ray path. A low-velocity zone above CMB with a large geographical extent, approximately in the area (35-65°N) × (40-20°W), appears to have the velocity perturbations exceeding the value actually assumed by some global models. Most likely, it is extended beneath western Africa. A high-velocity area is observed west of the low-velocity zone. The results suggest that both Cape Verde and Azorean islands are located near transition areas from low-to-high velocity values in the lowermost mantle.

  5. Strichartz estimates and local existence for the gravity-capillary waves with non-Lipschitz initial velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Poyferré, Thibault; Nguyen, Quang-Huy

    2016-07-01

    We consider the gravity-capillary waves in any dimension and in fluid domains with general bottoms. Using the paradifferential reduction established in [19], we prove Strichartz estimates for solutions to this problem, at a low regularity level such that initially, the velocity field can be non-Lipschitz up to the free surface. We then use those estimates to solve the Cauchy problem at this level of regularity.

  6. A new method for estimating shear-wave velocity in marine sediments from radiation impedance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masao

    2005-11-01

    Shear-wave velocity is one of the important parameters that characterize the physical properties of marine sediments. In this study, a new method is proposed for measuring shear-wave velocity in marine sediments by using radiation impedance. Shear-wave velocities for three kinds of urethane rubber with different Japanese Industrial Standards hardness values were obtained by radiation impedance and time-of-flight measurement techniques. It was shown that the values of the shear-wave velocity measured by the radiation impedance method were consistent with those of time-of-flight measurements. It was then shown that the shear-wave velocities for air- and water-saturated beach sands are different. It was also found that the indicated shear-wave velocity is dependent on the vibrating plate radius because the instrument measures an average shear-wave velocity within a depth window beneath the plate; the larger the plate radius, the deeper the averaging window. Finally, measurements were made on two-layered media in which air-saturated beach sand or urethane rubber was covered with air-saturated clay, and the relationship between the thickness of the clay layer and the indicated shear-wave velocity was investigated.

  7. Estimation of Critical Flow Velocity for Collapse of Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen; Mark J. Russell

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents calculations performed to determine the critical flow velocity for plate collapse due to static instability for the Gas Test Loop booster fuel assembly. Long, slender plates arranged in a parallel configuration can experience static divergence and collapse at sufficiently high coolant flow rates. Such collapse was exhibited by the Oak Ridge High Flux Reactor in the 1940s and the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory in the 1950s. Theoretical formulas outlined by Miller, based upon wide-beam theory and Bernoulli’s equation, were used for the analysis. Calculations based upon Miller’s theory show that the actual coolant flow velocity is only 6% of the predicted critical flow velocity. Since there is a considerable margin between the theoretically predicted plate collapse velocity and the design velocity, the phenomena of plate collapse due to static instability is unlikely.

  8. Estimation of shear wave velocity in gelatin phantoms utilizing PhS-SSOCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Aglyamov, S.; Menodiado, F. M.; Mashiatulla, M.; Wang, Shang; Baranov, S. A.; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, S.; Larin, K. V.

    2012-09-01

    We report a method for measuring shear wave velocity in soft materials using phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (PhS-SSOCT). Wave velocity was measured in phantoms with various concentrations of gelatin and therefore different stiffness. Mechanical waves of small amplitudes (˜10 μm) were induced by applying local mechanical excitation at the surface of the phantom. Using the phase-resolved method for displacement measurement described here, the wave velocity was measured at various spatially distributed points on the surface of the tissue-mimicking gelatin-based phantom. The measurements confirmed an anticipated increase in the shear wave velocity with an increase in the gelatin concentrations. Therefore, by combining the velocity measurements with previously reported measurements of the wave amplitude, viscoelastic mechanical properties of the tissue such as cornea and lens could potentially be measured.

  9. Estimations of One Repetition Maximum and Isometric Peak Torque in Knee Extension Based on the Relationship Between Force and Velocity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Yoshito; Hatanaka, Yasuhiko; Arai, Tomoaki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2016-04-01

    Sugiura, Y, Hatanaka, Y, Arai, T, Sakurai, H, and Kanada, Y. Estimations of one repetition maximum and isometric peak torque in knee extension based on the relationship between force and velocity. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 980-988, 2016-We aimed to investigate whether a linear regression formula based on the relationship between joint torque and angular velocity measured using a high-speed video camera and image measurement software is effective for estimating 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric peak torque in knee extension. Subjects comprised 20 healthy men (mean ± SD; age, 27.4 ± 4.9 years; height, 170.3 ± 4.4 cm; and body weight, 66.1 ± 10.9 kg). The exercise load ranged from 40% to 150% 1RM. Peak angular velocity (PAV) and peak torque were used to estimate 1RM and isometric peak torque. To elucidate the relationship between force and velocity in knee extension, the relationship between the relative proportion of 1RM (% 1RM) and PAV was examined using simple regression analysis. The concordance rate between the estimated value and actual measurement of 1RM and isometric peak torque was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Reliability of the regression line of PAV and % 1RM was 0.95. The concordance rate between the actual measurement and estimated value of 1RM resulted in an ICC(2,1) of 0.93 and that of isometric peak torque had an ICC(2,1) of 0.87 and 0.86 for 6 and 3 levels of load, respectively. Our method for estimating 1RM was effective for decreasing the measurement time and reducing patients' burden. Additionally, isometric peak torque can be estimated using 3 levels of load, as we obtained the same results as those reported previously. We plan to expand the range of subjects and examine the generalizability of our results. PMID:26382131

  10. Estimation of velocity boundaries in basement - sedimentary layer system of Yokohama region by means of nonstationary ray decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagishi, M.; Kinoshita, S.

    2011-12-01

    We estimated the velocity boundaries in a sedimentary layer-basement system in Yokohama by applying nonstationary ray decomposition method (NRDM) to the strong motion data recorded at the Yokohama dense strong motion array (YKH array). NRDM is a method to estimate the velocity boundaries of real layered structure from surface recordings by decomposing power of an SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with rays in a homogeneous half space. The estimated results obtained by applying this method to seismograms are represented as a function of lapse time and depth time, which is travel time from surface toward depth-direction. A total of 10080 surface seismograms obtained at the YKH array for the 128 earthquakes that occurred in the Kanto area from 2000 to 2010 were used. The recordings were measured by acceleration seismometers. The data were obtained for the events having JMA magnitudes in the range of from 2.8 to 6.5. NRDM was applied to the transverse component data of velocity seismogram. Since the seismograms obtained at the YKH array predominate in high frequencies due to the weak subsurface structure, we applied bandpass filtering to the seismograms by using several intrinsic mode functions that are narrowband signals with different center frequencies. After such a processing, the data were converted to analytic signals, and then, the signals were used to estimate the instantaneous power by means of Wigner-Ville distribution. We have estimated the velocity boundaries in sediment in Yokohama region using 37 sites which were located in a rectangular area with a width of 4 km and a length of 40 km south-southeast of the FCH array. We were able to estimate two velocity boundaries, one in sediment (K-M) and the other being the upper boundary of the pre-Tertiary basement (M-B). On the whole, the upper boundary of the pre-Tertiary basement is dipping toward the south-southeast. The estimated depth times at K-M and M-B were from 1.5 to 2.2 s and from 2

  11. Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis of drugs of abuse to estimate their affinity to human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Orschiedt, Tina; Maurer, Hans H

    2013-02-27

    The pharmacokinetics of various important drugs are known to be significantly influenced by the human ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may lead to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. In contrast to therapeutic drugs, emerging drugs of abuse (DOA) are sold and consumed without any safety pharmacology testing. Only some studies on their metabolism were published, but none about their affinity to the transporter systems. Therefore, 47 DOAs from various classes were tested for their P-gp affinity using human P-gp (hP-gp) to predict possible drug-drug interactions. DOAs were initially screened for general hP-gp affinity and further characterized by modeling classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and assessing their K(m) and V(max) values. Among the tested drugs, 12 showed a stimulation of ATPase activity. The most intensive stimulating DOAs were further investigated and compared with the known P-gp model substrates sertraline and verapamil. ATPase stimulation kinetics could be modeled for the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-ethylphenethylamine (3,4-BDB), the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), the abused alkaloid glaucine, the opioid-like drugs N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA), and N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-3-ethoxypropanamine (PCEPA), with K(m) and V(max) values within the same range as for verapamil or sertraline. As a consequence interactions with other drugs being P-gp substrates might be considered to be very likely and further studies should be encouraged. PMID:23273999

  12. Two-dimensional velocity, optical risetime, and peak current estimates for natural positive lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. D.

    1993-01-01

    Velocities, optical risetimes, and transmission line model peak currents for seven natural positive return strokes are reported. The average 2D positive return stroke velocity for channel segments of less than 500 m in length starting near the base of the channel is 0.8 +/- 0.3 x 10 exp 8 m/s, which is slower than the present corresponding average velocity for natural negative first return strokes of 1.7 +/- 0.7 x 10 exp 8/s. It is inferred that positive stroke peak currents in the literature, which assume the same velocity as negative strokes, are low by a factor of 2. The average 2D positive return stroke velocity for channel segments of greater than 500 m starting near the base of the channel is 0.9 +/- 0.4 x 10 exp 8 m/s. The corresponding average velocity for the present natural negative first strokes is 1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10 exp 8 m/s. No significant velocity change with height is found for positive return strokes.

  13. Applicability of acoustic Doppler devices for flow velocity measurements and discharge estimation in flows with sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Guillaume; Gallart, Francesc; Gratiot, Nicolas; Soler, Montserrat; Reid, Ian; Vachtman, Dina; Latron, Jérôme; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic Doppler devices (Unidata Starflow) have been deployed for velocity measurements and discharge estimates in five contrasted open-channel flow environments, with particular attention given to the influence of sediment transport on instrument performance. The analysis is based on both field observations and flume experiments. These confirm the ability of the Starflow to provide reliable discharge time-series, but point out its limitations when sediment is being transported. (i) After calibration of the instrument by the Index Velocity Method, the deviation from reference discharge measurements was < 20% at the 95% confidence level. (ii) In ungauged conditions at high flows, the Starflow was particularly useful in providing velocity data for approximating measurements of discharge. (iii) However, channel and flume experiments revealed the effects of mobilised sediment on velocity estimates: coarse particles (⩾ 150 μm) transported by way of saltation or as bedload caused a significant underestimation of velocity by as much as 50%; a slight underestimation (10-15%) was also observed when significant quantities of fine particles (⩽150 μm) were transported in suspension; this underestimation was shown to reach 20-30% when suspended sediment concentrations were very high (c. 50-100 g L-1).

  14. Estimating the instantaneous velocity of randomly moving target swarms in a stratified ocean waveguide by Doppler analysis.

    PubMed

    Bertsatos, Ioannis; Makris, Nicholas C

    2011-07-01

    Doppler analysis has been extensively used in active radar and sonar sensing to estimate the speed and direction of a single target within an imaging system resolution cell following deterministic theory. For target swarms, such as fish and plankton in the ocean, and raindrops, birds and bats in the atmosphere, multiple randomly moving targets typically occupy a single resolution cell, making single-target theory inadequate. Here, a method is developed for simultaneously estimating the instantaneous mean velocity and position of a group of randomly moving targets within a resolution cell, as well as the respective standard deviations across the group by Doppler analysis in free-space and in a stratified ocean waveguide. While the variance of the field scattered from the swarm is shown to typically dominate over the mean in the range-velocity ambiguity function, cross-spectral coherence remains and maintains high Doppler velocity and position resolution even for coherent signal processing algorithms such as the matched filter. For pseudo-random signals, the mean and variance of the swarms' velocity and position can be expressed in terms of the first two moments of the measured range-velocity ambiguity function. This is shown analytically for free-space and with Monte-Carlo simulations for an ocean waveguide. PMID:21786880

  15. Velocity and normal tyre force estimation for heavy trucks based on vehicle dynamic simulation considering the road slope angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zeyu; Zhang, Yunqing; Yang, James

    2016-02-01

    A precise estimation of vehicle velocities can be valuable for improving the performance of the vehicle dynamics control (VDC) system and this estimation relies heavily upon the accuracy of longitudinal and lateral tyre force calculation governed by the prediction of normal tyre forces. This paper presents a computational method based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method to estimate both longitudinal and lateral velocities and develops a novel quasi-stationary method to predict normal tyre forces of heavy trucks on a sloping road. The vehicle dynamic model is constructed with a planar dynamic model combined with the Pacejka tyre model. The novel quasi-stationary method for predicting normal tyre forces is able to characterise the typical chassis configuration of the heavy trucks. The validation is conducted through comparing the predicted results with those simulated by the TruckSim and it has a good agreement between these results without compromising the convergence speed and stability.

  16. Seismic velocity estimation from well log data with genetic algorithms in comparison to neural networks and multilinear approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleardi, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Predicting missing log data is a useful capability for geophysicists. Geophysical measurements in boreholes are frequently affected by gaps in the recording of one or more logs. In particular, sonic and shear sonic logs are often recorded over limited intervals along the well path, but the information these logs contain is crucial for many geophysical applications. Estimating missing log intervals from a set of recorded logs is therefore of great interest. In this work, I propose to estimate the data in missing parts of velocity logs using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimisation and I demonstrate that this method is capable of extracting linear or exponential relations that link the velocity to other available logs. The technique was tested on different sets of logs (gamma ray, resistivity, density, neutron, sonic and shear sonic) from three wells drilled in different geological settings and through different lithologies (sedimentary and intrusive rocks). The effectiveness of this methodology is demonstrated by a series of blind tests and by evaluating the correlation coefficients between the true versus predicted velocity values. The combination of GA optimisation with a Gibbs sampler (GS) and subsequent Monte Carlo simulations allows the uncertainties in the final predicted velocities to be reliably quantified. The GA method is also compared with the neural networks (NN) approach and classical multilinear regression. The comparisons show that the GA, NN and multilinear methods provide velocity estimates with the same predictive capability when the relation between the input logs and the seismic velocity is approximately linear. The GA and NN approaches are more robust when the relations are non-linear. However, in all cases, the main advantages of the GA optimisation procedure over the NN approach is that it directly provides an interpretable and simple equation that relates the input and predicted logs. Moreover, the GA method is not affected by the disadvantages

  17. Binding affinities in the SAMPL3 trypsin and host-guest blind tests estimated with the MM/PBSA and LIE methods.

    PubMed

    Mikulskis, Paulius; Genheden, Samuel; Rydberg, Patrik; Sandberg, Lars; Olsen, Lars; Ryde, Ulf

    2012-05-01

    We have estimated affinities for the binding of 34 ligands to trypsin and nine guest molecules to three different hosts in the SAMPL3 blind challenge, using the MM/PBSA, MM/GBSA, LIE, continuum LIE, and Glide score methods. For the trypsin challenge, none of the methods were able to accurately predict the experimental results. For the MM/GB(PB)SA and LIE methods, the rankings were essentially random and the mean absolute deviations were much worse than a null hypothesis giving the same affinity to all ligand. Glide scoring gave a Kendall's τ index better than random, but the ranking is still only mediocre, τ = 0.2. However, the range of affinities is small and most of the pairs of ligands have an experimental affinity difference that is not statistically significant. Removing those pairs improves the ranking metric to 0.4-1.0 for all methods except CLIE. Half of the trypsin ligands were non-binders according to the binding assay. The LIE methods could not separate the inactive ligands from the active ones better than a random guess, whereas MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA were slightly better than random (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve, AUC = 0.65-0.68), and Glide scoring was even better (AUC = 0.79). For the first host, MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA reproduce the experimental ranking fairly good, with τ = 0.6 and 0.5, respectively, whereas the Glide scoring was considerably worse, with a τ = 0.4, highlighting that the success of the methods is system-dependent. PMID:22198518

  18. Red blood cell velocity measurements of complete capillary in finger nail-fold using optical flow estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chieh; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2009-12-01

    A new approach for the measurement of the red blood cell (RBC) velocity from capillary video by using optical flow estimation has been developed. An image registration function based on mutual information was used for stabilizing images in order to cope with slight finger movement during video acquisition. After image alignment, a skeleton extraction algorithm implemented by thinning was followed which enabled tracking blood flow entirely in arteriolar and venular limbs, and the curved segment as well. Optical flow and cross-correlation approaches were applied individually for velocity estimation of twelve microcirculation videos acquired independently from three healthy volunteers. The RBC velocity of 12 vessels at three given measurement sites (arteriolar, curve and venular sites) in a 45-second period of occlusion-release condition of vessel were examined. There were four stages of flow conditions: resting (T(1)), pre-occlusion (T(2)), post-occlusion (T(3)) and release (T(4)). The results from both approaches revealed that the velocity difference among the three sites were not significant. The pattern of distribution of RBC velocity was also reported. The correlation coefficient (r) of the velocity calculated using optical flow and cross-correlation in four stages of blood flow conditions and the overall correlation were: 1-window: r(T1)=0.68, r(T2)=0.67, r(T3)=0.92, r(T4)=0.88 and r(All)=0.79; 2-window: r(T1)=0.84, r(T2)=0.88, r(T3)=0.87, r(T4)=0.93 and r(All)=0.88. The averaged velocity results showed no significant differences between optical flow and 2-window cross-correlation in all flow conditions. Optical flow estimation is not only independent to the direction of flow, but also able to calculate the intensity displacement of all pixels. The proposed velocity measurement system has been shown to provide complete velocity information for the whole vessel limb which demonstrates the advantage of measuring blood flow at the level of microcirculation more

  19. Refining Estimates of the Seismic Velocities of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARMIN, M.; SHAPIRO, N. M.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Levin, V.; Park, J.

    2001-12-01

    We discuss recent efforts to improve a global shear-velocity model of the crust and upper mantle by advancing surface wave methodology as well as by introducing new types of geophysical data in the inversion. The primary data-set used to construct the model consists of broad-band Rayleigh and Love wave group-velocity (CU-Boulder) and phase-velocity (Harvard, Utrecht) dispersion curves. The first step of the inversion is surface wave tomography in which group and phase velocity maps are constructed. We present a new method of surface wave tomography called "diffraction tomography" that is based on a physical model of the surface wave Fresnel zone rather than on ray-theory and ad hoc regularization. Diffraction tomography accounts for path-length dependent sensitivity, wave-form healing and associated diffraction effects, and provides a more accurate assessment of spatially variable resolution than traditional tomographic methods. The second step is Monte-Carlo inversion of the dispersion maps for an ensemble of acceptable shear velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle. Because surface waves have limited vertical resolution, we apply constraints on the model derived from other types of geophysical observations. We consider two types of additional data: teleseismic receiver functions and heat flow measurements. Receivers functions are formed by P-S converted waves that arise from sharp boundaries close to the Earth's surface, and thus provide important constraints on the crustal structure. Their use in the inversion mitigates the tradeoff between the crust (where surface waves have poor sensitivity) and the deeper part of the model. Heat-flow data constrain mantle shear velocities through the conversion of heat-flow into temperature and subsequently into shear velocity at the top of the upper mantle. We present results from the joint inversion and discuss how the combination of different types of data reduces both uncertainties and systematic bias in the

  20. Automatic NMO Correction and Full Common Depth Point NMO Velocity Field Estimation in Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedek, Mohamed; Gross, Lutz; Tyson, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    We present a new computational method of automatic normal moveout (NMO) correction that not only accurately flattens and corrects the far offset data, but simultaneously provides NMO velocity (v_nmo ) for each individual seismic trace. The method is based on a predefined number of NMO velocity sweeps using linear vertical interpolation of different NMO velocities at each seismic trace. At each sweep, we measure the semblance between the zero offset trace (pilot trace) and the next seismic trace using a trace-by-trace rather than sample-by-sample based semblance measure; then after all the sweeps are done, the one with the maximum semblance value is chosen, which is assumed to be the most suitable NMO velocity trace that accurately flattens seismic reflection events. Other traces follow the same process, and a final velocity field is then extracted. Isotropic, anisotropic and lateral heterogenous synthetic geological models were built to test the method. A range of synthetic background noise, ranging from 10 to 30 %, was applied to the models. In addition, the method was tested on Hess's VTI (vertical transverse isotropy) model. Furthermore, we tested our method on a real pre-stack seismic CDP gathered from a gas field in Alaska. The results from the presented examples show an excellent NMO correction and extracted a reasonably accurate NMO velocity field.

  1. Photoelectric return-stroke velocity and peak current estimates in natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional photoelectric return stroke velocities from 130 strokes are presented, including 86 negative natural, 41 negative triggered, one positive triggered, and two positive natural return strokes. For strokes starting near the ground and exceeding 500 m in length, the average velocity is 1.3 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for natural return strokes and 1.2 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for triggered return strokes. For strokes with lengths less than 500 m, the average velocities are slightly higher. Using the transmission line model (TLM), the shortest segment one-dimensional return stroke velocity, and either the maximum or plateau electric field, it is shown that natural strokes have a peak current distribution that is lognormal with a median value of 16 kA (maximum E) or 12 kA (plateau E). Triggered lightning has a medium peak current value of 21 kA (maximum E) or 15 kA (plateau E). Correlations are found between TLM peak currents and velocities for triggered and natural subsequent return strokes, but not between TLM peak currents and natural first return stroke velocities.

  2. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  3. Estimating vertical velocity and radial flow from Doppler radar observations of tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. L.; Lee, W. C.; MacDonald, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    The mesoscale vorticity method (MVM) is used in conjunction with the ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) to derive the inner-core vertical velocity from Doppler radar observations of tropical cyclone (TC) Danny (1997). MVM derives the vertical velocity from vorticity variations in space and in time based on the mesoscale vorticity equation. The use of MVM and GBVTD allows us to derive good correlations among the eye-wall maximum wind, bow-shaped updraught and echo east of the eye-wall in Danny. Furthermore, we demonstrate the dynamically consistent radial flow can be derived from the vertical velocity obtained from MVM using the wind decomposition technique that solves the Poisson equations over a limited-area domain. With the wind decomposition, we combine the rotational wind which is obtained from Doppler radar wind observations and the divergent wind which is inferred dynamically from the rotational wind to form the balanced horizontal wind in TC inner cores, where rotational wind dominates the divergent wind. In this study, we show a realistic horizontal and vertical structure of the vertical velocity and the induced radial flow in Danny's inner core. In the horizontal, the main eye-wall updraught draws in significant surrounding air, converging at the strongest echo where the maximum updraught is located. In the vertical, the main updraught tilts vertically outwards, corresponding very well with the outward-tilting eye-wall. The maximum updraught is located at the inner edge of the eye-wall clouds, while downward motions are found at the outer edge. This study demonstrates that the mesoscale vorticity method can use high-temporal-resolution data observed by Doppler radars to derive realistic vertical velocity and the radial flow of TCs. The vorticity temporal variations crucial to the accuracy of the vorticity method have to be derived from a high-temporal-frequency observing system such as state-of-the-art Doppler radars.

  4. Velocities of contemporary movements of the Northern Caucasus estimated from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyukov, V. K.; Mironov, A. P.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Steblov, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    The velocity field of the Northern Caucasus based on the results of observations at the Northern Caucasus Geodetic Network (NCGN) stations is represented in the paper. Appreciable horizontal displacement to the northeast with velocity of 26-28 mm/yr relative to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008) is established. General shortening of the region at a rate of 1-2 mm/yr relative to fixed Eurasia is a source of the contemporary geological and seismic activity in the boundary zone between the Caucasus and the East European Platform.

  5. Estimation of shallow S-wave velocity structure in the Puli basin, Taiwan, using array measurements of microtremors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Huey-Chu

    2012-05-01

    The September 21, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake induced strong shaking, resulting in severe damage in the Puli area. According to Huang and Tarng (2005), the collapse of many structures during the earthquake was very closely related to site effects. Shallow shear-wave velocities are widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. Thus, we investigate S-wave velocity structures for the Puli area by performing microtremor array measurements at 16 sites. Dispersion curves at these sites are calculated using the F-K method (Capon, 1969) for the vertical component; S-wave velocity structures for the Puli area are then estimated by surface wave inversion (Herrmann, 1991). If the S-wave velocity of the bedrock is assumed to be 2000 m/s, the depths of the Quaternary sediments in the Puli area are between 300 m (FAL, PIP) and 870 m (DAH). Moreover, there are 3˜6 distinct interfaces in the shallow velocity structure (0˜1000 m). The depth of the bedrock gradually increases from the edge (SIN, PIP) to the center (PUL, DAH) of the basin and the thickest Quaternary sediments appear near Heng-Chih-Cheng (DAH).

  6. A prototype of radar-drone system for measuring the surface flow velocity at river sites and discharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moramarco, Tommaso; Alimenti, Federico; Zucco, Graziano; Barbetta, Silvia; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Mezzanotte, Paolo; Rosselli, Luca; Orecchini, Giulia; Virili, Marco; Valigi, Paolo; Ciarfuglia, Thomas; Pagnottelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Discharge estimation at a river site depends on local hydraulic conditions identified by recording water levels. In fact, stage monitoring is straightforward and relatively inexpensive compared with the cost necessary to carry out flow velocity measurements which are, however, limited to low flows and constrained by the accessibility of the site. In this context the mean flow velocity is hard to estimate for high flow, affecting de-facto the reliability of discharge assessment for extreme events. On the other hand, the surface flow velocity can be easily monitored by using radar sensors allowing to achieve a good estimate of discharge by exploiting the entropy theory applied to rivers hydraulic (Chiu,1987). Recently, a growing interest towards the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UVA), henceforth drone, for topographic applications is observed and considering their capability drones may be of a considerable interest for the hydrological monitoring and in particular for streamflow measurements. With this aim, for the first time, a miniaturized Doppler radar sensor, operating at 24 GHz, will be mounted on a drone to measure the surface flow velocity in rivers. The sensor is constituted by a single-board circuit (i.e. is a fully planar circuits - no waveguides) with the antenna on one side and the front-end electronic on the other side (Alimenti et al., 2007). The antenna has a half-power beam width of less than 10 degrees in the elevation plane and a gain of 13 dBi. The radar is equipped with a monolithic oscillator and transmits a power of about 4 mW at 24 GHz. The sensor is mounted with an inclination of 45 degrees with respect to the drone flying plane and such an angle is considered in recovering the surface speed of the water. The drone is a quadricopter that has more than 30 min, flying time before recharging the battery. Furthermore its flying plan can be scheduled with a suitable software and is executed thanks to the on-board sensors (GPS, accelerometers

  7. Error estimations of dry deposition velocities of air pollutants using bulk sea surface temperature under common assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Yao; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Keenlyside, Noel; Wang, Shu-Lun; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung; Wang, Bin-Jye; Liu, Tsun-Hsien

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that skin sea surface temperature (SSST) is different from bulk sea surface temperature (BSST) by a few tenths of a degree Celsius. However, the extent of the error associated with dry deposition (or uptake) estimation by using BSST is not well known. This study tries to conduct such an evaluation using the on-board observation data over the South China Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2006. It was found that when a warm layer occurred, the deposition velocities using BSST were underestimated within the range of 0.8-4.3%, and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was overestimated by 21 W m -2. In contrast, under cool skin only conditions, the deposition velocities using BSST were overestimated within the range of 0.5-2.0%, varying with pollutants and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was underestimated also by 21 W m -2. Scale analysis shows that for a slightly soluble gas (e.g., NO 2, NO and CO), the error in the solubility estimation using BSST is the major source of the error in dry deposition estimation. For a highly soluble gas (e.g., SO 2), the error in the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and, consequently, aerodynamic resistance and gas-phase film resistance using BSST is the major source of the total error. In contrast, for a medium soluble gas (e.g., O 3 and CO 2) both the errors from the estimations of the solubility and aerodynamic resistance are important. In addition, deposition estimations using various assumptions are discussed. The largest uncertainty is from the parameterizations for chemical enhancement factors. Other important areas of uncertainty include: (1) various parameterizations for gas-transfer velocity; (2) neutral-atmosphere assumption; (3) using BSST as SST, and (4) constant pH value assumption.

  8. Enhanced estimation of sonobuoy trajectories by velocity reconstruction with near-surface drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Hammond, D.; Haza, A. C.; Hogan, P.; Huntley, H. S.; Kirwan, A. D., Jr.; Lipphardt, B. L., Jr.; Taillandier, V.; Griffa, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.

    An investigation to improve trajectory prediction using Lagrangian data is presented. The velocity field of a data assimilating model, EAS-16, is corrected using drifter observations taken during an experiment off Taiwan. The results are tested using another independent Lagrangian data set provided by sonobuoys launched in the same area. The latter have instrument chains that extend well into the water column. Consequently the corrected model velocities were projected into the water column in order to calculate sonobuoy trajectories. The drifter and sonobuoy trajectories both show two distinct regimes in the considered area of approximately 1/2° square. One regime is dominated by shelf dynamics, the other by meandering of the Kuroshio, with a sharp boundary dividing the two. These two regimes are not reproduced by the trajectories of the EAS-16 model. When the drifter data are blended with the model velocities, synthetic sonobuoy trajectories track the observed ones much better, and the two regimes are clearly depicted. Two different methods for the velocity reconstruction are tested. One is based on a variational approach and the other on a normal mode decomposition. Both methods show qualitatively similar improvements in the prediction of sonobuoys trajectories, with a quantitative improvement in the total rms error of approximately 50% and 25%, respectively.

  9. A simple method to estimate threshold friction velocity of wind erosion in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all wind erosion models require the specification of threshold friction velocity (TFV). Yet determining TFV of wind erosion in field conditions is difficult as it depends on both soil characteristics and distribution of vegetation or other roughness elements. While several reliable methods ha...

  10. CORRECTION FACTORS FOR COVARIANCE BETWEEN CONCENTRATION AND DEPOSITION VELOCITY ON CASTNET HNO3 DEPOSITION ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The covariance between hourly concentration (C) and deposition velocity (V) for various atmospheric; species may act to bias the, deposition (D) computed from the product of the weekly average C and 'V. This is a potential problem for the CASTNet filter pack (FP) species, nitric...

  11. CORRECTION FOR THE IMPACTS OF COVARIANCE BETWEEN CONCENTRATION AND DEPOSITION VELOCITY OR CASTNET HNO, DEPOSITION ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The covariance between hourly concentration (C) and deposition velocity (V) for various atmospheric; species may act to bias the, deposition (D) computed from the product of the weekly average C and 'V. This is a potential problem for the CASTNet filter pack (FP) species, nitric ...

  12. Preliminary estimates of pollen size, and settling velocity for Amaranthus palmeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of long-distance pollen dispersal require a priori knowledge regarding the size and terminal settling velocity of the pollen. Seed from four A. palmeri (AMAPA) populations (representing FL, GA, NC and TN) were planted and grown in a greenhouse. The extruded, but non-dehiscent, anthers we...

  13. Estimates of black hole natal kick velocities from observations of low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Ilya

    2016-02-01

    The birth kicks of black holes, arising from asymmetric mass ejection or neutrino emission during core-collapse supernovae, are of great interest for both observationally constraining supernova models and population-synthesis studies of binary evolution. Recently, several efforts were undertaken to estimate black hole birth kicks from observations of black hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We follow up on this work, specifically focusing on the highest estimated black hole kick velocities. We find that existing observations do not require black hole birth kicks in excess of approximately 80 km s-1, although higher kicks are not ruled out.

  14. Shear wave velocity profile estimation by integrated analysis of active and passive seismic data from small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lontsi, A. M.; Ohrnberger, M.; Krüger, F.

    2016-07-01

    We present an integrated approach for deriving the 1D shear wave velocity (Vs) information at few tens to hundreds of meters down to the first strong impedance contrast in typical sedimentary environments. We use multiple small aperture seismic arrays in 1D and 2D configuration to record active and passive seismic surface wave data at two selected geotechnical sites in Germany (Horstwalde & Löbnitz). Standard methods for data processing include the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method that exploits the high frequency content in the active data and the sliding window frequency-wavenumber (f-k) as well as the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) methods that exploit the low frequency content in passive seismic data. Applied individually, each of the passive methods might be influenced by any source directivity in the noise wavefield. The advantages of active shot data (known source location) and passive microtremor (low frequency content) recording may be combined using a correlation based approach applied to the passive data in the so called Interferometric Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (IMASW). In this study, we apply those methods to jointly determine and interpret the dispersion characteristics of surface waves recorded at Horstwalde and Löbnitz. The reliability of the dispersion curves is controlled by applying strict limits on the interpretable range of wavelengths in the analysis and further avoiding potentially biased phase velocity estimates from the passive f-k method by comparing to those derived from the SPatial AutoCorrelation method (SPAC). From our investigation at these two sites, the joint analysis as proposed allows mode extraction in a wide frequency range (~ 0.6-35 Hz at Horstwalde and ~ 1.5-25 Hz at Löbnitz) and consequently improves the Vs profile inversion. To obtain the shear wave velocity profiles, we make use of a global inversion approach based on the neighborhood algorithm to invert the interpreted branches of the

  15. Apparent affinity estimates of rimonabant in combination with anandamide and chemical analogs of anandamide in rhesus monkeys discriminating Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Anandamide and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) sometimes produce different discriminative stimulus effects and, therefore, appear to differ in their mechanism of action. In order to understand the widespread use of cannabis and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, mechanisms responsible for behavioral effects need to be identified. Objective Drug discrimination was used to compare the mechanism of action of Δ9-THC, anandamide, and two structural analogs of anandamide in rhesus monkeys. Materials and methods Monkeys discriminated Δ9-THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) from vehicle. Δ9-THC, anandamide, methanandamide, and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) were administered i.v. alone and in combination with at least one dose of rimonabant. Schild analysis and single-dose apparent affinity estimates were used to estimate the potency of rimonabant as an antagonist of each cannabinoid; these values were compared to examine whether the same receptors mediated discriminative stimulus effects. Results Δ9-THC, ACPA, methanandamide, and anandamide produced greater than 96% of responses on the Δ9-THC lever. The ED50 values were 0.024 mg/kg for Δ9-THC, 0.14 mg/kg for ACPA, 0.28 mg/kg for methanandamide, and 1.7 mg/kg for anandamide. The duration of action of Δ9-THC was 4–6 h and longer than the duration of action ACPA, methanandamide, and anandamide (i.e., each less than 50 min). Rimonabant surmountably antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of each agonist, and the apparent affinity estimates (pA2 and pKB values) were 6.24–6.83. Conclusions Rimonabant can produce surmountable antagonism of the behavioral effects of not only Δ9-THC but also anandamide, methanandamide, and ACPA, and the interactions appear simple, competitive, and reversible. These cannabinoid agonists act at the same receptors to produce discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:18592221

  16. Techniques for automated local activation time annotation and conduction velocity estimation in cardiac mapping

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, C.D.; Roney, C.H.; Ng, F.S.; Siggers, J.H.; Sherwin, S.J.; Peters, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of cardiac conduction velocity provide valuable functional and structural insight into the initiation and perpetuation of cardiac arrhythmias, in both a clinical and laboratory context. The interpretation of activation wavefronts and their propagation can identify mechanistic properties of a broad range of electrophysiological pathologies. However, the sparsity, distribution and uncertainty of recorded data make accurate conduction velocity calculation difficult. A wide range of mathematical approaches have been proposed for addressing this challenge, often targeted towards specific data modalities, species or recording environments. Many of these algorithms require identification of activation times from electrogram recordings which themselves may have complex morphology or low signal-to-noise ratio. This paper surveys algorithms designed for identifying local activation times and computing conduction direction and speed. Their suitability for use in different recording contexts and applications is assessed. PMID:25978869

  17. Techniques for automated local activation time annotation and conduction velocity estimation in cardiac mapping.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, C D; Roney, C H; Ng, F S; Siggers, J H; Sherwin, S J; Peters, N S

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of cardiac conduction velocity provide valuable functional and structural insight into the initiation and perpetuation of cardiac arrhythmias, in both a clinical and laboratory context. The interpretation of activation wavefronts and their propagation can identify mechanistic properties of a broad range of electrophysiological pathologies. However, the sparsity, distribution and uncertainty of recorded data make accurate conduction velocity calculation difficult. A wide range of mathematical approaches have been proposed for addressing this challenge, often targeted towards specific data modalities, species or recording environments. Many of these algorithms require identification of activation times from electrogram recordings which themselves may have complex morphology or low signal-to-noise ratio. This paper surveys algorithms designed for identifying local activation times and computing conduction direction and speed. Their suitability for use in different recording contexts and applications is assessed. PMID:25978869

  18. The velocity and mixing time scale of the Arctic Ocean Boundary Current estimated with transient tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, A.; Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Smethie, W. M.; Bayer, R.; Rhein, M.; Jones, E. Peter

    2010-08-01

    The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current (AOBC) is a persistent, large-scale feature of Arctic circulation that transports water of Atlantic origin around the Eurasian and Canadian Basins. Despite its importance as a link between North Atlantic sea surface temperature and the heat budget of the Arctic Ocean, elements of the pathways of the AOBC are still not well understood. Here we use transient tracer data collected during the 1990s at 22 locations to calculate the velocity and mixing time scale of the AOBC. The apparent spreading velocity derived from correlating 3H-3He ages in the Barents Sea branch water (BSBW) with the distance from its entry point at the Santa Anna Trough is 0.9 cm s-1. To correct this apparent velocity for the effects of mixing along the pathway, the AOBC is modeled as a leaky pipe, and 3H-3He and chlorofluorocarbon data are used to calculate the parameters of its transit time distribution function. The modeled velocity of the AOBC is 2.5 ± 0.5 cm s-1, and the time scale for mixing of waters between the core of the boundary current and the adjacent water masses is 5-10 years. These results imply that the advective time for transport around the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean from the Santa Anna Trough to the southern Canada Basin (approximately 6000 km) is 7.5 years, and the amplitude of a temperature anomaly or salinity anomaly in BSBW should decrease by 50%-75% along this path.

  19. Empirical approach for estimating the ExB velocity from VTEC map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Xi

    For the development of wireless communication, the Earth's ionosphere is very critical. A Matlab program is designed to improve the techniques for monitoring and forecasting the conditions of the Earth's ionosphere. The work in this thesis aims to modeling of the dependency between the equatorial anomaly gap (EAP) in the Earth's ionosphere and the crucial driver, ExB velocity, of the Earth's ionosphere. In this thesis, we review the mathematics of the model in the eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and an enhancement version of Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), GAIM++ Model. We then use the IGRF Model and a Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) map from GAIM++ Model to determine the EAP in the Earth's ionosphere. Then, by changing the main parameters, the 10.7cm solar radio flux (F10.7) and the planetary geomagnetic activity index (AP), we compare the different value of the EAP in the Earth's ionosphere and the ExB velocity of the Earth's ionosphere. At last, we demonstrate that the program can be effective in determining the dependency between the EAP in the Earth's ionosphere and the ExB velocity of the Earth's ionosphere.

  20. Data Analysis of cGPS stations in central Greece: station velocities and 1-D strain estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, Athanassios; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Gianniou, Michalis

    2013-04-01

    We processed 30-s GPS data from permanent GNSS stations in central Greece, available at NOA since 2006. We obtained position time series along with horizontal and vertical velocities using the Kalman filtering approach and accounting for time-correlated noise content. The station distribution allowed us to draw velocity profiles and to calculate rates of baseline length change (1-D strain). In central Greece, the coherent picture of the velocity pattern for Attica and north-eastern Peloponnese (Corinth) stations (effectively a velocity "plateau" at 30 mm/yr) indicates that these areas belong to the same crustal block, although some internal strain is present within Attica's crust as well as across the Saronic Gulf. Our 1-D strain estimates are in general agreement with geological data (fault slip rates) in central Greece, implying accommodation of this crustal extension along E-W striking active normal faults. Some NE-SW directed shortening is mapped in the wider area to the west of the termination of the North Anatolian Fault (Sporades islands).

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. The development includes an analysis of the estimator stability given errors in the measured attitude. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given, including scenarios with erroneous measured attitudes. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.

  2. A bayesian approach for determining velocity and uncertainty estimates from seismic cone penetrometer testing or vertical seismic profiling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pidlisecky, A.; Haines, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional processing methods for seismic cone penetrometer data present several shortcomings, most notably the absence of a robust velocity model uncertainty estimate. We propose a new seismic cone penetrometer testing (SCPT) data-processing approach that employs Bayesian methods to map measured data errors into quantitative estimates of model uncertainty. We first calculate travel-time differences for all permutations of seismic trace pairs. That is, we cross-correlate each trace at each measurement location with every trace at every other measurement location to determine travel-time differences that are not biased by the choice of any particular reference trace and to thoroughly characterize data error. We calculate a forward operator that accounts for the different ray paths for each measurement location, including refraction at layer boundaries. We then use a Bayesian inversion scheme to obtain the most likely slowness (the reciprocal of velocity) and a distribution of probable slowness values for each model layer. The result is a velocity model that is based on correct ray paths, with uncertainty bounds that are based on the data error. ?? NRC Research Press 2011.

  3. Estimation of shear velocity contrast for dipping or anisotropic medium from transmitted Ps amplitude variation with ray-parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Amplitude versus offset analysis of P to P reflection is often used in exploration seismology for hydrocarbon exploration. In the present work, the feasibility to estimate crustal velocity structure from transmitted P to S wave amplitude variation with ray-parameter has been investigated separately for dipping layer and anisotropy medium. First, for horizontal and isotropic medium, the approximation of P-to-s conversion is used that is expressed as a linear form in terms of slowness. Next, the intercept of the linear regression has been used to estimate the shear wave velocity contrast (δβ) across an interface. The formulation holds good for isotropic and horizontal layer medium. Application of such formula to anisotropic medium or dipping layer data may lead to erroneous estimation of δβ. In order to overcome this problem, a method has been proposed to compensate the SV-amplitude using shifted version of SH-amplitude, and subsequently transforming SV amplitudes equivalent to that from isotropic or horizontal layer medium as the case may be. Once this transformation has been done, δβ can be estimated using isotropic horizontal layer formula. The shifts required in SH for the compensation are π/2 and π/4 for dipping layer and anisotropic medium, respectively. The effectiveness of the approach has been reported using various synthetic data sets. The methodology is also tested on real data from HI-CLIMB network in Himalaya, where the presence of dipping Moho has already been reported. The result reveals that the average shear wave velocity contrast across the Moho is larger towards the Indian side compared to the higher Himalayan and Tibetan regions.

  4. Estimating daytime vertical ExB drift velocities from equatorial magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Anghel, A.; Chau, J.; Veliz, O.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.

    2003-04-01

    The daytime equatorial electrojet is a narrow band of enhanced eastward current flowing in the 100 to 120 km altitude region within +/- 2 degrees latitude of the dip equator. The strength of the electrojet varies considerably from day-to-day and has its origin in the Sq current dynamo mechanism and the penetration of electric fields from high latitudes. A unique way of determining the daytime strength of the electrojet is to observe the difference in the magnitudes of the Horizontal (H) component between a magnetometer placed directly on the magnetic equator and one displaced 6 to 9 degrees away. The difference between these measured H values provides a direct measure of the daytime electrojet current, and in turn, the magnitude of the vertical ExB drift velocity in the ionospheric F region. This paper discusses a recent study that has quantitatively established the seasonal relationships between the vertical daytime ExB drift velocity in the ionospheric F region and the daytime strength of the equatorial electrojet in the South American (west coast) longitude sector. Magnetometer H component observations from Jicamarca (0.8 N. dip lat.) and Piura (6.8 N. dip lat.) in Peru and daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities measured by the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar have been used to establish these relationships. The magnetometer observations and the JULIA 150 km echo drift measurements were obtained for the period between August, 2001 and September, 2002. Plotting DH vs ExB drift values on a day-to-day basis yields a linear, least-squares straight line whose slope changes systematically with season. For days within each season, the slope is often the same but the "off-sets" vary day-to-day. The implications and theoretical basis for this seasonal and daily variability will be discussed.

  5. An estimate of maximum ground surface motion for non zero surface velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, Alain

    2004-09-01

    The increasing need for probability seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) of critical facilities sometimes leads to unrealistic earthquake scenarios with very high induced ground motions. From a physical standpoint these high motions cannot exist because of the limiting resistance capacity of the soil strata through which the seismic waves travel. A simple analytical model is proposed to bound the maximum ground surface acceleration that any soil deposit can transfer. This model is an extension to non zero ground surface velocity of a previously presented model. To cite this article: A. Pecker, C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).

  6. Probabilistic estimates of maximum acceleration and velocity in rock in the contiguous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Algermissen, Sylvester Theodore; Perkins, D.M.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Bender, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Maximum horizontal accelerations and velocities caused by earthquakes are mapped for exposure times of 10, 50 and 250 years at the 90-percent probability level of nonexceedance for the contiguous United States. In many areas these new maps differ significantly from the 1976 probabilistic acceleration map by Algermlssen and Perkins because of the increase in detail, resulting from greater emphasis on the geologic basis for seismic source zones. This new emphasis is possible because of extensive data recently acquired on Holocene and Quaternary faulting in the western United States and new interpretations of geologic structures controlling the seismicity pattern in the central and eastern United States.

  7. Ionization Energies, Electron Affinities, and Polarization Energies of Organic Molecular Crystals: Quantitative Estimations from a Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM)-Tuned Range-Separated Density Functional Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haitao; Ryno, Sean; Zhong, Cheng; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Sun, Zhenrong; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-14

    We propose a new methodology for the first-principles description of the electronic properties relevant for charge transport in organic molecular crystals. This methodology, which is based on the combination of a nonempirical, optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional with the polarizable continuum model, is applied to a series of eight representative molecular semiconductor crystals. We show that it provides ionization energies, electron affinities, and transport gaps in very good agreement with experimental values, as well as with the results of many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation at a fraction of the computational costs. Hence, this approach represents an easily applicable and computationally efficient tool to estimate the gas-to-crystal phase shifts of the frontier-orbital quasiparticle energies in organic electronic materials. PMID:27183355

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Queen, Steven Z.; VanEepoel, John M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 NASA began investigation of a robotic servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Such a mission would require estimates of the HST attitude and rates in order to achieve a capture by the proposed Hubble robotic vehicle (HRV). HRV was to be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The inertial HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a non-linear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is a pseudo-linear Kalman filter. Simulation test results for both methods are given. Even though the development began as an application for the HST robotic servicing mission, the methods presented are applicable to any rendezvous/capture mission involving a non-cooperative target spacecraft.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Angular Velocity Estimation During the Robotic Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie K.; Queen, Steven Z.; VanEepoel, John M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    During the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) attitude and rates are necessary to achieve the capture of HST by the Hubble Robotic Vehicle (HRV). The attitude and rates must be determined without the HST gyros or HST attitude estimates. The HRV will be equipped with vision-based sensors, capable of estimating the relative attitude between HST and HRV. The HST attitude is derived from the measured relative attitude and the HRV computed inertial attitude. However, the relative rate between HST and HRV cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the HST rate with respect to inertial space is not known. Two approaches are developed to estimate the HST rates. Both methods utilize the measured relative attitude and the HRV inertial attitude and rates. First, a nonlinear estimator is developed. The nonlinear approach estimates the HST rate through an estimation of the inertial angular momentum. Second, a linearized approach is developed. The linearized approach is based on more traditional Extended Kalman filter techniques. Simulation test results for both methods are given.

  10. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 2 -- Parametric and Site-Specific Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Cook, Kary M.

    2013-09-12

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10.1 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated. Site specific meteorology was used to predict deposition velocity for Savannah River conditions for a range of distances from 670 to 11,500 meters.

  11. Inhibition of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors by antagonists: strategy to estimate the association and the dissociation rate constant of antagonists with very strong affinity to the receptors.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, H; Inoue, Y; Hori, K

    1992-10-01

    Since binding of an agonist to an ionotropic neurotransmitter receptor causes not only channel opening, but also desensitization of the receptor, inhibition of the receptor by the antagonist sometimes becomes very complicated. The transient state kinetics of ligand association and dissociation, and desensitization of the receptor were considered on the basis of the minimal model proposed by Hess' group, and the following possibilities were proposed. 1) When an agonist is simultaneously applied to the receptor with an antagonist whose affinity to the receptor is extremely strong and different from that of the agonist, it is usually impossible to estimate the real inhibition constant exactly from the responses because desensitization of the receptor proceeds before the equilibrium of the ligand binding. Simultaneous addition of the antagonist with strong affinity to the receptor may apparently accelerate inactivation (desensitization) of the receptor. The association rate constant of the antagonist can be estimated by analyses of the rate of the inactivation in the presence and the absence of the antagonist. 2) A preincubated antagonist with a slow dissociation rate constant, i.e., a very effective inhibitor, may cause apparent noncompetitive inhibition of the receptor, since the receptor is desensitized by an agonist as soon as the antagonist dissociates from the receptor and the dissociation of the antagonist from the receptor becomes the rate-determining step. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNA prepared from Electrophorus electricus electroplax and used for the experiments on inhibition by an antagonist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1337082

  12. Correlation analysis of spatio-temporal images for estimating two-dimensional flow velocity field in a rotating flow condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kwonkyu; Kim, Seojun; Kim, Dongsu

    2015-10-01

    Flow velocity estimation in actual rivers using image processing technique has been highlighted for hydrometric communities in the last decades, and this technique is called Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). Although LSPIV has been successfully tested in many flow conditions, it has addressed several limitations estimating mean flow field because of difficult flow conditions such as rotating, lack of light and seeds, and noisy flow conditions. Recently, an alternative technique named STIV to use spatio-temporal images based on successively recorded images has been introduced to overcome the limitations of LSPIV. The STIV was successfully applied to obtain one-dimensional flow component in the river for estimating streamflow discharge, where the main flow direction is known. Using the 5th order of central difference scheme, the STIV directly calculated the mean angle of slopes which appeared as strips in the spatio-temporal images and has been proved to be more reliable and efficient for the discharge estimation as compared with the conventional LSPIV. However, yet it has not been sufficiently qualified to derive two-dimensional flow field in the complex flow, such as rotating or locally unsteady flow conditions. We deemed that it was because the strips in the given spatio-temporal images from not properly oriented for main flow direction are not narrow enough or clearly visible, thus the direct estimating strip slope could give erroneous results. Thereby, the STIV has been mainly applied for obtaining one-dimensional flow component. In this regard, we proposed an alternative algorithm to estimate the mean slope angle for enhancing the capability of the STIV, which used correlation coefficient between odd and even image splits from the given spatio-temporal image. This method was named CASTI (Correlation Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Image). This paper described the step-by-step procedure of the CASTI and validated its capability for estimating two

  13. Estimation of modal group velocities with a single receiver for geoacoustic inversion in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Julien; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérome I; Walker, Shane C

    2010-08-01

    Due to the expense associated with at-sea sensor deployments, a challenge in underwater acoustics has been to develop methods requiring a minimal number of sensors. This paper introduces an adaptive time-frequency signal processing method designed for application to a single source-receiver sensor pair. The method involves the application of conjugate time-frequency warping transforms to improve the SNR and resolution of the time-frequency distribution (TFD) of the measured field. Such refined knowledge of the TFD facilitates efforts to extract tomographic information about the propagation medium. Here the method is applied to the case of modal propagation in a shallow ocean range independent environment to extract a refined TFD. Given knowledge of the source-receiver separation, the refined TFD is used to extract the frequency dependent group velocities of the individual modal components. The extracted group velocities are then incorporated into a computationally light tomographic inversion method. Simulated and experimental results are discussed. PMID:20707442

  14. Estimation of neutral wind velocity in the ionospheric heights by HF-Doppler technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, T.; Takefu, M.; Hiroshige, N.

    1985-01-01

    Three net stations located about 100 kilometers apart were set up around the station of the standard frequency and time signals (JJY) in central Japan and measurements of atmospheric gravity waves in the ionospheric heights (F-region, 200 to 400 km) were made by means of the HF-Doppler technique during the period of February 1983 to December 1983. The frequencies of the signals received are 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0 MHz, but only the 8.0 MHz signals are used for the present study, because no ambiguities due to the interference among other stations such as BPM, BSF, etc. exist by the use of 8.0 MHz. Two main results concerning the horizontal phase velocity of the atmospheric gravity waves with periods of 40 to 70 min may be summarized as follows: (1) the value of the phase velocity ranges from 50 m/s to 300 m/s; (2) the direction of the gravity wave propagation shows a definite seasonal variation. The prevailing direction of the gravity waves in winter is from north to south, which is consistent with the results obtained from other investigations. On the other hand, the two directions, from northeast to southwest and from southeast to northeast, dominate in summer.

  15. Comparison of P- and S-waves velocities estimated from Biot-Gassmann and Kuster-Toksöz models with results obtained from acoustic wavetrains interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BałA, Maria; Cichy, Adam

    2007-06-01

    Kuster-Toksöz and Biot-Gassmann models for estimating velocities of longitudinal and shear waves on the basis of well-logging data were analysed. P-wave and S-wave velocity models are crucial for interpretation of seismic data. Discussed models enable determination with quite good accuracy, in some cases higher than the acoustic full wavetrains interpretation. Because velocity strongly depends on lithology and saturation of pore space, the selection of parameters of rock matrix, hydrocarbons and formation waters has a strong effect on the quality of velocities estimation.

  16. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar vicinity. An estimation of the radial velocity jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Maldonado, J.; Montes, D.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Chromospheric activity produces both photometric and spectroscopic variations that can be mistaken as planets. Large spots crossing the stellar disc can produce planet-like periodic variations in the light curve of a star. These spots clearly affect the spectral line profiles, and their perturbations alter the line centroids creating a radial velocity jitter that might “contaminate” the variations induced by a planet. Precise chromospheric activity measurements are needed to estimate the activity-induced noise that should be expected for a given star. Aims: We obtain precise chromospheric activity measurements and projected rotational velocities for nearby (d ≤ 25 pc) cool (spectral types F to K) stars, to estimate their expected activity-related jitter. As a complementary objective, we attempt to obtain relationships between fluxes in different activity indicator lines, that permit a transformation of traditional activity indicators, i.e., Ca ii H & K lines, to others that hold noteworthy advantages. Methods: We used high resolution (~50 000) echelle optical spectra. Standard data reduction was performed using the IRAF echelle package. To determine the chromospheric emission of the stars in the sample, we used the spectral subtraction technique. We measured the equivalent widths of the chromospheric emission lines in the subtracted spectrum and transformed them into fluxes by applying empirical equivalent width and flux relationships. Rotational velocities were determined using the cross-correlation technique. To infer activity-related radial velocity (RV) jitter, we used empirical relationships between this jitter and the R'_HK index. Results: We measured chromospheric activity, as given by different indicators throughout the optical spectra, and projected rotational velocities for 371 nearby cool stars. We have built empirical relationships among the most important chromospheric emission lines. Finally, we used the measured chromospheric activity

  17. Estimation of velocity uncertainties from GPS time series: Examples from the analysis of the South African TrigNet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackl, M.; Malservisi, R.; Hugentobler, U.; Wonnacott, R.

    2011-11-01

    We present a method to derive velocity uncertainties from GPS position time series that are affected by time-correlated noise. This method is based on the Allan variance, which is widely used in the estimation of oscillator stability and requires neither spectral analysis nor maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The Allan variance of the rate (AVR) is calculated in the time domain and hence is not too sensitive to gaps in the time series. We derived analytical expressions of the AVR for different kinds of noises like power law noise, white noise, flicker noise, and random walk and found an expression for the variance produced by an annual signal. These functional relations form the basis of error models that have to be fitted to the AVR in order to estimate the velocity uncertainty. Finally, we applied the method to the South Africa GPS network TrigNet. Most time series show noise characteristics that can be modeled by a power law noise plus an annual signal. The method is computationally very cheap, and the results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by methods based on MLE.

  18. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kuc, Tae-Yong; Kim, Hyungjong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a) an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b) the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz condition of the nonlinear stiffness. In addition, in order to effectively compensate for the estimation error, the gain of the proposed observer is chosen from the ARE (algebraic Riccati equations) which depend on the Lipschitz constant. Comparative experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26729125

  19. Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

  20. Assessing the utility of satellite-based whitecap fraction to estimate sea spray production and CO2 transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelova, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    The utility of a satellite-based whitecap database for estimates of surface sea spray production and bubble-mediated gas transfer on a global scale is presented. Existing formulations of sea spray production and bubble-mediated CO2 transfer velocity involve whitecap fraction parametrization as a function of wind speed at 10 m reference height W(U 10) based on photographic measurements of whitecaps. Microwave radiometric measurements of whitecaps from satellites provide whitecap fraction data over the world oceans for all seasons. Parametrizations W(U 10) based on such radiometric data are thus applicable for a wide range of conditions and can account for influences secondary to the primary forcing factor, the wind speed. Radiometric satellite-based W(U 10) relationship was used as input to: (i) the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment Gas transfer (COAREG) algorithm to obtain CO2 transfer velocity and total CO2 flux; and (ii) the sea spray source function (SSSF) recommended by Andreas in 2002 to obtain fluxes of sea spray number and mass. The outputs of COAREG and SSSF obtained with satellite-based W(U 10) are compared with respective outputs obtained with the nominal W(U 10) relationship based on photographic data. Good comparisons of the gas and sea spray fluxes with direct measurements and previous estimates imply that the satellite- based whitecap database can be useful to obtain surface fluxes of particles and gases in regions and conditions difficult to access and sample in situ. Satellite and in situ estimates of surface sea spray production and bubble-mediated gas transfer thus complement each other: accurate in situ observations can constrain radiometric whitecap fraction and mass flux estimates, while satellite observations can provide global coverage of whitecap fraction and mass flux estimates.

  1. Alternative method for estimating the cross-sectional interpolation errors of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the quality of discharge measurements by uncertainty analysis is a challenge in the hydrometric community. Discharge measurements are the first step to produce hydrometric data which are used in many hydrological studies like design of hydraulic structures or calibration of hydrological models for flood forecasting and warning. Thus associated uncertainty has to be estimated carefully. The velocity-area method is a common approach for estimating river discharge. It consists in integrating depths and point velocities through the cross-section. Due to the limited number of point measurements, the quality of the measurement depends mainly on the sampling strategy. Different methods of uncertainty estimation are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q+ and IVE). The main uncertainty component, noted um, is often related to the cross-sectional interpolation errors. However the computation of this term according to these approaches does not evaluate both the sampling strategy and the complexity of the cross-section. The FLAURE method (FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation) includes a new methodology to estimate this term. It is based on the study of high-resolution stream-gaugings (i.e. reference stream-gaugings made with a high number of verticals). The high-resolution measurements are first subsampled by reducing the number of verticals to generate a sample of realistic stream-gaugings. A statistical analysis is performed to estimate the um component and then a sampling quality index is defined. For each reference stream-gauging, it leads to a curve of um component as a function of the sampling quality index. This set of curves is finally used to compute the um component of any routine stream-gauging. Curves are then selected according to the similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings. The similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings is evaluated thanks to the Nash criteria computed on lateral

  2. Shear wave velocity estimation of cover sediments by seismic array measurements (central Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Camelbeeck, Thierry; Van Camp, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Since 1938, the Royal Observatory of Belgium has first held community inquiries and then online 'Did You Feel It' inquiries to gain information on the distribution of felt events in Belgium. For small magnitude events, mostly a circular macroseismic distribution pattern related to the energy decay by increasing hypocentral distance has been reported. However, few moderate-magnitude earthquakes (ML > 4) have caused an elliptical distribution pattern with higher macroseismic intensities in a consistent E-W direction and stronger intensity decay in a N-S direction. The macroseismic map of the 2011 ML 4.3 earthquake at Goch (Lower Rhine Embayment, Dutch-German border) also showed this E-W oriented distribution. Remarkably, in contrast to the NE of Belgium where this event was barely felt at close epicentral distances, many macroseismic reports were submitted in central Belgium at larger epicentral distances. This peculiar intensity distribution illustrates the important influence of the increasing thickness of the sedimentary cover above the basement rocks of the Brabant Massif from south to north. We will discuss the variation of S-wave velocity with depth of the sedimentary cover. Seismic noise array measurements were performed at different strategic sites at which the thickness of the sedimentary cover systematically increases. From south to north, the chosen sites vary from simple one-unit-over-halfspace configurations, with a clayey alluvium or sandy deposits covering the basement rocks (thickness < 20 m), to multilayer configurations (thickness up to 100 m) with a more complex sedimentary column. Wireless array measurements are performed by conducting CMG6TD Güralp seismometers in a rectangular array network. Subsequent surface wave analysis is executed in GEOPSY by conventional fk- and SPAC analysis to generate dispersion curves that are inverted in Dinver into depth profiles. Eventually, the resulting velocity profiles will help to evaluate the influence of

  3. Simple model for estimating dry deposition velocity of ozone and its destruction in a polluted nocturnal boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Ho; Lai, Chin-Hsing; Wu, Yee-Lin; Chen, Ming-Jen

    2010-11-01

    Determining the destructions of both ozone and odd oxygen, O x, in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is important to evaluate the regional ozone budget and overnight ozone accumulation. This work develops a simple method to determine the dry deposition velocity of ozone and its destruction at a polluted nocturnal boundary layer. The destruction of O x can also be determined simultaneously. The method is based on O 3 and NO 2 profiles and their surface measurements. Linkages between the dry deposition velocities of O 3 and NO 2 and between the dry deposition loss of O x and its chemical loss are constructed and used. Field measurements are made at an agricultural site to demonstrate the application of the model. The model estimated nocturnal O 3 dry deposition velocities from 0.13 to 0.19 cm s -1, very close to those previously obtained for similar land types. Additionally, dry deposition and chemical reactions account for 60 and 40% of the overall nocturnal ozone loss, respectively; ozone dry deposition accounts for 50% of the overall nocturnal loss of O x, dry deposition of NO 2 accounts for another 20%, and chemical reactions account for the remaining 30%. The proposed method enables the use of measurements made in typical ozone field studies to evaluate various nocturnal destructions of O 3 and O x in a polluted environment.

  4. Refractive index effects on the scatter volume location and Doppler velocity estimates of ionospheric HF backscatter echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, P. V.; St-Maurice, J.-P.; Waters, C. L.; Gillies, R. G.; Koustov, A. V.

    2009-11-01

    Ionospheric E×B plasma drift velocities derived from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Doppler data exhibit systematically smaller (by 20-30%) magnitudes than those measured by the Defence Meteorological Satellites Program (DMSP) satellites. A part of the disagreement was previously attributed to the change in the E/B ratio due to the altitude difference between the satellite orbit and the location of the effective scatter volume for the radar signals. Another important factor arises from the free-space propagation assumption used in converting the measured Doppler frequency shift into the line-of-sight velocity. In this work, we have applied numerical ray-tracing to identify the location of the effective scattering volume of the ionosphere and to estimate the ionospheric refractive index. The simulations show that the major contribution to the radar echoes should be provided by the Pedersen and/or escaping rays that are scattered in the vicinity of the F-layer maximum. This conclusion is supported by a statistical analysis of the experimental elevation angle data, which have a signature consistent with scattering from the F-region peak. A detailed analysis of the simulations has allowed us to propose a simple velocity correction procedure, which we have successfully tested against the SuperDARN/DMSP comparison data set.

  5. Asymmetry of Drosophila ON and OFF motion detectors enhances real-world velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Ammer, Georg; Meier, Matthias; Serbe, Etienne; Bahl, Armin; Borst, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The reliable estimation of motion across varied surroundings represents a survival-critical task for sighted animals. How neural circuits have adapted to the particular demands of natural environments, however, is not well understood. We explored this question in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, as in many mammalian retinas, motion is computed in parallel streams for brightness increments (ON) and decrements (OFF). When genetically isolated, ON and OFF pathways proved equally capable of accurately matching walking responses to realistic motion. To our surprise, detailed characterization of their functional tuning properties through in vivo calcium imaging and electrophysiology revealed stark differences in temporal tuning between ON and OFF channels. We trained an in silico motion estimation model on natural scenes and discovered that our optimized detector exhibited differences similar to those of the biological system. Thus, functional ON-OFF asymmetries in fly visual circuitry may reflect ON-OFF asymmetries in natural environments. PMID:26928063

  6. Application of pre-stack reverse time migration based on FWI velocity estimation to ground penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Lei, Linlin; Fu, Lei; Wu, Junjun

    2014-08-01

    Reverse-time migration (RTM) is used for subsurface imaging to handle complex velocity models including steeply dipping interfaces and dramatic lateral variations and promises better imaging results compared to traditional migration method such as Kirchhoff migration algorithm. RTM has been increasingly used in seismic surveys for hydrocarbon resource explorations. Based on the similarity of kinematics and dynamics between electromagnetic wave and elastic wave, we develop pre-stack RTM method and apply it to process ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) numerical method is used to simulate the electromagnetic wave propagation including forward and backward extrapolations, the cross-correlation imaging condition is used to obtain the final image. In order to provide a velocity model with relatively higher accuracy as the initial velocity model for RTM, we apply a full waveform inversion (FWI) in time domain to estimate the subsurface velocity structure based on reflection radar data. For testing the effectiveness of the algorithm, we have constructed a complex geological model, common-offset radar data and common-shot profile (CSP) radar reflection data are synthesized. All data are migrated with traditional Kirchhoff migration method and pre-stack RTM method separately, the migration results from pre-stack RTM show better coincidence with the true model. Furthermore, we have performed a physical experiment in a sandbox where a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) box is buried in the sand, the obtained common-offset radar data and common-shot radar data are migrated by using Kirchhoff migration method and pre-stack RTM algorithm separately, the pre-stack RTM result shows that RTM algorithm could get better imaging results.

  7. Estimation of elastic moduli in a compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Chen, C.

    2006-01-01

    A Gibson half-space model (a non-layered Earth model) has the shear modulus varying linearly with depth in an inhomogeneous elastic half-space. In a half-space of sedimentary granular soil under a geostatic state of initial stress, the density and the Poisson's ratio do not vary considerably with depth. In such an Earth body, the dynamic shear modulus is the parameter that mainly affects the dispersion of propagating waves. We have estimated shear-wave velocities in the compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. An analytical dispersion law of Rayleigh-type waves in a compressible Gibson half-space is given in an algebraic form, which makes our inversion process extremely simple and fast. The convergence of the weighted damping solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Calculation efficiency is achieved by reconstructing a weighted damping solution using singular value decomposition techniques. The main advantage of this algorithm is that only three parameters define the compressible Gibson half-space model. Theoretically, to determine the model by the inversion, only three Rayleigh-wave phase velocities at different frequencies are required. This is useful in practice where Rayleigh-wave energy is only developed in a limited frequency range or at certain frequencies as data acquired at manmade structures such as dams and levees. Two real examples are presented and verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements. The results of these real examples are also compared with the results of the layered-Earth model. ?? Springer 2006.

  8. Chemical evolution and estimated flow velocity of water in the Trinity Aquifer, south-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Lee, Roger W.; Busby, John F.

    1997-01-01

    exchange between solid and aqueous phases. Lower permeable zone processes indicate sodium chloride dissolution, dedolomitization, and cation exchange. Ground-water-flow velocities determined from adjusted carbon-14 ages, calculated using NETPATH, for selected flowpaths in the middle and lower permeable zones were about 1.7 feet per year and less than about 4.4 feet per year, respectively.

  9. Integration of permanent and epoch GPS measurements for estimation of regional intraplate velocity field for Sudety Mts. and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplon, Jan; Kontny, Bernard; Grzempowski, Piotr; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Balek, Jan; Holesovsky, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic network of the Sudety Mts. (GEOSUD) was established in 1996 in Poland. Simultaneously on the Czech side of the mountains the geodynamic network EAST SUDETEN was built in 1997 and in 2001 it was extended for sites towards west (the WEST SUDETEN network). Annual GPS campaign measurements were performed on all networks for two days. Satellite observations gathered by the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG), Wroclaw, and by the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics (IRSM), Prague, were processed each year using the Bernese GPS Software, versions of 4.0, 4.2 and 5.0. During these processing different time intervals of observations were used with different models for Earth's rotation, satellite ephemeris, pole motions, ocean loadings and antennas calibration parameters. This paper delivers the uniform reprocessing strategy of all sessions realized in 1997-2012 period based on Bernese GPS Software v. 5.0 supported by IGS Final ephemeris and Earth's rotation parameters, absolute antenna phase center models and L5/L3 ambiguity resolution strategy. Two different data reprocessings had been made. The first processing was fitted into datum using minimum coordinate constraining of weekly solutions of the EPN network in the reference frame valid for the date of individual measurements. The second one was fitted into IGS05 reference frame based on the EPN reprocessed weekly solutions (REPRO1). Both solutions put together all campaign measurements and newly calculated velocity vectors for sites of GEOSUD, EAST and WEST SUDETEN networks are presented and compared. Since 2008 the observations from permanent GPS stations of ASG-EUPOS network located in SW Poland were included into processing. These sites with EPN permanent stations (BOR1, GOPE, GRAZ, POTS, WROC, WTZR) were used to establish the reference frame for the velocity estimation. Paper presents also methodology of intraplate velocity estimation and quality assessment of new reprocessing with respect

  10. Cluster Observations for Combined X-Ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Estimates of Peculiar Velocities and Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the peculiar velocities of galaxy clusters with respect to the Hubble flow allow the determination of the gravitational field from all matter in the universe, not just the visible component. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect (the inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by the hot gas in clusters of galaxies) allows these velocities to be measured without the use of empirical distance indicators. Additionally, because the magnitude of the SZ effect is independent of redshift, the technique can be used to measure velocities out to the epoch of cluster formation. The SZ technique requires a determination of the temperature of the hot cluster gas from X-ray observations, and measurements of the SZ effect at millimeter wavelengths to separate the contribution from the thermal motions within the gas from that of the cluster peculiax velocity. We have constructed a bolometric receiver, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Infrared Experiment, specifically to make measurements of the SZ effect at millimeter wavelengths in order to apply the SZ technique to peculiar velocity measurements. This receiver has already been used to set limits to the peculiar velocities of two galaxy clusters at z approx. 0.2. As a test of the SZ technique, the double cluster pair Abell 222 and 223 was selected for observation. Measurements of the redshifts of the two components suggest that, if the clusters are gravitationally bound, they should exhibit a relative velocity of 10OO km/ s, well above the expected precision of 200 km/ s (set by astrophysical confusion) that is expected from the SZ method. The temperature can be measured from ASCA data which we obtained for this cluster pair. However, in order to ensure that the temperature estimate from the ASCA data was not dominated by cooling flows within the cluster, we requested ROSAT HRI observations of this cluster pair. Analysis of the X-ray properties of the cluster pair is continuing by combining the ROSAT

  11. A statistical analysis of systematic errors in temperature and ram velocity estimates from satellite-borne retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Klenzing, J. H.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R.

    2009-05-15

    The use of biased grids as energy filters for charged particles is common in satellite-borne instruments such as a planar retarding potential analyzer (RPA). Planar RPAs are currently flown on missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program to obtain estimates of geophysical parameters including ion velocity and temperature. It has been shown previously that the use of biased grids in such instruments creates a nonuniform potential in the grid plane, which leads to inherent errors in the inferred parameters. A simulation of ion interactions with various configurations of biased grids has been developed using a commercial finite-element analysis software package. Using a statistical approach, the simulation calculates collected flux from Maxwellian ion distributions with three-dimensional drift relative to the instrument. Perturbations in the performance of flight instrumentation relative to expectations from the idealized RPA flux equation are discussed. Both single grid and dual-grid systems are modeled to investigate design considerations. Relative errors in the inferred parameters for each geometry are characterized as functions of ion temperature and drift velocity.

  12. Use of 'velocity projection' to estimate the variation of sea-surface height from HF Doppler radar current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, G. O.; Shen, C. Y.; Evans, T. E.; Lindemann, G. J.; Hallock, Z. R.; Shay, L. K.

    2004-02-01

    The technique of 'velocity projection' (J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 6973) is used to estimate the sea-surface height field and its change over time from measurements of surface velocity made using a shore-based HF Doppler radar over a 30×30-km region of the continental shelf located near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay (USA). Projected current profiles are compared with measured currents from an array of acoustic Doppler current profilers, and the consistency and sensitivity of the projections to model assumptions are also examined. Using projected values of the local surface slope, a model sea-surface η( x, y) is least-squares fit over the study region at each measurement time. The error associated with these fits provides an internal check on the validity of the projection results. The slope of the model sea-surface shows a set-up toward the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay during downwelling-favorable winds and a counterclockwise rotation over the tidal cycle that is consistent with linear, shallow-water dynamics. A time series of sea-level difference extracted from the η maps shows a dominant M 2 tidal signal that compares well with measurements of bottom pressure made at two moorings. With proper attention to limits of applicability, such projection-based sea-surface slope fields (as well as other projection results) may be useful in diagnostic calculations or as nowcasts for use with prognostic models.

  13. Elliptical galaxies with rapidly decreasing velocity dispersion profiles: NMAGIC models and dark halo parameter estimates for NGC 4494

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Lucia; Gerhard, Ortwin; Coccato, Lodovico; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Arnaboldi, Magda

    2013-06-01

    NGC 4494 is one of several intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies inferred to have an unusually diffuse dark matter halo. We use the χ2-made-to-measure particle code NMAGIC to construct axisymmetric models of NGC 4494 from photometric and various kinematic data. The extended kinematics include light spectra in multiple slitlets out to 3.5Re, and hundreds of planetary nebula velocities out to ≃7Re, thus allowing us to probe the dark matter content and orbital structure in the halo. We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate confidence boundaries for the halo parameters, given our data and modelling set-up. We find that the true potential of the dark matter halo is recovered within ΔG (merit function) ≲ 26 (Δχ2 ≲ 59) at the 70 per cent confidence level (CL), and within ΔG ≲ 32 (Δχ2 ≲ 70) at the 90 per cent CL. These numbers are much larger than the usually assumed Δχ2 = 2.3 (4.6) for the 70 per cent (90 per cent) CL for two free parameters, perhaps case dependent, but calling into question the general validity of the standard assumptions used for halo and black hole mass determinations. The best-fitting models for NGC 4494 have a dark matter fraction of about 0.6 ± 0.1 at 5Re (70 per cent CL) and are embedded in a dark matter halo with circular velocity ˜200 km s-1. The total circular velocity curve (CVC) is approximately flat at vc = 220 km s-1 outside ˜0.5Re. The orbital anisotropy of the stars is moderately radial. These results are independent of the assumed inclination of the galaxy, and edge-on models are preferred. Comparing with the haloes of NGC 3379 and NGC 4697, whose velocity dispersion profiles also decrease rapidly from the centre outwards, the outer CVCs and dark matter haloes are quite similar. NGC 4494 shows a particularly high dark matter fraction inside ˜ 3Re, and a strong concentration of baryons in the centre.

  14. A Simplified Elastic Stiffness Estimation of Unidirectional Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Coupon Using the In-Plane Velocity Anisotropy of Lamb Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Takemoto, Mikio

    1998-05-01

    We propose a simplified method for estimating thefive elastic stiffnesses of a unidirectionalcarbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (UD-CFRP) coupon from the velocity anisotropy of laser-excited Lamb waves. This method utilizes the in-plane orientation dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocities which are estimated from the velocity dispersions of thezero-th-order antisymmetric Lamb (A0-Lamb) wave. We estimated the five elastic stiffnesses of UD-CFRP couponsby utilizing the simplex-assisted inverse scheme, andcompared the obtained values with those determined by the strain gauge method. The proposed method was found to beeffective for estimating the stiffnesses of anisotropicmaterials. However, the inverse scheme must be modifiedto improve the accuracy of measurement of somestiffnesses.

  15. Toward Improved Methods of Estimating Attenuation, Phase and Group velocity of surface waves observed on Shallow Seismic Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, M. S.; Holschneider, M.; Kulesh, M.; Scherbaum, F.; Ohrnberger, M.; Lück, E.

    2004-05-01

    This contribution is concerned with the estimate of attenuation and dispersion characteristics of surface waves observed on a shallow seismic record. The analysis is based on a initial parameterization of the phase and attenuation functions which are then estimated by minimizing a properly defined merit function. To minimize the effect of random noise on the estimates of dispersion and attenuation we use cross-correlations (in Fourier domain) of preselected traces from some region of interest along the survey line. These cross-correlations are then expressed in terms of the parameterized attenuation and phase functions and the auto-correlation of the so-called source trace or reference trace. Cross-corelation that enter the optimization are selected so as to provide an average estimate of both the attenuation function and the phase (group) velocity of the area under investigation. The advantage of the method over the standard two stations method using Fourier technique is that uncertainties related to the phase unwrapping and the estimate of the number of 2π cycle skip in the phase phase are eliminated. However when mutliple modes arrival are observed, its become merely impossible to obtain reliable estimate the dipsersion curves for the different modes using optimization method alone. To circumvent this limitations we using the presented approach in conjunction with the wavelet propagation operator (Kulesh et al., 2003) which allows the application of band pass filtering in (ω -t) domain, to select a particular mode for the minimization. Also by expressing the cost function in the wavelet domain the optimization can be performed either with respect to the phase, the modulus of the transform or a combination of both. This flexibility in the design of the cost function provides an additional mean of constraining the optimization results. Results from the application of this dispersion and attenuation analysis method are shown for both synthetic and real 2D shallow

  16. Analysis and algorithms for a regularized Cauchy problem arising from a non-linear elliptic PDE for seismic velocity estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, M.K.; Fomel, S.B.; Sethian, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we derive and study a nonlinear elliptic PDE coming from the problem of estimation of sound speed inside the Earth. The physical setting of the PDE allows us to pose only a Cauchy problem, and hence is ill-posed. However we are still able to solve it numerically on a long enough time interval to be of practical use. We used two approaches. The first approach is a finite difference time-marching numerical scheme inspired by the Lax-Friedrichs method. The key features of this scheme is the Lax-Friedrichs averaging and the wide stencil in space. The second approach is a spectral Chebyshev method with truncated series. We show that our schemes work because of (1) the special input corresponding to a positive finite seismic velocity, (2) special initial conditions corresponding to the image rays, (3) the fact that our finite-difference scheme contains small error terms which damp the high harmonics; truncation of the Chebyshev series, and (4) the need to compute the solution only for a short interval of time. We test our numerical scheme on a collection of analytic examples and demonstrate a dramatic improvement in accuracy in the estimation of the sound speed inside the Earth in comparison with the conventional Dix inversion. Our test on the Marmousi example confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Estimating sea-ice coverage, draft, and velocity in Marguerite Bay (Antarctica) using a subsurface moored upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, Jason; Visbeck, Martin; Beardsley, Robert C.; Brechner Owens, W.

    2008-02-01

    A technique for the analysis of data from a subsurface moored upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to determine ice coverage, draft and velocity is presented and applied to data collected in Marguerite Bay on the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf. This method provides sea-ice information when no dedicated upward-looking sonar (ULS) data are available. Ice detection is accomplished using windowed variances of ADCP vertical velocity, vertical error velocity, and surface horizontal speed. ADCP signal correlation and backscatter intensity were poor indicators of the presence of ice at this site. Ice draft is estimated using a combination of ADCP backscatter data, atmospheric and oceanic pressure data, and information about the thermal stratification. This estimate requires corrections to the ADCP-derived range for instrument tilt and sound speed profile. Uncertainties of ±0.20 m during midwinter and ±0.40 m when the base of the surface mixed layer is above the ADCP for ice draft are estimated based on: (a) a Monte Carlo simulation, (b) uncertainty in the sound speed correction, and (c) performance of the zero-draft estimate during times of known open water. Ice velocity is taken as the ADCP horizontal velocity in the depth bin specified by the range estimate.

  18. Comparison of estimates of uncertainty of discharge at US geological survey index-velocity gages on the Chicago sanitary and ship canal, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Over, T.M.; Duncker, J.J.; Gonzalez-Castro, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of uncertainty of discharge at time scales from 5 minutes to 1 year were obtained for two index-velocity gages on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), Ill., instrumented with acoustic velocity meters (AVMs). The velocity measurements obtained from the AVMs are corrected to a mean channel velocity by use of an index velocity rating (IVR). The IVR is a regression-derived relation between the AVM velocity estimates and those obtained using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The uncertainty estimation method is based on the first-order variance method, but the AVM velocity error is estimated from an empirical perspective, using the statistics of the IVR regression. Some uncertainty exists regarding whether to include the standard error of the IVR regression (????2) in the discharge uncertainty. At the 5-minute time scale when ?? ??2 is included, it has the dominant contribution to the discharge uncertainty, and the discharge uncertainty (expressed as the standard deviation of the discharge estimate) is about 5 m3/s at one gage and 8 m3/s at the other, independent of discharge. When ????2 is not included, the discharge uncertainty at the 5-minute time scale is much smaller (about 0.5 m3/s) and depends more strongly on discharge. For time scales one day or greater and when ????2 is not included, the uncertainty of the IVR parameters dominates the discharge uncertainty. The value of the discharge uncertainty is about 0.4 m3/s for one gage and 0.5 m3/s for the other gage at long time scales.

  19. Simultaneous estimation of water saturation and porosity in the vadose zone by common parameterization of seismic p-wave and GPR velocities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The seismic p-wave velocity is a function of the bulk and shear moduli, and density. The shear modulus is approximately independent of saturation. The bulk modulus depends on porosity and saturation; the dependence on saturation is weak at low saturations but becomes strong as saturation approaches 1. The net effect is that at low water saturation both p- and s- velocities tend to decrease with increasing saturation due to the increase in bulk density. The p-wave velocity increases sharply at high saturations to the fully saturated value. Ground-penetrating radar velocity depends primarily bulk water content and is nearly independent of porosity at water content greater than about 5%. Consequently, in many cases radar velocity alone can be used to estimate bulk water content to within a few percent. However, this provides no estimate of porosity. A primary conclusion of this petrophysical summary is that while both seismic and radar velocities are sensitive to saturation and porosity, neither can provide a unique solution for these parameters in partially saturated media. A number of petrophysical relationships are commonly utilized that formulate seismic and GPR velocities with saturation and porosity as primary input parameters. With minimal added information that may be readily obtained (specifically shear modulus and grain matrix dielectric permittivity), we can formulate a joint petrophysical model that provides a unique solution for porosity and water saturation given coincident measurements of seismic p-wave and GPR velocities. To test the ability of this approach to estimate saturation and porosity from coincident seismic and GPR velocity data, I conducted an experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS). I acquired coincident multi-offset seismic and 500 MHz GPR data along a 60 m profile over an alluvial sand and gravel aquifer. The water table varied from 1.5 m to 2 m depth below the surface. I used seismic refraction tomography to

  20. SOAP 2.0: A Tool to Estimate the Photometric and Radial Velocity Variations Induced by Stellar Spots and Plages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents SOAP 2.0, a new version of the Spot Oscillation And Planet (SOAP) code that estimates in a simple way the photometric and radial velocity (RV) variations induced by active regions. The inhibition of the convective blueshift (CB) inside active regions is considered, as well as the limb brightening effect of plages, a quadratic limb darkening law, and a realistic spot and plage contrast ratio. SOAP 2.0 shows that the activity-induced variation of plages is dominated by the inhibition of the CB effect. For spots, this effect becomes significant only for slow rotators. In addition, in the case of a major active region dominating the activity-induced signal, the ratio between the FWHM and the RV peak-to-peak amplitudes of the cross correlation function can be used to infer the type of active region responsible for the signal for stars with v sin i <=8 km s-1. A ratio smaller than three implies a spot, while a larger ratio implies a plage. Using the observation of HD 189733, we show that SOAP 2.0 manages to reproduce the activity variation as well as previous simulations when a spot is dominating the activity-induced variation. In addition, SOAP 2.0 also reproduces the activity variation induced by a plage on the slowly rotating star α Cen B, which is not possible using previous simulations. Following these results, SOAP 2.0 can be used to estimate the signal induced by spots and plages, but also to correct for it when a major active region is dominating the RV variation. . The work in this paper is based on observations made with the MOST satellite, the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile), and the SOPHIE instrument at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France).

  1. SOAP 2.0: a tool to estimate the photometric and radial velocity variations induced by stellar spots and plages

    SciTech Connect

    Dumusque, X.; Boisse, I.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents SOAP 2.0, a new version of the Spot Oscillation And Planet (SOAP) code that estimates in a simple way the photometric and radial velocity (RV) variations induced by active regions. The inhibition of the convective blueshift (CB) inside active regions is considered, as well as the limb brightening effect of plages, a quadratic limb darkening law, and a realistic spot and plage contrast ratio. SOAP 2.0 shows that the activity-induced variation of plages is dominated by the inhibition of the CB effect. For spots, this effect becomes significant only for slow rotators. In addition, in the case of a major active region dominating the activity-induced signal, the ratio between the FWHM and the RV peak-to-peak amplitudes of the cross correlation function can be used to infer the type of active region responsible for the signal for stars with v sin i ≤8 km s{sup –1}. A ratio smaller than three implies a spot, while a larger ratio implies a plage. Using the observation of HD 189733, we show that SOAP 2.0 manages to reproduce the activity variation as well as previous simulations when a spot is dominating the activity-induced variation. In addition, SOAP 2.0 also reproduces the activity variation induced by a plage on the slowly rotating star α Cen B, which is not possible using previous simulations. Following these results, SOAP 2.0 can be used to estimate the signal induced by spots and plages, but also to correct for it when a major active region is dominating the RV variation.

  2. Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Rodney R.

    1985-01-01

    Supports, affinity ligands, immobilization, elution methods, and a number of applications are among the topics considered in this discussion of affinity chromatography. An outline of the basic principles of affinity chromatography is included. (JN)

  3. Comparison of groundwater transit velocity estimates from flux theory and water table recession based approaches for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Rasiah, Velu; Armour, John David

    2013-02-15

    Reliable information in transit time (TT) derived from transit velocity (TV) for rain or irrigation water to mix with groundwater (GW) and the subsequent discharge to surface water bodies (SWB) is essential to address the issues associated with the transport of nutrients, particularly nitrate, from GW to SWB. The objectives of this study are to (i) compare the TV estimates obtained using flux theory-based (FT) approach with the water table rise/recession (WT) rate approach and (ii) explore the impact of the differences on solute transport from GW to SWB. The results from a study conducted during two rainy seasons in the northeast humid tropics of Queensland, Australia, showed the TV varied in space and over time and the variations depended on the estimation procedures. The lateral TV computed using the WT approach ranged from 1.00 × 10(-3) to 2.82 × 10(-1) m/d with a mean of 6.18 × 10(-2) m/d compared with 2.90 × 10(-4) to 5.15 × 10(-2) m/d for FT with a mean of 2.63 × 10(-2) m/d. The vertical TV ranged from 2.00 × 10(-3) to 6.02 × 10(-1) m/d with a mean of 1.28 × 10(-1) m/d for the WT compared with 6.76 × 10(-3)-1.78 m/d for the FT with a mean of 2.73 × 10(-1) m/d. These differences are attributed to the role played by different flow pathways. The bypass flow pathway played a role only in WT but not in FT. Approximately 86-95% of the variability in lateral solute transport was accounted for by the lateral TV and the total recession between two consecutive major rainfall events. A comparison of TT from FT and WT approaches indicated the laterally transported nitrate from the GW to the nearby creek was relatively 'new', implying the opportunity for accumulation and to undergo biochemical reactions in GW was low. The results indicated the WT approach produced more reliable TT estimates than FT in the presence of bypass flow pathways. PMID:23287381

  4. Estimation of shallow S-wave velocity structure and site response characteristics by microtremor array measurements in Tekirdag region, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Citak, Seckin; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Hatayama, Ken

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the S-wave velocity structure of shallow soils using microtremors in order to estimate site responses in Tekirdag and surrounding areas (NW Turkey). We collected microtremor array data at 44 sites in Tekirdag, Marmara Ereglisi, Corlu, and Muratlı. The phase velocities of Rayleigh waves were estimated from the microtremor data using a Spatial Autocorrelation method. Then, we applied a hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm to obtain a 1D S-wave velocity structure at each site. Comparison between the horizontal-to-vertical ratio of microtremors and computed ellipticities of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves showed good agreement with validation models. The depth of the engineering bedrock changed from 20 to 50 m in the Tekirdag city center and along the coastline with a velocity range of 700-930 m/s, and it ranged between 10 and 65 m in Marmara Ereglisi. The average S-wave velocity of the engineering bedrock was 780 m/s in the region. We obtained average S-wave velocities in the upper 30 m to compare site amplifications. Empirical relationships between the AVs30, the site amplifications, and also average topographic slopes were established for use in future site effects microzonation studies in the region.

  5. Estimation of Relative Amplification Effect by Shear Wave Velocity (Vs30): A Case Study from Eskisehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Sunay; Tün, Muammer; Güney, Yücel; Ecevitoǧlu, Berkan

    2014-05-01

    Turkey, which is one of the world's most active earthquake zones located within the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. The major part of the territory of the country is at risk of earthquakes that causes damage and loss of life. The important indication of this danger is the past earthquakes resulted with losses. Turkey has experienced many destructive earthquakes in the last 15 years. In 1999 Gölcük Earthquake with the magnitude of 7.4, Düzce Earthquake with the magnitude of 7.2 and in 2011 Van Earthquake with the magnitude of 7.2-Van resulted with thousands of loss of life and damage to property as billions of thousand liras. It is quite important to doing microzonation works in these areas and estimation of behaviors during the earthquake in order to prevent occurring damages in settlements and areas will be settle. Soil amplification comes from the most basic parameter used in the microzonation works. This study was made in Eskisehir urban area which is one of the most urbanized and industrialized cities of Turkey in recent years. This study aim to amplification that may occur due to the earthquake to effects of Eskisehir region. It was used that seismic refraction data in 23 different location and 96 borehole data in settlement. Local soil properties variation upon amplification influence was investigated depending on SPT-N values and wave velocity data from seismic refraction. Average shear wave velocities for each type of surface to 30 m were found that each borehole point by equations İyisan (1996), and Jafari et al. (1997) using the resulting values. In addition, relative amplifications has been calculated by Midorikawa (1987) and Borcherdt et al's (1991) approaches. Then, these parameters have been mapped spatial changes using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) techniques. Porsuk river and its surroundings might have caused a high soil amplification result due to the low speed and soft soil when analyze the results of maps. In addition, it is thought

  6. Interferometric Estimation of theThree-Dimensional Ice-Flow Velocity Vector Using Ascending and Descending Passes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, I.; Kwok, R.; Fahnestock, M.

    1996-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry provides an importatn new tool for determining ice-flow velocity. Interferometric measurements made from a single track direction are sensitive only to a single component of the three-dimensional velocity vector. Observations from along thre different track directions would allow the full velocity vector to be determined. A north/south-looking SAR could provide these observations over large portions of the globe but not over large areas of the polar ice sheets. We develop and demonstrate a technique that allows the full three-component velocity vector to be determined from data acquired along two track directions (ascending and descending) under a surface-parallel flow assumption.

  7. Teleseismic receiver function analysis in Tierra del Fuego Island: an estimation of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs velocity ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffoni, C.; Sabbione, N. C.; Schimmel, M.; Rosa, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    Tierra del Fuego Island (TdF) is situated in the southern part of South America, where the transform tectonic boundary between the Scotia and South America plates divides the island into two continental blocks. This boundary is represented by a mainly strike-slip lineament known as Magallanes-Fagnano fault system that runs from the western part of the north Scotia ridge to the Chile trench south of 50° S. This fault system is composed of many splays and diverse subparallel faults that overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and are the responsible for the complex tectonic setting that has TdF. Only a few studies have been carried out to constrain the crustal structure and Moho depth in TdF. We present the preliminary estimations on Moho depth and Vp/Vs velocity ratio in TdF Argentinian Island, from teleseismic receiver function analysis with data recorded at five permanent seismic stations. We analyzed data and selected among 40 and 120 events for each seismic station, according to data availability and quality. Earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.5 mb and epicentral distances between 30° and 90° were selected. We used Seismic Analysis Code software to pre-process the seismograms. After removing the mean and trend, the data were band-pass filtered using different ranges of frequencies: 0.5-2Hz, 0.08-2Hz and 0.02-1Hz. We applied an iterative deconvolution technique in order to isolate the P-to-S converted waves and obtain the Receiver Functions (RFs). A Gaussian factor of a= 2.5 ( ~1Hz) was selected to reduce the noise and improve the signal coherence in the RFs. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio were estimated using the H-K stacking method. Since our RFs were not as clear as those typically obtained for simple tectonic settings, we performed different resample techniques to asses the robustness of our results. RFs from clustered events were stacked to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. For this purpose we divided the events into three clusters according event

  8. Estimated Moho Temperature from Observed Heat Flow and Comparison with P-Wave Velocity in the East Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W. Y.; Wood, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    We have estimated temperatures at the Moho surface by employing a published empirical relationship of Perry et al's work (JGR, doi:10.1029/2005JB003921) to the observed heat flow measurements in the East Sea (Sea of Japan), Korea. We assumed in our computation that the parameter values are all the same although the Perry et al's relationship between crustal thickness and heat flows to compute Moho temperature was derived for the Canadian Shield. For the heat flow data, we used the published global heat flow data (http://www.heatflow.und.edu) augmented with some recent heat flow measurements from Korea, and the LLN3_G3Dv3 for P-wave tomography model (JGR, doi:10.1029/2012JB009525). Preliminary results do not show a significant correlation between the computed Moho temperature and the P-wave velocity model perhaps due to uncertainty in the parameter values used in the computation as well as the empirical relation. An empirical relationship between the observed heat flow and the Moho temperature for the Canadian shield might be different for a backarec basin area like the East Sea, Korea. However, we noted that there exists a moderate negative correlation between the total crustal thickness and heat flow - less heat flows with increasing crustal thickness with a relation of Heat_Flow (mW/m2) = 205 - 18.3 * Crustal_Thickness (km). The modeled Moho temperature displays a trend of higher values (900o K -1400o K) from Japan toward the beneath of Yamato Basin and Rise in the NW direction, and beneath the Ulleung Basin area. Another higher Moho temperature (>1000o K) contour band is observed in the area north of Japan Basin, approximately centered along the 139.5o E.

  9. An extended velocity projection method for estimating the subsurface current and density structure for coastal plume regions: An application to the Chesapeake Bay outflow plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Shen, Colin Y.; Marmorino, George O.; Mied, Richard P.; Lindemann, Gloria J.

    2005-07-01

    We describe a method for estimating subsurface current and density structure in a coastal region dominated by a plume from a set of surface observations of velocity and density. A detailed application of the method is shown via a case study of the Chesapeake Bay in November 1997. The proposed technique relies on developing a 'plume feature model' from theoretical models and past synoptic observational data sets, and incorporating the feature model into the previously developed velocity projection method [J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 6973] to obtain subsurface current structure within the Ekman layer depth. The primary feature model parameters include the location and extent of the frontal boundary, a simplified gravity current structure, and the spatial gradient of salinity across the frontal head of the plume, which are inferred from remote sensing or minimal strategic in situ observations. For the Chesapeake Bay case study, we show how the proposed method, referred to as 'extended velocity projection', can produce estimates of plume current structure consistent with available ADCP profiles. We assess the sensitivity of the results to feature model parameters, and identify the resolution of spatial salinity gradient as being particularly important. The difference between the density-stratified estimate and the ADCP data can be used to calibrate and improve the zero-order dynamic feature model parameters. This synergistic approach with the extended velocity projection method should be applicable to other coastal plumes and possibly other shallow water features.

  10. Estimation of seismic wave velocity at seafloor surface and sound source localization based on transmitted wave observation with an ocean bottom seismometer offshore of Kamaishi, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Ryoichi

    2016-07-01

    An in situ method of estimating the seismic wave velocity at the seafloor surface by observing the particle motion of a wave transmitted into the sediment is presented; this method uses a sound source whose location is known. Conversely, a sound source localization method using the obtained seismic velocities and involving particle motion observation is also presented. Although this method is applicable only when the sound source exists within the critical incidence angle range, it is expected to contribute to the tracing of vocalizing baleen whales, which are unknown around Japanese waters.

  11. Simultaneous estimation of cortical bone thickness and acoustic wave velocity using a multivariable optimization approach: Bone phantom and in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tasinkevych, Yuriy; Podhajecki, Jerzy; Falińska, Katarzyna; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a method that allows the thickness of a compact bone layer and longitudinal wave velocity in the bone to be determined simultaneously with the use of reflected waves, with particular emphasis on the case of layers when the propagation time through the layer is shorter than the time duration of the interrogating pulse. The proposed method estimates simultaneously the thickness of the cortical bone layer and acoustic wave velocity by fitting the temporal spectrum of the simulated reflected wave to the spectrum of the reflected wave measured experimentally. For the purpose of echo-simulations the model of "soft tissue - compact bone layer - cancellous bone" was developed. Next, the cost function was defined as the least square error between the measured and simulated temporal spectra. Minimization of the cost function allowed us to determine the values of the parameters of the cortical bone layer which best fitted the measurements. To solve the optimization problem a simulated annealing algorithm was used. The method was tested using acoustic data obtained at the frequency of 0.6 MHz and 1 MHz respectively for a custom designed bone mimicking phantom and a calf femur. For the cortical shell of the calf femur whose thickness varies from 2.1 mm to 2.4 mm and velocity of 2910 m/s, the relative errors of the thickness estimation ranged from 0.4% to 5.5%. The corresponding error of the acoustic wave velocity estimation in the layer was 3.1%. In the case of artificial bone the thickness of the cortical layer was equal to 1.05 and 1.2 mm and acoustic wave velocity was 2900 m/s. These parameters were determined with the errors ranging from 1.9% to 10.8% and from 3.9% to 4.5% respectively. PMID:26522955

  12. Estimation of two-dimensional intraventricular velocity and pressure maps by digital processing conventional color-Doppler sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Tanne, David; Cortina, Cristina; Yotti, Raquel; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2008-11-01

    Clinical echocardiographic quantification of blood flow in the left ventricle is limited because Doppler methods only provide one velocity component. We developed a new technique to obtain two-dimensional flow maps from conventional transthoracic echocardiographic acquisitions. Velocity and pressure maps were calculated from color-Doppler velocity (apical long-axis view) by solving the continuity and Euler equations under the assumptions of zero transverse fluxes of mass and momentum. This technique is fast, clinically-compliant and does not require any specific training. Particle image velocimetry experiments performed in an atrioventricular duplicator showed that the circulation and size of the diastolic vortex was quantified accurately. Micromanometer measurements in pigs showed that apex-base pressure differences extracted from two-dimensional maps qualitatively agreed with micromanometer data. Initial clinical measurements in healthy volunteers showed a large prograde vortex. Additional retrograde vortices appeared in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy.

  13. Estimations of relative effort during sit-to-stand increase when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Bieryla, Kathleen A; Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2009-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare three methods of determining relative effort during sit-to-stand (STS). Fourteen young (mean 19.6+/-SD 1.2 years old) and 17 older (61.7+/-5.5 years old) adults completed six STS trials at three speeds: slow, normal, and fast. Sagittal plane joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated through inverse dynamics. Isometric and isokinetic maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) for the hip, knee, and ankle were collected and used for model parameters to predict the participant-specific maximum voluntary joint torque. Three different measures of relative effort were determined by normalizing STS joint torques to three different estimates of maximum voluntary torque. Relative effort at the hip, knee, and ankle were higher when accounting for variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity (hip=26.3+/-13.5%, knee=78.4+/-32.2%, ankle=27.9+/-14.1%) compared to methods which do not account for these variations (hip=23.5+/-11.7%, knee=51.7+/-15.0%, ankle=20.7+/-10.4%). At higher velocities, the difference in calculating relative effort with respect to isometric MVC or incorporating joint angle and angular velocity became more evident. Estimates of relative effort that account for the variations in maximum voluntary torque with joint angle and angular velocity may provide higher levels of accuracy compared to methods based on measurements of maximal isometric torques. PMID:17720539

  14. Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocities and quality factors using multichannel analysis of surface-wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianghai

    2014-04-01

    This overview article gives a picture of multichannel analysis of high-frequency surface (Rayleigh and Love) waves developed mainly by research scientists at the Kansas Geological Survey, the University of Kansas and China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) during the last eighteen years by discussing dispersion imaging techniques, inversion systems, and real-world examples. Shear (S)-wave velocities of near-surface materials can be derived from inverting the dispersive phase velocities of high-frequency surface waves. Multichannel analysis of surface waves—MASW used phase information of high-frequency Rayleigh waves recorded on vertical component geophones to determine near-surface S-wave velocities. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode simultaneously can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. Multichannel analysis of Love waves—MALW used phase information of high-frequency Love waves recorded on horizontal (perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation) component geophones to determine S-wave velocities of shallow materials. Because of independence of compressional (P)-wave velocity, the MALW method has some attractive advantages, such as 1) Love-wave dispersion curves are simpler than Rayleigh wave's; 2) dispersion images of Love-wave energy have a higher signal to noise ratio and more focused than those generated from Rayleigh waves; and 3) inversion of Love-wave dispersion curves is less dependent on initial models and more stable than Rayleigh waves.

  15. Global uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by terrestrial vegetation: Estimates corrected by deposition velocities normalized to the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Soto, L.; Stanimirov, M.; von Hobe, M.; Schmitt, V.; Valdes, J.; Wild, A.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2005-06-01

    COS uptake by trees, as observed under dark/light changes and under application of the plant hormone abscisic acid, exhibited a strong correlation with the CO2 assimilation rate and the stomatal conductance. As the uptake of COS occurred exclusively through the stomata we compared experimentally derived and re-evaluated deposition velocities (Vd; related to stomatal conductance) for COS and CO2. We show that Vd of COS is generally significantly larger than that of CO2. We therefore introduced this attribute into a new global estimate of COS fluxes into vegetation. The new global estimate of the COS uptake based on available net primary productivity data (NPP) ranges between 0.69-1.40 Tga-1. However, as a COS molecule is irreversibly split in contrast to CO2 which is released again by respiration processes, we took into account the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) representing the true CO2 leaf flux the COS uptake has to be related to. Such a GPP based deposition estimate ranged between 1.4--2.8 Tga-1 (0.73-1.50 TgSa-1). We believe that in order to obtain accurate global COS sink estimates such a GPP-based estimate corrected by the different deposition velocities of COS and CO2 must be taken into account.

  16. Comparison, analysis, and estimation of discharge data from two acoustic velocity meters on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at Romeoville, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, Charles S.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    1993-01-01

    The acoustic velocity meter (AVM) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (the Canal) at Romeoville, Ill., provides vital information for the accounting of the diversion of water from Lake Michigan. A detailed analysis of the discharge record on the Canal at Romeoville was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to establish the most accurate estimates of discharge for water years 1986-91. The analysis involved (1) checking the consistency of the discharges estimated by two different AVM's installed at Romeoville for consecutive time periods by statistical and regression analyses, (2) adjusting the discharge record to account for corrections to the width and depth of the Canal determined by field measurements, and (3) development of equations for estimating discharge on days when the AVM was inoperative using discharge estimates made by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago at the lock, powerhouse, and controlling works at Lockport, Ill. No signi- ficant difference in the discharge estimates made by the two AVM's could be documented. The estimation equations combined regression analysis with physical principles of the outlet-works operation. The estimation equations simulated the verification period of October 1, 1991, to May 31, 1992, within 0.22, 5.15, and 0.66 percent for the mean, standard deviation, and skewness coefficient, respectively. Discharges were recalculated for the corrected width and depth, estimated for the periods of AVM inoperation, and entered into the discharge record for the station.

  17. Estimations of the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region and also the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface in the returned flow type cyclone dust collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Akira

    2010-12-01

    There are many types of cyclone dust collectors for separating the fine solid and dust particles from gases in the various industries and also in the home used purposes. For estimating the power loss and the collection efficiency, one of the most important factors is the maximum tangential velocity V θm in the vortex core region in the cyclone body. In order to determine V θm by the simple method, it is useful to apply the mechanical balance of the angular momentum fluxes under the assumption of Ogawa combined vortex model which is composed of the quasi-forced vortex in the vortex core region and also the quasi-free vortex surrounded the vortex core region and also under the assumption of the introduction of equivalent length Heq corresponding to the cone spaces of the cyclone body and the dust bunker. On the other hand, the mean rotational velocity V oi near the concave wall surface is also estimated by the mechanical balance of angular momentum fluxes with the moment of viscous friction force. For confirming the general applications of the obtained equations, the returned flow types cyclones changed the throat diameter D3 are designed. The material of the cyclone is the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore the inner surface of the cyclone body can be regarded as smooth surface. The comparisons of the measured velocities V θm and V oi by a cylindrical Pitot tube are shown in good agreement with those of the proposed equations. The above stated results are described in detail.

  18. Estimation of CO2 saturation during both CO2 drainage and imbibition processes based on both seismic velocity and electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwook; Nam, Myung Jin; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2013-10-01

    In order to monitor injected carbon dioxide (CO2), simultaneous measurements of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity are employed during the drainage (CO2 injection) and imbibition (water injection) processes of a Berea sandstone. Supercritical CO2 (10 MPa at 40 ºC) was injected into a water-saturated Berea sandstone in the drainage stage and monitored via simultaneous measurements. After the injection of supercritical CO2, fresh distilled water was injected into the CO2-injected sandstone during the imbibition stage. Electrical resistivity and P-wave velocity measurements acquired during the drainage and imbibition stages were employed to evaluate CO2 saturations (SCO2) based on the resistivity index and the Gassmann fluid-substitution equations, respectively. Comparing estimated values for SCO2 saturation against those from volume-derived SCO2, based on analysis on injected and drained fluid volumes in the drainage process, we conclude that Gassmann-Brie and resistivity index are suitable for the evaluation based on P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity, respectively. Rt-based estimation properly tracks the variation in SCO2 even when SCO2 is large (>0.15), while Vp-based estimation is sensitive to the variation in SCO2 when SCO2 is small (<0.1). Employing the Gassmann-Brie and resistivity index, estimation of variation in SCO2 based on the simultaneous measurements provides the upper and lower bounds of SCO2 even when SCO2 is large (>0.1), while properly estimating SCO2 when SCO2 is small (<0.1). Monitoring the CO2 imbibition process confirms residual CO2 saturation within the sample.

  19. Accuracy and precision of porosity estimates based on velocity inversion of surface ground-penetrating radar data: A controlled experiment at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, J.; Clement, W.

    2006-12-01

    Although rarely acquired, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data acquired in continuous multi-offset geometries can substantially improve our understanding of the subsurface compared to conventional single offset surveys. This improvement arises because multi-offset data enable full use of the information that the GPR signal can carry. The added information allows us to maximize the material property information extracted from a GPR survey. Of the array of potential multi-offset GPR measurements, traveltime vs offset information enables laterally and vertically continuous electromagnetic (EM) velocity measurements. In turn, the EM velocities provide estimates of water content via petrophysical relationships such as the CRIM or Topp's equations. In fully saturated media the water content is a direct measure of bulk porosity. The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a experimental wellfield located in a shallow alluvial aquifer near Boise, Idaho. In July, 2006 we conducted a controlled 3D multi-offset GPR experiment at the BHRS designed to test the accuracy of state-of-the-art velocity analysis methodologies. We acquired continuous multi-offset GPR data over an approximately 20 x 30 m 3D area. The GPR system was a Sensors and Software pulseEkko Pro multichannel system with 100 MHz antennas and was configured with 4 receivers and a single transmitter. Data were acquired in off-end geometry for a total of 16 offsets with a 1 m offset interval and 1 m near offset. The data were acquired on a 1 m x 1m grid in four passes, each consisting of a 3 m range of equally spaced offsets. The survey encompassed 13 wells finished to the ~20 m depth of the unconfined aquifer. We established velocity control by acquiring vertical radar profiles (VRPs) in all 13 wells. Preliminary velocity measurements using an established method of reflection tomography were within about 1 percent of local 1D velocity distributions determined from the VRPs. Vertical velocity precision from the

  20. Global uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by terrestrial vegetation: Estimates corrected by deposition velocities normalized to the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Soto, L.; Stanimirov, M.; von Hobe, M.; Schmitt, V.; Valdes, J.; Wild, A.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2005-01-01

    COS uptake by trees, as observed under dark/light changes and under application of the plant hormone abscisic acid, exhibited a strong correlation with the CO2 assimilation rate and the stomatal conductance. As the uptake of COS occurred exclusively through the stomata we compared experimentally derived and re-evaluated deposition velocities (Vd for COS and CO2). We show that Vd of COS is generally significantly larger than that of CO2. We therefore introduced this attribute into a new global estimate of COS fluxes into vegetation. The global COS uptake by vegetation as estimated by the new model ranges between 0.69-1.40 Tg a-1, based on the Net Primary Productivity (NPP). Taking into account Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) the deposition estimate ranges between 1.37-2.81 Tg a-1 (0.73-1.50 Tg S a-1). We believe that in order to obtain accurate and reliable global NPP-based estimates for the COS flux into vegetation, the different deposition velocities of COS and CO2 must be taken into account.

  1. Air sea gas transfer velocity estimates from the Jason-1 and TOPEX altimeters: Prospects for a long-term global time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, David M.; Frew, Nelson M.; McCue, Scott J.

    2007-06-01

    Estimation of global and regional air-sea fluxes of climatically important gases is a key goal of current climate research programs. Gas transfer velocities needed to compute these fluxes can be estimated by combining altimeter-derived mean square slope with an empirical relation between transfer velocity and mean square slope derived from field measurements of gas fluxes and small-scale wave spectra [Frew, N.M., Bock, E.J., Schimpf, U., Hara, T., Hauβecker, H., Edson, J.B., McGillis, W.R., Nelson, R.K., McKenna, S.P., Uz, B.M., Jähne, B., 2004. Air-sea gas transfer: Its dependence on wind stress, small-scale roughness and surface films, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S17, doi: 10.1029/2003JC002131.]. We previously reported initial results from a dual-frequency (Ku- and C-band) altimeter algorithm [Glover, D.M., Frew, N.M., McCue, S.J., Bock, E.J., 2002. A Multi-year Time Series of Global Gas Transfer Velocity from the TOPEX Dual Frequency, Normalized Radar Backscatter Algorithm, In: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces, editors: Donelan, M., Drennan, W., Saltzman, E., and Wanninkhof, R., Geophysical Monograph 127, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 325-331.] for estimating the air-sea gas transfer velocity ( k) from the mean square slope of short wind waves (40-100 rad/m) and derived a 6-year time series of global transfer velocities based on TOPEX observations. Since the launch of the follow-on altimeter Jason-1 in December 2001 and commencement of the TOPEX/Jason-1 Tandem Mission, we have extended this time series to 12 years, with improvements to the model parameters used in our algorithm and using the latest corrected data releases. The prospect of deriving multi-year and interdecadal time series of gas transfer velocity from TOPEX, Jason-1 and follow-on altimeter missions depends on precise intercalibration of the normalized backscatter. During the Tandem Mission collinear phase, both satellites followed identical orbits with a mere 73-s time separation. The

  2. Estimating Attenuation Coefficients and P-Wave Velocities of the Shallow San Jacinto Fault Zone from Betsy Gunshots Data Recorded by a Spatially Dense Array with 1108 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    We estimate values of P wave velocity and P attenuation coefficients (QP) for the subsurface material at the Sage Brush Flat site along the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. The data are generated by 33 Betsy gunshots and recorded by a spatially dense array of 1108 vertical component geophones deployed in a rectangular grid that is approximately 600 m x 600 m. We automatically pick the arrival times of the seismic body waves from each explosion arriving at stations within 200 m. These measurements are used to derive an average velocity map with velocity values ranging from 500 m/s to 1250 m/s. We estimate the energy of the early P waves by squaring the amplitudes in a short window relative to the automatic picks. These energies are fitted to a decay function representing the geometrical spreading and intrinsic attenuation. By separating the stations into spatial bins and calculating attenuation values for each by linear regression, we construct a QP values map. Most of the QP values are in 5-20 range, which is consistent with other studies of shallow fault zone regions.

  3. Estimation of Velocity Structure Using Microtremor Recordings from Arrays: Comparison of Results from the SPAC and the F-K Analysis Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Aguirre, J.; Boore, D.; Yussim, S.

    2001-12-01

    Microtremor recordings have become a useful tool for microzonation studies in countries with low to moderate seismicity and also in countries where there are few seismographs or the recurrence time for an earthquake is quite long. Microtremor recordings can be made at almost any time and any place without needing to wait for an earthquake. The measurements can be made using one station or an array of stations. Microtremor recordings can be used to estimate site response directly (e.g. by using Nakamura's technique), or they can be used to estimate shear-wave velocities, from which site response can be calculated. A number of studies have found that the direct estimation of site response may be unreliable, except for identifying the fundamental resonant period of a site. Obtaining shear-wave velocities requires inverting measurements of Rayleigh wave phase velocities from microtremors, which are obtained by using the Spatial Autocorrelation (SPAC) (Aki, 1957) or the Frequency-Wave Number (F-K) (Horike, 1985) methods. Estimating shear-wave velocities from microtremor recordings is a cheaper alternative than direct methods, such as the logging of boreholes. In this work we use simultaneous microtremor recordings from triangular arrays located at two sites in Mexico City, Mexico, one ("Texcoco") with a lacustrine sediment layer of about 200 m depth, and the other one ("Ciudad Universitaria") underlain by 2,000 year old basaltic flows from Xitle volcano. The data are analyzed using both the SPAC method and by the standard F-K method. The results obtained from the SPAC method are more consistent with expectations from the geological conditions and an empirical transfer function (Montalvo et al., 2001) than those from F-K method. We also analyze data from the Hollister Municipal Airport in California. The triangular array at this site is located near a borehole from which seismic velocities have been obtained using a downhole logging method (Liu et al., 2000). We compare

  4. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  5. Velocity estimation using a Bayesian network in a critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Todd Holland, K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2013-09-01

    Numerous numerical modeling studies have been completed in support of an extensive recovery program for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) on the Kootenai River near Bonner's Ferry, ID. A technical hurdle in the interpretation of these model results is the transfer of information from the specialist to nonspecialist such that practical decisions utilizing the numerical simulations can be made. To address this, we designed and trained a Bayesian network to provide probabilistic prediction of depth-averaged velocity. Prediction of this critical parameter governing suitable spawning habitat was obtained by exploiting the dynamic relationships between variables derived from model simulations with associated parameter uncertainties. Postdesign assessment indicates that the most influential environmental variables in order of importance are river discharge, depth, and width, and water surface slope. We demonstrate that the probabilistic network not only reproduces the training data with accuracy similar to the accuracy of a numerical model (root-mean-squared error of 0.10 m/s), but that it makes reliable predictions on the same river at times and locations other than where the network was trained (root mean squared error of 0.09 m/s). Additionally, the network showed similar skill (root mean square error of 0.04 m/s) when predicting velocity on the Apalachicola River, FL, a river of similar shape and size to the Kootenai River where a related sturgeon population is also threatened.

  6. Low-complexity piecewise-affine virtual sensors: theory and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubagotti, Matteo; Poggi, Tomaso; Oliveri, Alberto; Pascucci, Carlo Alberto; Bemporad, Alberto; Storace, Marco

    2014-03-01

    This paper is focused on the theoretical development and the hardware implementation of low-complexity piecewise-affine direct virtual sensors for the estimation of unmeasured variables of interest of nonlinear systems. The direct virtual sensor is designed directly from measured inputs and outputs of the system and does not require a dynamical model. The proposed approach allows one to design estimators which mitigate the effect of the so-called 'curse of dimensionality' of simplicial piecewise-affine functions, and can be therefore applied to relatively high-order systems, enjoying convergence and optimality properties. An automatic toolchain is also presented to generate the VHDL code describing the digital circuit implementing the virtual sensor, starting from the set of measured input and output data. The proposed methodology is applied to generate an FPGA implementation of the virtual sensor for the estimation of vehicle lateral velocity, using a hardware-in-the-loop setting.

  7. Longitudinal velocity and road slope estimation in hybrid electric vehicles employing early detection of excessive wheel slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klomp, Matthijs; Gao, Yunlong; Bruzelius, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    Vehicle speed is one of the important quantities in vehicle dynamics control. Estimation of the slope angle is in turn a necessity for correct dead reckoning from vehicle acceleration. In the present work, estimation of vehicle speed is applied to a hybrid vehicle with an electric motor on the rear axle and a combustion engine on the front axle. The wheel torque information, provided by electric motor, is used to early detect excessive wheel slip and improve the accuracy of the estimate. A best-wheel selection approach is applied as the observation variable of a Kalman filter which reduces the influence of slipping wheels as well as reducing the computational effort. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated on a test data recorded at a winter test ground with excellent results, even for extreme conditions such as when all four wheels are spinning.

  8. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Bradford; Stephen Holbrook; Scott B. Smithson

    2004-12-09

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPL's specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  9. Contrasting velocity-porosity relationships in differing tectonic regimes, Nankai Trough subduction zone, Japan: implications for pore pressure and effective stress estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudge, J.; Webb, S. I.; Tobin, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The identification of areas of anomalously high porosity in subduction zones can have implications for fluid pressure, flow paths and the calculation of vertical effective stress in and under accretionary wedges. The relationship between p-wave velocity (Vp) and porosity is particularly useful for the estimation of fluid and solid material budgets in the subduction process because Vp is detectable with seismic reflection and refraction imaging. Data from cores and borehole logging can be used to develop quantitative Vp to porosity transforms, which in turn permit estimation of porosity from seismic reflection and refraction interval velocity. The relationship between Vp and porosity in sediments, however, is intrinsically linked to their burial history and tectonic evolution. Focusing on data from recent IODP drilling for the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) offshore Japan, we investigate the relationship between Vp and porosity for the different tectonic regions of a subduction zone accretionary complex, since universal transforms are shown to fit the data poorly. We demonstrate that each of the tectonic domains, Kumano forearc basin, accretionary wedge, and incoming Shikoku Basin sediments, exhibit very different Vp-porosity relationships. In addition, we show for sediments of the incoming plate (Shikoku Basin) section that correction of the core porosity data for smectite content results in a substantially modified Vp-porosity relationship. We use these new tectonic domain-specific Vp-porosity relationships to calculate estimated porosity from p-wave velocity models derived from seismic reflection data and OBS studies. By applying the specific Vp-porosity relationship in each tectonic region, a better-constrained estimate of distribution of porosity within the subduction zone accretionary prism complex, particularly across the main fault zones and décollement can be made. For example, when this approach is applied to the velocity reversal

  10. Analysis of forest environmental measurements to estimate parameters of microclimate and air-pollution deposition-velocity models

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jr, C E; Lorenz, R

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for estimating flux densities and deposition of gaseous pollutants for a period of a year or more, using data collected for a period of a few days. The estimates are based on models which characterize the transfer of gases from the atmosphere to the vegetation as a series of resistances and then use linear statistical submodels based on experimental data to relate the resistances to the surrounding environment. The models are shown to fit the experimental data reasonably well. Annual values calculated for a young loblolly pine plantation were: evaporation 63.2 cm, carbon dioxide exchange 31.5 t/ha, and sulfur dioxide exchange 120 gm/ha. 17 references.

  11. Estimates of velocity structure and source depth using multiple P waves from aftershocks of the 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Event record sections, which are constructed by plotting seismograms from many closely spaced earthquakes recorded on a few stations, show multiple free-surface reflections (PP, PPP, PPPP) of the P wave in the Imperial Valley. The relative timing of these arrivals is used to estimate the strength of the P-wave velocity gradient within the upper 5 km of the sediment layer. Consistent with previous studies, a velocity model with a value of 1.8 km/sec at the surface increasing linearly to 5.8 km/sec at a depth of 5.5 km fits the data well. The relative amplitudes of the P and PP arrivals are used to estimate the source depth for the aftershock distributions of the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills main shocks. Although the depth determination has large uncertainties, both the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills aftershock sequencs appear to have similar depth distribution in the range of 4 to 10 km. -Author

  12. Consistency of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity estimates with respect to the Bramwell-Hill theoretical model: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is considered as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality, and is increasingly used in clinical practice. This study aimed at evaluating the consistency of the automated estimation of regional and local aortic stiffness indices from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data. Results Forty-six healthy subjects underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements (CF_PWV) by applanation tonometry and CMR with steady-state free-precession and phase contrast acquisitions at the level of the aortic arch. These data were used for the automated evaluation of the aortic arch pulse wave velocity (Arch_PWV), and the ascending aorta distensibility (AA_Distc, AA_Distb), which were estimated from ascending aorta strain (AA_Strain) combined with either carotid or brachial pulse pressure. The local ascending aorta pulse wave velocity AA_PWVc and AA_PWVb were estimated respectively from these carotid and brachial derived distensibility indices according to the Bramwell-Hill theoretical model, and were compared with the Arch_PWV. In addition, a reproducibility analysis of AA_PWV measurement and its comparison with the standard CF_PWV was performed. Characterization according to the Bramwell-Hill equation resulted in good correlations between Arch_PWV and both local distensibility indices AA_Distc (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and AA_Distb (r = 0.60, p < 0.001); and between Arch_PWV and both theoretical local indices AA_PWVc (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and AA_PWVb (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the Arch_PWV was well related to CF_PWV (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and its estimation was highly reproducible (inter-operator variability: 7.1%). Conclusions The present work confirmed the consistency and robustness of the regional index Arch_PWV and the local indices AA_Distc and AA_Distb according to the theoretical model, as well as to the well established measurement of CF_PWV, demonstrating the relevance of the regional and local CMR indices. PMID

  13. Improving estimations of greenhouse gas transfer velocities by atmosphere-ocean couplers in Earth-System and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, V. M. N. C. S.; Sahlée, E.; Jurus, P.; Clementi, E.; Pettersson, H.; Mateus, M.

    2015-09-01

    Earth-System and regional models, forecasting climate change and its impacts, simulate atmosphere-ocean gas exchanges using classical yet too simple generalizations relying on wind speed as the sole mediator while neglecting factors as sea-surface agitation, atmospheric stability, current drag with the bottom, rain and surfactants. These were proved fundamental for accurate estimates, particularly in the coastal ocean, where a significant part of the atmosphere-ocean greenhouse gas exchanges occurs. We include several of these factors in a customizable algorithm proposed for the basis of novel couplers of the atmospheric and oceanographic model components. We tested performances with measured and simulated data from the European coastal ocean, having found our algorithm to forecast greenhouse gas exchanges largely different from the forecasted by the generalization currently in use. Our algorithm allows calculus vectorization and parallel processing, improving computational speed roughly 12× in a single cpu core, an essential feature for Earth-System models applications.

  14. Neuro-fuzzy estimation of passive robotic joint safe velocity with embedded sensors of conductive silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah; Petković, Dalibor; Danesh, Amir Seyed; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Issa, Mirna; Zentner, Lena

    2016-05-01

    Robotic operations need to be safe for unpredictable contacts. Joints with passive compliance with springs can be used for soft robotic contacts. However the joints cannot measure external collision forces. In this investigation was developed one passive compliant joint which have soft contacts with external objects and measurement capabilities. To ensure it, conductive silicone rubber was used as material for modeling of the compliant segments of the robotic joint. These compliant segments represent embedded sensors. The conductive silicone rubber is electrically conductive by deformations. The main task was to obtain elastic absorbers for the external collision forces. These absorbers can be used for measurement in the same time. In other words, the joint has an internal measurement system. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to estimate the safety level of the robotic joint by head injury criteria (HIC).

  15. Joint optimization of elastic parameters and velocity boundary conditions for the estimation of plate rigidity using geodetic data: Application to Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyret, M.; chery, J.; Stephan, E.; Mohammadi, B.; Cuer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic data accurately describe interseismic deformation in seismogenic zones. A well-known approach consists in assuming that interseismic geodetic fields result from the relative slip of rigid blocks along faults. These models allow for a joint estimation of fault slip-rate, locking depth and plate rotation. We propose another approach which assumes that lateral variations of effective elastic thickness control the interseismic deformation of the lithosphere. Thus, we use an inverse method to estimate the distribution of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere on continents from geodetic measurements. The rigidity is supposed to vary continuously and is modeled by a discrete set of parameters on a regular spatial grid. By optimizing this set of parameters, we seek for a solution which reproduces at best the interseismic GPS velocity field. Our method uses a plane-stress finite element code (CAMEF) to predict the velocity field (forward modeling). The inverse method is based on a global minimization of a cost function representing the difference between the modeled velocity field and the GPS data. The velocity boundary conditions have to be imposed for the forward modeling, but they are not precisely known (they may come from the interpolation of data close to the edges of the studied area). Here, we propose a joint minimization of both elastic parameters and velocity field on the domain boundary. In order to evaluate iteratively the best set of parameters, we use a global semi-deterministic optimization algorithm that needs to compute the gradient of the cost function with respect to these parameters. This gradient can be evaluated by the method of finite differences. In order to speed up the calculations, we evaluate it by the adjoint state method. Because the gradient computation by adjoint state method is independent from the number of parameters, this allows to perform inversions with refined grid of parameters. We present results that illustrate the

  16. A comparison of U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional model estimates of groundwater source areas and velocities to independently derived estimates, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jason C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, evaluated a three-dimensional model of groundwater flow in the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory to determine if model-derived estimates of groundwater movement are consistent with (1) results from previous studies on water chemistry type, (2) the geochemical mixing at an example well, and (3) independently derived estimates of the average linear groundwater velocity. Simulated steady-state flow fields were analyzed using backward particle-tracking simulations that were based on a modified version of the particle tracking program MODPATH. Model results were compared to the 5-microgram-per-liter lithium contour interpreted to represent the transition from a water type that is primarily composed of tributary valley underflow and streamflow-infiltration recharge to a water type primarily composed of regional aquifer water. This comparison indicates several shortcomings in the way the model represents flow in the aquifer. The eastward movement of tributary valley underflow and streamflow-infiltration recharge is overestimated in the north-central part of the model area and underestimated in the central part of the model area. Model inconsistencies can be attributed to large contrasts in hydraulic conductivity between hydrogeologic zones. Sources of water at well NPR-W01 were identified using backward particle tracking, and they were compared to the relative percentages of source water chemistry determined using geochemical mass balance and mixing models. The particle tracking results compare reasonably well with the chemistry results for groundwater derived from surface-water sources (-28 percent error), but overpredict the proportion of groundwater derived from regional aquifer water (108 percent error) and underpredict the proportion of groundwater derived from tributary valley underflow

  17. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  18. A test of the ADV-based Reynolds flux method for in situ estimation of sediment settling velocity in a muddy estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Grace M.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Smith, S. Jarrell

    2013-12-01

    Under conditions common in muddy coastal and estuarine environments, acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) can serve to estimate sediment settling velocity ( w s) by assuming a balance between upward turbulent Reynolds flux and downward gravitational settling. Advantages of this method include simple instrument deployment, lack of flow disturbance, and relative insensitivity to biofouling and water column stratification. Although this method is being used with increasing frequency in coastal and estuarine environments, to date it has received little direct ground truthing. This study compared in situ estimates of w s inferred by a 5-MHz ADV to independent in situ observations from a high-definition video settling column over the course of a flood tide in the bottom boundary layer of the York River estuary, Virginia, USA. The ADV-based measurements were found to agree with those of the settling column when the current speed at about 40 cm above the bed was greater than about 20 cm/s. This corresponded to periods when the estimated magnitude of the settling term in the suspended sediment continuity equation was four or more times larger than the time rate of change of concentration. For ADV observations restricted to these conditions, ADV-based estimates of w s (mean 0.48±0.04 mm/s) were highly consistent with those observed by the settling column (mean 0.45±0.02 mm/s). However, the ADV-based method for estimating w s was sensitive to the prescribed concentration of the non-settling washload, C wash. In an objective operational definition, C wash can be set equal to the lowest suspended solids concentration observed around slack water.

  19. Special Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Indu; Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    Describes the nature of affinity chromatography and its use in purifying enzymes, studying cell interactions, exploring hormone receptors, and other areas. The potential the technique may have in treating disease is also considered. (JN)

  20. Estimation of the Rupture Length and Velocity for Both the Dec 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005 Events Using Hydroacoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot-Hedlin, C.

    2005-05-01

    Unprecedented hydroacoustic observations of the both the megathrust earthquake of 26 Dec, 2004 and the subsequent March 28, 2005 event were afforded by a network of 5 small hydroacoustic arrays located in the Indian Ocean, at distances of 2800 to 7000 km from the epicenter. Each array consists of three hydrophones, configured as a triangle with sides of approximately 2 km length, moored at or near the depth of the ocean sound speed minimum. The array configuration allows for precise determination of the receiver to source azimuth for a series of short time segments within the coda, given coherent arrivals across the array. Both events generated acoustic waves, called T-waves, that were recorded on all 5 arrays. For each event, analysis of a series of short time windows within the T-wave coda shows that the receiver to source azimuth varies smoothly as a function of time, indicating that the apparent T-wave source is not stationary. For the 26 Dec event, the apparent T-wave source moves northward along the Sunda trench at an average velocity of 2km/s for a distance of nearly 900km. For the March 28 event, the source appears to move southward at an average velocity of 2km/sec for a distance of about 300km. However, the estimates are less certain for the second event.

  1. Investigations on stomatal uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS, OCS) and deposition velocities result in new estimates of global COS deposition to vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Soto, L.; Stanimirov, M.; Valdez, J.; von Hobe, M.; Schmitt, V.; Wild, A.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2003-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS, OCS) is a highly stable reduced sulfur gas species in the atmosphere. Due to its inertness within the troposphere it can be transported into the stratosphere where it contributes to form SO2 and sulfate aerosol. Additionally it may be involved in heterogeneous reactions in stratospheric ozone chemistry. One of the major sinks for this trace gas is the vegetation. Based on investigations with trees under a light and dark regime and reacting to the hormone abscisic acid we demonstrated the stomatal uptake of COS to be the dominating pathway for COS deposition to plant surfaces. Taking into account deposition velocities of COS, which are higher than for CO2, we recalculated the global COS deposition to vegetation based on a new refined estimation model.

  2. Aortic pulse wave velocity and reflecting distance estimation from peripheral waveforms in humans: detection of age- and exercise training-related differences.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Gary L; Casey, Darren P; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Seals, Douglas R; Curry, Timothy B; Barnes, Jill N; Wilson, DeMaris R; Stauss, Harald M

    2013-07-01

    We hypothesized that demographic/anthropometric parameters can be used to estimate effective reflecting distance (EfRD), required to derive aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV), a prognostic marker of cardiovascular risk, from peripheral waveforms and that such estimates can discriminate differences in APWV and EfRD with aging and habitual endurance exercise in healthy adults. Ascending aortic pressure waveforms were derived from peripheral waveforms (brachial artery pressure, n = 25; and finger volume pulse, n = 15) via a transfer function and then used to determine the time delay between forward- and backward-traveling waves (Δtf-b). True EfRDs were computed as directly measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) × 1/2Δtf-b and then used in regression analysis to establish an equation for EfRD based on demographic/anthropometric data (EfRD = 0.173·age + 0.661·BMI + 34.548 cm, where BMI is body mass index). We found good agreement between true and estimated APWV (Pearson's R² = 0.43; intraclass correlation = 0.64; both P < 0.05) and EfRD (R² = 0.24; intraclass correlation = 0.40; both P < 0.05). In young sedentary (22 ± 2 years, n = 6), older sedentary (62 ± 1 years, n = 24), and older endurance-trained (61 ± 2 years, n = 14) subjects, EfRD (from demographic/anthropometric parameters), APWV, and 1/2Δtf-b (from brachial artery pressure waveforms) were 52.0 ± 0.5, 61.8 ± 0.4, and 60.6 ± 0.5 cm; 6.4 ± 0.3, 9.6 ± 0.2, and 8.1 ± 0.2 m/s; and 82 ± 3, 65 ± 1 and 76 ± 2 ms (all P < 0.05), respectively. Our results demonstrate that APWV derived from peripheral waveforms using age and BMI to estimate EfRD correlates with CFPWV in healthy adults. This method can reliably detect the distal shift of the reflecting site with age and the increase in APWV with sedentary aging that is attenuated with habitual endurance exercise. PMID:23624628

  3. Generalized Cramér-Rao Bound for Joint Estimation of Target Position and Velocity for Active and Passive Radar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian; Hu, Jianbin; Blum, Rick S.; Wu, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we derive the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for joint target position and velocity estimation using an active or passive distributed radar network under more general, and practically occurring, conditions than assumed in previous work. In particular, the presented results allow nonorthogonal signals, spatially dependent Gaussian reflection coefficients, and spatially dependent Gaussian clutter-plus-noise. These bounds allow designers to compare the performance of their developed approaches, which are deemed to be of acceptable complexity, to the best achievable performance. If their developed approaches lead to performance close to the bounds, these developed approaches can be deemed "good enough". A particular recent study where algorithms have been developed for a practical radar application which must involve nonorthogonal signals, for which the best performance is unknown, is a great example. The presented results in our paper do not make any assumptions about the approximate location of the target being known from previous target detection signal processing. In addition, for situations in which we do not know some parameters accurately, we also derive the mismatched CRB. Numerical investigations of the mean squared error of the maximum likelihood estimation are employed to support the validity of the CRBs. In order to demonstrate the utility of the provided results to a topic of great current interest, the numerical results focus on a passive radar system using the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) cellar system.

  4. Amount of gas hydrate estimated from compressional- and shear-wave velocities at the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The amount of in situ gas hydrate concentrated in the sediment pore space at the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well was estimated by using compressional-wave (P-wave) and shear-wave (S-wave) downhole log measurements. A weighted equation developed for relating the amount of gas hydrate concentrated in the pore space of unconsolidated sediments to the increase of seismic velocities was applied to the acoustic logs with porosities derived from the formation density log. A weight of 1.56 (W=1.56) and the exponent of 1 (n=1) provided consistent estimates of gas hydrate concentration from the S-wave and the P-wave logs. Gas hydrate concentration is as much as 80% in the pore spaces, and the average gas hydrate concentration within the gas-hydrate-bearing section from 897 m to 1110 m (excluding zones where there is no gas hydrate) was calculated at 39.0% when using P-wave data and 37.8% when using S-wave data.

  5. Three-dimensional stochastic estimation of porosity distribution: Benefits of using ground-penetrating radar velocity tomograms in simulated-annealing-based or Bayesian sequential simulation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafflon, B.; Barrash, W.

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of the three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of hydrologic properties and related uncertainty is a key for improved predictions of hydrologic processes in the subsurface. However it is difficult to gain high-quality and high-density hydrologic information from the subsurface. In this regard a promising strategy is to use high-resolution geophysical data (that are relatively sensitive to variations of a hydrologic parameter of interest) to supplement direct hydrologic information from measurements in wells (e.g., logs, vertical profiles) and then generate stochastic simulations of the distribution of the hydrologic property conditioned on the hydrologic and geophysical data. In this study we develop and apply this strategy for a 3-D field experiment in the heterogeneous aquifer at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site and we evaluate how much benefit the geophysical data provide. We run high-resolution 3-D conditional simulations of porosity with both simulated-annealing-based and Bayesian sequential approaches using information from multiple intersecting crosshole gound-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity tomograms and neutron porosity logs. The benefit of using GPR data is assessed by investigating their ability, when included in conditional simulation, to predict porosity log data withheld from the simulation. Results show that the use of crosshole GPR data can significantly improve the estimation of porosity spatial distribution and reduce associated uncertainty compared to using only well log measurements for the estimation. The amount of benefit depends primarily on the strength of the petrophysical relation between the GPR and porosity data, the variability of this relation throughout the investigated site, and lateral structural continuity at the site.

  6. ADV-based estimates of sediment settling velocity on the shelf of the Yellow and East China seas: evidence of marked seasonal and intra-tidal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Changwei; Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Gu, Yanzhen

    2015-02-01

    Sediment settling velocity ( w s) patterns are well established at the Huanghe and Changjiang river mouths, but no w s results have been reported for the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (YSECS) shelves due to the labor-intensive and time-consuming aspect of traditional w s measurement approaches (e.g., settling column method). This disadvantage can be overcome by the acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). In this study, ten ADV-based field campaigns were conducted over various seasons of the years 2011 and 2013 at six YSECS sites, five on the East China Sea shelf (28 to 87 m depth) and one on the Yellow Sea shelf (74 m depth). The results demonstrate that ADV backscatter was a reliable proxy of suspended sediment concentration over a measurement range of 1 to 1,000 mg/L. The ADV-estimated w s was highest (1.43-1.88 mm/s) in summer in the southern East China Sea, and lowest (0.07 mm/s) in spring in the northern Yellow Sea. This can plausibly be explained by the hydrodynamic environment and bottom sediment type at the campaign sites. More importantly, the data reveal evidence of marked seasonal variations of w s in the middle sector of the East China Sea, as well as intra-tidal variations at all campaign sites. However, these variations of w s are not directly regulated by current velocity or suspended sediment concentration. This aspect represents a major challenge in future research in this shelf region and, for that matter, in similar settings worldwide. Evidently, expanding on the well-resolved continuous time series provided by the ADV approach is a key step in this direction.

  7. High frame rate and high line density ultrasound imaging for local pulse wave velocity estimation using motion matching: A feasibility study on vessel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fubing; He, Qiong; Huang, Chengwu; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinhua; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method to visualize the propagation of pulse wave and to quantitatively estimate regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arteries within the imaging field of view (FOV). To guarantee the reliability of PWV measurement, high frame rate imaging is required, which can be achieved by reducing the line density of ultrasound imaging or transmitting plane wave at the expense of spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, a composite, full-view imaging method using motion matching was proposed with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data of 4 sub-sectors, each with 34 beams, including a common beam, were acquired successively to achieve a frame rate of ∼507 Hz at an imaging depth of 35 mm. The acceleration profiles of the vessel wall estimated from the common beam were used to reconstruct the full-view (38-mm width, 128-beam) image sequence. The feasibility of mapping local PWV variation along the artery using PWI technique was preliminarily validated on both homogeneous and inhomogeneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel vessel phantoms. Regional PWVs for the three homogeneous phantoms measured by the proposed method were in accordance with the sparse imaging method (38-mm width, 32-beam) and plane wave imaging method. Local PWV was estimated using the above-mentioned three methods on 3 inhomogeneous phantoms, and good agreement was obtained in both the softer (1.91±0.24 m/s, 1.97±0.27 m/s and 1.78±0.28 m/s) and the stiffer region (4.17±0.46 m/s, 3.99±0.53 m/s and 4.27±0.49 m/s) of the phantoms. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, higher precision of local PWV estimation in low SNR circumstances was also obtained by the proposed method as compared with the sparse imaging method. The proposed method might be helpful in disease detections through mapping the local PWV of the vascular wall. PMID:26773791

  8. A database of virtual healthy subjects to assess the accuracy of foot-to-foot pulse wave velocities for estimation of aortic stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    While central (carotid-femoral) foot-to-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered to be the gold standard for the estimation of aortic arterial stiffness, peripheral foot-to-foot PWV (brachial-ankle, femoral-ankle, and carotid-radial) are being studied as substitutes of this central measurement. We present a novel methodology to assess theoretically these computed indexes and the hemodynamics mechanisms relating them. We created a database of 3,325 virtual healthy adult subjects using a validated one-dimensional model of the arterial hemodynamics, with cardiac and arterial parameters varied within physiological healthy ranges. For each virtual subject, foot-to-foot PWV was computed from numerical pressure waveforms at the same locations where clinical measurements are commonly taken. Our numerical results confirm clinical observations: 1) carotid-femoral PWV is a good indicator of aortic stiffness and correlates well with aortic PWV; 2) brachial-ankle PWV overestimates aortic PWV and is related to the stiffness and geometry of both elastic and muscular arteries; and 3) muscular PWV (carotid-radial, femoral-ankle) does not capture the stiffening of the aorta and should therefore not be used as a surrogate for aortic stiffness. In addition, our analysis highlights that the foot-to-foot PWV algorithm is sensitive to the presence of reflected waves in late diastole, which introduce errors in the PWV estimates. In this study, we have created a database of virtual healthy subjects, which can be used to assess theoretically the efficiency of physiological indexes based on pulse wave analysis. PMID:26055792

  9. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  10. Spectral fitting inversion of low-frequency normal modes with self-coupling and cross-coupling of toroidal and spheroidal multiplets: Numerical experiments to estimate the isotropic and anisotropic velocity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    The aspherical structure of the Earth is described in terms of lateral heterogeneity and anisotropy of the P- and S-wave velocities, density heterogeneity, ellipticity and rotation of the Earth, and undulation of the discontinuity interfaces of the seismic wave velocities. Its structure significantly influences the normal mode spectra of the Earth's free oscillation in the form of cross-coupling between toroidal and spheroidal multiplets and self-coupling between the singlets forming them. Thus, the aspherical structure must be conversely estimated from the free oscillation spectra influenced by the cross-coupling and self-coupling. In the present study, we improve a spectral fitting inversion algorithm which was developed in a previous study to retrieve the global structures of the isotropic and anisotropic velocities of the P and S waves from the free oscillation spectra. The main improvement is that the geographical distribution of the intensity of the S-wave azimuthal anisotropy is represented by a non-linear combination of structure coefficients for the anisotropic velocity structure, whereas in the previous study it was expanded into a generalized spherical harmonic series. Consequently, the improved inversion algorithm reduces the number of unknown parameters that must be determined compared to the previous inversion algorithm, and employs a one-step inversion method by which the structure coefficients for the isotropic and anisotropic velocities are directly estimated from the fee oscillation spectra. The applicability of the improved inversion is examined by several numerical experiments using synthetic spectral data, which are produced by supposing a variety of isotropic and anisotropic velocity structures, earthquake source parameters and station-event pairs. Furthermore, the robustness of the inversion algorithm is investigated with respect to the back-ground noise contaminating the spectral data as well as truncating the series expansions by finite

  11. Spectral fitting inversion of low-frequency normal modes with self-coupling and cross-coupling of toroidal and spheroidal multiplets: numerical experiments to estimate the isotropic and anisotropic velocity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    The aspherical structure of the Earth is described in terms of lateral heterogeneity and anisotropy of the P- and S-wave velocities, density heterogeneity, ellipticity and rotation of the Earth and undulation of the discontinuity interfaces of the seismic wave velocities. Its structure significantly influences the normal mode spectra of the Earth's free oscillation in the form of cross-coupling between toroidal and spheroidal multiplets and self-coupling between the singlets forming them. Thus, the aspherical structure must be conversely estimated from the free oscillation spectra influenced by the cross-coupling and self-coupling. In the present study, we improve a spectral fitting inversion algorithm which was developed in a previous study to retrieve the global structures of the isotropic and anisotropic velocities of the P and S waves from the free oscillation spectra. The main improvement is that the geographical distribution of the intensity of the S-wave azimuthal anisotropy is represented by a nonlinear combination of structure coefficients for the anisotropic velocity structure, whereas in the previous study it was expanded into a generalized spherical harmonic series. Consequently, the improved inversion algorithm reduces the number of unknown parameters that must be determined compared to the previous inversion algorithm and employs a one-step inversion method by which the structure coefficients for the isotropic and anisotropic velocities are directly estimated from the fee oscillation spectra. The applicability of the improved inversion is examined by several numerical experiments using synthetic spectral data, which are produced by supposing a variety of isotropic and anisotropic velocity structures, earthquake source parameters and station-event pairs. Furthermore, the robustness of the inversion algorithm is investigated with respect to the back-ground noise contaminating the spectral data as well as truncating the series expansions by finite terms

  12. New unitary affine-Virasoro constructions

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.; Kiritsis, E.; Obers, N.A.; Poratti, M. ); Yamron, J.P. )

    1990-06-20

    This paper reports on a quasi-systematic investigation of the Virasoro master equation. The space of all affine-Virasoro constructions is organized by K-conjugation into affine-Virasoro nests, and an estimate of the dimension of the space shows that most solutions await discovery. With consistent ansatze for the master equation, large classes of new unitary nests are constructed, including quadratic deformation nests with continuous conformal weights, and unitary irrational central charge nests, which may dominate unitary rational central charge on compact g.

  13. Ice crystal terminal velocities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, A.

    1972-01-01

    Terminal velocities of different ice crystal forms were calculated, using the most recent ice crystal drag coefficients, aspect ratios, and densities. The equations derived were primarily for use in calculating precipitation rates by sampling particles with an aircraft in cirrus clouds, and determining particle size in cirrus clouds by Doppler radar. However, the equations are sufficiently general for determining particle terminal velocity at any altitude, and almost any crystal type. Two sets of equations were derived. The 'general' equations provide a good estimate of terminal velocities at any altitude. The 'specific' equations are a set of equations for ice crystal terminal velocities at 1000 mb. The calculations are in good agreement with terminal velocity measurements. The results from the present study were also compared to prior calculations by others and seem to give more reasonable results, particularly at higher altitudes.

  14. Toward Understanding Galaxy Clusters and Their Constituents: Projection Effects on Velocity Dispersion, X-Ray Emission, Mass Estimates, Gas Fraction, and Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue

    1997-08-01

    We study the projection effects on various observables of clusters of galaxies at redshift near zero, including cluster richness, velocity dispersion, X-ray luminosity, three total mass estimates (velocity-based, temperature-based, and gravitational lensing derived), gas fraction and substructure, utilizing a large simulation of a realistic cosmological model (a cold dark matter model with the following parameters: H0 = 65 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω0 = 0.4, Λ0 = 0.6, σ8 = 0.79). Unlike previous studies focusing on the Abell clusters, we conservatively assume that both optical and X-ray observations can determine the source (galaxy or hot X-ray gas) positions along the line of sight as well as in the sky plane accurately; hence, we only include sources inside the velocity space defined by the cluster galaxies (filtered through the pessimistic 3σ clipping algorithm) as possible contamination sources. Projection effects are found to be important for some quantities but insignificant for others. We show that, on average, the gas to total mass ratio in clusters appears to be 30%-40% higher than its corresponding global ratio. Independent of its mean value, the broadness of the observed distribution of gas to total mass ratio is adequately accounted for by projection effects, alleviating (though not preventing) the need to invoke other nongravitational physical processes. While the moderate boost in the ratio narrows the gap, it is still not quite sufficient to reconcile the standard nucleosynthesis value of Ωb = 0.0125(H0/100)-2 (Walker et al. 1991) and Ω0 = 1 with the observed gas to mass ratio value in clusters of galaxies, 0.05(H0/100)-3/2, for any plausible value of H0. However, it is worth noting that real observations of X-ray clusters, especially X-ray imaging observations, may be subject to more projection contaminations than we allow for in our analysis. In contrast, the X-ray luminosity of a cluster within a radius <=1.0 h-1 Mpc is hardly altered by projection

  15. Use of high-resolution imagery acquired from an unmanned aircraft system for fluvial mapping and estimating water-surface velocity in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Bauer, M.; Feller, M.; Holmquist-Johnson, C.; Preston, T.

    2013-12-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for environmental monitoring in the United States is anticipated to increase in the coming years as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) further develops guidelines to permit their integration into the National Airspace System. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office routinely obtains Certificates of Authorization from the FAA for utilizing UAS technology for a variety of natural resource applications for the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). We evaluated the use of a small UAS along two reaches of the Platte River near Overton Nebraska, USA, to determine the accuracy of the system for mapping the extent and elevation of emergent sandbars and to test the ability of a hovering UAS to identify and track tracers to estimate water-surface velocity. The UAS used in our study is the Honeywell Tarantula Hawk RQ16 (T-Hawk), developed for the U.S. Army as a reconnaissance and surveillance platform. The T-Hawk has been recently modified by USGS, and certified for airworthiness by the DOI - Office of Aviation Services, to accommodate a higher-resolution imaging payload than was originally deployed with the system. The T-Hawk is currently outfitted with a Canon PowerShot SX230 HS with a 12.1 megapixel resolution and intervalometer to record images at a user defined time step. To increase the accuracy of photogrammetric products, orthoimagery and DEMs using structure-from-motion (SFM) software, we utilized ground control points in the study reaches and acquired imagery using flight lines at various altitudes (200-400 feet above ground level) and oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the river. Our results show that the mean error in the elevations derived from SFM in the upstream reach was 17 centimeters and horizontal accuracy was 6 centimeters when compared to 4 randomly distributed targets surveyed on emergent sandbars. In addition to the targets, multiple transects were

  16. Local Affinity Release.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Obermeyer, Jaclyn; Shoichet, Molly S

    2016-07-26

    The use of hydrogels for therapeutic delivery is a burgeoning area of investigation. These water-swollen polymer matrices are ideal platforms for localized drug delivery that can be further combined with specific ligands or nanotechnologies to advance the controlled release of small-molecule drugs and proteins. Due to the advantage of hydrophobic, electrostatic, or specific extracellular matrix interactions, affinity-based strategies can overcome burst release and challenges associated with encapsulation. Future studies will provide innovative binding tools, truly stimuli-responsive systems, and original combinations of emerging technologies to control the release of therapeutics spatially and temporally. Local drug delivery can be achieved by directly injecting a therapeutic to its site of action and is advantageous because off-target effects associated with systemic delivery can be minimized. For prolonged benefit, a vehicle that provides sustained drug release is required. Hydrogels are versatile platforms for localized drug release, owing to the large library of biocompatible building blocks from which they can be formed. Injectable hydrogel formulations that gel quickly in situ and provide sustained release of therapeutics are particularly advantageous to minimize invasiveness. The incorporation of polymers, ligands or nanoparticles that have an affinity for the therapeutic of interest improve control over the release of small-molecule drugs and proteins from hydrogels, enabling spatial and temporal control over the delivery. Such affinity-based strategies can overcome drug burst release and challenges associated with protein instability, allowing more effective therapeutic molecule delivery for a range of applications from therapeutic contact lenses to ischemic tissue regeneration. PMID:27403513

  17. Morphometric affinities of gigantopithecus.

    PubMed

    Gelvin, B R

    1980-11-01

    Multivariate analyses, supplemented by univariate statistical methods, of measurements from mandibular tooth crown dimensions and the mandible of Gigantopithecus blacki, G. bilaspurensis, Plio-Plelstocene hominids, Homo erectus, and seven Neogene ape species from the genera Proconsul, Sivapithecus, Ouranopithecus, and Dryopithecus were used to assess the morphometric affinities of Gigantopithecus. The results show that Gigantopithecus displays affinities to Ouranopithecus and to the hominids, particularly the Plio-Plelstocene hominids, rather than to the apes. Ouranopithecus demonstrated dental resemblances to G. bilaspurensis and the Plio-Pleistocene hominids but mandibular similarities to the apes. Results of analyses of tooth and mandibular shape indices, combined with multivariate distance and temporal relationships, suggest that Ouranopithecus is a more likely candidate for Gigantopithecus ancestry than is Silvapithecus indicus. Shape and allometric differences between G. bilaspurensis and the robust australopithecines weaken the argument for an ancestral-descendant relationship between these groups. The results support the hypothesis that Gigantopithecus is an extinct side branch of the Hominidae. PMID:7468790

  18. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  19. Analytical Estimation of Velocity and Temperature Fields in a Circular Pipe on the Basis of Stochastic Equations and Equivalence of Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    A stream of nonisothermal Newtonian liquid in a circular smooth pipe is considered on the basis of systems of stochastic equations and of the physical law of equivalence of measures between laminar and turbulent motions. Analytical expressions were previously obtained for isothermal flows for the first and second critical Reynolds numbers, critical point, indices of velocity profiles, second-order correlation moments, correlation functions, and spectral functions depending on the parameters of initial turbulence. Analytical expressions, obtained with the use of the earlier derived formulas for the critical Reynolds numbers and the critical points, are presented for the indices of velocity and temperature profiles as functions of the initial turbulence parameters as well as of the Eckert and Prandtl numbers.

  20. Estimation of site-specific deposition velocities and mass interception factor using 7Be and the prediction of deposition pattern of radionuclides at Kaiga site, India.

    PubMed

    James, J P; Ravi, P M; Joshi, R M; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2010-10-01

    Site-specific wet, dry deposition velocities and mass interception factors at Kaiga site, where three PHWR type power plants are operational, using 7Be as a tracer are presented. Mean wet and dry deposition velocities for Kaiga site were found to be 7.4 x 10(-2) m s(-1) and 3.0 x 10(-4) m s(-1), respectively. Mass interception factors for vegetation were found to be 0.7-5.6 m(2) kg(-1) dry weight with a mean of 2.4 m(2) kg(-1) dry weight. The site-specific data were used for the prediction of radionuclide distribution pattern in soil and vegetation in the case of a hypothetical air contamination. PMID:20616111

  1. Affinity chromatography: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hage, David S; Matsuda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most selective and versatile forms of liquid chromatography for the separation or analysis of chemicals in complex mixtures. This method makes use of a biologically related agent as the stationary phase, which provides an affinity column with the ability to bind selectively and reversibly to a given target in a sample. This review examines the early work in this method and various developments that have lead to the current status of this technique. The general principles of affinity chromatography are briefly described as part of this discussion. Past and recent efforts in the generation of new binding agents, supports, and immobilization methods for this method are considered. Various applications of affinity chromatography are also summarized, as well as the influence this field has played in the creation of other affinity-based separation or analysis methods. PMID:25749941

  2. PROGRESS REPORT. MATERIAL PROPERTY ESTIMATION FOR DIRECT DETECTION OF DNAPL USING INTEGRATED GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR VELOCITY, IMAGING AND ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material propert...

  3. ANNUAL REPORT. MATERIAL PROPERTY ESTIMATION FOR DIRECT DETECTION OF DNAPL USING INTEGRATED GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR VELOCITY, IMAGING, AND ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material propert...

  4. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  5. Infrasound array criteria for automatic detection and front velocity estimation of snow avalanches: towards a real-time early-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, E.; Ripepe, M.; Ulivieri, G.; Kogelnig, A.

    2015-11-01

    Avalanche risk management is strongly related to the ability to identify and timely report the occurrence of snow avalanches. Infrasound has been applied to avalanche research and monitoring for the last 20 years but it never turned into an operational tool to identify clear signals related to avalanches. We present here a method based on the analysis of infrasound signals recorded by a small aperture array in Ischgl (Austria), which provides a significant improvement to overcome this limit. The method is based on array-derived wave parameters, such as back azimuth and apparent velocity. The method defines threshold criteria for automatic avalanche identification by considering avalanches as a moving source of infrasound. We validate the efficiency of the automatic infrasound detection with continuous observations with Doppler radar and we show how the velocity of a snow avalanche in any given path around the array can be efficiently derived. Our results indicate that a proper infrasound array analysis allows a robust, real-time, remote detection of snow avalanches that is able to provide the number and the time of occurrence of snow avalanches occurring all around the array, which represent key information for a proper validation of avalanche forecast models and risk management in a given area.

  6. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  7. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC O-TYPE STARS. I. SHORT-TERM CONSTANT VELOCITY STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S. J.; Gies, D. R.; Hillwig, T. C.; McSwain, M. V.; Huang, W. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: mcswain@lehigh.edu

    2011-11-15

    We present radial velocities for 18 Galactic O-type stars. These stars display small radial velocity scatter over timescales of one to two weeks. Some of them are long-period binaries while others are probably single stars. By fitting model spectra to our observed spectra we obtain estimates for effective temperature, log g, rotational velocity, and average radial velocity for each target.

  8. Proton affinity of several basic non-standard amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rožman, Marko

    2012-08-01

    The structures and absolute proton affinities of several arginine (2-amino-3-guanidinopropionic acid, 2-amino-4-guanidinobutyric acid, homoarginine, citrulline and canavanine), histidine (1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine) and lysine (2,3-diaminopropanoic acid, 2,4-diaminobutanoic acid, ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, canaline and thialysine) homologues and analogues have been estimated using composite G3MP2B3 computational protocol. For a majority of here studied non-standard amino acids the gas-phase proton affinities were established for the first time, while for the others obtained values are used to improve the accuracy of the computational and experimental proton affinities reported previously. In addition, structures and proton affinities are discussed in order to rationalize their biological activity.

  9. Effects of pressure on pore characteristics and permeability of porous rocks as estimated from seismic wave velocities in cores from TCDP Hole-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Keigo; Takahashi, Miki; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Masuda, Koji; Ito, Hisao; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2010-09-01

    Changes in Vp/Vs (Poisson's ratio) around a fault are related to changes in the fluid transport properties of rocks, which play a significant role in seismogenic processes. Here we report a notable relationship between Vp/Vs and the permeability of porous fault-related rocks (Chelungpu fault, Taiwan) by direct and simultaneous measurement of elastic wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and permeability under increasing effective confining pressure (Peff) up to 25 MPa. Vp and Vs for all samples increased with Peff in the range up to 20 MPa, then were nearly constant as Peff increased to 25 MPa. Most silty sandstones with large proportions of fine-grained material showed positive correlations between Vp/Vs and permeability with rising pressure. On the other hand, well-sorted sandstones showed only slight changes in permeability with respect to Vp/Vs with rising pressure. We infer that grain size distributions, in particular the amount of silt- and clay-size grains, are responsible for the change in permeability with pressure as small particles clog pore networks with increasing Peff, causing the decrease in permeability. These findings may be useful to explain changes in permeability and pore pressure in the deep crust.

  10. Robust, automatic GPS station velocities and velocity time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Automation in GPS coordinate time series analysis makes results more objective and reproducible, but not necessarily as robust as the human eye to detect problems. Moreover, it is not a realistic option to manually scan our current load of >20,000 time series per day. This motivates us to find an automatic way to estimate station velocities that is robust to outliers, discontinuities, seasonality, and noise characteristics (e.g., heteroscedasticity). Here we present a non-parametric method based on the Theil-Sen estimator, defined as the median of velocities vij=(xj-xi)/(tj-ti) computed between all pairs (i, j). Theil-Sen estimators produce statistically identical solutions to ordinary least squares for normally distributed data, but they can tolerate up to 29% of data being problematic. To mitigate seasonality, our proposed estimator only uses pairs approximately separated by an integer number of years (N-δt)<(tj-ti )<(N+δt), where δt is chosen to be small enough to capture seasonality, yet large enough to reduce random error. We fix N=1 to maximally protect against discontinuities. In addition to estimating an overall velocity, we also use these pairs to estimate velocity time series. To test our methods, we process real data sets that have already been used with velocities published in the NA12 reference frame. Accuracy can be tested by the scatter of horizontal velocities in the North American plate interior, which is known to be stable to ~0.3 mm/yr. This presents new opportunities for time series interpretation. For example, the pattern of velocity variations at the interannual scale can help separate tectonic from hydrological processes. Without any step detection, velocity estimates prove to be robust for stations affected by the Mw7.2 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, and velocity time series show a clear change after the earthquake, without any of the usual parametric constraints, such as relaxation of postseismic velocities to their preseismic values.

  11. Estimation of the path-averaged wind velocity by cross-correlation of the received power and the shift of laser beam centroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakasov, Dmitri A.; Tsvyk, Ruvim S.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the problem of estimation of the average wind speed on atmospheric path from measurements of time series of average power of the laser radiation detected through the receiving aperture and the position of the centroid of the image of the laser beam. It is shown that the mutual correlation function of these series has a maximum, whose position characterizes the average speed of the cross wind on the path. The dependence of the coordinates and magnitude of the maximum of the correlation function from the size of the receiving aperture and the distribution of turbulence along the atmospheric path.

  12. Sensing light and sound velocities with phoxonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoudache, Samira; Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Pennec, Yan; Djafari Rouhani, Bahram; Khater, Antoine; Lucklum, Ralf; Tigrine, Rachid

    2014-04-01

    We study theoretically the potentiality of dual phononic-photonic (the so-called phoxonic) crystals for liquid sensing applications. We investigate the existence of well-defined features (peaks or dips) in the transmission spectra of acoustic and optical waves and estimate their sensitivity to the sound and light velocities of the liquid environment. Two different sensors are investigated. In the first one, we study the in-plane transmission through a two-dimensional (2D) crystal made of cylindrical holes in a Si substrate where one row of holes is filled with a liquid. In the second one, the out of plane propagation is investigated when considering the transmission of the incident wave perpendicular to a periodic array of holes in a slab. Such ultra compact structure is shown to be a label-free, affinity-based acoustic and optical nanosensor, useful for biosensing applications in which the amount of analyte can be often limited.

  13. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Sondek, John

    2004-09-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, and for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:18429272

  14. Overview of affinity tags for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Michelle E; Brill, Allison L; Pasker, Renee L

    2013-01-01

    Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein-protein interactions. This overview describes the historical basis for the development of affinity tags, affinity tags that are commonly used today, how to choose an appropriate affinity tag for a particular purpose, and several recently developed affinity tag technologies that may prove useful in the near future. PMID:24510596

  15. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    dispersal of colonies throughout the water column when the water column mixed more easily. RB was used to estimate suspended solids concentrations (SSC). Correlations of depth-integrated SSC with currents or air temperatures suggest that depth-integrated water column mass decreased under conditions of greater water column stability and weaker currents. Results suggest that the use of measured vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter as a surrogate for suspended material has the potential to contribute significant additional insight into dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae colonies in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon.

  16. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  17. Quantifying Affinity among Chinese Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A study of the relationships between Chinese dialects based on a quantitative measure of dialect affinity is summarized. First, tone values in all the dialect localities available in the early 1970s were used to calculate the dialectal differences in terms of tone height with respect to the "yin and yang" split. In the late 1970s, calculations of…

  18. Geostatistical Modeling of Pore Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Devary, J.L.; Doctor, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    A significant part of evaluating a geologic formation as a nuclear waste repository involves the modeling of contaminant transport in the surrounding media in the event the repository is breached. The commonly used contaminant transport models are deterministic. However, the spatial variability of hydrologic field parameters introduces uncertainties into contaminant transport predictions. This paper discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to the modeling of spatially varying hydrologic field parameters required as input to contaminant transport analyses. Kriging estimation techniques were applied to Hanford Reservation field data to calculate hydraulic conductivity and the ground-water potential gradients. These quantities were statistically combined to estimate the groundwater pore velocity and to characterize the pore velocity estimation error. Combining geostatistical modeling techniques with product error propagation techniques results in an effective stochastic characterization of groundwater pore velocity, a hydrologic parameter required for contaminant transport analyses.

  19. Accurate Evaluation Method of Molecular Binding Affinity from Fluctuation Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tyuji; Iwamoto, Koji; Ode, Hirotaka; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2008-05-01

    Exact estimation of the molecular binding affinity is significantly important for drug discovery. The energy calculation is a direct method to compute the strength of the interaction between two molecules. This energetic approach is, however, not accurate enough to evaluate a slight difference in binding affinity when distinguishing a prospective substance from dozens of candidates for medicine. Hence more accurate estimation of drug efficacy in a computer is currently demanded. Previously we proposed a concept of estimating molecular binding affinity, focusing on the fluctuation at an interface between two molecules. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the compatibility between the proposed computational technique and experimental measurements, through several examples for computer simulations of an association of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease and its inhibitor (an example for a drug-enzyme binding), a complexation of an antigen and its antibody (an example for a protein-protein binding), and a combination of estrogen receptor and its ligand chemicals (an example for a ligand-receptor binding). The proposed affinity estimation has proven to be a promising technique in the advanced stage of the discovery and the design of drugs.

  20. Theoretical proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Bera, Narayan C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji; Viggiano, Al A

    2010-12-23

    Proton affinity and fluoride affinity of nerve agent VX at all of its possible sites were calculated at the RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31G* and RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels, respectively. The protonation leads to various unique structures, with H(+) attached to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms; among which the nitrogen site possesses the highest proton affinity of -ΔE ∼ 251 kcal/mol, suggesting that this is likely to be the major product. In addition some H(2), CH(4) dissociation as well as destruction channels have been found, among which the CH(4) + [Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-S-(CH(2))(2)-N(+)(iPr)═CHMe] product and the destruction product forming Et-O-P(═O)(Me)-SMe + CH(2)═N(+)(iPr)(2) are only 9 kcal/mol less stable than the most stable N-protonated product. For fluoridization, the S-P destruction channel to give Et-O-P(═O)(Me)(F) + [S-(CH(2))(2)-N-(iPr)(2)](-) is energetically the most favorable, with a fluoride affinity of -ΔE ∼ 44 kcal. Various F(-) ion-molecule complexes are also found, with the one having F(-) interacting with two hydrogen atoms in different alkyl groups to be only 9 kcal/mol higher than the above destruction product. These results suggest VX behaves quite differently from surrogate systems. PMID:21117653

  1. Quantification of hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, G.; Nasholm, N.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    Colloids play an important role in a wide variety of disciplines, including water and wastewater treatment, subsurface transport of metals and organic contaminants, migration of fines in oil reservoirs, biocolloid (virus and bacteria) transport in subsurface, and are integral to laboratory transport studies. Although the role of hydrophobicity in adhesion and transport of colloids, particularly bacteria, is well known; there is scarcity of literature regarding hydrophobicity measurement of non-bacterial colloids and other micron-sized particles. Here we detail an experimental approach based on differential partitioning of colloids between two liquid phases (hydrocarbon and buffer) as a measure of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids. This assay, known as Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons or MATH, is frequently used in microbiology and bacteriology for quantifying the hydrophobicity of microbes. Monodispersed colloids and particles, with sizes ranging from 1 micron to 33 micron, were used for the experiments. A range of hydrophobicity values were observed for different particles. The hydrophobicity results are also verified against water contact angle measurements of these particles. This liquid-liquid partitioning assay is quick, easy-to-perform and requires minimal instrumentation. Estimation of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids would lead to a better understanding of their adhesion to different surfaces and subsequent transport in porous media.

  2. Affine and deformable registration based on polynomial expansion.

    PubMed

    Farnebäck, Gunnar; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a registration framework based on the polynomial expansion transform. The idea of polynomial expansion is that the image is locally approximated by polynomials at each pixel. Starting with observations of how the coefficients of ideal linear and quadratic polynomials change under translation and affine transformation, algorithms are developed to estimate translation and compute affine and deformable registration between a fixed and a moving image, from the polynomial expansion coefficients. All algorithms can be used for signals of any dimensionality. The algorithms are evaluated on medical data. PMID:17354971

  3. Lectin affinity chromatography of glycolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, B.V.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Since glycolipids (GLs) are either insoluble or form mixed micelles in water, lectin affinity chromatography in aqueous systems has not been applied to their separation. They have overcome this problem by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) in the mobile phase during chromatography. Affinity columns prepared with the GalNAc-specific Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and equilibrated in THF specifically bind the (/sup 3/H)oligosaccharide derived from Forssman GL indicating that the immobilized HPA retained its carbohydrate-binding specificity in this solvent. Intact Forssman GL was bound by the HPA-column equilibrated in THF and was specifically eluted with 0.1 mg/ml GalNAc in THF. Purification of the Forssman GL was achieved when a crude lipid extract of sheep erythrocyte membranes was applied to the HPA-column in THF. Non-specifically bound GLs were eluted from the column using a step gradient of aqueous buffer in THF, while the addition of GalNAc was required to elute the specifically bound GLs. Using this procedure the A-active GLs were purified from a crude lipid extract of type A human erythrocytes in a single chromatographic step. The use of solvents that maintain carbohydrate-binding specificity and lipid solubility will permit the application of affinity chromatography on immobilized carbohydrate-binding proteins to intact GLs.

  4. On the electron affinity of the oxygen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.; Partridge, H.; Taylor, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The electron affinity (EA) of oxygen is computed to be 1.287 eV, using 2p electron full configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions expanded in a 6s5p3d2f Slater-type orbital basis. The best complete active space self-consistent field - multireference CI (CASSCF-MRCI) result including only 2p correlation is 1.263 eV. However, inclusion of 2s intrashell and 2s2p intershell correlation increases the computed EA to 1.290 at the CASSCF-MRCI level. At the full CI basis set limit, the 2s contribution to the electron affinity is estimated to be as large as 0.1 eV. This study clearly establishes the synergistic effect between the higher excitations and basis set completeness on the electron affinity when the 2s electrons are correlated.

  5. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yip, T T; Hutchens, T W

    1992-01-01

    Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) (1,2) is also referred to as metal chelate chromatography, metal ion interaction chromatography, and ligand-exchange chromatography. We view this affinity separation technique as an intermediate between highly specific, high-affinity bioaffinity separation methods, and wider spectrum, low-specificity adsorption methods, such as ion exchange. The IMAC stationary phases are designed to chelate certain metal ions that have selectivity for specific groups (e.g., His residues) in peptides (e.g., 3-7) and on protein surfaces (8-13). The number of stationary phases that can be synthesized for efficient chelation of metal ions is unlimited, but the critical consideration is that there must be enough exposure of the metal ion to interact with the proteins, preferably in a biospecific manner. Several examples are presented in Fig. 1. The challenge to produce new immobilized chelating groups, including protein surface metal-binding domains (14,15) is being explored continuously. Table 1 presents a list of published procedures for the synthesis and use of stationary phases with immobilized chelating groups. This is by no means exhaustive, and is intended only to give an idea of the scope and versatility of IMAC. Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of several types of immobilized metal-chelating groups, including, iminodiacetate (IDA), tris(carboxymethyl) ethylenediamine (TED), and the metal-binding peptides (GHHPH)(n)G (where n = 1,2,3, and 5) (14,15). Table 1 Immobilized Chelating Groups and Metal Ions Used for Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography Chelating group Suitable metal ions Reference Commercial source Immodiacetate Transitional1,2 Pharmacia LKB Pierce Sigma Boehringer Mannheim TosoHaas 2-Hydroxy-3[N-(2- pyrtdylmethyl) glycme]propyl Transitional3 Not available ?-Alky1 mtrilo triacetic acid Transitional4 Not available Carboxymethylated asparhc acid Ca(II)13 Not available Tris (carboxy- methyl) ethylene Diamme

  6. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  7. Indian craniometric variability and affinities.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  8. Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  9. Wind Erosion Potential of Lacustrine and Alluvial Soils Before and After Disturbance in the Eastern Great Basin, USA: Estimating Threshold Friction Velocity Using Easier-to-Measure Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungard, C. W.; Boettinger, J. L.; Hipps, L.

    2015-12-01

    Disturbance of lacustrine and alluvial soils could increase aeolian dust emissions in the eastern Great Basin, but little is known about the susceptibility of these land surfaces to wind erosion. Threshold friction velocity (u*t ), a necessary parameter to estimate wind erosion potential, is difficult to accurately measure; methods to estimate u*t from alternate measurements would be useful. We measured u*t and sediment production rate with a portable wind tunnel, and quantified relationships between u*t and eleven easier-to-measure soil surface properties for both undisturbed and disturbed lacustrine and alluvial soils in Snake Valley, Utah. Soil surface type and disturbance significantly influenced u*t, sediment production rate, and the relationships between u*t and easier-to-measure soil surface properties. Only soils with surficial rock fragments and weak physical crusts reached u*t before disturbance, whereas all surface types reached u*t following disturbance. Soils with weak physical crusts had the lowest average u*t and highest average sediment production rate before and after disturbance. Surprisingly, however, disturbance reduced sediment production rate. Soils with weak physical crusts and surficial rock cover are likely the most susceptible to wind erosion and subsequent dust generation both before and after disturbance. Silt concentration and penetrometer resistance were significant predictors of u*t in undisturbed soils with weak physical crusts and surficial rock cover. Following disturbance, clay concentration and aggregate stability were significant predictors for soils with hard salt crusts and surficial rock cover. Prediction of u*t using alternate measurements is promising, but measurement uncertainty must be considered.

  10. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  11. Affine hypersurfaces with parallel difference tensor relative to affine α-connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cece

    2014-12-01

    Li and Zhang (2014) studied affine hypersurfaces of R n + 1 with parallel difference tensor relative to the affine α-connection ∇ (α), and characterized the generalized Cayley hypersurfaces by K n - 1 ≠ 0 and ∇ (α) K = 0 for some nonzero constant α, where the affine α-connection ∇ (α) of information geometry was introduced on affine hypersurface. In this paper, by a slightly different method we continue to study affine hypersurfaces with ∇ (α) K = 0, if α = 0 we further assume that the Pick invariant vanishes and affine metric is of constant sectional curvature. It is proved that they are either hyperquadrics or improper affine hypersphere with flat indefinite affine metric, the latter can be locally given as a graph of a polynomial of at most degree n + 1 with constant Hessian determinant. In particular, if the affine metric is definite, Lorentzian, or its negative index is 2, we complete the classification of such hypersurfaces.

  12. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  13. The maximal affinity of ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, I. D.; Chen, K.; Sharp, K. A.; Kollman, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    We explore the question of what are the best ligands for macromolecular targets. A survey of experimental data on a large number of the strongest-binding ligands indicates that the free energy of binding increases with the number of nonhydrogen atoms with an initial slope of ≈−1.5 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.18 J) per atom. For ligands that contain more than 15 nonhydrogen atoms, the free energy of binding increases very little with relative molecular mass. This nonlinearity is largely ascribed to nonthermodynamic factors. An analysis of the dominant interactions suggests that van der Waals interactions and hydrophobic effects provide a reasonable basis for understanding binding affinities across the entire set of ligands. Interesting outliers that bind unusually strongly on a per atom basis include metal ions, covalently attached ligands, and a few well known complexes such as biotin–avidin. PMID:10468550

  14. Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalen, Anthony; Schramm, David N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the scenario of a flat universe with a network of heavy cosmic strings as the primordial fluctuation spectrum. The joint probability of finding streaming velocities of at least 600 km/s on large scales and local peculiar velocities of less than 800 km/s is calculated. It is shown how the effects of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes can be estimated. It is found that to obtain large-scale streaming velocities of at least 600 km/s, it is necessary that either a large value for beta G mu exist or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable.

  15. Stochastic characterization of mesoscale seismic velocity heterogeneity in Long Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Nori; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's seismic velocity structure is heterogeneous at all scales, and mapping that heterogeneity provides insight into the processes that create it. At large scale lengths, seismic tomography is used to map Earth structure deterministically. At small scale lengths, structure can be imaged deterministically, but because it is impractical to image short-wavelength heterogeneity everywhere, we often resort to statistical methods to depict its variability. In this study, we develop random-field model representations of a 3-D P-wave velocity model at Long Beach, California, estimated from dense-array recordings of the ambient seismic wavefield. We focus on heterogeneity at the mesoscale, which is smaller than 10+ km scale of regional tomography but larger than the micro scale of borehole measurements. We explore four ellipsoidally anisotropic heterogeneity models, including von Kármán, Gaussian, self-affine and Kummer models, based on their autocorrelation functions. We find that the von Kármán model fits the imaged velocity model best among these options with a correlation length in the horizontal direction about five times greater than in the vertical direction, and with strong small-scale length variations. We validate our results by showing that our model accurately predicts the observed decay of scattered waves in the coda of a nearby earthquake, suggesting that quantitative measures of velocity variability will be useful for predicting high-frequency ground motion in earthquakes.

  16. Field comparison of the point velocity probe with other groundwater velocity measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaky, W.; Devlin, J. F.; Gillham, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    Field testing of a new tool for measuring groundwater velocities at the centimeter scale, the point velocity probe (PVP), was undertaken at Canadian Forces Base, Borden, Ontario, Canada. The measurements were performed in a sheet pile-bounded alleyway in which bulk flow rate and direction could be controlled. PVP velocities were compared with those estimated from bulk flow, a Geoflo® instrument, borehole dilution, colloidal borescope measurements, and a forced gradient tracer test. In addition, the velocity profiles were compared with vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) measured by permeameter testing of core samples and in situ high-resolution slug tests. There was qualitative agreement between the trends in velocity and K among all the various methods. The PVP and Geoflo® meter tests returned average velocity magnitudes of 30.2 ± 7.7 to 34.7 ± 13.1 cm/d (depending on prior knowledge of flow direction in PVP tests) and 36.5 ± 10.6, respectively, which were near the estimated bulk velocity (20 cm/d). The other direct velocity measurement techniques yielded velocity estimates 5 to 12 times the bulk velocity. Best results with the PVP instrument were obtained by jetting the instrument into place, though this method may have introduced a slight positive bias to the measured velocities. The individual estimates of point velocity direction varied, but the average of the point velocity directions agreed quite well with the expected bulk flow direction. It was concluded that the PVP method is a viable technique for use in the field, where high-resolution velocity data are required.

  17. Protein Complex Purification by Affinity Capture.

    PubMed

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Affinity capture has become a powerful technique for consistently purifying endogenous protein complexes, facilitating biochemical and biophysical assays on otherwise inaccessible biological assemblies, and enabling broader interactomic exploration. For this procedure, cells are broken and their contents separated and extracted into a solvent, permitting access to target macromolecular complexes thus released in solution. The complexes are specifically enriched from the extract onto a solid medium coupled with an affinity reagent-usually an antibody-that recognizes the target either directly or through an appended affinity tag, allowing subsequent characterization of the complex. Here, we discuss approaches and considerations for purifying endogenous yeast protein complexes by affinity capture. PMID:27371601

  18. A Novel Vertex Affinity for Community Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Andy; Sanders, Geoffrey; Henson, Van; Vassilevski, Panayot

    2015-10-05

    We propose a novel vertex affinity measure in this paper. The new vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength and is ideal for such graph analytics applications as community detection. We also developed a framework that combines simple graph searches and resistance circuit formulas to compute the vertex affinity efficiently. We study the properties of the new affinity measure empirically in comparison to those of other popular vertex proximity metrics. Our results show that the existing metrics are ill-suited for community detection due to their lack of fundamental properties that are essential for correctly capturing inter- and intra-cluster vertex proximity.

  19. Structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Largent, B.L.; Wikstroem, H.G.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-12-01

    The structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity have been evaluated by examining a wide range of compounds related to opioids, neuroleptics, and phenylpiperidine dopaminergic structures for affinity at sigma receptor-binding sites labeled with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP. Among opioid compounds, requirements for sigma receptor affinity differ strikingly from the determinants of affinity for conventional opiate receptors. Sigma sites display reverse stereoselectivity to classical opiate receptors. Multi-ringed opiate-related compounds such as morphine and naloxone have negligible affinity for sigma sites, with the highest sigma receptor affinity apparent for benzomorphans which lack the C ring of opioids. Highest affinity among opioids and other compounds occurs with more lipophilic N-substituents. This feature is particularly striking among the 3-PPP derivatives as well as the opioids. The butyrophenone haloperidol is the most potent drug at sigma receptors we have detected. Among the series of butyrophenones, receptor affinity is primarily associated with the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety. Conformational calculations for various compounds indicate a fairly wide range of tolerance for distances between the aromatic ring and the amine nitrogen, which may account for the potency at sigma receptors of structures of considerable diversity. Among the wide range of structures that bind to sigma receptor-binding sites, the common pharmacophore associated with high receptor affinity is a phenylpiperidine with a lipophilic N-substituent.

  20. Compact noncontraction semigroups of affine operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voynov, A. S.; Protasov, V. Yu

    2015-07-01

    We analyze compact multiplicative semigroups of affine operators acting in a finite-dimensional space. The main result states that every such semigroup is either contracting, that is, contains elements of arbitrarily small operator norm, or all its operators share a common invariant affine subspace on which this semigroup is contracting. The proof uses functional difference equations with contraction of the argument. We look at applications to self-affine partitions of convex sets, the investigation of finite affine semigroups and the proof of a criterion of primitivity for nonnegative matrix families. Bibliography: 32 titles.

  1. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how ...

  2. Background correction using dinucleotide affinities improves the performance of GCRMA

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Fodor, Anthony A; Gibas, Cynthia J

    2008-01-01

    Background High-density short oligonucleotide microarrays are a primary research tool for assessing global gene expression. Background noise on microarrays comprises a significant portion of the measured raw data, which can have serious implications for the interpretation of the generated data if not estimated correctly. Results We introduce an approach to calculate probe affinity based on sequence composition, incorporating nearest-neighbor (NN) information. Our model uses position-specific dinucleotide information, instead of the original single nucleotide approach, and adds up to 10% to the total variance explained (R2) when compared to the previously published model. We demonstrate that correcting for background noise using this approach enhances the performance of the GCRMA preprocessing algorithm when applied to control datasets, especially for detecting low intensity targets. Conclusion Modifying the previously published position-dependent affinity model to incorporate dinucleotide information significantly improves the performance of the model. The dinucleotide affinity model enhances the detection of differentially expressed genes when implemented as a background correction procedure in GeneChip preprocessing algorithms. This is conceptually consistent with physical models of binding affinity, which depend on the nearest-neighbor stacking interactions in addition to base-pairing. PMID:18947404

  3. Balance Velocities of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, Ian; Fahnestock, Mark; Ekholm, Simon; Kwok, Ron

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetry data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail the location of an ice stream in northeastern Greenland, which was only recently discovered using satellite imagery. Enhanced flow associated with all of the major outlets is clearly visible, although small errors in the source data result in less accurate estimates of the absolute flow speeds. Nevertheless, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning.

  4. Structure of classical affine and classical affine fractional W-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2015-01-15

    We introduce a classical BRST complex (See Definition 3.2.) and show that one can construct a classical affine W-algebra via the complex. This definition clarifies that classical affine W-algebras can be considered as quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-algebras. We also give a definition of a classical affine fractional W-algebra as a Poisson vertex algebra. As in the classical affine case, a classical affine fractional W-algebra has two compatible λ-brackets and is isomorphic to an algebra of differential polynomials as a differential algebra. When a classical affine fractional W-algebra is associated to a minimal nilpotent, we describe explicit forms of free generators and compute λ-brackets between them. Provided some assumptions on a classical affine fractional W-algebra, we find an infinite sequence of integrable systems related to the algebra, using the generalized Drinfel’d and Sokolov reduction.

  5. Dust particle velocity measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielman, L. O.

    1976-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter was used to measure the velocity distributions for particles entering a vacuum chamber from the atmosphere through calibrated leaks. The relative number of particles per velocity interval was obtained for particulates of three size distributions and two densities passing through six different leak geometries. The velocity range 15 to 320 meters per second was investigated. Peak particle velocities were found to occur in the 15 to 150 meters per second range depending upon type of particle and leak geometry. A small fraction of the particles were found to have velocities in the 150 to 320 meters per second range.

  6. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Scaling analysis of affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Furtlehner, Cyril; Sebag, Michèle; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2010-06-01

    We analyze and exploit some scaling properties of the affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm proposed by Frey and Dueck [Science 315, 972 (2007)]. Following a divide and conquer strategy we setup an exact renormalization-based approach to address the question of clustering consistency, in particular, how many cluster are present in a given data set. We first observe that the divide and conquer strategy, used on a large data set hierarchically reduces the complexity O(N2) to O(N((h+2)/(h+1))) , for a data set of size N and a depth h of the hierarchical strategy. For a data set embedded in a d -dimensional space, we show that this is obtained without notably damaging the precision except in dimension d=2 . In fact, for d larger than 2 the relative loss in precision scales such as N((2-d)/(h+1)d). Finally, under some conditions we observe that there is a value s* of the penalty coefficient, a free parameter used to fix the number of clusters, which separates a fragmentation phase (for ss*) of the underlying hidden cluster structure. At this precise point holds a self-similarity property which can be exploited by the hierarchical strategy to actually locate its position, as a result of an exact decimation procedure. From this observation, a strategy based on AP can be defined to find out how many clusters are present in a given data set. PMID:20866473

  8. Interval velocity analysis using wave field continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhusheng, Z. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposes a new interval velocity inversion method which, based on wave field continuation theory and fuzzy decision theory, uses CMP seismic gathers to automatically estimate interval velocity and two-way travel time in layered medium. The interval velocity calculated directly from wave field continuation is not well consistent with that derived from VSP data, the former is usually higher than the latter. Three major factors which influence the accuracy of interval velocity from wave field continuation are corrected, so that the two kinds of interval velocity are well consistent. This method brings better interval velocity, adapts weak reflection waves and resists noise well. It is a feasible method.

  9. Methods for Improving Aptamer Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hijiri; Savory, Nasa; Abe, Koichi; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides that bind a wide range of biological targets. Although aptamers can be isolated from pools of random sequence oligonucleotides using affinity-based selection, aptamers with high affinities are not always obtained. Therefore, further refinement of aptamers is required to achieve desired binding affinities. The optimization of primary sequences and stabilization of aptamer conformations are the main approaches to refining the binding properties of aptamers. In particular, sequence optimization using combined in silico sequence recombinations and in vitro functional evaluations is effective for the improvement of binding affinities, however, the binding affinities of aptamers are limited by the low hydrophobicity of nucleic acids. Accordingly, introduction of hydrophobic moieties into aptamers expands the diversity of interactions between aptamers and targets. Moreover, construction of multivalent aptamers by connecting aptamers that recognize distinct epitopes is an attractive approach to substantial increases in binding affinity. In addition, binding affinities can be tuned by optimizing the scaffolds of multivalent constructs. In this review, we summarize the various techniques for improving the binding affinities of aptamers. PMID:27043498

  10. Affine root systems and dual numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyakov, I. V.; Gromov, N. A.; Kuratov, V. V.

    The root systems in Carroll spaces with degenerate metric are defined. It is shown that their Cartan matrices and reflection groups are affine. Due to the geometric consideration the root system structure of affine algebras is determined by a sufficiently simple algorithm.

  11. Loop realizations of quantum affine algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Cautis, Sabin; Licata, Anthony

    2012-12-15

    We give a simplified description of quantum affine algebras in their loop presentation. This description is related to Drinfeld's new realization via halves of vertex operators. We also define an idempotent version of the quantum affine algebra which is suitable for categorification.

  12. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  13. Isotope shift in the electron affinity of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Bubin, Sergiy; Komasa, Jacek; Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2009-12-21

    Very accurate electron affinity (EA) calculations of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li (and {sup {infinity}L}i) have been performed using explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and a variational approach that explicitly includes the nuclear motion in the calculations (i.e., the approach that does not assume the Born-Oppenheimer approximation). The leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections to the electron affinities were also calculated. The results are the most accurate theoretical values obtained for the studied systems to date. Our best estimates of the {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li EAs are 4984.9842(30) and 4984.9015(30) cm{sup -1}, respectively, and of the {sup 7}Li/{sup 6}Li EA isotope shift is 0.0827 cm{sup -1}.

  14. Rapid D-Affine Biventricular Cardiac Function with Polar Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen; Cowan, Brett; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Occleshaw, Christopher; Young, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    Although many solutions have been proposed for left ventricular functional analysis of the heart, right and left (bi-) ventricular function has been problematic due to the complex geometry and large motions. Biventricular function is particularly important in congenital heart disease, the most common type of birth defects. We describe a rapid interactive analysis tool for biventricular function which incorporates 1) a 3D+ time finite element model of biventricular geometry, 2) a fast prediction step which estimates an initial geometry in a polar coordinate system, and 3) a Cartesian update which penalizes deviations from affine transformations (D-Affine) from a prior. Solution times were very rapid, enabling interaction in real time using guide point modeling. The method was applied to 13 patients with congenital heart disease and compared with the clinical gold standard of manual tracing. Results between the methods showed good correlation (R2 > 0.9) and good precision (volume<17ml; mass<11g) for both chambers. PMID:25485422

  15. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  16. Robust adaptive control for a class of uncertain non-affine nonlinear systems using affine-type neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shitie; Gao, Xianwen

    2016-08-01

    A robust adaptive control is proposed for a class of single-input single-output non-affine nonlinear systems. In order to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, a novel affine-type neural network is used, and then to compensate the approximation error and external disturbance a robust control term is employed. By Lyapunov stability analysis for the closed-loop system, it is proved that tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero. Moreover, an observer is designed to estimate the system states because all the states may not be available for measurements. Furthermore, the adaptation laws of neural networks and the robust controller are given out based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  17. About measuring velocity dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellhauer, M.

    A lot of our knowledge about the dynamics and total masses of pressure dominated stellar systems relies on measuring the internal velocity disper- sion of the system. We assume virial equilibrium and that we are able to measure only the bound stars of the system without any contamination. This article shows how likely it is to measure the correct velocity dispersion in reality. It will show that as long as we have small samples of velocity mea- surements the distribution of possible outcomes can be very large and as soon as we have a source of error the velocity dispersion can wrong by several standard deviations especially in large samples.

  18. Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.

    PubMed

    Taussig, Michael J

    2016-09-25

    The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. PMID:27118167

  19. Optimized Affinity Capture of Yeast Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    LaCava, John; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Rout, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe an affinity isolation protocol. It uses cryomilled yeast cell powder for producing cell extracts and antibody-conjugated paramagnetic beads for affinity capture. Guidelines for determining the optimal extraction solvent composition are provided. Captured proteins are eluted in a denaturing solvent (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer) for gel-based proteomic analyses. Although the procedures can be modified to use other sources of cell extract and other forms of affinity media, to date we have consistently obtained the best results with the method presented. PMID:27371596

  20. Aptamers in Affinity Separations: Stationary Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelet, Corinne; Peyrin, Eric

    The use of DNA or RNA aptamers as tools in analytical chemistry is a very promising field of research because of their capabilities to bind specifically the target molecules with an affinity similar to that of antibodies. Notably, they appear to be of great interest as target-specific ligands for the separation and capture of various analytes in affinity chromatography and related affinity-based methods such as magnetic bead technology. In this chapter, the recent developments of these aptamer-based separation/capture approaches are addressed.

  1. Affinity purification of heme-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Asher, Wesley B; Bren, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Protein affinity purification techniques are widely used for isolating pure target proteins for biochemical and structural characterization. Herein, we describe the protocol for affinity-based purification of proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that uses the coordination of a peptide tag covalently modified with heme c, known as a heme-tag, to an L-histidine immobilized Sepharose resin. This approach provides an affinity purification tag visible to the eye, facilitating tracking of the protein. In addition, we describe methods for specifically detecting heme-tagged proteins in SDS-PAGE gels using a heme-staining procedure and for quantifying the proteins using a pyridine hemochrome assay. PMID:24943311

  2. Characterizing informative sequence descriptors and predicting binding affinities of heterodimeric protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in various biological processes, and underlying mechanism of the interactions plays a crucial role in therapeutics and protein engineering. Most machine learning approaches have been developed for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes based on structure and functional information. This work aims to predict the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes from sequences only. Results This work proposes a support vector machine (SVM) based binding affinity classifier, called SVM-BAC, to classify heterodimeric protein complexes based on the prediction of their binding affinity. SVM-BAC identified 14 of 580 sequence descriptors (physicochemical, energetic and conformational properties of the 20 amino acids) to classify 216 heterodimeric protein complexes into low and high binding affinity. SVM-BAC yielded the training accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, AUC and test accuracy of 85.80%, 0.89, 0.83, 0.86 and 83.33%, respectively, better than existing machine learning algorithms. The 14 features and support vector regression were further used to estimate the binding affinities (Pkd) of 200 heterodimeric protein complexes. Prediction performance of a Jackknife test was the correlation coefficient of 0.34 and mean absolute error of 1.4. We further analyze three informative physicochemical properties according to their contribution to prediction performance. Results reveal that the following properties are effective in predicting the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes: apparent partition energy based on buried molar fractions, relations between chemical structure and biological activity in principal component analysis IV, and normalized frequency of beta turn. Conclusions The proposed sequence-based prediction method SVM-BAC uses an optimal feature selection method to identify 14 informative features to classify and predict binding affinity of heterodimeric protein

  3. PRINCIPLES OF AFFINITY-BASED BIOSENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the amount of resources that have been invested by national and international academic, government, and commercial sectors to develop affinity-based biosensor products, little obvious success has been realized through commercialization of these devices for specific applic...

  4. Minimal information to determine affine shape equivalence.

    PubMed

    Wagemans, J; Van Gool, L; Lamote, C; Foster, D H

    2000-04-01

    Participants judged the affine equivalence of 2 simultaneously presented 4-point patterns. Performance level (d') varied between 1.5 and 2.7, depending on the information available for solving the correspondence problem (insufficient in Experiment 1a, superfluous in Experiment 1b, and minimal in Experiments 1c, 2a, 2b) and on the exposure time (unlimited in Experiments 1 and 2a and 500 ms in Experiment 2b), but it did not vary much with the complexity of the affine transformation (rotation and slant in Experiment 1 and same plus tilt in Experiment 2). Performance in Experiment 3 was lower with 3-point patterns than with 4-point patterns, whereas blocking the trials according to the affine transformation parameters had little effect. Determining affine shape equivalence with minimal-information displays is based on a fast assessment of qualitatively or quasi-invariant properties such as convexity/ concavity, parallelism, and collinearity. PMID:10811156

  5. Protein purification using PDZ affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains function in nature as protein-binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise approximately 90 residues and undergo specific, high-affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, other PDZ domains, and/or phospholipids. We have previously shown that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. This unit provides protocols for the PDZ affinity chromatography procedure that are applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domains or PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We detail the preparation of affinity resins composed of PDZ domains or PDZ domain peptide ligands coupled to solid supports. These resins can be used to purify proteins containing endogenous or genetically introduced PDZ domains or ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands. PMID:25829303

  6. Visualizing antibody affinity maturation in germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Tas, Jeroen M J; Mesin, Luka; Pasqual, Giulia; Targ, Sasha; Jacobsen, Johanne T; Mano, Yasuko M; Chen, Casie S; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Browne, Edward P; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Victora, Gabriel D

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies somatically mutate to attain high affinity in germinal centers (GCs). There, competition between B cell clones and among somatic mutants of each clone drives an increase in average affinity across the population. The extent to which higher-affinity cells eliminating competitors restricts clonal diversity is unknown. By combining multiphoton microscopy and sequencing, we show that tens to hundreds of distinct B cell clones seed each GC and that GCs lose clonal diversity at widely disparate rates. Furthermore, efficient affinity maturation can occur in the absence of homogenizing selection, ensuring that many clones can mature in parallel within the same GC. Our findings have implications for development of vaccines in which antibodies with nonimmunodominant specificities must be elicited, as is the case for HIV-1 and influenza. PMID:26912368

  7. Stepwise shockwave velocity determinator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Timothy E.; Beeson, Harold

    1992-01-01

    To provide an uncomplicated and inexpensive method for measuring the far-field velocity of a surface shockwave produced by an explosion, a stepwise shockwave velocity determinator (SSVD) was developed. The velocity determinator is constructed of readily available materials and works on the principle of breaking discrete sensors composed of aluminum foil contacts. The discrete sensors have an average breaking threshold of approximately 7 kPa. An incremental output step of 250 mV is created with each foil contact breakage and is logged by analog-to-digital instrumentation. Velocity data obtained from the SSVD is within approximately 11 percent of the calculated surface shockwave velocity of a muzzle blast from a 30.06 rifle.

  8. Variation in ejecta size with ejection velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickery, Ann M.

    1987-01-01

    The sizes and ranges of over 25,000 secondary craters around twelve large primaries on three different planets were measured and used to infer the size-velocity distribution of that portion of the primary crater ejecta that produced the secondaries. The ballistic equation for spherical bodies was used to convert the ranges to velocities, and the velocities and crater sizes were used in the appropriate Schmidt-Holsapple scaling relation of estimate ejecta sizes, and the velocity exponent was determined. The latter are generally between -1 and -13, with an average value of about -1.9. Problems with data collection made it impossible to determine a simple, unique relation between size and velocity.

  9. Genetic affinities of central China populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H Y; Wang, H W; Tan, S N; Chen, Y; Wang, W L; Tao, H X; Yin, Z C; Zou, Y H; Ouyang, S M; Ni, B

    2014-01-01

    Hunan locates in the south-central part of China, to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting. According to the historical records, the peopling of Hunan by modern human ancestors can ascend to 40 thousand years ago. Thus, to trace the ancient maternal components can offer further insight into the origin of south-central China. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA of 114 individuals from Hunan Province (including 34 Han, 40 Tujia and 40 Miao). Hypervariable regions I and II of the mtDNA control region were sequenced, and the relative diagnostic variations in coding region according to the updated worldwide phylogeny tree were selected and typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or direct sequencing. All individuals were classified into specific (sub)haplogroups. By comparison with the surrounding populations, southern China-prevalent haplogroups were detected with relative higher frequency in the Tujia and Miao ethnic populations, such as haplogroup B, with more than 20%, lacking in the Han population, which illustrated its southern origin characters. In addition, we also detected northern of East Asia prevalent haplogroups with a relative higher frequency in Tujia populations than in the Miao and Yao ethnic groups, implying a gene flow from Han populations. However, the language-clustering tendency was supported by our principal component analysis and further genetic estimation results. Han and ethnic groups in central China exhibited specific ancestors related to their closer language affinity, although there was extensively genetic admixture between Han and ethnic groups. PMID:24615027

  10. Affinity learning with diffusion on tensor product graph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingwei; Prasad, Lakshman; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, we are given a finite set of data points sampled from a data manifold and represented as a graph with edge weights determined by pairwise similarities of the samples. Often the pairwise similarities (which are also called affinities) are unreliable due to noise or due to intrinsic difficulties in estimating similarity values of the samples. As observed in several recent approaches, more reliable similarities can be obtained if the original similarities are diffused in the context of other data points, where the context of each point is a set of points most similar to it. Compared to the existing methods, our approach differs in two main aspects. First, instead of diffusing the similarity information on the original graph, we propose to utilize the tensor product graph (TPG) obtained by the tensor product of the original graph with itself. Since TPG takes into account higher order information, it is not a surprise that we obtain more reliable similarities. However, it comes at the price of higher order computational complexity and storage requirement. The key contribution of the proposed approach is that the information propagation on TPG can be computed with the same computational complexity and the same amount of storage as the propagation on the original graph. We prove that a graph diffusion process on TPG is equivalent to a novel iterative algorithm on the original graph, which is guaranteed to converge. After its convergence we obtain new edge weights that can be interpreted as new, learned affinities. We stress that the affinities are learned in an unsupervised setting. We illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach for data manifolds composed of shapes, images, and image patches on two very different tasks of image retrieval and image segmentation. With learned affinities, we achieve the bull's eye retrieval score of 99.99 percent on the MPEG-7 shape dataset, which is much higher than the state-of-the-art algorithms. When the data

  11. A novel gigaporous GSH affinity medium for high-speed affinity chromatography of GST-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongdong; Zhang, Rongyue; Li, Juan; Li, Qiang; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2014-03-01

    Novel GSH-AP (phenoxyl agarose coated gigaporous polystyrene, Agap-co-PSt) microspheres were successfully prepared by introducing GSH ligand into hydrophilic AP microspheres pre-activated with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The gigaporous structure and chromatographic properties of GSH-AP medium were evaluated and compared with commercial GSH Sepharose FF (GSH-FF) medium. The macropores (100-500nm) of gigaporous PSt microspheres were well maintained after coating with agarose and functionalized with GSH ligand. Hydrodynamic experiments showed that GSH-AP column had less backpressure and plate height than those of GSH-FF column at high flow velocity, which was beneficial for its use in high-speed chromatography. The presence of flow-through pores in GSH-AP microspheres also accelerated the mass transfer rate of biomolecules induced by convective flow, leading to high protein resolution and high dynamic binding capacity (DBC) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) at high flow velocity. High purity of GST and GST-tagged recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1RA) were obtained from crude extract with an acceptable recovery yield within 1.5min at a velocity up to 1400cm/h. GSH-AP medium is promising for high-speed affinity chromatography for the purification of GST and GST-tagged proteins. PMID:24269760

  12. An affine projection algorithm using grouping selection of input vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, JaeWook; Kong, NamWoong; Park, PooGyeon

    2011-10-01

    This paper present an affine projection algorithm (APA) using grouping selection of input vectors. To improve the performance of conventional APA, the proposed algorithm adjusts the number of the input vectors using two procedures: grouping procedure and selection procedure. In grouping procedure, the some input vectors that have overlapping information for update is grouped using normalized inner product. Then, few input vectors that have enough information for for coefficient update is selected using steady-state mean square error (MSE) in selection procedure. Finally, the filter coefficients update using selected input vectors. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has small steady-state estimation errors comparing with the existing algorithms.

  13. Affinity engineering of maltoporin: variants with enhanced affinity for particular ligands.

    PubMed

    Clune, A; Lee, K S; Ferenci, T

    1984-05-31

    Affinity-chromatographic selection on immobilized starch was used to selectively enhance the affinity of the maltodextrin-specific pore protein ( maltoporin , LamB protein, or lambda receptor protein) in the outer membrane of E. coli. Selection strategies were established for rare bacteria in large populations producing maltoporin variants with enhanced affinities for both starch and maltose, for starch but not maltose and for maltose but not starch. Three classes of lamB mutants with up to eight-fold increase in affinity for particular ligands were isolated. These mutants provide a unique range of modifications in the specificity of a transport protein. PMID:6375667

  14. FAME Radial Velocity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S.; Gould, A.

    2000-12-01

    Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) belongs to a new generation of astrometry satellites and will probe the surrounding space some 20 times deeper than its predecessor Hipparcos. As a result we will acquire precise knowledge of 5 out of 6 components of phase-space for millions of stars. The remaining coordinate, radial velocity, will remain unknown. In this study, we look at how the knowledge of radial velocity affects the determination of the structure of the Galaxy, and its gravitational potential. We therefore propose a radial velocity survey of FAME stars, and discuss its feasibility and technical requirements.

  15. Affinity measurement of single chain antibodies: a mathematical method facilitated by statistical software SigmaPlot.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Yaghoub; Farajnia, Safar; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Khalili, Masoumeh; Jaliani, Hossein Zarei

    2014-02-01

    Because they are monovalent for antigen, single chain antibodies display a different antibody-antigen interaction pattern from that of full-length antibodies. Using the law of mass action and considering the antibody-antigen binding pattern at OD-100% and OD-50% points, we introduced a formula for estimating single chain antibody affinity. Sigmoid curves of optical density values versus antibody concentrations were drawn and used to determine antibody concentrations at OD-50% points using statistical software SigmaPlot. The OD-50% points were then used to calculate the affinity via the mathematical formula. A software-adapted format of the equation is also presented for further facilitation of the calculation process. The accuracy of this method for affinity calculation was proved by surface plasma resonance. This method offers a precise evaluation of antibody affinity without requiring special material or apparatus, making it possible to be performed in any biological laboratory with minimum facilities. PMID:24555931

  16. Disk Galaxy Stellar Velocity Ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, M. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Andersen, D. R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    We have measured the disk stellar velocity ellipsoids in a subset of spiral galaxies observed for the Disk-Mass Survey, which provide information on disk stability and secular heating mechanisms. Our methodology invokes our 2D ionized gas and stellar kinematics and a suite of dynamical assumptions based on the Jeans' equations. When combined with orthogonal axes from our 2D data, either the epicycle approximation (EA) or asymmetric drift (AD) equation may close the necessary equation set, individually. We have isolated large observational and inherent systematic effects via EA-only, AD-only, and EA+AD ellipsoid decomposition methodologies. In an attempt to minimize these effects and generate robust ellipsoid measurements we explore constraints provided by higher order expansions of the Jeans' equations and direct orbital integrations. We compare our best ellipsoid axial ratio estimates to similar measurements made by, e.g., van der Kruit & de Grijs (1999, A&A, 352, 129) and Shapiro et al. (2003, AJ, 126, 2707). Finally, we discuss possibilities for the measurement of vertical velocity dispersions in low-surface-brightness galaxies by applying the characterization of the stellar velocity ellipsoid in late-type galaxies. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (AST-0607516).

  17. Simulations of High Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Robin

    Recently, a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding clouds of fast moving material within and near our Galaxy. Not only have observations revealed more clouds and enabled better distance estimates, but they have found large numbers of high velocity high ions. Observations of faint stars have revealed that our Galaxy is threaded with streams of stars, the likely remnants of subsumed dwarf galaxies. It has become apparent that the gas stripped from such galaxies likely contributed to the population of high velocity clouds (HVCs), making HVCs signposts of the Milky Way's growth via accretion. Theoretical and simulational work on this explanation for HVCs have advanced as have theoretical and simulational work on other explanations and on HVC-galaxy interactions. But, much work has yet to be done. Here, we propose a suite of multi-dimensional simulations of HVC-galaxy interactions designed to determine how HVCs affect the Galaxy and designed to determine the characteristics of the clouds and environmental gas that enable high velocity gas to be rich in high stage ions. This work will contribute toward NASA's strategic goal to discover how the universe works and evolves. The project will employ simulations and theory, while also producing results that will be helpful for deciphering vast numbers of observations taken by NASA telescopes.

  18. Best approximation of functions in L{sub p} by polynomials on affine system

    SciTech Connect

    Terekhin, Pavel A

    2011-02-28

    Estimates of the best L{sub p}-approximation of functions by polynomials in an affine system (system of dilations and translations), which are similar to well-known estimates due to Ul'yanov and Golubov for approximations in the Haar system, are obtained. An analogue of A.F. Timan and M.F. Timan's inequality is shown to hold under certain conditions on the generating function of the affine system; this analogue fails for the Haar system for 1

  19. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  20. Investigation of Slipstream Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr

    1925-01-01

    These experiments were made at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, to investigate the velocity of the air in the slipstream in horizontal and climbing flight to determine the form of expression giving the slipstream velocity in terms of the airspeed of the airplane. The method used consisted in flying the airplane both on a level course and in climb at full throttle and measuring the slipstream velocity at seven points in the slipstream for the whole speed range of the airplane in both conditions. In general the results show that for both condition, horizontal and climbing flights, the slipstream velocity v subscript 3 and airspeed v can be represented by straight lines and consequently the equations are of the form: v subscript s = mv+b where m and b are constant. (author)

  1. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  2. Velocity of Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a method for the determination of the velocity of sound using a dual oscilloscope on which is displayed the sinusoidal input into a loudspeaker and the signal picked up by a microphone. (GS)

  3. Analysis of free drug fractions in human serum by ultrafast affinity extraction and two-dimensional affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiwei; Podariu, Maria; Matsuda, Ryan; Hage, David S

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast affinity extraction and a two-dimensional high performance affinity chromatographic system were used to measure the free fractions for various drugs in serum and at typical therapeutic concentrations. Pooled samples of normal serum or serum from diabetic patients were utilized in this work. Several drug models (i.e., quinidine, diazepam, gliclazide, tolbutamide, and acetohexamide) were examined that represented a relatively wide range of therapeutic concentrations and affinities for human serum albumin (HSA). The two-dimensional system consisted of an HSA microcolumn for the extraction of a free drug fraction, followed by a larger HSA analytical column for the further separation and measurement of this fraction. Factors that were optimized in this method included the flow rates, column sizes, and column switching times that were employed. The final extraction times used for isolating the free drug fractions were 333-665 ms or less. The dissociation rate constants for several of the drugs with soluble HSA were measured during system optimization, giving results that agreed with reference values. In the final system, free drug fractions in the range of 0.7-9.5% were measured and gave good agreement with values that were determined by ultrafiltration. Association equilibrium constants or global affinities were also estimated by this approach for the drugs with soluble HSA. The results for the two-dimensional system were obtained in 5-10 min or less and required only 1-5 μL of serum per injection. The same approach could be adapted for work with other drugs and proteins in clinical samples or for biomedical research. PMID:26462924

  4. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance. PMID:25983572

  5. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339

  6. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339

  7. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  8. Identity, Affinity, Reality: Making the Case for Affinity Groups in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Julie; Ridley, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Affinity groups are places where students build connections and process "ouch" moments from their classes. Children talk about the isolation they sometimes feel. The relationships students gain through race-based affinity groups enable them to feel less alone with their emotions and help them build a stronger sense of self. At the same time,…

  9. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Mark A.

    2012-11-01

    A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n) Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n) WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n) fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  10. The dynamics of metric-affine gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. > The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. > Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. > f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy theories to

  11. Displacement phenomena in lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026

  12. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, J.H.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Butler, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of /sup 125/I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of /sup 125/I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showed that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations.

  13. Determinants of benzodiazepine brain uptake: lipophilicity versus binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Arendt, R M; Greenblatt, D J; Liebisch, D C; Luu, M D; Paul, S M

    1987-01-01

    Factors influencing brain uptake of benzodiazepine derivatives were evaluated in adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 8-10 per drug). Animals received single intraperitoneal doses of alprazolam, triazolam, lorazepam, flunitrazepam, diazepam, midazolam, desmethyldiazepam, or clobazam. Concentrations of each drug (and metabolites) in whole brain and serum 1 h after dosage were determined by gas chromatography. Serum free fraction was measured by equilibrium dialysis. In vitro binding affinity (apparent Ki) of each compound was estimated based on displacement of tritiated flunitrazepam in washed membrane preparations from rat cerebral cortex. Lipid solubility of each benzodiazepine was estimated using the reverse-phase liquid chromatographic (HPLC) retention index at physiologic pH. There was no significant relation between brain:total serum concentration ratio and either HPLC retention (r = 0.18) or binding Ki (r = -0.34). Correction of uptake ratios for free as opposed to total serum concentration yielded a highly significant correlation with HPLC retention (r = 0.78, P less than 0.005). However, even the corrected ratio was not correlated with binding Ki (r = -0.22). Thus a benzodiazepine's capacity to diffuse from systemic blood into brain tissue is much more closely associated with the physicochemical property of lipid solubility than with specific affinity. Unbound rather than total serum or plasma concentration most accurately reflects the quantity of drug available for diffusion. PMID:2888155

  14. Settling velocity spectra and the ballast ratio hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Robert A.; Peterson, Michael L.; Lee, Cindy; Wakeham, Stuart G.

    2009-08-01

    Recently it has been observed that a strong quantitative relationship exists between asymptotic fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the deep ocean and asymptotic fluxes of "ballast" minerals (opal; calcium carbonate; dust). It has further been suggested that this relationship might provide a mechanistic basis for improved representations of remineralization in ocean carbon models. Since the depth scale of remineralization z* is the ratio k/v of a remineralization rate k and a settling velocity (SV) v, a mechanistic understanding of settling velocities will be crucial in developing such models. Historically, there have been two approaches to estimating the speed with which POC is transported to the deep ocean. First, settling speeds of single particles have been observed directly in both field and laboratory settings; estimates of fecal pellet sinking velocities tend to be higher and more variable than those of aggregates. Second, estimates have been made of the velocity at which temporal patterns in flux propagate between pairs of sediment traps separated in depth (the "benchmark approach"); recent studies have shown these results to be variable and to depend on mineral ballasting. Here we present SV estimates using a relatively new technology: indented rotating sphere (IRS) sediment traps run in settling velocity (SV) mode. In this approach, particles are separated into SV classes during settling to collection cups. In MedFlux, SV data were collected concurrently with time-series (TS) data; the latter were used to construct benchmark estimates for comparison to the SV estimates. From the SV data, the range of modal settling velocities (sinking velocities having the largest time-averaged mass flux densities on a logarithmic scale of SV) in the fast-sinking fraction was estimated to be 287-503 m/d; the average of these modal values is 353 m/d, with standard deviation 76 m/d. In contrast, mean settling velocities of the fast-sinking fraction depend on the

  15. Negative Electron Affinity Mechanism for Diamond Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, I. L.; Asnin, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The energy distribution of the secondary electrons for chemical vacuum deposited diamond films with Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) was investigated. It was found that while for completely hydrogenated diamond surfaces the negative electron affinity peak in the energy spectrum of the secondary electrons is present for any energy of the primary electrons, for partially hydrogenated diamond surfaces there is a critical energy above which the peak is present in the spectrum. This critical energy increases sharply when hydrogen coverage of the diamond surface diminishes. This effect was explained by the change of the NEA from the true type for the completely hydrogenated surface to the effective type for the partially hydrogenated surfaces.

  16. Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.

  17. Suspension flow and sedimentation in self-affine fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shing Lo, Tak; Koplik, Joel

    2012-05-01

    The transport and gravitational sedimentation of a particulate suspension in fracture joints with self-affinely rough walls is studied by lattice Boltzmann numerical simulations. We consider either homogeneous or bidisperse distributions of non-Brownian spheres in a Newtonian fluid, driven through a fracture by a pressure gradient, and acted upon by gravity. Most results concern the case of open fractures, in which the two walls of the channel do not approach closely enough to block the flow. We present profiles of particle density and profiles of particle and fluid velocities, along with total flow rates and characterizations of the sediment, for three values of particle concentration and a range of buoyancy and Reynolds numbers, principally in the inertial regime. We systematically study the effects of increasing the pressure gradient and the strength of sedimentation and compare the results to those for channel bounded by flat surfaces. We find that both the flow rate and the average particle velocity for flows through an open fracture, when suitably normalized, depend only on the volume fraction of the particles and the buoyancy number in the steady state regardless of the pressure drop, and observe interesting scaling laws in the large buoyancy number limit. We also investigate the possibility for correlations between the surface morphology of the sediment region and the geometry of the underlying fracture surface in the strong sedimentation limit, but no evidence for correlation is found.

  18. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James N; McCall, Benjamin J

    2016-05-14

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined. PMID:27179476

  19. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  20. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  1. Velocity fluctuation analysis via dynamic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Gupta, D. K.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.

    2006-10-15

    A new method of calculating one-dimensional velocity fluctuations from spatially resolved density fluctuation measurements is presented. The algorithm uses vector-matching methods of dynamic programming that match structures, such as turbulent fluctuations, in two data sets. The associated time delay between data sets is estimated by determining an optimal path to transform one vector to another. This time-delay-estimation (TDE) method establishes a new benchmark for velocity analysis by achieving higher sensitivity and frequency response than previously developed methods, such as time-resolved cross correlations and wavelets. TDE has been successfully applied to beam emission spectroscopy measurements of density fluctuations to obtain poloidal flow fluctuations associated with such phenomena as the geodesic acoustic mode. The dynamic programming algorithm should allow extension to high frequency velocity fluctuations associated with underlying electrostatic potential and resulting ExB fluctuations.

  2. MSE velocity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimd, C.; Courtois, H.; Koda, J.

    2015-12-01

    A huge velocity survey based on the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer facility (MSE) is proposed, aiming at investigating the structure and dynamics of the cosmic web over 3π steradians up to ˜1 Gpc and at unprecedented spatial resolution, its relationship with the galaxy formation process, and the bias between galaxies and dark matter during the last three billions years. The cross-correlation of velocity and density fields will further allow the probe any deviation from General Relativity by measuring the the linear-growth rate of cosmic structures at precision competitive with high-redshift spectroscopic redshift surveys.

  3. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  4. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  5. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  6. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  7. Streamlining the Pipeline for Generation of Recombinant Affinity Reagents by Integrating the Affinity Maturation Step.

    PubMed

    Huang, Renhua; Gorman, Kevin T; Vinci, Chris R; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Gräslund, Susanne; Kay, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    Often when generating recombinant affinity reagents to a target, one singles out an individual binder, constructs a secondary library of variants, and affinity selects a tighter or more specific binder. To enhance the throughput of this general approach, we have developed a more integrated strategy where the "affinity maturation" step is part of the phage-display pipeline, rather than a follow-on process. In our new schema, we perform two rounds of affinity selection, followed by error-prone PCR on the pools of recovered clones, generation of secondary libraries, and three additional rounds of affinity selection, under conditions of off-rate competition. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by generating low nanomolar fibronectin type III (FN3) monobodies to five human proteins: ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1 (CDC34), COP9 signalosome complex subunit 5 (COPS5), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MAP2K5), Splicing factor 3A subunit 1 (SF3A1) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 11 (USP11). The affinities of the resulting monobodies are typically in the single-digit nanomolar range. We demonstrate the utility of two binders by pulling down the targets from a spiked lysate of HeLa cells. This integrated approach should be applicable to directed evolution of any phage-displayed affinity reagent scaffold. PMID:26437402

  8. Streamlining the Pipeline for Generation of Recombinant Affinity Reagents by Integrating the Affinity Maturation Step

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renhua; Gorman, Kevin T.; Vinci, Chris R.; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Gräslund, Susanne; Kay, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Often when generating recombinant affinity reagents to a target, one singles out an individual binder, constructs a secondary library of variants, and affinity selects a tighter or more specific binder. To enhance the throughput of this general approach, we have developed a more integrated strategy where the “affinity maturation” step is part of the phage-display pipeline, rather than a follow-on process. In our new schema, we perform two rounds of affinity selection, followed by error-prone PCR on the pools of recovered clones, generation of secondary libraries, and three additional rounds of affinity selection, under conditions of off-rate competition. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by generating low nanomolar fibronectin type III (FN3) monobodies to five human proteins: ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1 (CDC34), COP9 signalosome complex subunit 5 (COPS5), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MAP2K5), Splicing factor 3A subunit 1 (SF3A1) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 11 (USP11). The affinities of the resulting monobodies are typically in the single-digit nanomolar range. We demonstrate the utility of two binders by pulling down the targets from a spiked lysate of HeLa cells. This integrated approach should be applicable to directed evolution of any phage-displayed affinity reagent scaffold. PMID:26437402

  9. The velocity snake: Deformable contour for tracking in spatio-velocity space

    SciTech Connect

    Peterfreund, N.

    1997-06-01

    The author presents a new active contour model for boundary tracking and position prediction of nonrigid objects, which results from applying a velocity control to the class of elastodynamical contour models, known as snakes. The proposed control term minimizes an energy dissipation function which measures the difference between the contour velocity and the apparent velocity of the image. Treating the image video-sequence as continuous measurements along time, it is shown that the proposed control results in an unbiased tracking. This is in contrast to the original snake model which is proven to be biased due to the image (object) velocity, thus resulting in high sensitivity to image clutter. The motion estimation further allows for position prediction of nonrigid boundaries. Based on the proposed control approach, the author proposes a new class of real time tracking contours, varying from models with batch-mode control estimation to models with real time adaptive controllers.

  10. High affinity of lead for fetal haemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Lee, W R

    1980-01-01

    In-vitro experiments using 203Pb were performed to identify lead-binding components in human haemoglobin. Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange chromatography of haemolysate showed that different types of haemoglobin had different affinities for lead. For the haemolysate from adults, lead was present in both Hb A (alpha 2 beta 2) and Hb A2 (alpha 2 delta 2), whereas, in the haemolysate from new-born infants, the haemoglobin of fetal origin, Hb F (alpha 2 gamma 2) showed a much greater affinity for 203Pb than the adult haemoglobin Hb A (alpha 2 beta 2), obtained from maternal blood. Analysis of the 203 Pb-labelled haemoglobin suggested that about 82% of 203Pb was in the globin polypeptide. Further analysis with carboxylmethyl (CM) cellulose chromatography indicated that the gamma globin of fetal origin had a higher affinity for 203Pb than the beta globin, whereas alpha globin appeared to be unimportant in lead binding. The results of the different affinities for lead of different Hb types are discussed with regard to the effect of lead upon haemoglobin synthesis. PMID:6158989

  11. Vygotsky's and Buber's Pedagogical Perspectives: Some Affinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Roberto; Tunes, Elizabeth; Tacca, Maria Carmen Villela Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dialogical and creative character of pedagogic work by analyzing the affinities between Martin Buber's "I-Thou relation" and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development". Backed up by empirical studies on the teacher-student relation, we understand that education can only result in students'…

  12. Effects of a descending lithospheric slab on yield estimates of Aleutian nuclear tests. Incorporation of velocity gradients in the synthesis of complete seismograms by the locked-mode method

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, V.F.

    1990-08-10

    The locked mode method of synthesizing complete regional seismograms (Harvey, 1981) was modified to include the Langer uniform asymptotic approximation to vertical wave-functions within layers having linear vertical velocity gradients. Good agreement is obtained in gradient models between synthetics computed using the Langer-locked mode method, the colocation method, and the conventional locked mode method in models parameterized by thin homogeneous layers. Errors in calculated displacement introduced by the use of the Langer approximation remain less than several percent for wavelengths lambda < or = 0.2V/nabla operator V. Whenever it is necessary to represent gradients accurately, the Langer-locked mode method is computationally more efficient than the locked mode method using thin homogeneous layers. By reducing the number of parameters needed to describe an Earth model, the Langer-locked method will also simplify the inverse problem of determining structure using observed and synthetic regional seismograms. Test calculations of regional seismograms confirm that the Pn and Sn phases are strongly affected by the magnitude of the velocity gradients beneath the Moho, but that Lg is only weakly affected by the details of crustal layering.

  13. A strategy of designing the ligand of antibody affinity chromatography based on molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lu; Li, Weikang; Sun, Fei; Li, Baizhi; Li, Hongrui; Zhang, Hongxing; Zheng, Qingchuan; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-09-01

    Designing affinity ligands has always been the development focus of affinity chromatography. Previous antibody affinity ligand designs were mostly based on the crystal structure of protein A (UniProt code number: P38507), and the antibody-binding domains were modified according to the properties of amino acid residues. Currently, more effective bioinformatic prediction and experimental validation has been used to improve the design of antibody affinity ligands. In the present study, the complex crystal structure (the domain D of protein A and the Fab segment of IgM, PDB code: 1DEE) was used as the model. The vital site that inhibits the binding between domain D and IgM was estimated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, then MM-GBSA calculations were used to design a mutant of domain D (K46E) for improving affinity on the above vital site. The binding analysis using Biacore showed the association and dissociation parameters of K46E mutant that were optimized with IgM. The affinity increase of K46E mutant preferred for IgM, the affinity order is K46E tetramer (KD=6.02×10(-9)M)>K46E mutant (KD=6.66×10(-8)M)>domain D (KD=2.17×10(-7)M). Similar results were obtained when the optimized ligands were immobilized to the chromatography medium. A complete designing strategy was validated in this study, which will provide a novel insight into designing new ligands of antibody affinity chromatography media. PMID:27524303

  14. Satellite-tracked cumulus velocities. [for determining wind velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Pearl, E. W.; Shenk, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research indicates that extreme caution must be exercised in converting cloud velocities into winds. The motion of fair-weather cumuli obtained by tracking their shadows over Springfield, Missouri revealed that the standard deviation in the individual cloud motion is several times the tracking error. The motion of over-ocean cumuli near Barbados clearly indicated the complicated nature of cumulus velocities. Analysis of whole-sky images obtained near Tampa, Florida failed to show significant continuity and stability of cumulus plumes, less than 0.3 mile in diameter. Cumulus turrets with 0.3 to 2 mile in size appear to be the best target to infer the mean wind within the subcloud layers. Cumulus or stratocumulus cells consisting of x number of turrets do not always move with wind. The addition and deletion of turrets belonging to a specific cell appear to be the cause of the erratic motion of a tracer cell. It may by concluded that the accuracy of wind estimates is unlikely to be better than 2m/sec unless the physical and dynamical characteristics of cumulus motion is futher investigated.

  15. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  16. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sricharan, Kumar; Wei, Dennis; Hero, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of estimation of density functionals like entropy and mutual information has received much attention in the statistics and information theory communities. A large class of estimators of functionals of the probability density suffer from the curse of dimensionality, wherein the mean squared error (MSE) decays increasingly slowly as a function of the sample size T as the dimension d of the samples increases. In particular, the rate is often glacially slow of order O(T−γ/d), where γ > 0 is a rate parameter. Examples of such estimators include kernel density estimators, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) density estimators, k-NN entropy estimators, intrinsic dimension estimators and other examples. In this paper, we propose a weighted affine combination of an ensemble of such estimators, where optimal weights can be chosen such that the weighted estimator converges at a much faster dimension invariant rate of O(T−1). Furthermore, we show that these optimal weights can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem which can be performed offline and does not require training data. We illustrate the superior performance of our weighted estimator for two important applications: (i) estimating the Panter-Dite distortion-rate factor and (ii) estimating the Shannon entropy for testing the probability distribution of a random sample. PMID:25897177

  17. A velocity dependent effective angle method for calibration of X-probes at low velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, Ole Martin; Krogstad, Per-Åge

    A velocity dependent effective angle (VDEA) method for the calibration of yaw response of hot-wire X-probes at low flow velocities (0.5-6 m/s) is presented. Comparisons with a full velocity vs. yaw-angle method (Österlund 1999) in a smooth wall channel flow indicate that there is only moderate advantage in using the latter method, which is considerably more laborious. Comparisons with direct numerical simulations (DNS) (Moser et al. 1999) and the more common fixed effective angle method (FEA) show that the VDEA method significantly improves estimates of Reynolds stresses compared to the FEA method.

  18. Water-escape velocities in jumping blacktip sharks.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M

    2005-09-22

    This paper describes the first determination of water-escape velocities in free-ranging sharks. Two approximations are used to estimate the final swimming speed at the moment of penetrating the water surface. Blacktip sharks were videotaped from below the surface and parameters were estimated by analysing the sequences frame by frame. Water-escape velocities averaged 6.3 ms(-1). These velocities for blacktip sharks seem accurate and are similar to estimates obtained for other shark species of similar size. PMID:16849197

  19. A novel matrix derivatized from hydrophilic gigaporous polystyrene-based microspheres for high-speed immobilized-metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Bo; Huang, Yong-Dong; Jing, Guang-Lun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Wei-Qing; Zhu, Hu; Lu, Jian-Ren

    2011-05-01

    Agarose coated gigaporous polystyrene microspheres were evaluated as a novel matrix for immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). With four steps, nickel ions were successfully immobilized on the microspheres. The gigaporous structure and chromatographic properties of IMAC medium were characterized. A column packed with the matrix showed low column backpressure and high column efficiency at high flow velocity. Furthermore, this matrix was used for purifying superoxide dismutase (SOD), which was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in submerged fermentation, on an Äkta purifier 100 system under different flow velocities. The purity of the SOD from this one-step purification was 79% and the recovery yield was about 89.6% under the superficial flow velocity of 3251 cm/h. In conclusion, all the results suggested that the gigaporous matrix has considerable advantages for high-speed immobilized-metal affinity chromatography. PMID:21454141

  20. Microseismic Velocity Imaging of the Fracturing Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of low permeability reservoirs can induce microseismic events during fracture development. For this reason, microseismic monitoring using sensors on surface or in borehole have been widely used to delineate fracture spatial distribution and to understand fracturing mechanisms. It is often the case that the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) is determined solely based on microseismic locations. However, it is known that for some fracture development stage, long period long duration events, instead of microseismic events may be associated. In addition, because microseismic events are essentially weak and there exist different sources of noise during monitoring, some microseismic events could not be detected and thus located. Therefore the estimation of the SRV is biased if it is solely determined by microseismic locations. With the existence of fluids and fractures, the seismic velocity of reservoir layers will be decreased. Based on this fact, we have developed a near real time seismic velocity tomography method to characterize velocity changes associated with fracturing process. The method is based on double-difference seismic tomography algorithm to image the fracturing zone where microseismic events occur by using differential arrival times from microseismic event pairs. To take into account varying data distribution for different fracking stages, the method solves the velocity model in the wavelet domain so that different scales of model features can be obtained according to different data distribution. We have applied this real time tomography method to both acoustic emission data from lab experiment and microseismic data from a downhole microseismic monitoring project for shale gas hydraulic fracturing treatment. The tomography results from lab data clearly show the velocity changes associated with different rock fracturing stages. For the field data application, it shows that microseismic events are located in low velocity anomalies. By

  1. Affinity purification of metalloprotease from marine bacterium using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Yang, Juan; Bao, Jing; Liu, Junzhong; Lin, Shengxiang; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an efficient affinity purification protocol for an alkaline metalloprotease from marine bacterium was developed using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After screening and optimization of the affinity ligands and spacer arm lengths, Cu-iminmodiacetic acid was chosen as the optimal affinity ligand, which was coupled to Sepharose 6B via a 14-atom spacer arm. The absorption analysis of this medium revealed a desorption constant Kd of 21.5 μg/mL and a theoretical maximum absorption Qmax of 24.9 mg/g. Thanks to this affinity medium, the enzyme could be purified by only one affinity purification step with a purity of approximately 95% pure when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The recovery of the protease activity reached 74.6%, which is much higher than the value obtained by traditional protocols (8.9%). These results contribute to the industrial purifications and contribute a significant reference for the purification of other metalloproteases. PMID:27058973

  2. Spall velocity measurements from laboratory impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanskey, Carol A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Spall velocities were measured for a series of impacts into San Marcos gabbro. Impact velocities ranged from 1 to 6.5 km/sec. Projectiles varied in material and size with a maximum mass of 4g for a lead bullet to a minimum of 0.04 g for an aluminum sphere. The spall velocities were calculated both from measurements taken from films of the events and from estimates based on range measurements of the spall fragments. The maximum spall velocity observed was 27 m/sec, or 0.5 percent of the impact velocity. The measured spall velocities were within the range predicted by the Melosh (1984) spallation model for the given experimental parameters. The compatability between the Melosh model for large planetary impacts and the results of these small scale experiments is considered in detail. The targets were also bisected to observe the internal fractures. A series of fractures were observed whose location coincided with the boundary of the theoretical near surface zone predicted by Melosh. Above this boundary the target material should receive reduced levels of compressive stress as compared to the more highly shocked region below.

  3. Measurements of Shaped Charge Jet Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongfa

    2013-06-01

    Penetration depth is an important requirement in oil/gas well perforating jobs. The depth determines how far the wellbore can directly communicate with reservoir fluids. Deep perforation charges are widely used in oilfield industry and most of those are powder metal liner charge for no carrot-like slug left as solid liner does. Comprehensive measurements for the powder metal liner shaped charge jet characteristics, namely, the jet density and velocity, are needed to predict the shaped charge performance and to plan the perforating job. This paper focuses on an experimental work of jet velocity measurements. A medium size of powder metal liner charges (27 grams HMX) is used in the tests. The powder jet shoots through a stack of limestone blocks with shorting switch set in between. Half inch air-gap between two blocks is design to provide space for jet traveling in air to record free fly velocity, meanwhile the jet penetration velocity in the limestone is measured. Aluminum foil switches are used to record the jet Time of Arrival (TOA). The charged switch shorted by the metal jet when it arrives. The shorting signal is recorded. The two velocities can be used to estimate the jet penetration effectiveness. A series of TOA tests show that jet velocity along its length linearly decreases from jet tip to tail until the stagnation points referring to which jet material moves in opposite direction.

  4. Derivation of vertical air velocity from conventional Radiosonde ascents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan, Manoj; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai; Samson, Titu; Kottayil, Ajil; Varadarajan, Rakesh; Rebello, Rejoy

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we devise a method to estimate air vertical velocity from ascending radiosondes similar to that described in published results, but with certain differences in deriving the balloon parameters and the drag coefficient, while not considering explicitly the heat exchange between the balloon and the environment. We basically decompose the observed balloon ascent rate into vertical velocity in still air due to buoyancy force and that due to vertical air motion. The first part is computed from basic hydrodynamical principles and the vertical velocity is derived as the difference between observed ascent rate and the estimated still air vertical velocity. The derived values agree reasonably well (r=0.66) with vertical velocities observed with a collocated wind profiler radar, and the sources of uncertainties are discussed. Since vertical velocity is a difficult quantity to measure directly without expensive methods, derivation of the same from the conventional radiosonde ascents could be of great importance to the meteorological communities.

  5. Characterization of methacrylate chromatographic monoliths bearing affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Černigoj, Urh; Vidic, Urška; Nemec, Blaž; Gašperšič, Jernej; Vidič, Jana; Lendero Krajnc, Nika; Štrancar, Aleš; Podgornik, Aleš

    2016-09-16

    We investigated effect of immobilization procedure and monolith structure on chromatographic performance of methacrylate monoliths bearing affinity ligands. Monoliths of different pore size and various affinity ligands were prepared and characterized using physical and chromatographic methods. When testing protein A monoliths with different protein A ligand densities, a significant nonlinear effect of ligand density on dynamic binding capacity (DBC) for IgG was obtained and accurately described by Langmuir isotherm curve enabling estimation of protein A utilization as a function of ligand density. Maximal IgG binding capacity was found to be at least 12mg/mL exceeding theoretical monolayer adsorption value of 7.8mg/mL assuming hexagonal packing and IgG hydrodynamic diameter of 11nm. Observed discrepancy was explained by shrinkage of IgG during adsorption on protein A experimentally determined through calculated adsorbed IgG layer thickness of 5.4nm from pressure drop data. For monoliths with different pore size maximal immobilized densities of protein A as well as IgG dynamic capacity linearly correlates with monolith surface area indicating constant ligand utilization. Finally, IgGs toward different plasma proteins were immobilized via the hydrazide coupling chemistry to provide oriented immobilization. DBC was found to be flow independent and was increasing with the size of bound protein. Despite DBC was lower than IgG capacity to immobilized protein A, ligand utilization was higher. PMID:27554023

  6. Concurrent low- and high-affinity sulfate reduction kinetics in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder Tarpgaard, Irene; Røy, Hans; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    Bacterial sulfate reduction in marine sediments generally occurs in the presence of high millimolar concentrations of sulfate. Published data indicate that low sulfate concentrations may limit sulfate reduction rates below 0.2-2 mM. Yet, high sulfate reduction rates occur in the 1-100 μM range in freshwater sediments and at the sulfate-methane transition in marine sediments. Through a combination of 35S-tracer experiments, including initial velocity experiments and time course experiments, we searched for different sulfate affinities in the mixed community of sulfate reducers in a marine sediment. We supported the radiotracer experiments with a highly sensitive ion chromatographic technique for sulfate with a detection limit of 0.15 μM SO 42- in marine pore water. Our results showed that high and low affinities for sulfate co-occur and that the applied experimental approach may determine the observed apparent half saturation constant, Km. Our experimental and model data both show that sulfate reduction in the studied marine sediment could be explained by two dominating affinities for sulfate: a low affinity with a mean half saturation constant, Km, of 430 μM SO 42- and a high affinity with a mean Km of 2.6 μM SO 42-. The high-affinity sulfate reduction was thermodynamically un-constrained down to <1 μM SO 42-, both in our experiments and under in situ conditions. The reduction of radio-labeled sulfate was partly reversible due to concurrent re-oxidation of sulfide by Fe(III) and possibly due to a reversibility of the enzymatic pathway of sulfate reduction. A literature survey of apparent Km values for sediments and pure cultures is presented and discussed.

  7. A diffusion model for picosecond electron bunches from negative electron affinity GaAs photo cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    P. Hartmann; J. Bermuth; D. v. Harrach; J. Hoffmann; S. Kobis; E. Reichert; K. Aulenbacher; J. Schuler; M. Steigerwald

    1998-10-27

    Even though theoretical estimates predict response times for the photo emission process of electrons from a negative electron affinity GaAs photo emitter in excess of hundreds of picoseconds, recent measurements found electron bunch durations of 40 ps or less. This work presents precise measurements of picosecond electron bunches from a negative affinity bulk GaAs photo cathode and develops a model which explains the measured bunch durations as well as the observed bunch shapes. The bunch shape turns out to be independent from the quantum efficiency of the photo emitter.

  8. Acceleration and Velocity Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truax, Roger

    2016-01-01

    A simple approach for computing acceleration and velocity of a structure from the strain is proposed in this study. First, deflection and slope of the structure are computed from the strain using a two-step theory. Frequencies of the structure are computed from the time histories of strain using a parameter estimation technique together with an Autoregressive Moving Average model. From deflection, slope, and frequencies of the structure, acceleration and velocity of the structure can be obtained using the proposed approach. shape sensing, fiber optic strain sensor, system equivalent reduction and expansion process.

  9. Enhanced reduction of velocity data obtained during CETA flight experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-05-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  10. Enhanced reduction of velocity data obtained during CETA flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  11. Smooth big bounce from affine quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Hervé; Dapor, Andrea; Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Małkiewicz, Przemysław

    2014-04-01

    We examine the possibility of dealing with gravitational singularities on a quantum level through the use of coherent state or wavelet quantization instead of canonical quantization. We consider the Robertson-Walker metric coupled to a perfect fluid. It is the simplest model of a gravitational collapse, and the results obtained here may serve as a useful starting point for more complex investigations in the future. We follow a quantization procedure based on affine coherent states or wavelets built from the unitary irreducible representation of the affine group of the real line with positive dilation. The main issue of our approach is the appearance of a quantum centrifugal potential allowing for regularization of the singularity, essential self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian, and unambiguous quantum dynamical evolution.

  12. Improved native affinity purification of RNA.

    PubMed

    Batey, Robert T; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2007-08-01

    RNA biochemical or structural studies often require an RNA sample that is chemically pure, and most protocols for its in vitro production use denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to achieve this. Unfortunately, many RNAs do not quantitatively refold into an active conformation after denaturation, creating significant problems for downstream characterization or use. In addition, this traditional purification method is not amenable to studies demanding high-throughput RNA production. Recently, we presented the first general method for producing almost any RNA sequence that employs an affinity tag that is removed during the purification process. Because technical difficulties prevented application of this method to many RNAs, we have developed an improved version that utilizes a different activatable ribozyme and affinity tag that are considerably more robust, rapid, and broadly applicable. PMID:17548432

  13. Protein affinity map of chemical space.

    PubMed

    Kauvar, L M; Villar, H O; Sportsman, J R; Higgins, D L; Schmidt, D E

    1998-09-11

    Affinity fingerprinting is a quantitative method for mapping chemical space based on binding preferences of compounds for a reference panel of proteins. An effective reference panel of <20 proteins can be empirically selected which shows differential interaction with nearly all compounds. By using this map to iteratively sample the chemical space, identification of active ligands from a library of 30,000 candidate compounds has been accomplished for a wide spectrum of specific protein targets. In each case, <200 compounds were directly assayed against the target. Further, analysis of the fingerprint database suggests a strategy for effective selection of affinity chromatography ligands and scaffolds for combinatorial chemistry. With such a system, the large numbers of potential therapeutic targets emerging from genome research can be categorized according to ligand binding properties, complementing sequence based classification. PMID:9792501

  14. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  15. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-20

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concentrations. This sensor features simplicity in sensor design, and possesses high specificity and accuracy in glucose detection. However, lack of glucose diffusion passage, this device is unable to fulfill real-time in-vivo monitoring. As a major improvement to this device, we present in this paper a fully implantable MEMS dielectric affinity glucose biosensor that contains a perforated electrode embedded in a suspended diaphragm. This capacitive-based sensor contains no moving parts, and enables glucose diffusion and real-time monitoring. The experimental results indicate that this sensor can detect glucose solutions at physiological concentrations and possesses good reversibility and reliability. This sensor has a time constant to glucose concentration change at approximately 3 min, which is comparable to commercial systems. The sensor has potential applications in fully implantable CGM that require excellent long-term stability and reliability. PMID:24511215

  16. On constructing purely affine theories with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.

    2016-08-01

    We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.

  17. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively charged metal ions such as Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Al(3+), Zr(4+), and Ti(4+) has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from nonspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. This problem is mainly caused by highly acidic peptides that also share high binding affinity towards these metal ions. By lowering the pH of the loading buffer nonspecific binding can be reduced significantly, however with the risk of reducing specific binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10-11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers. Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe(3+) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide mixture. PMID:26584922

  18. Localization of Free Field Realizations of Affine Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futorny, Vyacheslav; Grantcharov, Dimitar; Martins, Renato A.

    2015-04-01

    We use localization technique to construct new families of irreducible modules of affine Kac-Moody algebras. In particular, localization is applied to the first free field realization of the affine Lie algebra or, equivalently, to imaginary Verma modules.

  19. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast.

    PubMed

    Locke, Shannon M; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static "snapshot" model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  20. Sensitivity to Auditory Velocity Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Shannon M.; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A natural auditory scene often contains sound moving at varying velocities. Using a velocity contrast paradigm, we compared sensitivity to velocity changes between continuous and discontinuous trajectories. Subjects compared the velocities of two stimulus intervals that moved along a single trajectory, with and without a 1 second inter stimulus interval (ISI). We found thresholds were threefold larger for velocity increases in the instantaneous velocity change condition, as compared to instantaneous velocity decreases or thresholds for the delayed velocity transition condition. This result cannot be explained by the current static “snapshot” model of auditory motion perception and suggest a continuous process where the percept of velocity is influenced by previous history of stimulation. PMID:27291488

  1. Dynamical surface affinity of diphasic liquids as a probe of wettability of multimodal porous media.

    PubMed

    Korb, J-P; Freiman, G; Nicot, B; Ligneul, P

    2009-12-01

    We introduce a method for estimating the wettability of rock/oil/brine systems using noninvasive in situ nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion. This technique scans over a large range of applied magnetic fields and yields unique information about the extent to which a fluid is dynamically correlated with a solid rock surface. Unlike conventional transverse relaxation studies, this approach is a direct probe of the dynamical surface affinity of fluids. To quantify these features we introduce a microscopic dynamical surface affinity index which measures the dynamical correlation (i.e., the microscopic wettability) between the diffusive fluid and the fixed paramagnetic relaxation sources at the pore surfaces. We apply this method to carbonate reservoir rocks which are known to hold about two thirds of the world's oil reserves. Although this nondestructive method concerns here an application to rocks, it could be generalized as an in situ liquid/surface affinity indicator for any multimodal porous medium including porous biological media. PMID:20365175

  2. Rational development of high-affinity T-cell receptor-like antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Wadle, Andreas; Hombach, Anja; Shenderov, Eugene; Held, Gerhard; Fischer, Eliane; Kleber, Sascha; Nuber, Natko; Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Bauer, Stefan; McMichael, Andrew; Knuth, Alexander; Abken, Hinrich; Hombach, Andreas A; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Jones, E Yvonne; Renner, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    T-cell interaction with a target cell is a key event in the adaptive immune response and primarily driven by T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes. TCR avidity for a given pMHC is determined by number of MHC molecules, availability of coreceptors, and TCR affinity for MHC or peptide, respectively, with peptide recognition being the most important factor to confer target specificity. Here we present high-resolution crystal structures of 2 Fab antibodies in complex with the immunodominant NY-ESO-1(157-165) peptide analogue (SLLMWITQV) presented by HLA-A*0201 and compare them with a TCR recognizing the same pMHC. Binding to the central methionine-tryptophan peptide motif and orientation of binding were almost identical for Fabs and TCR. As the MW "peg" dominates the contacts between Fab and peptide, we estimated the contributions of individual amino acids between the Fab and peptide to provide the rational basis for a peptide-focused second-generation, high-affinity antibody library. The final Fab candidate achieved better peptide binding by 2 light-chain mutations, giving a 20-fold affinity improvement to 2-4 nM, exceeding the affinity of the TCR by 1,000-fold. The high-affinity Fab when grafted as recombinant TCR on T cells conferred specific killing of HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157-165) target cells. In summary, we prove that affinity maturation of antibodies mimicking a TCR is possible and provide a strategy for engineering high-affinity antibodies that can be used in targeting specific pMHC complexes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:19307587

  3. Rational development of high-affinity T-cell receptor-like antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Wadle, Andreas; Hombach, Anja; Shenderov, Eugene; Held, Gerhard; Fischer, Eliane; Kleber, Sascha; Nuber, Natko; Stenner-Liewen, Frank; Bauer, Stefan; McMichael, Andrew; Knuth, Alexander; Abken, Hinrich; Hombach, Andreas A.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Jones, E. Yvonne; Renner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    T-cell interaction with a target cell is a key event in the adaptive immune response and primarily driven by T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes. TCR avidity for a given pMHC is determined by number of MHC molecules, availability of coreceptors, and TCR affinity for MHC or peptide, respectively, with peptide recognition being the most important factor to confer target specificity. Here we present high-resolution crystal structures of 2 Fab antibodies in complex with the immunodominant NY-ESO-1157–165 peptide analogue (SLLMWITQV) presented by HLA-A*0201 and compare them with a TCR recognizing the same pMHC. Binding to the central methionine-tryptophan peptide motif and orientation of binding were almost identical for Fabs and TCR. As the MW “peg” dominates the contacts between Fab and peptide, we estimated the contributions of individual amino acids between the Fab and peptide to provide the rational basis for a peptide-focused second-generation, high-affinity antibody library. The final Fab candidate achieved better peptide binding by 2 light-chain mutations, giving a 20-fold affinity improvement to 2–4 nM, exceeding the affinity of the TCR by 1,000-fold. The high-affinity Fab when grafted as recombinant TCR on T cells conferred specific killing of HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1157–165 target cells. In summary, we prove that affinity maturation of antibodies mimicking a TCR is possible and provide a strategy for engineering high-affinity antibodies that can be used in targeting specific pMHC complexes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:19307587

  4. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  5. Tubulin Acetylation Alone Does Not Affect Kinesin-1 Velocity and Run Length In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Wilhelm J.; Beránek, Václav; Fischermeier, Elisabeth; Diez, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin-1 plays a major role in anterograde transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules. Currently, there is an ongoing debate of whether α-tubulin K40 acetylation directly enhances the velocity of kinesin-1 and its affinity to the microtubule track. We compared motor motility on microtubules reconstituted from acetylated and deacetylated tubulin. For both, single- and multi-motor in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate that tubulin acetylation alone does not affect kinesin-1 velocity and run length. PMID:22870307

  6. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-22

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications. PMID:26849582

  7. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speckhard, Eric G.; Ng, Kenny C. Y.; Beacom, John F.; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy—the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer—can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  8. Visibility moments and power spectrum of turbulence velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Prasun

    2016-02-01

    Here we introduce moments of visibility function and discuss how those can be used to estimate the power spectrum of the turbulent velocity of external spiral galaxies. We perform numerical simulation to confirm the credibility of this method and found that for galaxies with lower inclination angles it works fine. The estimator outlined here is unbiased and has the potential to recover the turbulent velocity spectrum completely from radio interferometric observations.

  9. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarsu, V.; Sanli, D. U.; Arslan, E.

    2015-04-01

    Today repeated GPS measurements are still in use, because we cannot always employ GPS permanent stations due to a variety of limitations. One area of study that uses velocities/deformation rates from repeated GPS measurements is the monitoring of crustal motion. This paper discusses the quality of the velocities derived using repeated GPS measurements for the aim of monitoring crustal motion. From a global network of International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, we processed GPS measurements repeated monthly and annually spanning nearly 15 years and estimated GPS velocities for GPS baseline components latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height. We used web-based GIPSY for the processing. Assuming true deformation rates can only be determined from the solutions of 24 h observation sessions, we evaluated the accuracy of the deformation rates from 8 and 12 h sessions. We used statistical hypothesis testing to assess the velocities derived from short observation sessions. In addition, as an alternative control method we checked the accuracy of GPS solutions from short observation sessions against those of 24 h sessions referring to statistical criteria that measure the accuracy of regression models. Results indicate that the velocities of the vertical component are completely affected when repeated GPS measurements are used. The results also reveal that only about 30% of the 8 h solutions and about 40% of 12 h solutions for the horizontal coordinates are acceptable for velocity estimation. The situation is much worse for the vertical component in which none of the solutions from campaign measurements are acceptable for obtaining reliable deformation rates.

  10. The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armandroff, T. E.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio for 16 K giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy are calculated. Spectra at the Ca II triplet are analyzed using cross-correlation techniques in order to obtain the mean velocity of + 107.4 + or - 2.0 km/s. The dimensional velocity dispersion estimated as 6.3 (+1.1, -1.3) km/s is combined with the calculated core radius and observed central surface brightness to produce a mass-to-light ratio of 6.0 in solar units. It is noted that the data indicate that the Sculptor contains a large amount of mass not found in globular clusters, and the mass is either in the form of remnant stars or low-mass dwarfs.

  11. A modified full velocity difference model with the consideration of velocity deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a modified full velocity difference model (FVDM) based on car-following theory is proposed with the consideration of velocity deviation which represents the inexact judgement of velocity. The stability condition is obtained by the use of linear stability analysis. It is shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with the deviation extent of velocity. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified K-dV (MKdV) equations are derived to describe the triangular shock waves, soliton waves and kink-antikink waves in the stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical results, such as density wave, hysteresis loop, acceleration, deceleration and so on. The results show that traffic congestion can be suppressed by taking the positive effect of velocity deviation into account. By taking the positive effect of high estimate of velocity into account, the unrealistic high deceleration and negative velocity which occur in FVDM will be eliminated in the proposed model.

  12. Eurasian surface wave tomography: Group velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Levshin, Anatoli L.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the dispersion characteristics of broadband fundamental surface waves propagating across Eurasia. The study is broader band, displays denser and more uniform data coverage, and demonstrates higher resolution than previous studies of Eurasia performed on this scale. In addition, the estimated group velocity maps reveal the signatures of geological and tectonic features never before displayed in similar surface wave studies. We present group velocity maps from 20 s to 200 s period for Rayleigh waves and from 20 s to 125 s for Love waves. Broadband waveform data from about 600 events from 1988 through 1995 recorded at 83 individual stations across Eurasia have produced about 9000 paths for which individual dispersion curves have been estimated. Dispersion curves from similar paths are clustered to reduce redundancy, to identify outliers for rejection, and to assign uncertainty estimates. On average, measurement uncertainty is about 0.030-0.040 km/s and is not a strong function of frequency. Resolution is estimated from "checker-board" tests, and we show that average resolutions across Eurasia range from 5° to 7.5° but degrade at periods above about 100 s and near the periphery of the maps. The estimated maps produce a variance reduction relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) of more than 90% for Rayleigh waves below 60 s period but reduce to about 70% between 80 and 200 s period. For Love waves, variance reductions are similar, being above 90% for most periods below 100 s and falling to 70% at 150 s. Synthetic experiments are presented to estimate the biases that theoretical approximations should impart to the group velocity maps, in particular source group time shifts, azimuthal anisotropy, and systematic event mislocations near subducting slabs. The most significant problems are probably caused by azimuthal anisotropy, but above 100 s the effect of source group time shifts may also be appreciable

  13. Upscaling Point Velocity Measurements to Characterize a Glacial Outwash Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Schillig, P C; Devlin, J F; Rudolph, D

    2016-05-01

    Small-scale point velocity probe (PVP)-derived velocities were compared to conventional large-scale velocity estimates from Darcy calculations and tracer tests, and the possibility of upscaling PVP data to match the other velocity estimates was evaluated. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated from grain-size data derived from cores, and single-well response testing or slug tests of onsite wells. Horizontal hydraulic gradients were calculated using 3-point estimators from all of the wells within an extensive monitoring network, as well as by representing the water table as a single best fit plane through the entire network. Velocities determined from PVP testing were generally consistent in magnitude with those from depth specific data collected from multilevel monitoring locations in the tracer test, and similar in horizontal flow direction to the average hydraulic gradient. However, scaling up velocity estimates based on PVP measurements for comparison with site-wide Darcy-based velocities revealed issues that challenge the use of Darcy calculations as a generally applicable standard for comparison. The Darcy calculations were shown to underestimate the groundwater velocities determined both by the PVPs and large-scale tracer testing, in a depth-specific sense and as a site-wide average. Some of this discrepancy is attributable to the selective placement of the PVPs in the aquifer. Nevertheless, this result has important implications for the design of in situ treatment systems. It is concluded that Darcy estimations of velocity should be supplemented with independent assessments for these kinds of applications. PMID:26221762

  14. Measuring an antibody affinity distribution molecule by molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M; Werner, James H; Temirov, Jamshid

    2008-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence mIcroscopy was used to observe the binding and unbinding of hapten decorated quantum dots with individual surface immobilized antibodies. The fluorescence time history from an individual antibody site can be used to calculate its binding affinity. While quantum dot blinking occurs during these measurements, we describe a simple empirical method to correct the apparent/observed affinity to account for the blinking contribution. The combination of many single molecule affinity measurements from different antibodies yields not only the average affinity, it directly measures the full shape and character of the surface affinity distribution function.

  15. On the structure of self-affine convex bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Voynov, A S

    2013-08-31

    We study the structure of convex bodies in R{sup d} that can be represented as a union of their affine images with no common interior points. Such bodies are called self-affine. Vallet's conjecture on the structure of self-affine bodies was proved for d = 2 by Richter in 2011. In the present paper we disprove the conjecture for all d≥3 and derive a detailed description of self-affine bodies in R{sup 3}. Also we consider the relation between properties of self-affine bodies and functional equations with a contraction of an argument. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  16. Metal-affinity separations: A new dimension in protein processing

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, F.H. )

    1991-02-01

    Rapid growth in the preparative and high-resolution analytical applications of metal-affinity chromatography demonstrate the appeal of metal recognition as a basis for protein separations. Stable, inexpensive chelated metals effectively mimic biospecific interactions, providing selective ligands for protein binding. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of metal-protein recognition that underlie metal-affinity separations. Also discussed are schemes for integrating metal-affinity purifications into the expression and bioprocessing of recombinant proteins. Promising future developments include new metal-affinity processes for analytical and preparative-scale separations and a range of techniques for enhancing the selectivity of metal-affinity separations.

  17. Avoiding degenerate coframes in an affine gauge approach to quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, E.W.; McCrea, J.D.; Ne`eman, Y.; Hehl, F.W.

    1993-04-01

    This report discusses the following concepts on quantum gravity: The affine gauge approach; affine gauge transformations versus active differomorphisms; affine gauge approach to quantum gravity with topology change.

  18. Synthetic RR Lyrae velocity curves

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianxing Boston Univ., MA )

    1991-02-01

    An amplitude correlation between the pulsation velocity curves and visual light curves of ab-type RR Lyrae stars is derived from a large number of RR Lyrae that have high-precision radial-velocity and photometric data. Based on the determined AVp, AV ralation, a synthetic radial-velocity curve for a typical ab-type RR Lyrae star is constructed. This would be of particular use in determining the systemic velocities of RR Lyrae. 17 refs.

  19. Aluminum monocation basicity and affinity scales.

    PubMed

    Gal, Jean-François; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2015-01-01

    The experimental aspects of the determination of thermochemical data for the attachment of the aluminum monocation Al(+) to neutral atoms and molecules are reviewed. Literature aluminum cation affinities (enthalpy scale) and basicities (Gibbs energy scale) are tabulated and discussed. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations at the G4 level on 43 adducts provide a consistent picture of the energetics of the adducts and their structures. The Al(+)-ligand bonding is analyzed in terms of natural bond orbital and atom-in molecule analyses. A brief comparison of the Al(+) basicity scales and other gas- phase cation basicities is presented. PMID:26307732

  20. Contractions of affine Kac-Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daboul, J.; Daboul, C.; de Montigny, M.

    2008-08-01

    I review our recent work on contractions of affine Kac-Moody algebras (KMA) and present new results. We study generalized contractions of KMA with respect to their twisted and untwisted KM subalgebras. As a concrete example, we discuss contraction of D(1)4 and D(3)4, based on Z3-grading. We also describe examples of 'level-dependent' contractions, which are based on Z-gradings of KMA. Our work generalizes the Inönü-Wigner contraction of P. Majumdar in several directions. We also give an algorithm for constructing Kac-Moody-like algebras hat g for any Lie algebra g.

  1. Velocity of magnetic neutral lines in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, H.; Takada, T. K.; Mukai, T.

    The Geotail spacecraft often observed intermittent enhancements of ion density and velocity in the distant (>70 RE) tail lobe [Shirai, H., Takada, T.K., Kamide, Y, Mukai, T. Enhancement of lobe ion density and velocity associated with plasmoids. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 29,935-29,942, 2000]. Each enhancement occurred alter the passage of a plasmoid and was accompanied by a south-to-north variation in Bz. These signatures suggest that a magnetic neutral line formed in the near-Earth region moves tailward after the plasmoid is ejected. In this paper, we analyze the timing of the ion enhancement in detail. From the timing, we estimate the average velocity of the neutral line motion. The estimated velocity is about 130-580 km/s, which is around 20-70% of a typical value of the plasmoid velocity (i.e., about 760 km/s). We also compare the neutral line velocity in the Earth 's magnetotail with the rise velocity of a solar flare loop [Shibata, K., Masuda, S., Shimojo, M, et al., Hot plasma ejection associated with compact-loop solar flares. Ap. J. Lett. 451, L83-L85, 1995]. The neutral line velocity in the magnetotail is larger than the loop velocity (4-20 km/s). However the ratio of the neutral line velocity to the plasmoid velocity in the tail is similar to the ratio of the loop velocity to the plasmoid velocity in solar flares suggesting the presence of the same physical mechanism behind them.

  2. Measuring flying object velocity with CCD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricny, Vaclav; Mikulec, Jiri

    1994-06-01

    An autonomous optoelectronic method of measuring the flying objects track velocity vector (TVV) using digital signal two-line CCD sensors has been developed and simulated at the Department of Radioelectronics at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic. The principle of the method, the computer simulation of measuring device operations, the application of statistic estimates for the precision of values measured, and the presentation of the results achieved are described.

  3. The velocity distribution of cometary hydrogen - Evidence for high velocities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael E.; Spinrad, Hyron

    1993-01-01

    The Hamilton Echelle spectrograph on the 3-m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory was used to obtain high-velocity and spatial resolution 2D spectra of H-alpha 6563-A emission in Comets Austin and Levy. The presence of the components expected from water dissociation and collisional thermalization in the inner coma is confirmed by the hydrogen velocity distribution. In Comet Austin, the potential high-velocity hydrogen includes velocities of up to about 40 km/s and is spatially symmetric with respect to the nucleus. In Comet Levy, the high-velocity hydrogen reaches velocities of up to 50 km/s and is situated exclusively on the sunward side of the nucleus. The two distinct signatures of high-velocity hydrogen imply two distinct sources.

  4. Aptamer Affinity Maturation by Resampling and Microarray Selection.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Andrew B; Dirkzwager, Roderick M; Liang, Shaolin; Cheung, Yee-Wai; Fraser, Lewis A; Shiu, Simon Chi-Chin; Tang, Marco S L; Tanner, Julian A

    2016-07-19

    Aptamers have significant potential as affinity reagents, but better approaches are critically needed to discover higher affinity nucleic acids to widen the scope for their diagnostic, therapeutic, and proteomic application. Here, we report aptamer affinity maturation, a novel aptamer enhancement technique, which combines bioinformatic resampling of aptamer sequence data and microarray selection to navigate the combinatorial chemistry binding landscape. Aptamer affinity maturation is shown to improve aptamer affinity by an order of magnitude in a single round. The novel aptamers exhibited significant adaptation, the complexity of which precludes discovery by other microarray based methods. Honing aptamer sequences using aptamer affinity maturation could help optimize a next generation of nucleic acid affinity reagents. PMID:27346322

  5. Theoretical performance assessment and empirical analysis of super-resolution under unknown affine sensor motion.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Brian J; Valenzuela, John R; LeBlanc, Joel W

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with super-resolution (SR) processing and associated theoretical performance assessment for under-sampled video data collected from a moving imaging platform with unknown motion and assuming a relatively flat scene. This general scenario requires joint estimation of the high-resolution image and the parameters that determine a projective transform that relates the collected frames to one another. A quantitative assessment of the variance in the random error as achieved through a joint-estimation approach (e.g., SR image reconstruction and motion estimation) is carried out via the general framework of M-estimators and asymptotic statistics. This approach provides a performance measure on estimating the fine-resolution scene when there is a lack of perspective information and represents a significant advancement over previous work that considered only the more specific scenario of mis-registration. A succinct overview of the theoretical framework is presented along with some specific results on the approximate random error for the case of unknown translation and affine motions. A comparison is given between the approximated random error and that actually achieved by an M-estimator approach to the joint-estimation problem. These results provide insight on the reduction in SR reconstruction accuracy when jointly estimating unknown inter-frame affine motion. PMID:27140759

  6. Doppler Lidar Vertical Velocity Statistics Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, R. K.; Sivaraman, C.; Shippert, T. R.; Riihimaki, L. D.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate height-resolved measurements of higher-order statistical moments of vertical velocity fluctuations are crucial for improved understanding of turbulent mixing and diffusion, convective initiation, and cloud life cycles. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility operates coherent Doppler lidar systems at several sites around the globe. These instruments provide measurements of clear-air vertical velocity profiles in the lower troposphere with a nominal temporal resolution of 1 sec and height resolution of 30 m. The purpose of the Doppler lidar vertical velocity statistics (DLWSTATS) value-added product (VAP) is to produce height- and time-resolved estimates of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis from these raw measurements. The VAP also produces estimates of cloud properties, including cloud-base height (CBH), cloud frequency, cloud-base vertical velocity, and cloud-base updraft fraction.

  7. Lyapunov-based nonlinear estimation methods with applications to machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dani, Ashwin P.

    Recent advances in image-based information estimation has enabled the use of vision sensor in many robotics and surveillance applications. The work in this dissertation, is focused on developing online techniques for image-based structure and motion (SaM) estimation. Since traditional batch methods are not useful for the online vision-based control tasks, observer-based approaches to the problem have been developed. Starting from the Kalman-filter for SaM problem by L. Matthies, many contributions to the observer approach for the SaM problem exist in literature. Various models are introduced in literature for SaM estimation but two models are prevalent, viz; a kinematic relative motion affine model with implicit outputs and a transformed nonlinear state model with the linear output equation. The existing SaM observers are designed for the case of a stationary object, requires full camera velocity information and cannot be used for certain camera motions. In this dissertation, new solutions to the SaM are presented using the transformed nonlinear state model which can be used for larger set of camera motions, does not require full camera velocity information, and are reduced-order. Solutions for the stationary as well as moving objects viewed by a moving camera are presented. In Chapter 3, a reduced order observer is developed to estimate the structure of a static object using a moving camera, where full camera velocity and linear acceleration are known. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of a reduced order observer for the SaM estimation of a stationary object when only a single camera linear velocity is known. In Chapter 5, an observer design is presented for a specific class of nonlinear systems where the output dynamics are affine in the unmeasurable state and the dynamics of the unmeasurable state are nonlinear. The method is applied to simultaneously estimate the structure and motion of a moving object seen by a moving camera. Another strategy to the

  8. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  9. Phobos: Low Velocity Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Heather; Lee, Pascal; Hamilton, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Mars’s inner moon, Phobos, is located deep in the planet’s gravity well and orbits far below the planet’s synchronous orbit. Images of the surface of Phobos, in particular from Viking Orbiter 1, MGS, MRO, and MEX, reveal a rich collisional history, including fresh-looking impact craters and subdued older ones, very large impact structures (compared to the size of Phobos), such as Stickney, and much smaller ones.Sources of impactors colliding with Phobos include a priori: A) Impactors from outside the martian system (asteroids, comets, and fragments thereof); B) Impactors from Mars itself (ejecta from large impacts on Mars); and C) Impactors from Mars orbit, including impact ejecta launched from Deimos and ejecta launched from, and reintercepted by, Phobos. In addition to individual craters on Phobos, the networks of grooves on this moon have also been attributed in part or in whole to impactors from some of these sources, particularly B. We report the preliminary results of a systematic survey of the distribution, morphology, albedo, and color characteristics of fresh impact craters and associated ejecta deposits on Phobos. Considering that the different potential impactor sources listed above are expected to display distinct dominant compositions and different characteristic impact velocity regimes, we identify specific craters on Phobos that are more likely the result of low velocity impacts by impactors derived from Mars orbit than from any alternative sources. Our finding supports the hypothesis that the spectrally “Redder Unit” on Phobos may be a superficial veneer of accreted ejecta from Deimos, and that Phobos’s bulk might be distinct in composition from Deimos.

  10. High-affinity Cyclic Peptide Matriptase Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Quimbar, Pedro; Malik, Uru; Sommerhoff, Christian P.; Kaas, Quentin; Chan, Lai Y.; Huang, Yen-Hua; Grundhuber, Maresa; Dunse, Kerry; Craik, David J.; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Daly, Norelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The type II transmembrane serine protease matriptase is a key activator of multiple signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation and modification of the extracellular matrix. Deregulated matriptase activity correlates with a number of diseases, including cancer and hence highly selective matriptase inhibitors may have therapeutic potential. The plant-derived cyclic peptide, sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1 (SFTI-1), is a promising drug scaffold with potent matriptase inhibitory activity. In the current study we have analyzed the structure-activity relationships of SFTI-1 and Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II (MCoTI-II), a structurally divergent trypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis that also contains a cyclic backbone. We show that MCoTI-II is a significantly more potent matriptase inhibitor than SFTI-1 and that all alanine mutants of both peptides, generated using positional scanning mutagenesis, have decreased trypsin affinity, whereas several mutations either maintain or result in enhanced matriptase inhibitory activity. These intriguing results were used to design one of the most potent matriptase inhibitors known to date with a 290 pm equilibrium dissociation constant, and provide the first indication on how to modulate affinity for matriptase over trypsin in cyclic peptides. This information might be useful for the design of more selective and therapeutically relevant inhibitors of matriptase. PMID:23548907

  11. Heparin affinity purification of extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Balaj, Leonora; Atai, Nadia A.; Chen, Weilin; Mu, Dakai; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Skog, Johan; Maguire, Casey A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles released by cells. They carry active biomolecules including DNA, RNA, and protein which can be transferred to recipient cells. Isolation and purification of EVs from culture cell media and biofluids is still a major challenge. The most widely used isolation method is ultracentrifugation (UC) which requires expensive equipment and only partially purifies EVs. Previously we have shown that heparin blocks EV uptake in cells, supporting a direct EV-heparin interaction. Here we show that EVs can be purified from cell culture media and human plasma using ultrafiltration (UF) followed by heparin-affinity beads. UF/heparin-purified EVs from cell culture displayed the EV marker Alix, contained a diverse RNA profile, had lower levels of protein contamination, and were functional at binding to and uptake into cells. RNA yield was similar for EVs isolated by UC. We were able to detect mRNAs in plasma samples with comparable levels to UC samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a simple, scalable, and effective method to purify EVs taking advantage of their heparin affinity. PMID:25988257

  12. Affine conformal vectors in space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, A. A.; Tupper, B. O. J.

    1992-05-01

    All space-times admitting a proper affine conformal vector (ACV) are found. By using a theorem of Hall and da Costa, it is shown that such space-times either (i) admit a covariantly constant vector (timelike, spacelike, or null) and the ACV is the sum of a proper affine vector and a conformal Killing vector or (ii) the space-time is 2+2 decomposable, in which case it is shown that no ACV can exist (unless the space-time decomposes further). Furthermore, it is proved that all space-times admitting an ACV and a null covariantly constant vector (which are necessarily generalized pp-wave space-times) must have Ricci tensor of Segré type {2,(1,1)}. It follows that, among space-times admitting proper ACV, the Einstein static universe is the only perfect fluid space-time, there are no non-null Einstein-Maxwell space-times, and only the pp-wave space-times are representative of null Einstein-Maxwell solutions. Otherwise, the space-times can represent anisotropic fluids and viscous heat-conducting fluids, but only with restricted equations of state in each case.

  13. Fatigue damage prognosis using affine arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbaguidi, Audrey; Kim, Daewon

    2014-02-01

    Among the essential steps to be taken in structural health monitoring systems, damage prognosis would be the field that is least investigated due to the complexity of the uncertainties. This paper presents the possibility of using Affine Arithmetic for uncertainty propagation of crack damage in damage prognosis. The structures examined are thin rectangular plates made of titanium alloys with central mode I cracks and a composite plate with an internal delamination caused by mixed mode I and II fracture modes, under a harmonic uniaxial loading condition. The model-based method for crack growth rates are considered using the Paris Erdogan law model for the isotropic plates and the delamination growth law model proposed by Kardomateas for the composite plate. The parameters for both models are randomly taken and their uncertainties are considered as defined by an interval instead of a probability distribution. A Monte Carlo method is also applied to check whether Affine Arithmetic (AA) leads to tight bounds on the lifetime of the structure.

  14. Exploring Fluorous Affinity by Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Catani, Martina; Guzzinati, Roberta; Marchetti, Nicola; Pasti, Luisa; Cavazzini, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Terms such as "fluorous affinity" and "fluorophilicity" have been used to describe the unique partition and sorption properties often exhibited by highly fluorinated organic compounds, that is molecules rich in sp(3) carbon-fluorine bonds. In this work, we made use of a highly fluorinated stationary phase and a series of benzene derivatives to study the effect of one single perfluorinated carbon on the chromatographic behavior and adsorption properties of molecules. For this purpose, the adsorption equilibria of α,α,α-trifluorotoluene, toluene, and other alkylbenzenes have been studied by means of nonlinear chromatography in a variety of acetonitrile/water eluents. Our results reveal that one single perfluorinated carbon is already enough to induce a drastic change in the adsorption properties of molecules on the perfluorinated stationary phase. In particular, it has been found that adsorption is monolayer if the perfluoroalkyl carbon is present but that, when this unit is missing, molecules arrange as multilayer stack structures. These findings can contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of fluorous affinity. PMID:26047527

  15. Estimating discharge measurement uncertainty using the interpolated variance estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.; Kiang, J.; Mason, R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Methods for quantifying the uncertainty in discharge measurements typically identify various sources of uncertainty and then estimate the uncertainty from each of these sources by applying the results of empirical or laboratory studies. If actual measurement conditions are not consistent with those encountered in the empirical or laboratory studies, these methods may give poor estimates of discharge uncertainty. This paper presents an alternative method for estimating discharge measurement uncertainty that uses statistical techniques and at-site observations. This Interpolated Variance Estimator (IVE) estimates uncertainty based on the data collected during the streamflow measurement and therefore reflects the conditions encountered at the site. The IVE has the additional advantage of capturing all sources of random uncertainty in the velocity and depth measurements. It can be applied to velocity-area discharge measurements that use a velocity meter to measure point velocities at multiple vertical sections in a channel cross section.

  16. An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-07-01

    To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  17. Velocity and velocity bounds in static spherically symmetric metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arraut, Ivan; Batic, Davide; Nowakowski, Marek

    2011-08-01

    We find simple expressions for velocity of massless particles with dependence on the distance, r, in Schwarzschild coordinates. For massive particles these expressions give an upper bound for the velocity. Our results apply to static spherically symmetric metrics. We use these results to calculate the velocity for different cases: Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Reissner-Nordström with and without the cosmological constant. We emphasize the differences between the behavior of the velocity in the different metrics and find that in cases with naked singularity there always exists a region where the massless particle moves with a velocity greater than the velocity of light in vacuum. In the case of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter we completely characterize the velocity and the metric in an algebraic way. We contrast the case of classical naked singularities with naked singularities emerging from metric inspired by noncommutative geometry where the radial velocity never exceeds one. Furthermore, we solve the Einstein equations for a constant and polytropic density profile and calculate the radial velocity of a photon moving in spaces with interior metric. The polytropic case of radial velocity displays an unexpected variation bounded by a local minimum and maximum.

  18. Absolute blood velocity measured with a modified fundus camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Donald D.; Lemaillet, Paul; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Nguyen, Quan Dong; Hiller, Matthias; Ramella-Roman, Jessica

    2010-09-01

    We present a new method for the quantitative estimation of blood flow velocity, based on the use of the Radon transform. The specific application is for measurement of blood flow velocity in the retina. Our modified fundus camera uses illumination from a green LED and captures imagery with a high-speed CCD camera. The basic theory is presented, and typical results are shown for an in vitro flow model using blood in a capillary tube. Subsequently, representative results are shown for representative fundus imagery. This approach provides absolute velocity and flow direction along the vessel centerline or any lateral displacement therefrom. We also provide an error analysis allowing estimation of confidence intervals for the estimated velocity.

  19. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    PubMed

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach. PMID:27498895

  20. Slipher, Galaxies, and Cosmological Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    By 1917, V. M. Slipher had singlehandedly established a general tendency for ‘spiral nebulae’ to be redshifted (21 out of 25 cases). From a modern perspective, it could seem surprising that the discovery of the expansion of the universe was not announced at this point. Examination of the data and arguments contained in Slipher's papers shows that he reached a more subtle conclusion: the identification of cosmological peculiar velocities, including the bulk motion of the Milky Way, leading to a beautiful argument in favor of spiral nebulae as distant stellar systems. Nevertheless, Slipher's data actually contain evidence at >8σ for a positive mean velocity, even after subtracting the best-fitting dipole pattern owing to motion of the observer. In 1929, Hubble provided distance estimates for a sample of no greater depth, using redshifts due almost entirely to Slipher. Hubble's distances turned out to be flawed in two distinct ways: in addition to an incorrect absolute calibration, the largest distances were systematically under-estimated. Nevertheless, he claimed the detection of a linear distance-redshift relation. Statistically, the evidence for such a correlation is less strong than the simple evidence for a positive mean velocity in Hubble's sample. Comparison with modern data shows that a sample of more than twice Hubble's depth would generally be required in order to reveal clearly the global linear expansion in the face of the ‘noise’ from peculiar velocities. When the theoretical context of the time is examined, the role of the de Sitter model and its prediction of a linear distance-redshift relation looms large. A number of searches for this relation were performed prior to Hubble over the period 1924-1928, with a similar degree of success. All were based on the velocities measured by Slipher, whose work from a Century ago stands out both for the precision of his measurements and for the subtle clarity of the arguments he employed to draw correct